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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224A2 Commodity and Trade Policy Support to Developing Countries for Trade Negotiations Technical Project ESC


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: many developing countries lack the capacity to analyse issues on the multilateral trade negotiation agenda relating to agriculture, and feel that they do not participate effectively and as equal partners in global or regional trade negotiations.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: this entity will improve the capacity of countries to negotiate effectively the terms and conditions of multilateral trade agreements and will help them defend and protect the interests of their domestic producers, consumers and industries.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the producers, industries and consumers, especially in developing countries, should be able to access international markets on fairer terms and reap increased benefits from international agricultural trade.

Objective

  • Countries, especially developing countries, are able to participate effectively in trade negotiations affecting the international regulatory framework for agriculture.

Indicators

  • Evidence of multilateral trade agreements taking developing countries' interests into greater account, such as critical provisions in trade agreements that reflect developing countries' perspective.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Substantive contribution was made to strengthen the negotiating capability of the developing countries, in particular through the provision of timely and relevant analyses and through direct capacity-building activities. About 20 analytical papers on negotiating issues were produced and disseminated through internet, Geneva events and regional workshops. Six regional workshops were held on WTO negotiating issues covering about 120 developing countries and about 250 trade experts. For each regional workshop, between 2-4 papers were prepared with a focus on the region's negotiating issues. Although it is not easy to quantify the impact, it is known, including from feedbacks received, that the efforts made were valuable to the developing countries for effectively negotiating the Doha Round agricultural agreement.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
343   Analyses and information regarding multilateral trade issues under negotiation.
  401 Analyses of negotiating issues and modalities Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  403 Roundtables and workshops on trade issues under negotiations Information (products, systems, databases) ESC Completed
  404 Briefing notes and papers on negotiating issues Information (products, systems, databases) ESC Completed
344   Follow-up assistance in implementing multilateral trade agreements.
  401 National-level capacity-building activities to adapt to new trade agreements Training (including training courses and materials) ESC RAF RLC Completed
  402 Roundtables and workshops at national level on implementation Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESC Completed
  403 Analysis of consequences of new agreements on trade and food security Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  404 Support to countries for full utilization of new trading opportunities Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESC Completed
345   Strengthening capacities at the national and sub-regional levels to participate effectively in trade negotiations.
  401 Assistance for strengthening national trade information and analytical capacities Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESC Completed
  402 National and sub-regional capacity building workshops Training (including training courses and materials) ESC Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224P1 Agricultural Adjustment and Policy Reforms Continuing Programme Activity ESA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: a fundamental reason for the slow progress in reducing food insecurity and poverty is that insufficient attention is paid to agriculture of developing countries, both in terms of an enabling policy framework and resource mobilisation for the development of the sector. Developing countries need an improved policy framework for agricultural development, one that would mobilise public resources, be conducive to private initiative and investment, and take into account the needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the adoption and implementation of an appropriate policy framework in line with FAO's recommendations will lead to more balanced and dynamic agricultural and rural development, with the participation of the rural poor.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the poor and under-nourished in developing countries, especially those who derive their livelihoods directly or indirectly from the agricultural sector, will benefit from more balanced and self-sustaining agricultural and rural development.

Objective

  • Policy makers and international organizations have increased awareness of the need to revise agricultural policies, build their capacity to design, adjust and evaluate policies of relevance to agriculture and rural development, and use this capacity to negotiate and implement enabling policy frameworks for agriculture development.

Indicators

  • Examples of debates relayed in specialised or generalist media on issues addressed by this entity (e.g. impact of structural adjustments and policy reforms on agriculture), and making explicit reference to FAO's approaches.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The issue of policies that take into consideration new trends in the evolution of food systems was explored through two workshops, a number of working papers and an issue of the Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics (e-JADE). The workshops, held at FAO headquarters, were well attended by leaders in the field and were covered by the press. The first took place in May 2005 and addressed Small Farmers and Commercialization. The second, in January 2006, dealt with rural development. An international dialogue on "Agricultural and Rural Development in the 21st Century: Lessons from the Past and Policies for the Future" was jointly organized by the Ministry of Agriculture of China and FAO through the financial support of the Italian Government. The dialogue was held in Beijing, China, in September 2005.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
222   Analysis of policy trends and agriculture performance in selected countries.
  401 Publication of country and regional case studies identifying the major factors contributing to agricultural growth and long-term food security Studies and analyses ESA REU SEUR Completed
231   Publications on current and emerging issues in economic analysis and policy research.
  401 Regional consultations on the identification of major issues in economic and policy research related to food, agriculture and rural development Coordination and information exchange ESA REU SEUR Cancelled
232   Support to agricultural adjustment and policy reform.
  401 Conceptual and analytical documents on the impact of policy changes on the agricultural sector feeding into general policy analysis and assistance work Studies and analyses ESA SEUR Completed
261   Impact assessment of macro and agricultural policies on food security in varying socio-economic contexts.



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224P2 Agriculture, Poverty Alleviation, Rural Development and Food Security: Analysis of Linkages Continuing Programme Activity ESA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the failure of development strategies and programmes to reduce food insecurity at the rate required to meet the WFS targets ultimately stems from inadequate understanding of: the causes of food insecurity; the two-way link between food insecurity and poverty; the rural nature of poverty and food insecurity; and the impact that growth in agriculture and rural off-farm activities can have on poverty and food insecurity. Understanding the relationship between food security, poverty, and agricultural and rural development is essential for designing the appropriate mix of direct interventions and long-term growth policies which will bring about more rapid reduction in poverty and hunger.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the aim of this entity is precisely to foster clearer understanding of the above issues. Implementation of better policies by countries, aiming at poverty reduction and food security, supported by international agencies and donors, will lead to more effective development actions at national and local levels in reducing poverty and food insecurity, particularly among vulnerable groups.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: under-nourished, food insecure and poor people in developing countries, particularly in rural areas, will ultimately benefit from faster reduction than achieved so far in the extent of hunger and poverty.

Objective

  • Strengthened awareness among decision makers at national and international levels about the importance of reversing declining resource flows to agricultural and rural development and improving the policy environment in order to fight hunger and poverty.

Indicators

  • Examples of debates relayed in specialised or generalist media on issues addressed by this entity (economic cost of hunger, roles of agriculture in poverty alleviation) and making explicit reference to FAO's positions on these issues.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Substantial progress was made in meeting both programme-entity indicators and biennial and major-output indicators. Progress was made through giving presentations at major government-sponsored conferences; through publication in peer-reviewed journals, book chapters, ESA working papers and other outlets; and through provision of technical assistance both internally and externally. Further progress in the next biennium is assured through the commencement of three major research projects, which involve data set collection/construction during this biennium, and analysis and diffusion of the results during the next biennium. As part of the Subregional Office for Southern and East Africa multidisciplinary team, ESA provided support to the Southern Africa Development Community to prepare for the Extraordinary Summit on Agriculture and Food Security held in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, in May 2004, as well as follow-up assistance to develop an implementation plan based on the priorities identified at the summit.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
223   Comparative socio-economic analysis and policy implications of the roles of agriculture in developing countries for equitable development.
  401 Country case studies on the roles of agriculture in developing countries for poverty reduction and the provision of externalities and public goods Studies and analyses ESA Completed
233   Contribution of agriculture and farm-off-farm linkages to poverty alleviation.
  401 Publications on the role of agriculture and rural non-farm activities in reducing rural poverty at various stages of agricultural transformation Studies and analyses ESA Completed
  403 Expert meeting and publication on the role of agricultural industrialization on livelihood systems and food security of the rural poor Coordination and information exchange ESA Completed
236   Assessment of economic costs of hunger.
  401 Country case studies on the economic cost of hunger and the economic aspects of the progressive implementation of the right to food International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESA Modified
238   Design and impact evaluation of direct assistance programmes.
  401 Publications on the design and evaluation of safety nets and other programmes to enhance direct access to food Studies and analyses ESA Completed
239   Studies on risk coping, risk management, savings and rural livelihoods.
247   Analytical studies on food security policies, practices and options.
248   Methods and case studies for the evaluation of the impact of major programmes and strategies on food security.
  401 Case studies for the evaluation of the impact of projects and development programmes on food security Studies and analyses ESA Completed
  402 Analytical studies linking emergency operations to rehabilitation and development Studies and analyses ESA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224P3 Economics of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability Continuing Programme Activity ESA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: great concerns have been expressed about the environmental sustainability of agricultural activities. Environmental management is critical to improving agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner, particularly amongst poor populations, but this needs to be fostered through appropriate policy measures based on scientific understanding of practical issues and needs faced by the producers.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: appropriate knowledge-based and environmentally-friendly policies and programmes, as supported by work under this entity, will provide incentives and enabling measures for end beneficiaries to realise more sustainable management of natural resources and the environment.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: agricultural producers, especially those in marginal areas or in areas where environmental degradation is at high risk of causing negative impacts on agricultural productivity and human welfare, will benefit from more sustainable management of important natural resources.

Objective

  • Decision makers, increasingly aware of the economics of environmental degradation, propose, adopt and implement agricultural policies and programmes taking environmental costs into account; supporting the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements and conventions.

Indicators

  • Number and/or examples of countries whose policies and programmes were adjusted using the tools and methods advocated by the entity.
  • Donors, multilateral agencies and NGOs routinely using the entity tools and analyses in their project documents and policy analyses, and their feedback on the quality and usefulness.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Major achievements during the period include: 1. Initiation of a multicountry, multipartner, externally funded program of research: "Using Markets to Promote the Sustainable Utilization of Crop Genetic Resources". The project involves the development of a methodology for assessing crop genetic diversity in agricultural seed and output markets and its application to case studies in Bolivia, India, Kenya, Mali and Mexico. Two project workshops have been held (April 2004, March 2005); the workshop reports are available on the ESA Web site. The project outputs include the establishment of an intranet forum to facilitate communications between FAO and external partners, a conceptual framework paper, a literature review of work on seed systems and crop genetic diversity from CGIAR centre partners, a workshop with experts in population genetics on measuring diversity in market chains and the development of detailed terms of reference for the five case studies. 2. Editing and contributing to a book entitled Agricultural biodiversity and biotechnology in economic development, published by Springer and distributed to various universities and research institutions in developed and developing countries. 3. Publication and dissemination of the report: Seed systems, household welfare and crop genetic diversity: an economic methodology applied in Ethiopia. The report is available on the ESA Web site and has been disseminated via the African Crops News Service, as well as to Alemaya University in Ethiopia. A data set accompanying the project has been disseminated to Alemaya University as well as within FAO to potentially interested users. 4. Conceptual work on the potential for payments for environmental services to contribute to poverty reduction, and preparation of the following publications: a. Putting payments for environmental services in the context of economic development; b. When are payments for environmental services beneficial to the poor?; c. Less-favoured areas: looking beyond agriculture towards ecosystem services; d. Case studies of four PES projects. These papers are being disseminated through presentations at technical conferences, international meetings and the ESA Web site. 5. Workshop on Environmental Services for Poverty Reduction and Food Security (May 2005). The workshop involved over 30 participants from research institutions, development agencies and environmental organizations in developing and developed countries. Workshop presentations are available on the ESA Web site. 6. The organization of a special edition of the Journal Environment and Development on Payments for environmental services, from the papers presented in the 2005 FAO workshop. The edition is scheduled to come out in 2007.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
234   Methods for valuation of environmental costs and benefits.
  401 Reports and meetings on methods for valuation of environmental externalities Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESA Completed
  402 Publication of reports on the relationship between poverty and natural resource depletion Studies and analyses ESA Completed
260   Support to implementation of multilateral environmental agreements.
  401 Analytical studies (methodology and country case studies) in support of the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224P4 Analysis and Consensus-Building on Emerging Commodity and Trade Issues Continuing Programme Activity ESC


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: developing countries do not contribute to, and benefit enough from international trade and globalisation, in part because their exports are composed primarily of raw agricultural products with little value added. There is a need for developing countries to achieve optimal benefits from trade by strengthening their capacity to market processed and semi-processed goods, and participate in fair and efficient international markets.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: commodity trade enhances development, eases debt servicing burdens and improves food security. Improved understanding of factors affecting commodity trade and analyses of emerging issues impacting on trade, should provide a basis for improved, more cooperative trade policies, greater access to international markets by developing countries, and a fairer share of trade benefits accruing to same.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: national governments and market participants, especially those of developing countries, will benefit from increased earnings, access to technologies and management skills, as well as greater choice in consumption through fair international trade.

Objective

  • The international trading system becomes better accepted by all countries as a fair and efficient system, and developing countries improve their capacity in maximising the benefits from trade in processed and semi-processed food and agricultural commodities.

Indicators

  • List of developing countries' initiatives in support of exports of processed and semi-processed agricultural goods, and using analyses from this entity.
  • Evidence of consensus building and fairer regional or international trade in processed and semi-processed commodities, e.g. examples of negotiations and agreements taking into greater account interests of developing countries.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Activities under this programme entity constitute the bulk of ESC's analytical work on cross-cutting and policy issues and are, in general, continuing. However, a number of discrete achievements should be highlighted. Work on "fair trade" has been built up significantly, aided by major external funding. Several commodity studies were published in new series, including on tobacco, bananas, certification and standards. A major externally funded project on trade and food security was completed, and the results are currently being edited for a book. Several expert consultations on commodity markets and policy were organized, with proceedings of one edited into an externally published book on the state of the art in commodity-market analysis. Collaboration with other international institutions was increased: for example, a very well-received study on non-traditional agricultural exports was undertaken with World Bank support. This programme entity covers continuing support to member countries in commodity development. All requests for such support were met. Analytical work undertaken under PE 224P4 provided the basis for much of this. Development of commodity project proposals and supervision of projects funded by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) continued to absorb significant staff time and resources, and revisions to the agreement with CFC are being sought.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
361   Analytical studies of trade issues of agricultural commodities.
  401 Contributions to studies related to commodity specific trade and policy issues covering basic foodstuffs Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  402 Periodic reports on monitoring commodity specific developments related to trade policies covering basic foodstuffs Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  404 Analytical work on trade and competition policy Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  405 Periodic reports on monitoring commodity specific developments related to trade policies covering raw materials, tropical and horticultural products Studies and analyses ESC Completed
362   Analyses of the impact of trade and commodity market developments on food security.
  401 Analytical studies, including methodologies to assess the impact of changes in commodity and trade policies, on international trade flows and food security Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  402 Analytical studies of the impact on national food security of commodity specific trade developments Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  403 Analyses of the relationship between trade and food security Studies and analyses ESC Completed
  404 Expert consultations and advocacy activities (briefings, workshops, conferences) to raise awareness Coordination and information exchange ESC Completed
364   Analysis of the effect of new technologies and scientific developments on the trade of agricultural commodities.
  401 Analytical studies of impacts of new and bio-technologies on trade, eco-labelling and fair trade, organic agriculture development and competitiveness of agricultural commodities Studies and analyses ESC Completed
365   Support to Members on regional trade issues and arrangements.
  401 Analytical support to regional economic groupings on trade issues Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESC Completed
  402 Support to countries in the context of regional trade Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESC Completed
366   Facilitation of consensus building on commodity and trade issues.
  401 Collaboration with other international organizations concerned with agricultural commodity markets Coordination and information exchange ESC Completed
  402 Commodity outlook conferences for agricultural commodities Coordination and information exchange ESC Completed
  403 Documents on trade for 65th session of the CCP Studies and analyses ESC Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224P5 Enhancing Diversification and Competitiveness of Agricultural Commodities Continuing Programme Activity ESC


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: there are serious weaknesses in the competitiveness of developing country exports of agricultural commodities and, hence, a need to identify and exploit product and market development opportunities.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the entity responds to the need to enhance capacity of developing countries in formulating and executing effective commodity trade strategies and programmes to support private sector competitiveness will facilitate trade-led economic growth and improved food security.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: national governments, market participants and producers of developing countries will benefit from greater export opportunities.

Objective

  • More effective national commodity and trade development strategies; enhanced capacity to generate individual commodity and trade development projects aimed at improved competitiveness and exploitation of market opportunities.

Indicators

  • Number of developing countries whose strategies for commodity trade were reformed in part thanks to the work of this entity.
  • Number of projects at national level supported by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) or other donors, with input from this entity, and examples of achievements.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • This programme entity covers continuing support to member countries in commodities development. All requests for such support were met. Analytical work undertaken under PE 224P4 provided the basis for much of this. Development of commodity project proposals and supervision of projects funded by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) continued to absorb significant staff time and resources, and revisions to the agreement with CFC are being sought.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
363   National commodity and trade strategies.
  401 Assistance to commodity and trade development strategies, including the building of institutional capacity and the formulation of actions to attract investments to the commodity trade sectors, at the sub-regional, inter-regional and multilateral levels Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESC RLC Completed
  402 Support for development of strategies for dealing with supply-side issues in trade, including vertical and horizontal diversification Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESC Completed
365   Commodity development programmes in collaboration with funding bodies, including the CFC.
  401 Project formulation and preparation of basic food commodity development programmes on behalf of 4 CFC-designated International Commodity Bodies Other ESC Completed
  402 Supervision and evaluation of projects relating to basic food commodities Other ESC Completed
  403 Project formulation and preparation of commodity development programmes for raw materials, tropical and horticultural products Other ESC Completed
  404 Supervision and evaluation of projects relating to raw materials, tropical and horticultural products Other ESC Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
224S1 Technical Support Services to Member Nations and the Field Programme Technical Service Agreement ESA


Indicators

  • National food security strategies, programmes and projects
  • Number of working groups and joint activities within FAO and /or with other development partners focusing on priority issues of CFS

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • ESA has provided significant technical backstopping to field projects in member countries related to improving food security information systems and vulnerability assessments for food policy formulation and programming appropriate food security interventions. Regional food security programmes have also received support. Tools developed in the field have allowed the possibility to identify different levels of food emergencies as well as different options. This information has been critical for national and international community responses to overcome emergencies and to define development assistance requirements. The implementation of immediate responses to food needs through safety nets has expanded from Latin America to other regions.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
224   Contributory support to programme entities in other divisions and non-FAO bodies (ESAC)
  401 Review of successful actions in countries contributing to sustainable rural livelihoods and equitable access to resources Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Cancelled
235   Contributory support to programme entities in other divisions and non-FAO bodies (ESAE)
  401 Follow-up to the Anti-Hunger Programme and contributions to the updating of National Food Security Strategies Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  403 Servicing the Hunger Task Force and other initiatives of the Millennium Development Goals machinery International undertakings, agreements/conventions and standards ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
249   Contributory support to programme entities in other divisions and non-FAO bodies (ESAF)
  401 Vulnerable livelihood analysis and related policy proposals Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  402 Analytical studies on the right to food approach (case studies) Studies and analyses ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  403 Contributions to information management from emergencies to rehabilitation and development Information (products, systems, databases) ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
  404 Information exchange on lessons learned Coordination and information exchange ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed
250   Field programme support (ESA)
  401 Support to safety net programmes Direct advice to Members; field programme support ESA RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SEUR Completed



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