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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
253A1 Access 21: Land Tenure Institution Building for Food Security and Sustainable Rural Development Technical Project SDA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: inadequate rights of access to land and other natural resources, and insecure tenure of those rights, entrench poverty and are significant impediments to rural developments and the alleviation of food insecurity. Countries lack adequate institutional arrangement to determine such rights.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the development of enhanced land tenure policies and their effective implementation should lead to improved access to land and tenure security for the rural poor.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the intended beneficiaries are the rural poor, both men and women, as increased access to land and other natural resources and improved tenure security enable people to build sustainable rural livelihoods.

Objective

  • New policy and legislation formulated which strengthens land tenure security for the disadvantaged, especially women, and which supports increasing production; strengthening or establishment of land tenure regulation institutions; and increasingly effective land markets.

Indicators

  • Number of countries considering policies and legislation to improve access to land and tenure security, particularly by women.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Access to land is a crucial factor in eradicating hunger and rural poverty. FAO's normative work in land tenure, as it contributes to food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable development, was implemented through Programme Entity 253A1. FAO's comparative advantage is that it is the only international agency dealing with all aspects of rural land tenure. 253A1 was planned for four years, and completed in the PWB for 2004-05. Major outputs were implemented over the four years. Normative work on access to land and other natural resources supported the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ICARRD), hosted by Brazil in 2006. A methodology on participatory and negotiated territorial development was applied in Brazil and the Philippines. Guidelines on land consolidation projects were adopted by nine countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Guidelines on rural property taxation to support rural development provided support to field projects in Cambodia, China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Namibia and the Philippines. Advice on improving access to land through equitable leasing arrangements was prepared for grassroots organizations working with farmers. Guidelines on access to land after violent conflicts were published and applied in the Sudan. A manual on land tenure conflict management was prepared and field-tested in Ghana and Latin America. An Internet forum on common property resources and policies was launched. Guidelines on gender and access to land prepared during 2002-03 were disseminated. The work of 253A1 is directly linked to FAO's field programme. In some cases, work has supported the development of field projects (e.g. guidelines on designing land consolidation projects resulted in four TCP projects as well as projects funded by other donors). In other cases, field experiences were documented in normative guidelines for use elsewhere (e.g. field projects to improve access to land in countries emerging from violent conflicts resulted in guidelines for use in FAO projects.) Outputs of 253A1 were published in targeted publications. The FAO Land Tenure Series provides technical information on issues specific to land tenure specialists. FAO Land Tenure Notes provide information in a simpler format for the use by grassroots organizations working with farmers. All published outputs are available in Arabic, English, French and Spanish, with some publications in Chinese and Russian. 253A1 continues to publish the biennial journal Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives in English, French and Spanish. Publications were disseminated in print and electronic formats.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Methodologies for government-assisted land tenure policies.
  401 Policy materials for agrarian reform and improved access to natural resources Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
  402 Policy and training materials and workshops on land consolidation Training (including training courses and materials) RNE SDA SEUR Completed
  404 Methodologies for participatory territorial planning for rural development Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RLC RNE SDA SEUR Completed
  405 Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives Bulletin Information (products, systems, databases) RAF RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
  406 Integrated multi-lingual resource material on land tenure terminology Information (products, systems, databases) RAF RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
002   Formulation of market and private land transaction policies and institutional support to improve access by the poor (especially women) for sustainable use of natural resources.
  401 Resource kit and training materials on decentralization of land administration services Training (including training courses and materials) RAF RLC SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
  402 Resource material to support access to land through partial transfers Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RLC SDA SEUR Completed
003   Land tenure modifications to promote rural development under indigenous and common property resource management.
  401 Policy materials for common property institutional strengthening Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RLC RNE SAFR SDA Completed
  402 Resource kit for community land delimitation Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RLC RNE SAFR SDA Completed
  403 Policy and training materials and workshops for negotiated land conflict resolution Training (including training courses and materials) RAF RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
004   Support to land tenure regularisation and institution-building in peri-urban and peri-rural zones.



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
253A2 Improved Rural Institutions and Services to Promote Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development and Enhance Livelihoods Technical Project SDA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: public institutions delivering services to farmers and private sector organizations (e.g. producer organizations) in developing countries and countries in transition are often not in a position to respond effectively to actual farmers' needs. However, poor agricultural producers in the rural and peri-urban areas require essential services for sustainable livelihoods, also need more equitable access to resources.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: enhanced service delivery capacities of local public, private sector and civil society institutions should lead to improved access to resources and services.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: poor farmers and other agricultural producers served by rural institutions, including members of producer organizations, living in the rural and peri-urban areas in developing countries and countries in transition.

Objective

  • Rural institutions, local civil society and voluntary producer organizations in countries have enhanced management capacity, are more participatory in nature and are better coordinated, allowing them to better service agricultural producers.

Indicators

  • Examples of supported public rural institutions that have been successfully decentralized, have reformed their processes, become more transparent and participatory.
  • Examples of supported producers' organizations with increased financial self-reliance, more members, a better gender balance, with more transparent and democratic functioning.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Technical and policy assistance for the restructuring and decentralization of ministries of agriculture, rural development and artisanat (cottage industries) was provided to 14 countries and project documents prepared for another two. Technical assistance was also provided to farmers' organizations/cooperatives in 14 countries. A Trust Fund project was signed with Finland to assist in developing open source software for business management and member information systems in small agricultural cooperatives, building on a prototype developed by a TCP in Kenya and involving further development/testing in three countries in partnership with a CSO. Other materials in this area included publications in various languages. Support to institutional strengthening in at least ten SPFS programmes was provided. As chair of the IDWG on Institutional Strengthening of Farmers' Organizations for Agriculture and Rural Development, the PE also took the technical lead in developing multidisciplinary approaches to this work, including developing an Internet portal and a methodology for ensuring the involvement of farmers' and producers' organizations in the NPFS and identifying their capacity-building needs. Conceptual and methodological work was undertaken on participatory territorial development in collaboration with other units. A joint ILO-FAO-IUF study on agricultural workers was published and a conference paper was prepared on agricultural labour and agrarian reform. Proposals were also prepared for a joint work programme with the ILO on rural employment. Numerous projects on rural/community-based development were implemented, focusing on strengthening the autonomy, creativity and accountability of local institutions in managing natural resources and other livelihood assets to enhance the sustainability of rural livelihoods. "A rapid guide for missions: analysing local institutions and livelihoods" was published in English and translated into French and Spanish for publication in 2006. A substantial contribution was also made to SARD: extra-budgetary support for SARD-Initiative, SARD-Mountains and SARD-Farming Systems Evolution projects; chairing of the IDWG/SARD, development/maintenance of a Web site and the preparation of a paper for COAG in 2005. The PE also hosts the focal points for technical relations with the ILO, the International Cooperative Alliance, the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, the Committee for the Promotion and Advancement of Cooperatives, and other farmers' organizations. The PE also contributed to developing and promoting the use of participatory methods and tools in field projects, including the establishment/maintenance of FAO's Participation Web site and associated resources and the preparation of a paper on progress in incorporating participatory approaches and methods in FAO's work.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Support to restructuring and decentralization of rural institutions.
  401 Policy support and normative materials on institutional restructuring, decentralization and building social capital to strengthen the participation of farmers, rural workers, rural community organizations and marginalized groups in decision-making process Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
  402 Normative materials on the transfer of agricultural and rural development support services from the public to the private sector Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
002   Capacity building of small farmers and rural producer organizations.
  401 Normative materials for strengthening farmer organizations, cooperatives and other rural producer groups Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
003   Institutional mechanisms for multi-stakeholder dialogue and collaboration.
  401 Support to improve multi-stakeholder participation and collaboration in Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) to enhance rural livelihoods Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
253A4 Participatory Approaches and Methods to Support Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development to Enhance Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Project SDA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the insufficient use of participatory methods and approaches by government staff and NGOs in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of field project and programme interventions limits their effectiveness in promoting sustainable livelihoods and achieving food security objectives.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the increased use of participatory and sustainable livelihoods methods and approaches by FAO officers, government staff, NGOs and other development partners will lead to improved food security of the rural poor.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the rural, peri-urban and urban poor will be able to reflect more effectively their needs and capacities in the design and implementation of rural and agricultural development programmes and projects.

Objective

  • Programmes and projects, funded by national governments and international development agencies, aimed at food security, sustainable use of natural resources and rural development, adopt and/or implement appropriate participatory methods and sustainable livelihood approaches; FAO's normative outputs incorporate sustainable livelihoods approaches and methods.

Indicators

  • Number of countries where approaches and tools from this entity were tested and adopted in development programmes.
  • Extent of use of the sustainable livelihoods approach in FAO's substantive activities.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • As the lead technical unit for participation and for sustainable livelihoods, the programme entity has made a substantial contribution to developing, testing and promoting the use of participatory methods and tools in field projects operated by many technical divisions, including the establishment and maintenance of FAO's Participation Web site, which provides access to all FAO publications/grey literature on participation, including methods and tools and lessons learned from experience. In this capacity, a paper was also prepared for the Director-General on progress in incorporating participatory approaches and methods in FAO's work. With regard to livelihoods, the Division is the host for the interdepartmental Livelihood Support Programme (supported by extra-budgetary funds), whose activities included institutional learning from experience, the cultural dimensions of livelihoods, access to resources (especially land), participation in decision-making processes/governance, income diversification, conflict management, mainstreaming of livelihood approaches, and analysis and methods in relation to investment projects. As a follow-up to the work undertaken during the previous biennium on developing a conceptual framework for the role of local institutions in disaster preparedness/rehabilitation, the programme entity draft guidelines were prepared on this topic. The guidelines will be finalized during the 2006-07 biennium, in consultation with other FAO units, the Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness and Post-Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation PAIA and external partners. This normative work complements several Technical Cooperation Programme or Trust Fund projects in Asia (e.g. Bangladesh, China, Mongolia), Latin America and the Caribbean (e.g. Honduras, Peru) and Europe (Hungary). There is demand for this work in other regions that cannot be met at present owing to resource constraints. The programme entity also works with the IDWG on Climate Change, and has contributed technically to an IDWG document on conceptualizing the role of local institutions in developing appropriate adaptation strategies and has taken the lead technical role in a multidisciplinary Trust Fund project in Bangladesh that is assisting the population to develop such an institutional response strategy to climate change. An auto-evaluation carried out on the programme entity confirmed its effectiveness and relevance.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Inter-disciplinary application of participatory approaches and methods for sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources.
  401 Normative materials on participatory approaches and methods to promote Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) in FAO's field programmes and projects to enhance livelihoods Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
  402 Guidelines for strengthening local institutional capacities for disaster preparedness and prevention and long-term sustainable livelihoods development in high risk areas Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
002   Identification and dissemination of appropriate indicators to assess the degree and quality of participation in rural development and food security projects and programmes.
  401 Regionally and culturally-appropriate indicators and methodologies field tested and refined Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
003   Dissemination and exchange of information on the use of participatory methods.
  401 Regularly updated and expanded website on participation Information (products, systems, databases) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
004   Capacity building, institutional learning and enhanced methodologies for sustainable livelihoods approaches in inter-departmental and cross-sectoral FAO's normative and field activities.
  401 Cross-sectoral normative materials and institutional learning methodologies for promoting sustainable rural livelihoods of the poor Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
253P1 Management and Support to the UN System Network on Rural Development and Food Security Continuing Programme Activity SDA


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: developing countries, particularly the Low-income, Food-deficit Countries (LIFDCs) need to enhance food security through rapid increases in food production and productivity, reducing year-to-year variability in food production on an economically- and environmentally-sound basis and improving people's access to food.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: enhanced collaboration among development partners will facilitate more cost-effective and sustainable results.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: ultimately, the food insecure and rural poor will benefit from strategies and programmes that are formulated and implemented in a more coherent and coordinated manner.

Objective

  • The adoption and/or implementation by national and international organizations of multi-stakeholder perspectives and strategies, and coordinated programmes on food security and rural development.

Indicators

  • List of countries adopting and/or implementing multi-stakeholder programmes and strategies on food security and rural development.
  • Examples of UN System Network recommendations tried and/or implemented at national and international levels.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • The UN System Network on Rural Development and Food Security has continued to provide support to the activities of the national Thematic Groups. The Network Web site (available in four languages) is regularly updated, and is one of SD Department's most visited Web sites. Information is provided on the activities of Thematic Groups, joint initiatives between UN agencies and NGOs/CSOs, and topical international events or publications on rural development and food security issues. The Network secretariat also contributed to SARD-Mountain project formulation and implementation and to development of the project Web site, as well as development of the overarching SARD Web site (all in four languages). The Network has also worked closely with the International Alliance Against Hunger, particularly with regard to media and communication strategies, NGO/CSO relations, establishing and maintaining the IAAH Web site, and providing general support to the IAAH secretariat. An auto-evaluation of the Network undertaken during the biennium recommended, inter alia, closer collaboration between the Network and the IAAH, with the possibility of merging the two secretariats.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Management of the Network secretariat, including support to national Thematic Groups.
  401 Technical and logistical support to the UN System Network on Rural Development and Food Security Information (products, systems, databases) RAF RAP RLC RNE SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
002   Information and knowledge development, dissemination and exchange.
  401 Regular updating of the UN System Network Website and database Information (products, systems, databases) SDA Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
253S1 Technical Support Services on Participatory Approaches, Institutional Development and Access to Land Resources Technical Service Agreement SDA


Indicators

  • Increased capacity to prepare draft policies to improve tenure arrangements [+SDAR]

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Field programme support and direct advisory services on improved access to land and other natural resources and secure tenure were provided to 30 countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. Assistance was provided in the formulation and implementation of TCP projects, through projects supported by Trust Funds and the FAO/World Bank Cooperative Programme, as well as technical advisory missions supported through the Regular Programme. Technical support services and normative outputs were closely linked. Several outputs served to assist countries in designing and implementing TCP projects. Other outputs were based on the analysis of field projects, and the lessons learned were presented in guidelines for use in other projects. Field programme support and direct advisory services were provided to about 40 countries in all regions in the area of institutional strengthening of agricultural ministries, capacity building of farmers' organizations (including cooperatives and community-based organizations), and strengthening the role of local institutions in disaster preparedness and rehabilitation and climate change impacts. The majority were funded by TCPs or Trust Fund projects, with some Unilateral Trust Fund and minor Regular Programme support. The programme entity also contributed to several World Bank project formulation missions in these areas, and to the drawing of lessons from the Belgian Survival Fund projects in the area of participation and land management. It also provided support to the training of officials from Mediterranean countries in SARD concepts and methods, and participatory methods and approaches, in collaboration with the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute, Bari, Italy.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Field programme support on participatory approaches, institutional development and equitable and secure access to land resources
  402 Technical advice/assistance in the design and implementation of sustainable agriculture and rural development policies, programmes and projects with a focus on enhancing rural livelihoods Direct advice to Members; field programme support RAF RAP RLC SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
  403 Technical advice and support to restructuring and improvement of rural public sector institutions, farmers' organizations and cooperatives Direct advice to Members; field programme support RAF RAP RLC SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
002   Direct advisory services to member countries on participatory approaches, institutional development and equitable and secure access to land resources
  401 Direct advisory services to member countries and support to projects on improved access and management of land and natural resources Direct advice to Members; field programme support RAF RLC SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
003   Contributory support on equitable and secure access to land (FAO programme entities and non-FAO bodies)
  401 Technical advice to improve access to land and tenure security Direct advice to Members; field programme support RAF RLC SAFR SDA SEUR Completed
004   Contributory support on institutional development and participatory approaches (FAO programme entities and non-FAO bodies)
  401 Technical advice on strengthening of local institutional capacities to support cooperatives, farmer organizations and other community-based organizations Direct advice to Members; field programme support RAF RAP RLC SAFR SDA SEUR Completed



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