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Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
256P1 Management and Coordination Continuing Programme Activity TCO


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: developing countries, particularly the Low-income, Food-deficit Countries (LIFDCs) need to enhance food security through rapid increases in food production and productivity, reducing year-to-year variability in food production on an economically- and environmentally-sound basis and improving people's access to food.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: the SPFS has been designed to address the above problem. This entity ensures coordination and monitoring of the various stages of the SPFS. Attention is paid to promoting funding of the SPFS through mobilisation of resources from donors, financial institutions and the concerned governments. The entity facilitates successful formulation and implementation of the SPFS in an increasing number of participant countries, especially LIFDCs. This includes securing the involvement of the pertinent technical services of the Organization, guided by an external oversight panel.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: recipient governments are assisted in addressing food security on a sustainable basis. Donors and financial institutions are provided with a common framework to contribute to improved food security.

Objective

  • Effective coordination, monitoring and evaluation of the SPFS at all levels; promotion of South-South Cooperation (SSC) initiatives and increased mobilisation of funds from donors and financial institutions in support of the SPFS.

Indicators

  • Number of active SSC agreements, including number of experts contracted.
  • Number of countries engaged in the SPFS, at each phase.
  • Contributions received for SPFS from donors.
  • Examples of replications of SPFS approaches, in non-SPFS projects.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • Activities under this programme entity included coordination, monitoring and evaluation of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) at all levels. During the biennium, TCOS continued to provide the link between headquarters and the decentralized offices and nationally executed SPFS projects and programmes, supporting formulation work, arranging for necessary technical backstopping for operational projects and programmes and monitoring progress. In addition, TCOS has used its own resources and mobilized contributions from other technical units to prepare various conceptual papers and normative guidelines for use by the national teams and the wider community of FAO, UN and member country stakeholders. The significant increase in the amount of funds mobilized during the past biennium reflects the fact that the shift in orientation from pilot SPFS projects to comprehensive national programmes is being translated into practice through the commitment of sizeable amounts for implementation. This shift in focus of formulation activities reflects a deliberate management decision to reorient the SPFS towards the formulation and implementation of more comprehensive National and Regional Programmes for Food Security (NPFSs and RPFSs), in line with the recommendations of the independent evaluations of the SPFS and of the World Food Summit: five years later, both carried out in 2002.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Coordination and monitoring at Headquarters and decentralized structures.
  401 Coordination of contributions from other units to the SPFS through formation of a Technical Support Group Coordination and information exchange TCO Completed
  402 Identification of resource requirements and assistance in resource mobilization Other TCO Completed
  403 Support to oversight structures Information (products, systems, databases) TCO Completed
  404 Overall monitoring and reporting Coordination and information exchange TCO Completed
002   Coordination and monitoring of the formulation of the SPFS and SSC components.
  401 Support to formulation missions and internal process of appraisal and approval of project documents and agreements Coordination and information exchange TCO Completed
003   Coordination and monitoring of the implementation of SPFS.
  401 Backstopping of project activities to ensure coherence with SPFS goals and approaches Coordination and information exchange TCO Completed
004   SPFS guidelines and reports, dissemination of information.
  401 Overall monitoring and reporting Coordination and information exchange TCO Completed
  402 Dissemination of SPFS-related information including new or improved guidelines and technical documents Methodologies and guidelines (including pilot testing and demonstration) TCO Completed
  403 Updating SPFS Website Coordination and information exchange TCO Completed
005   Capacity building for SPFS programme management at country level.
  401 Capacity building for SPFS programme management at country level Other TCO Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
256P2 SPFS Formulation Continuing Programme Activity TCO


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: in joining the SPFS, interested governments need assistance in programme and project formulation.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: food security issues are addressed in close collaboration with recipient governments by assisting in the formulation of SPFS Phase I, Extension of Phase I and Phase II at the country level, taking into account the needs of targeted populations and a sustainable production approach. Moreover, the entity provides for joint formulation of SSC partnerships, including tripartite agreements.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: government departments and institutions are empowered in creating the policy and institutional framework needed for an expanding SPFS. Farmers in the project areas are the immediate beneficiaries together with community-based organizations which provide input services and assistance in efficient utilisation of resources (e.g. Water User Associations) on the production side and in post harvest activities.

Objective

  • Assist countries, especially LIFDCs, in achieving food security through the formulation of an SPFS National Programme Document and Plan of Action and of Phase I or extension/expansion of the programme.

Indicators

  • Number of new national SPFS projects and regional programmes formulated and approved by all parties.
  • Number of SSC agreements formulated and approved by all parties.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • New national Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) projects and programmes were formulated and approved by all parties. According to the Medium-Term Plan (MTP) for 2004-09, the formulation of SPFS extended Phase I and Phase II projects was planned for eight countries per biennium. Owing to budget reduction, this number was reduced to four at Phase I and seven at extended Phase I and Phase II in the Programme of Work and Budget (PWB) for 2004-05. However, 22 countries were supported in the formulation of National Programmes for Food Security (which go beyond the SPFS Phase I extension and Phase II), far exceeding the planned target. The MTP for 2004-09 also called for ten Regional Programmes for Food Security to be formulated by the end of 2009. In the first two years alone, delivery had reached double this number, with 20 Regional Economic Organizations having received support in preparing Regional Food Security Strategies and Programmes by the end of 2005. New South-South Cooperation (SSC) agreements were formulated and approved by all parties. The MTP for 2004-09 called for the formulation of SSC agreements in 16 additional countries each biennium; owing to budget reduction, only two were foreseen in the PWB for 2004-05 yet nine were actually formulated.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Formulation of national SPFS programmes at Phase I, Phase I Extension and Phase II levels.
  401 Formulation of approximately four programmes at Phase I Other TCO Completed
  402 Formulation of approximately six programmes at Phase I Extension Other TCO Completed
  403 Formulation of approximately one programme at Phase II Other TCO Completed
002   Formulation of SSC within the framework of the SPFS.
  401 Formulation of two SSC Agreements Other TCO Completed



Programme Entity Title Type Lead Division
256P3 SPFS Implementation Continuing Programme Activity TCO


Rationale

  • Development problem to be addressed: the effective implementation and expansion of the SPFS to meet requirements and expectations of interested countries requires a steady flow of resources.
  • Proposed contribution to problem resolution: FAO provides technical assistance and financial support comes from various sources, including bilateral and multilateral donors, development banks and other financing institutions, NGOs, private sector entities and FAO itself. This combination of factors creates an enabling environment to address food insecurity in an effective and sustainable way.
  • Intended end beneficiaries: the prime beneficiaries are malnourished people, with unreliable access to food at all times.

Objective

  • To provide essential financial support to food security enhancement of LIFDCs, through rapid increases in productivity and food production in an economically- and environmentally-sound basis; to improve people's access to food; to promote diversified food production on a self-reliant basis through better input supply services and access to village credit.

Indicators

  • Proportion of farmers supported in areas where SPFS is implemented.
  • Stability of food production in countries where SPFS is being implemented (Phase I, Phase I Extension or Phase II).
  • Increased production and diversification of food in countries where SPFS is being implemented.

2004-05 Implementation Progress - Achievements, Success Stories and Lessons Learnt

  • This programme entity continued to provide essential financial support to enhancing the food security of low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs). Most countries where the SPFS is implemented are LIFDCs; however, in all but 68, the SPFS is still operating at a pilot scale. Hence the number of farmers reached is still low compared with the eventual target population. In a typical SPFS country, the proportion of farmers reached can vary from a few hundred (e.g. Lesotho) to several thousands (e.g. Nigeria). Generally, households directly affected by SPFS field activities were limited to a few hundred. As more countries formulate and implement NPFSs, these numbers should increase significantly. For example, in Nigeria, the first pilot SPFS programme reached 30 000 households, while the NPFS is expected to reach 6.5 million. The growth in the number and scale of programmes is associated with greater national ownership. FAO has played a catalytic role in obtaining political commitment in the fight against hunger, as expressed by governments assuming ownership for their own NPFSs. In addition, several countries are using SPFS approaches for agriculture sector programmes without formulating an NPFS. Increased productivity and income are being achieved at the farm level, but not yet on a scale that can be observed at the national level. In the absence of data on production performance attributable to the SPFS, the rate of adoption of improved technologies demonstrated by the SPFS provides a proxy indication of achievements. Examples include: micro-garden technology (Senegal); farmers field schools (Zambia), small-scale irrigation schemes (Cameroon and the United Republic of Tanzania), drip irrigation (Cape Verde) and pedal pumps for vegetable production (Ghana). In general, farmers have adopted technologies that prove viable without project subsidy. The diversification component has proved particularly beneficial to women. In Niger, for example, diversification of production systems includes small ruminants and poultry farming, and processing of fish, cassava and groundnuts, etc., and constitutes a means for generating additional revenue and alleviating poverty. The PWB for 2004-05 envisioned reaching 80 countries through the SPFS. By January 2004, 100 countries had been reached, increasing to 105 countries and three regional economic integration organizations by December 2005. In 40 of these countries, activities were being up-scaled to the national level. The total cumulative value of operational programmes and projects at the end of the biennium was US$800, compared with US$600 two years earlier.


Major Output Biennial Output Title Type Contributing Divisions (Lead Division in bold) Status
001   Implementation of national SPFS programmes at Phase I level.
  401 Implementation of approximately six additional national SPFS programmes at Phase I Other TCO Completed
002   Implementation of national SPFS programmes at Extension of Phase I/Phase II levels.
  401 Implementation of approximately twelve additional national SPFS programmes at Phase I Extension Other TCO Completed
  402 Implementation of approximately one additional national SPFS programme at Phase II Other TCO Completed
003   Implementation of SSC activities in SPFS countries.
  401 Implementation of four additional SSC Agreements (from extrabudgetary resources) Other   Completed



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