42. The Council noted and endorsed the Report of the Fifth Session of the Committee on Agriculture (COAG), held in Rome from 18-27 April 1979.
43. The Council stressed the importance of FAO's role in promoting agricultural and rural development at the international level. It considered that the review and rec-omendations of the Committee had an important impact on the formulation and implementation of the Organization's Programme of Work in the important sector of food, nutrition and agriculture.
44. The Council endorsed the recommendations of the Committee emerging from its review of FAO's programmes in the food and agricultural sector covering the three closely related items falling under the competence of the Committee, viz: Implementation of the Programme of Work 1978-79, Medium and Long-Term Outlook, and the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1980-81.
45. The Council stressed the continuing importance of the special action programmes in Major Programme 2.1 Agriculture, particularly the International Fertilizer Supply Scheme, Seed Improvement and Development Scheme, International Scheme for the Coordination of Dairy Development, International Meat Development Scheme, Scheme for Agricultural Credit Development, Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses, as well as the proposed Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Rural Development.
46. The Council noted with concern that the funds in the Special Account for the Action Programme for the Prevention of Food Losses were insufficient to finance all the project requests received, and urged that further contributions be made to the Special Account to meet the target of US $20 million set by the Nineteenth Session of the FAO Conference and to ensure continuing activity in this field. The Council also suggested that FAO establish training centres for post-harvest technology, including simple field and home technologies, and with special emphasis on training women.
47. The Council stressed the need to continue the development of vigorous links between national research programmes and regional and international research institutions to facilitate the transfer of technology. It urged FAO to further intensify its efforts in favour of rural development, particularly in following-up relevant recommendations of the forthcoming World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD).
48. The Council welcomed the Director-General's recent initiative to establish a Five- Point Plan of Action on World Food Security, and urged donor countries to continue to give support to food security programmes, including the FAO Food Security Assistance Scheme.
49. The Council urged FAO to continue to play an active role in the current efforts of the UN General Assembly to formulate a new international development strategy. It underlined the importance of the work on "Agriculture: Toward 2000" in this respect.
50. The Council agreed that people-orientated rural development had to integrate all important aspects of production, distribution, marketing and social development into a policy framework suiting the specific situation of the individual country.
51. The Council agreed with the Committee's endorsement of the proposed priorities and programme changes for the 1980-81 biennium concerning the main activities of the Agricultural and Economic and Social Policy Departments, the Regional Offices and Joint Divisions in Major Programme 2.1 Agricultures It agreed that the Director-General's proposals were in line with the strategies required by the world situation, FAO's roles, the overall policy orientation of the Organization, and generally agreed priorities.
52. The Council agreed that nutrition planning should be an integral part of overall development and production planning and endorsed the related recommendations of COAG emerging from its discussion on the role of nutrition in agricultural and rural development. It suggested that increased attention be given to nutrition education.
53. The Council endorsed the views of the Programme Committee, which had examined in great detail the nature of the appropriate inter-governmental body to review FAO's programme of work on nutrition, including the question of conversion of the Ad Hoc Committee on Nutrition into a Standing Committee of the Council and had recommended to include nutrition in the agenda of the COAG session in 1979 with a request that the experience in dealing with nutrition within the framework of COAG be referred back to it. The Council noted that the Programme Committee at its Thirty-Sixth Session had reviewed the experience, considered it successful and welcomed COAG's recommendation to include nutrition as a standing item on its agenda and to modify the rules of COAG with this end in view. The Council further noted that FAO was servicing the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Sub-Committee on Nutrition. The Council agreed that nutrition aspects would, from time to time, also have to be considered by the Committee on Fisheries. The Council also agreed that the Programme Committee should consider further progress achieved in developing the nutrition programme of the Organization at a later session. Furthermore, the Council agreed that the Director-General could convene, upon the request of Member Governments, inter-governmental consultations on an ad hoc basis for a review of the nutrition programme of FAO.
54. The Council agreed that Food and Nutrition should be a standing item on the agenda of COAG and that the terms of reference of COAG laid down in Rule XXXII of the General Rules of the Organization be amended so as to reflect the inclusion of nutrition among the areas to be covered by the Committee. The Council, therefore, decided to refer the amendment to Rule XXXII of the General Rules of the Organization as proposed in para. 1l4(vi) of COAG's report to the Committee on Constitutional and Legal Matters (CCLM).
55. The Council decided to discontinue the Ad Hoc Committee on Nutrition.
56. The Council endorsed the proposed national action programme for rehabilitation and improvement of irrigation schemes and for better water management at the farm level and agreed with the priority given to these items in FAO's Programme. The Council emphasized the need for involving and training farmers in the effective and economical use of water, and requested that the causes of deterioration of existing systems be identified and remedied, especially through the strengthening of extension and advisory services, and by taking advantage of all available experience in this field.
57. The Council stressed the importance of properly designed and maintained irrigation systems as a basic requirement for reliable water supply to the farm and to avoid waste of water resources. It agreed that the planning and development of water resources for agriculture must be considered within an overall framework for water use. It also noted that rehabilitation and improvement programmes could with advantage be linked to "food for work" projects, and suggested that additional attention be given to energy-saving devices for waterlifting, e.g. solar pumps. In this connexion, it noted a suggestion that FAO should assist in the setting up of centres at suitable locations for the testing and demonstration of all available models of solar pumps.
58. The Council agreed that greater attention should be given to agricultural mechaniza-tion, in its broadest sense, to assist small farmers, and that such appropriate mechaniza-tion must take into account technical, economic, social and political factors specific to individual within-country situations. It endorsed the views of COAG that mechanization, combined with the use of other inputs for improving agricultural production, was essential to perform necessary operations at peak labour periods in a quick and timely way. The Council also underlined the importance of ensuring that mechanization policies were developed in harmony with overall national development objectives.
59. The Council endorsed the recommendation of COAG that FAG increase its efforts in agricultural mechanization in priority areas such as agricultural mechanization training at all levels; animal draught equipment; small tools; creation of small decentralized units for sale, repair and maintenance of agricultural machinery and implements for small farmers; and agricultural policy formulation. The Council welcomed the model projects proposed in the document COAG/79/8, which provided examples of how external assistance would be applied to such priority areas.
60. The Council recalled that the Conference, which had postponed approval of the revised text of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) submitted to its Nineteenth Session, had requested COAG to recommend such modifications of that text as would be appropriate in order to ensure its widest possible acceptability.
61. The Council took note of a modified version of the revised text which had been prepared by an Ad_ Hoc Consultative Group set up by COAG. 2
62. Following the recommendation of COAG, the Council decided to transmit to the Twentieth Session of the Conference the modified version of the revised text for approval.
63. In considering the agenda for the Sixth Session of COAG, the Council noted the list of selected development problems which had received particular support by the Committee, viz: Plant Protection; Soil and Water Conservation; Agro-Industries; and Follow-up to the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.
64. As Food and Nutrition was to be a standing item on the Committee's Agenda in future sessions, the Council recommended that the final selection of other subjects should take into account the need to ensure a satisfactory balance between technical and socio-economic areas of work and a reasonable coverage over time of the various Programmes within the competence of the Committee.
65. The Council noted that the Committee had reviewed its Methods of Work in the light of the experience at its Fifth Session. It fully supported the Committee's desire to maintain a balance between the general review of FAO's Programme of Work in the food and agricultural sector and in-depth discussion of selected items in areas falling within the terms of reference of the Committee.
66. The Council suggested that further improvement might be made in the layout and format of the documents relating to the Committee's review of FAO's Programme of Work in the food and agricultural sector, including a possible consolidation of the papers on the implementation of the current Programme of Work, Medium and Long-Term Outlook, and Summary Programme of Work and Budget. It also agreed that the Committee should receive a progress report on follow-up to its recommendations made at the previous session. It was further suggested that COAG should encompass its complete terms of reference.
67. The Council endorsed the Commission's report and supported the recommendations contained in it including the future programme of work. It expressed appreciation for the work of the Commission and stressed the importance of its deliberations in helping to provide guidance to member countries. The Council requested that the Commission meet annually. It was also suggested that the Commission should meet more frequently if the situation so warranted.
68. The Council commended the work of the Commission in endeavouring to ensure adequate supplies of fertilizers to developing countries at reasonable and stable prices. It noted with satisfaction that the Director-General had taken steps to put the Option System into place so that it could become operational if required, as requested by the Commission and the Seventy-Second Session of the Council.
69. The Council further noted that, in order to obviate the disadvantages to developing countries resulting from price fluctuations the Commission had also adopted a model long-term contract as a guide to be used by countries wishing to enter into such contracts. The Council agreed with the Commission's request that the Secretariat and Consultative Working Groups prepare a similar example on bilateral barter agreements for consideration by the Commission at its next session.
70. The Council agreed that the Commission continue its study of investment and production costs and made suggestions for its improvement. It expressed its appreciation for the co- operation of the World Bank in this regard. It stressed the importance of increasing the production of fertilizers in developing countries and agreed that, as recommended by the Commission, international financial institutions should endeavour to provide finance on concessional terms for associated infrastructure as well as for fertilizer plants. The Council, however, noted that appropriate efforts should be made to improve the capacity utilization of existing plants as well as building new plants in developing countries. It stressed the need to find ways and means to reduce the high costs of fertilizer plants in both developed and developing countries, since high fertilizer prices adversely affected the capability of farmers to use fertilizers in the required quantities, which in turn adversely affected crop production.
71. The Council welcomed the Commission's review of FAO fertilizer activities particularly those of the Fertilizer Programme, It agreed that, in addition to promoting the efficient and more widespread use of fertilizers through training at the grass-root level, country and regional training courses and seminars on the agronomic and economic aspects of fertilizer use for policy guidance of developing countries, more attention should be given to the removal of constraints including the improvement of credit systems and infrastructure for the supply of fertilizer down to the farm level. A number of countries requested FAO assistance in this respect. Though warranting lower priority than activities to promote fertilizer use in devel-oping countries, the Council also agreed with the Commission's recommendation on fertilizer terminology.
72. The Council agreed that the activities of the International Fertilizer Supply Scheme (IFS) should be continued and strengthened, with special reference to MSA countries which still faced serious balance of payments problems.
73. The Council, while appreciating the contributions of donor countries to IFS, noted with regret the sharp decline in its pledges. The Council also noted with satisfaction the pledge by India to contribute fertilizers to the Scheme, and appealed to other donor countries to continue to support the IFS.
74. The Council noted that bilateral fertilizer assistance on the basis of loans, con-cessional terms and grants had not declined in 1978/79. It was suggested that a percentage of such assistance provided as aid be channelled through the IFS. One delegation proposed that funds from the FAO regular budget be used to ensure the continuity of the IFS.
75. The Council noted the good cooperation among FAO, UNIDO and the World Bank in the field of fertilizers. It further noted the active participation of UNIDO, the World Bank and other organizations, as well as the fertilizer industry, in the Commission.
76. The Council considered the Fourth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA) covering the period 22 April 1978 - 24 May 1979, during which the Sixth and Seventh Sessions of the CFA were held.
77. The Council heard the Executive Director, who, in introducing the report, stressed the need to reach the pledging target of US $950 million for the 1979-80 biennium, to which about US $738 million had so far been pledged. He explained that many projects to support increased agricultural production and to improve nutrition would not be able to benefit from WFP assist-ance if the target was not achieved. This involved not only additional pledges by donors but also a willingness to allocate a more significant proportion of total food aid through the World Food Programme as expressed in resolutions of the World Food Conference and many sub- sequent international and intergovernmental meetings. The Executive Director drew the Council's attention to the special problem of WFP's cash resources position. Whereas the Programme's resources and activities were increasing, the cash pledges and in-flow of cash contributions were not keeping in line with this increase. He also drew attention to the report of the joint sessions of the Programme and Finance Committees which had recommended to the Council and to the CFA to urge all countries to cooperate to remedy this situation 5.
78. Referring to Food Aid Convention contributions channelled through WFP, the Executive Director informed the Council that for the crop year 1979-80, 70 000 tons had been firmly committed with an additional 200 000 tons indicated as possibly to be made available. Regarding the International Emergency Food Reserve, while it had been agreed that this be established at 500 000 tons to be replenished annually to that level, the target had yet to be achieved. Contributions announced for 1979 amounted to about 306 000 tons of which about 256 000 tons remained to be utilized multilaterally and bilaterally.
79. The Executive Director informed the Council that by the close of the Seventh Session of the CFA in May there were 225 operational projects. The CFA had approved 70 new projects, representing commitments of $506 million during the period covered by the report. The trend in the concentration of WFP resources on the least developed and MSA countries had continued. In terms of the value of total WFP commitments to development projects, 76 percent went to those countries in 1978 compared with 66 percent in 1977.
80. He noted that two policy papers had been discussed at the Seventh Session of the CFA. The Committee had unanimously agreed on a set. of Guidelines and Criteria for Food Aid for donor and recipient countries so that food aid can make a more effective contribution to the solution of the food problems of developing countries. 6 This completed one of the Committee's important tasks, emanating from the resolutions of the World Food Conference and the World Food Council on an improved food aid policy. The Committee also undertook its fourth annual review of food aid policies and programmes, the conclusions and recommendations of which were set out in paragraph 13 of the Fourth Annual Report. 7 The Executive Director informed the Council that the CFA, at its Eighth Session in October 1979, would be considering the subjects of: food aid requirements and food aid targets in the 1980s; and the role of food aid in strengthening food security in developing countries - this in response to requests made to it by the Committee of the Whole established under UN General Assembly Resolution 32/174, and by the FAO Committee on World Food Security.
81. The Executive Director drew the Council's attention to the need for its approval of a draft resolution concerning the target for WFP pledges for the period 1981-82, which would be submitted to the FAO Conference for adoption. He explained that he had proposed a pledging target of US $1 000 million to the CFA for this period with the concurrence and endorsement of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of FAO. There had been considerable discussion on this proposed target during the Seventh Session of the CFA when a wide range of views were expressed. These views were set out in paragraph 17 of the report on the basis of which the CFA had approved his proposed target for adoption by the FAO Council and Conference.
82. The Council expressed satisfaction on the achievements of the Programme as outlined in the Fourth Annual Report. Particular stress was given to the use of food aid in food production in recipient countries. The Council commended WFP for its emphasis on purchasing of foodstuffs in developing countries. It took note of WFP's special cash problem and urged all countries to cooperate in remedying it. The Council also noted that the multilateral share of total food aid in value terms had decreased from almost 17 percent in 1975 to less than 15 percent in 1977. It commended the CFA on its work in establishing Guidelines and Criteria for Food Aid for bilateral and multilateral food aid programmes. While some members approved of priority being given to the least developed and MSA countries, other members called for a more equitable geographic distribution of assistance with due attention being given to the food aid needs of other developing countries in support of projects specifically designed to benefit the poorest segments of their populations. As regards emergency aid, several members, drawing attention to growing needs, requested an increase in the percentage of aid allocated to emergency operations, and greater flexibility in the duration of aid granted to refugees. While a number of members expressed support for the proposed target of $1 000 million for the pledging period 1981-82, a number of others indicated that, in their view, a higher target would be needed to ensure real growth in the Programme's deliveries in the coining years. Noting, however, that the CFA had approved the proposed target of $1 000 million 8 as a minimum target and that if major increases in the costs of commodities and transportation or in food aid requirements occurred before or during the biennium 1981-82, donors would make every effort to provide additional contributions to ensure that the target was appropriately surpassed in order to maintain a reasonable and real growth rate in WFP deliveries, the Council adopted the following resolution:
TARGET FOR WFP PLEDGES FOR THE PERIOD 1981-82
Having considered the fourth annual report of the Committee on Food Policies and Programmes,
Noting the comments of the CFA concerning the minimum target for voluntary contributions to the Programme for the period 1981-82,
Recalling resolutions 2462 (XXIII) and 2682 (XXV) of the General Assembly, which recognized the experience gained by WFP in the field of multilateral food aid,
1. Submits for consideration and approval of the Conference of the FAO the attached draft resolution,
2. Urges States Members of the United Nations and Members and Associate Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization to undertake the necessary preparation for the an-nouncement of pledges at the Ninth Pledging Conference for the World Food Programme.
DRAFT RESOLUTION FOR THE CONFERENCE
TARGET FOR WFP PLEDGES FOR THE PERIOD 1981-82
Recalling the provisions of Resolution 4/65 that the World Food Programme is to be reviewed before each pledging conference,
Recalling the provisions of operative paragraph 4 of its Resolution 10/77 that, subject to the review mentioned above, the next pledging conference should be convened at the latest early in 1980, at which time governments should be invited to pledge contributions for 1981 and 1982, with a view to reaching a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Noting that the review of the Programme was undertaken by the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the World Food Programme at its Seventh Session and by the FAO Council at its Seventy-Fifth Session,
Having considered Resolution 2/75 of the Council as well as the recommendations of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes,
Recognizing the value of multilateral food aid as implemented by WFP since its inception and the necessity for continuing its action both as a form of capital investment and for meeting emergency food needs;
1. Establishes for the two years 1981 and 1982 a minimum target for voluntary contributions of $1 000 million, of which not less than one third should be in cash and/or services in aggregate, and expresses the hope that such resources will be augmented by substantial additional contributions from other sources in recognition of the prospective volume of sound project requests and the capacity of the Programme to operate at a higher level;
2. Urges States Members of the United Nations and Members and Associate Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, to make every effort to ensure the full attainment of the target, and to appropriately surpass it should major increases in costs of commodities and transportation, or in food aid requirements, occur before or during the biennium 1981-82;
3. Requests the Secretary-General, in cooperation with the Director-General of FAO, to convene a pledging conference for this purpose at United Nations Headquarters early in 1980;
4. Decides that, subject to the review provided for in Resolution 4/65, the following pledging conference at which governments should be invited to pledge contributions for 1983 and 1984 with a view to reaching such a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization, should be convened at the latest early in 1982.
83. The Council took note of the Director-General's report contained in document CL 75/8, which would also be submitted to the FAO Conference in November for its information with a supplement bringing it up to date.
84. The Council attached particular importance to the contribution of FAO towards the formulation of a New International Development Strategy, in which problems relating to food and agriculture should be given major emphasis. In this connexion the Council noted with satisfaction the agreed conclusions on some aspects concerning food and agriculture which had been adopted in March 1979 by the Committee of the Whole established under UN General Assembly Resolution 32/174. It also expressed its satisfaction at the arrangements being made for a FAO contribution towards the Special Session of the General Assembly on economic matters to be held in 1980.
85. The Council gave particular attention to the restructuring of the economic; and social sectors of the United Nations system launched by the General Assembly in Resolution 32/197. It recognized this was a complex matter. The aim should be to make the United Nations system as a whole less cumbersome and better able to help the developing countries solve their pressing problems. FAO clearly had an important part to play in this process, as its work was by its very nature interrelated with other sectors. One example of this interrelation was science and technology, where FAO was making a significant contribution to the preparations currently under way for the UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development to be held in August 1979.
86. The very fact that FAO's work was interrelated with the activities of other organizations meant that effective coordination was needed. At the same time it was necessary to avoid over-coordination through the establishment of unproductive and time-consuming mechanisms which did not in fact enable the system to have a more effective impact. In this connexion the Council noted the concern of the Programme Committee that senior FAO officials were obliged to devote an increasing amount of time to questions of coordination within the UN system as a result of the restructuring exercise. It welcomed the fact that the Director- General would be reporting to it in 1980 on the general subject of coordination and its implications for FAO.
87. The Council emphasized that coordination at the national level was the responsibility of the Government concerned. Such coordination would assume increasing importance for FAO with its policy of decentralization to the country level. Members of the Council reported that coordination arrangements in many countries were working well. Relations between representatives of United Nations' bodies, including those between the FAO Representatives and the UNDP Resident Representative, depended on questions of personality as much as on formal arrangements. The hope was expressed that the appointment of the "single official" foreseen under General Assembly Resolution 32/197, Annex, Para.34, to be known as the Resident Coordinator of the United Nations System's operational activities for development, would not have a disruptive effect where coordination was already proceeding satisfactorily.
88. Satisfaction was expressed at FAO's response to various resolutions of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, including those on the provision of assistance to oppressed peoples, and to countries which had been singled out by the General Assembly as requiring special programmes of assistance. One member noted, with respect to the programmes of assistance to the Palestinian people, the importance of consultations with governments in the area. The observer from Namibia made a statement expressing the apprecia-tion of the Council for Namibia and of the Namibian people for FAO's efforts on behalf of that country.
89. The Representative of the United Nations Development Programme expressed appreciation, on behalf of the Administrator, for the helpful remarks made by the Director-General in his opening statement to the Council on cooperation between FAO and UNDP. In the course of a general statement on various matters of joint concern to UNDP and FAO he analysed the factors which had led to a fall in the percentage of UNDP-financed projects executed by FAO. He pointed out, however, that FAO was still by far the largest executing agency for UNDP.
90. The Council also had before it, in response to a request made at the Nineteenth Session of the FAO Conference, an analysis of cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) contained in document CL 75/18. The Council expressed its satisfaction at the continuing cooperation between FAO and UNEP.
91. The Council took note of the Glossary of Evaluation Terms and of the Director-General's comments on it contained in document CL 75/6. It shared the view of the Programme and Finance Committees that the document would be useful to national governments and to multi- lateral organizations.
92. The Council examined the draft Conference document on the arrangements for the Twentieth Session of the Conference, prepared by the Director-General, and approved it with the addition of the following item to the Provisional Agenda:
"Examination of a comprehensive study prepared by the Director-General on the activities and functioning of the FAO Regional Office for the Near East, taking into account the views expressed during the Seventy-Fifth Session of the Council by some delegations, including the examination of its location."
93. The Council also took note of the declaration previously made by the Director-General: "It goes without saying that I have followed closely the discussions held yesterday and today. The subject is of course of capital importance both for FAO and for the countries in the Near East Region. By definition, the Secretariat is neutral; it remained so during the discussions on this matter, and it will remain so in all circumstances. It will act according to whatever instructions are given to it by the Council. If so requested, it will not fail to prepare a detailed report, comprising all the elements and all the aspects, to permit the General Conference to take any appropriate decision.
In conclusion, I would like to assure you that my colleagues in the Secretariat and I consider it is of the utmost importance that the general interest and the interest of the countries of that region be preserved, and the efficiency of the regional activities be maintained."
94. The Council noted that consultations had taken place between the Heads of Delegations represented at the Council in order to designate the individuals who would be approached to serve as Chairman of the Conference and Chairmen of Commissions I, II and III.
95. The Council noted that the Conference at its Twentieth Session would be required to appoint the independent Chairman of the Council, the term of office of the present incumbent expiring in November 1979.
96. The Council also noted that with regard to the nomination for this office, Rule XXIII-1(b) of the General Rules of the Organization laid down that the Council determines the date for such nominations which must be submitted by Member Nations and addressed to the Secretary- General of the Conference. The Council accordingly established the deadline for the receipt of such nominations at 17.00 hours on Friday 7 September 1979. Nominations would be circulated by the Secretary-General to all Member Nations by Friday 14 September 1979.
1 CL 75/4; CL 75/9; CL 75/PV/6; CL 75/PV/17.
2 See Appendix F of CL 75/9.
3 CL 75/17; CL 75/PV/12; CL 75/PV/18.
4 CL 75/7; CL 75/7-Corr.l; CL 75/4 (paras. 3.115-3.121); CL 75/PV/5; CL 75/PV/17.
5 CL 75/4, para. 3.119.
6 See Annex I of CL 75/7.
7 CL 75/7.
8 The Council noted that this did not preclude the possibility of the CFA exercising its - right to review the target.
9 CL 75/4, paras. 2.110-2.115 and 2.164-2.168; CL 75/8; CL 75/8-Sup.1; CL 75/18; CL 75/PV/12; CL 75/PV/18.
10 CL 75/4; paras. 2.171 and 3.113-3.114; CL 75/6; CL 75/PV/13; CL 75/PV/18.
11 CL 75/11; CL 75/PV/15; CL 75/PV/16; CL 75/PV/17; CL 75/PV/18.
12 CL 75/PV/15; CL 75/PV/18.
13 CL 75/12; CL 75/PV/5; CL 75/PV/17.