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Report of the Eighth Session of the Committee on Agriculture 1
(Rome, 18-27 March 1985)

68. The Council expressed appreciation for the work of the Committee on Agriculture (COAG) and endorsed the conclusions and recommendations of the Report of its Eighth Session. It agreed that the Committee's review and recommendations had an important impact on the formulation and implementation of the Organization's Programme of Work in the agricultural sector.

Review of FAQ's Programme of Work in the Food and Agricultural Sector

69. The Council noted that the first part of the Committee's agenda covered three closely related items, viz: Implementation of the Programme of Work 1984-85, Medium- and Long-Term Outlook, for Food and Agricultural Development, and Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1986-87.

70. The Council endorsed the objectives of the Major Programme 2.1: Agriculture which were designed to improve rural incomes, levels of nutrition, security of food supplies and the balance of trade. It stressed the importance of improved nutrition, food conservation and processing, and the involvement of small farmers, women and youth in the development process.

71. The Council noted with concern that during 1983-84 the extra-budgetary resources for the Major Programme had been 13 percent below the 1980-81 level, mainly as a result of the fall in UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) funding. It urged the Director-General to continue his efforts in consultation with UNDP to secure increased UNDP resources for agriculture in view of its important contribution to overall economic development.

72. In this context the Council emphasized the role of Technical and Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC and ECDC), and requested the Organization to further assist member countries in this area.

73. The Council commended the continued increase in training activities and the emphasis on smaller groups, and especially appreciated the inclusion of more women in these training activities. With women contributing more than 60 percent of total farm labour in developing countries, still greater efforts were required to increase further the number of women participants in training. The Council noted with satisfaction the expanded training activities undertaken by the Regional Offices and requested further such activities in the Africa and Near East regions.

74. The Council recommended that maximum use be made of the results and lessons of field projects and that project reports be systematically maintained for this purpose. It supported the efforts to maintain the high quality of field projects through the introduction of more rigorous procedures of evaluation.

75. Some members considered that a quantitative, more in-depth assessment of selected areas on the implementation and success of the programmes in meeting their objectives was needed in future reviews of COAG.

76. The Council agreed with the Committee's conclusions that the Medium- and Long-Term Outlook for Food and Agricultural Development provided a useful review of long-term goals and strategies for world agricultural development. It agreed that it was imperative to apply these strategies and see achievement of the Organization's objectives in the remainder of the decade. It reconfirmed that developed countries and international organizations should continue to offer timely technical and financial assistance in terms, conditions, amounts and composition that would make such assistance fully effective.

77. The Council endorsed the Committee's conclusion that the selection of strategies, priorities, programme changes and means of action as embodied in the proposed Programme of Work and Budget for Major Programme 2.1: Agriculture reflected the wishes of member countries as expressed in the recommendations and resolutions of the Conference and Council, the Regional Conferences and other intergovernmental fora.

78. It also agreed with the programme priorities, which centered on the two pivotal themes of promotion of food production and increase in food security, and noted that the Programme of Work would include focus on the achievement of impact at field level and support to TCDC and ECDC. The Council endorsed the special recognition of the problems of Africa which was apparent throughout the proposals in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget.

79. In view of the importance of programmes under 2.1: Agriculture, the magnitude of problems faced in the current world economic situation by most developing countries in ensuring sustained agricultural growth and adequate nutritional levels and given the requirements of Africa, the Council agreed that the proposed increases in the technical and economic programmes were justified.

80. The Council decided that it would provide its views and recommendations on the individual programmes 2.1.1 through 2.1.8 of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1986-87 during its deliberations on this item and it limited its comments to the points listed in the ensuing paragraphs.

81. The Council supported the higher priority accorded to multi-disciplinary training, "promoting exchange of experience in improved land and water use and management." It supported the promotion of judicious use of mineral fertilizers combined with organic matters and increased attention to Biological Nitrogen Fixation and expanded use of Azolla in the context of an integrated plant nutrition system.

82. The Council strongly recommended that higher priority be given to the development of water resources, including small-scale irrigation development and water management. It emphasized the need for soil conservation and reclamation of degraded lands and agreed that special attention should be given to the use of marginal lands. Furthermore, it stressed the need for more emphasis on the development of integrated dryland farming systems.

83. The Council agreed with the reorientation of farm management activities towards strengthening farming systems development, especially for small farmers. It stressed the need for more emphasis on the development of integrated dryland farming systems.

84. The Council in particular emphasized the importance of production and distribution of improved seed varieties and the contributions made in this field by the Seed Improvement and Development Programme (SIDP). It reaffirmed the overall importance of the so-called minor crops and, while noting the lack of varietal work improvement on this in the past, it stressed the importance of technical advice to member countries on production improvement of these crops.

85. The Council re-emphasized the importance of the plant protection activities, in particular with respect to the development of integrated pest management systems and the technical support provided to countries in the area of safe and effective use of pesticides and pesticides registration and control activities.

86. The Council also suggested that there should be a search for alternatives to high cost fertilizers and pesticides.

87. The Council commended the emphasis on the development of appropriate tools and equipment, and local repair and maintenance facilities for the small-farm sector especially in drought-affected African countries.

88. The Council reaffirmed its support to the extended commodity coverage of the PFL (Prevention of Food Losses) programme to include perishable fruits and vegetables, and stressed the importance of improving traditional food processing technologies.

89. The Council endorsed the activities for the development of the livestock sector and the allocation of additional resources which implied a consolidation and strengthening of on-going priority work. It commended the emphasis given to the requirements of small farmers and the promotion of rural development and supported the proposed activities related to animal health, feed utilization, breeding and the Artificial Insemination programme, small animals' production and the integration of livestock production into existing farming systems thereby maximizing resources utilization.

90. The Council endorsed the orientation and activities in the areas of research development and information, agricultural applications of isotope research, remote sensing technology, environment and energy. It emphasized the important role of regional cooperation and networks in the transfer of appropriate technology and the need for closer linkages between research and extension.

91. The Council endorsed the thrust of rural development toward rural poverty alleviation, in pursuance of the WCARRD (World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development) Programme of Action, and reaffirmed the importance of the assistance provided by the Organization to member countries in the formulation, design and implementation of rural development policies and programmes. It also supported the focus on people's participation, rural cooperatives and rural groups, monitoring and evaluation and involvement of NGOs.

92. The Council agreed with the activities proposed in respect of education, training and extension and especially with their orientation toward small farmers, women and youth. It supported the views of COAG which stressed the importance and the role of women as food producers and processors.

93. The Council stressed the need to strengthen food marketing institutions and activities on the role of women in marketing. It agreed with the emphasis on field-level activities to strengthen marketing extension services to small farmers; effective use of cooperatives and small-scale traders to improve marketing efficiency; and on the assessment of training needs, especially management skills in Africa.

94. With respect to credit, the Council supported in particular the domestic resources mobilization and institution-building activities, to assist developing countries in better utilization of their domestic resources for the agricultural sector. It emphasized the need to continue assistance in improving access of rural women to credit. It noted the emphasis on training at regional and sub-regional levels and TCDC activities carried out largely through Regional Agricultural Credit Associations.

95. The Council endorsed the Organization's activities aiming at improving the level of nutrition, especially of rural low income groups. It stressed, in particular, the importance of integrating nutritional aspects in agricultural and rural development programmes, ensuring the quality and safety of food supplies, and providing training in nutrition and nutrition-related aspects.

96. The Council commended the work done by the Organization in the area of collection, analysis and dissemination of food and agricultural information, especially on production, trade and prices. It commended the efforts being made to strengthen and expand the Global Information and Early Warning System and endorsed the plans of the Organization in this respect.

97. The Council reaffirmed the vital importance of world food security and supported the Organization's activities in this area. It stressed the importance of the provision of policy advice and assistance, especially to low-income countries, and the promotion of ECDC activities.

The Role of Minor Crops in Nutrition and Food Security

98. The Council recognized the significance of "minor" crops for nutrition and food security, for rural income and national economics.

99. The Council considered that the use of the words "minor" or "secondary" to describe crops such as coarse grains, pulses, vegetables, roots, tubers, plantains and products from trees and shrubs was inapt since these were foods of primary importance for a large part of the population, especially for small farmers living in a subsistence farming system.

100. The Council emphasized the need for a better knowledge of the nutritional (essential and micro nutrients), economic and even medicinal (preventive and curative) significance of these crops.

101. The Council encouraged the identification and location of minor crops with potential to improve nutrition, and the development of policies, programmes and projects to promote them. It emphasized the need for a review of the agricultural research priorities at . national level in the frame of food and nutrition strategies. An improvement of the statistical information on minor crops in respect of their contribution to the annual and seasonal food consumption and as a source of income was also needed.

102. The Council considered that the International Agricultural Research Centres should give more importance than at present to research on "minor" crops. It encouraged the exchange of information and experiences between national agricultural research centres through a TCDC mechanism.

103. The Council recognized the need for the preparation of information material for the use of mass media, to improve the image of "minor" crops not only among the public at large but also among planners and policy makers.

104. The Council supported the recommendations of COAG that FAO assist member governments in a better assessment of the importance of "minor" crops in food consumption and in the formulation of policies for their production, storage and marketing, distribution and processing.

105. It also encouraged cooperation between FAO and other relevant international organizations to develop appropriate processing technologies for the preparation of "convenience" food for urban populations.

Processing of Food and Non-Food Agricultural Products

106. The Council, in considering food and non-food processing, endorsed the conclusions and recommendations of COAG as summarized in its report and supported the need to strengthen FAO's activities in this field. It endorsed the important role of agro-industry as an incentive to production, the creation of employment and in reduction of dependence on imports. It stressed the need for incentive government policies and importance of developing a suitable institutional framework for product development and marketing. In this connection the Council noted the importance of providing credit facilities and exploiting the potential of cooperatives.

107. The Council stressed the importance of the role of women in the processing of agricultural products. It also stressed the importance of training and the possibilities for promoting TCDC and ECDC among developing countries.

108. It stressed the importance of local foods and composite flours in overcoming food problems resulting from urbanization. The Council emphasized the important role of developing and providing adequate packaging using local raw materials.

109. The Council recommended that existing inter-Agency cooperation with UNID0 (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) should be further consolidated.

Agricultural Price Policies

110. The Council welcomed progress on the study by the Director-General of agricultural price policies, with particular reference to developing countries, as reported in paragraphs 187-200 of the COAG report.

111. The Council agreed with the views expressed by COAG in its discussion of an interim version of the study. While revision should include deeper analysis of some aspects as well as more factual information on policies, policy instruments and price bias, the interim report was a well-informed and balanced treatment of a complex subject.

112. The Council noted that although agricultural price policies were only one component of agricultural policies, they were of key importance in the attainment of a satisfactory growth of production and in ensuring food availabilities at stable prices. Adequate price incentives were needed to encourage adoption of improved farming methods and to maintain and increase the use of such inputs as fertilizers. Because agricultural price policies were necessarily specific to each country, there could be no universal model.

113. The Council endorsed the suggestions made by COAG in paragraphs 197-198 of its report for the revision of the study and requested the Secretariat to include to the extent possible additional information on and analysis of the following points:

- Developed country agricultural price policies and their impact on prices of
              concern to developing countries;
- Agricultural price policies of centrally-planned countries;
- The appropriate role of input subsidies particularly in respect to fertilizers,
              which developing countries were now under pressure to eliminate, both generally
              and for disadvantaged areas;
- The bearing of price policies on income distribution and equity, especially as
              regards the rural landless;
- The role of government in marketing and price determination;
- The "impact of over-valued exchange rates on agricultural prices and price policy;
- Trends and patterns in price bias and the updating of price statistics;
- The relationship of international prices and domestic producer prices.

114. The Council agreed that the revised report on price policies should be submitted to the forthcoming session of the FAO Conference. This revised report and the Conference discussion of it should give useful guidance to countries in the formulation and implementation of their price policies.

115. The Council agreed with the proposed work programme of FAO on price policies and stressed the importance of the training role of FAO in price policy analysis, including its macro-economic aspects.

International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides 2

116. The Council had before it the revised International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, an earlier draft of which had been reviewed by the Committee on Agriculture at its last session. The Council noted that the Committee had given broad general acceptance to the Code and had agreed that the Code be presented to the Council. The Committee had also recommended that the Director-General take the comments in its Report into consideration and take such initiative as he deemed favourable to achieving a consensus in the Council.

117. The Council expressed its appreciation for the revised draft Code which took into consideration a number of comments by member governments and agreed that it provided a balanced and clear presentation of a complex and highly technical subject.

118. The Council recalled that the Code was the end result of wide and extensive consultations with Member Nations, appropriate UN organizations, other international organizations, non-governmental organizations and the pesticide industry over a period of more than three years. The present version of the Code took into consideration comments from more than 90 Member Nations and 25 international organizations.

119. The Council unanimously agreed with the need for such a Code, in view of the continuing and increasing use of pesticides essential for agricultural development and of the potential serious risks for human and animal health and their effects on the environment as a result of indiscriminate or uninformed applications or misuse.

120. The Council agreed with the basic objectives of the Code, which were to identify potential hazards in the distribution and use of pesticides, to establish standards of conduct and to define responsibilities for all those engaged in the regulation, distribution and use of pesticides.

121. The Council, recognizing that the Code was voluntary in nature, stressed the need for its very early adoption and urged the acceptance of the present version in the spirit of cooperation and goodwill among all concerned in order to maintain the consensus already achieved.

122. The Council emphasized the need for member governments, in collaboration with FAO, to monitor the observance of the Code and agreed that further improvements to the Code, following its adoption by the Conference, could be considered in the light of practical experience gained from its use.

123. The Council gave broad general acceptance to the draft Code as submitted to it and decided to transmit it to the Conference. A number of amendments were however proposed by various members and recommended to the Director-General for consideration to the extent that the amendments would lead to further clarification and improvement, and not weaken the substance before the final version of the Code was considered by the Conference. Among the principal amendments were the following:

  1. With respect to Article 1 (Objectives of the Code) the Council noted the suggestion to add in 1.1 the word "voluntary" before standards of conduct and in 1.6 to indicate that the Code would be used "within the context of applicable national law",
  2. Various members made suggestions for changes in Article 2 (Definitions) in which, among others, the word "registration" in the definition for "Banned" should be replaced by "Regulatory". It was felt that certain other definitions required some additional study,
  3. One member emphasized the importance of promoting integrated pest management, as outlined in Article 3 (Pesticide Management), as this would be the best way to achieve more efficient use of pesticides,
  4. With respect to Article 4 (Testing of Pesticides), it was suggested that the text of 4.1.1 might need some revision in order to indicate that pesticides had been adequately tested under conditions comparable to those where they would be applied,
  5. It was suggested that some minor modifications were needed in Article 8 (Distribution and Trade) to the extent that 8.1.4 should refer to all pesticides and that in 8.1.5 the last part should read "requirements of the host country and the parent company",
  6. With respect to Article 9 (Information Exchange) it was emphasized that the text could be clarified and strengthened by referring in 9.1 to the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Provisional Notification Scheme on banned and severely restricted chemicals and by deleting in 9.6 in the second sentence the part after "prior to export" as well as the last sentence,
  7. A few members proposed that in the second sentence of 9.6 the words "in so far as possible" be deleted and a few other members proposed to change the text of 11.2 by indicating that international organizations and public sector groups should promote the objectives of Article 11 (Advertising),
  8. It was noted that in Article 12 (Monitoring the. Observance of the Code) some modifications might be required in 12.3. A few members felt that 12.6 should also refer to other international organizations, while it was proposed to add to 12.6 the sentence "The Code should be considered as a dynamic text which must regularly be brought up to date taking into account technical, economic and social progress".

124. The Council agreed that the draft Resolution should be strengthened by modifying the text under 3 to request governments, in collaboration with the Director-General, to monitor the observance of the Code and to request the Director-General to report periodically to the Committee on Agriculture.

125. A few members felt that the draft Resolution should mention that activities by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations related to the Code should be funded withing existing budgetary resources or through voluntary contributions.

126. The Council recommended that the following draft Resolution be submitted to the Conference together with the Code for adoption:




Recognizing that increased food production is a high priority in many parts of the world and that this need cannot be met without the use of indispensable agricultural inputs such as pesticides,

Noting that FAO's study entitled "Agriculture: Toward 2000" foresees a steady increase in the worldwide use of pesticides,

Considering that such growth in pesticide use is likely to take place in spite of necessary intensive parallel efforts to introduce biological and integrated pest control systems,

Acknowledging that pesticides can be hazardous to humans, animals and the environment and that immediate action must be taken by all concerned, including governments, manufacturers, traders and users, to eliminate as far as possible and within the scope of their responsibility, unreasonable risks, not only in the country of origin but also in the countries to which pesticides may be exported,

Being aware that the requirements for the safe and proper use of pesticides in some developed countries have led to the adoption of complex systems of regulations and of enforcement mechanisms, but that many other countries have neither such mechanisms nor the necessary legislation, regulations or infrastructures to control the import, availability, sale or use of pesticides,

Convinced that additional efforts are needed to enable such countries to control pesticides more effectively and to asses the azards which could result from their use or misuse,

Recognizing that a voluntary International Code of Conduct, based on internationally agreed technical guidelines, would provide a practical framework for the control of pesticides, especially in countries that do not have adequate pesticide registration and control schemes,

Noting that such a draft Code was reviewed and endorsed by the Eighth Session of the Committee on Agriculture and by the Eighty-seventh Session of the Council,

Having further noted the conclusions and the recommendations of these bodies:

1. Hereby adopts a voluntary International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides annexed hereto;

2. Recommends that all FAO Member Nations promote the use of this Code in the interests of safer and more efficient use of pesticides and of increased food production;

3. Requests governments to monitor the observance of the Code, in collaboration with the Director-General, report periodically to the Committee on Agriculture;

4. Invites other United Nations agencies and other international organizations to collaborate in this endeavour within their respective spheres of competence.

Annex to Resolution .../85

(to be inserted by the Conference)

Other Matters

127. In considering the agenda for the Ninth Session of COAG, the Council supported the list of selected development problems which the Committee had recommended, viz: (a) Dryland Farming Systems; (b) The Effect of Tenure and Fragmentation of Farm Holdings on Agricultural Development; and (c) Requirements and Strategies for Improved Production of Roots, Tubers and Plantains.

128. The Council agreed that this list was in line with the recommendation of its Eighty-third Session that a satisfactory balance between technical and socio-economic areas of work be ensured.

Report on the Ninth Session of the Commission on Fertilizers
(Rome, 19-22 February 1985) 3

129. The Council endorsed the Commission's report. It expressed satisfaction with the work of the Commission, particularly in providing information and guidance to member countries.

130. The Council expressed its concern at the decline in the growth of fertilizer consumption in the developing countries, particularly in that it was far below what was required to achieve self-reliance in food and food security in these countries.

131. The Council agreed that together with food aid, fertilizers and other inputs were required for the rehabilitation of agriculture in the critically affected countries in Africa.

132. The Council agreed with the importance of an appropriate crop/fertilizer price relationship to provide an incentive for farmers in developing countries to use fertilizers, particularly on food crops. In this context, the importance of fertilizer subsidies was stressed. The Council recalled that this issue would be addressed in the study on Agricultural Price Policies which would be discussed at the Twenty-third Session of the FAO Conference. With regard to subsidies, the Council also noted that FAO/FIAC (Fertilizer Industry Advisory Committee) were preparing a publication on fertilizer pricing strategies, including subsidies, for general distribution and for use in regional Seminars.

133. The Council agreed with the Commission that the general decline in the growth of fertilizer consumption in the developing countries and the fall in consumption in some of them was due to their economic problems. The Council further agreed that balance of payments difficulties, high interest rates, shortage of foreign exchange and transport constraints were major problems for fertilizer importing countries, despite relatively low international prices of fertilizers.

134. The Council noted with satisfaction that, as requested by the Commission, the Director-General had appealed to fertilizer-producing countries for increased fertilizer aid, bilateral and multilateral the latter to be channelled through the IFS. It further noted that the Director-General had again approached the IMF and UNDP to consider ways and means to assist the Most Seriously Affected/Least Developed Countries (MSA/LDC) in obtaining fertilizers, as requested by the Commission.

135. The Council expressed its concern at the decline in fertilizer aid in general. Concern was also expressed about the small amounts channelled through the IFS in particular. It fully supported the concept of combining IFS fertilizer aid with the activities of the Fertilizer Programme. The Council expressed its appreciation to the Governments of Austria, Ireland and Italy for their support to the IFS and the additional support of Ireland and the new contribution of the Fertilizer Industry Advisory Committee following the Director-General's appeal. It, however, urged other governments to support the Scheme.

136. The Council noted with concern that shortages of fertilizers could occurr in the foreseeable future since current prices were too low to attract investment in new capacity, particularly in the developed countries. It agreed with the Commission that joint-ventures had great possibilities in easing future fertilizer supply problems and endorsed the Commission's recommendations that case studies of successful joint ventures be undertaken.

137. The Council also endorsed the request that country and regional studies be undertaken by FAO, in cooperation with other appropriate agencies, to provide an objective assessment of the potential of developing countries, particularly those in Africa, for producing fertilizers. It also agreed with the Commission that developing countries should be assisted by the relevant agencies and donor governments to fully use the production of their existing fertilizer plants. In this connection, the Council noted with satisfaction that the Secretariat had already initiated discussions with the World Bank and UNIDO.

138. Some members requested FAO to continue supporting MULTIFERT (Empresa Latinoamericana Multinacional de Comercialización de Fertilizantes). In this connection the Council noted with satisfaction that contact had already been made with MULTIFERT regarding the Commission's recommendation that the experience of this Organization in Latin America, with regard to fertilizer procurement for its members, be explored and supported for possible adoption in other regions.

139. The Council endorsed the Commission's support of FAO's fertilizer activities. It urged that greater effort should be made toward increasing the efficiency of fertilizer use and the complementary use of mineral fertilizers, organic materials and biological nitrogen fixation in integrated plant nutrition systems. The Council also agreed with the importance of increasing food production in rainfed areas and the need for the judicious extension of fertilizer use and increasing their efficiency on rainfed crops.

140. The Council agreed with the importance of training and extension, particularly the value of the Fertilizer Programme in reaching small farmers, and involving rural women in these activities.

141. The Council agreed that, on request, countries should be assisted by FAO in assessing and improving their fertilizer research and promotion programmes.

142. The Council generally endorsed the Commission's recommendations with regard to future work, subject to final selection by the Director-General in consultation with the Chairman of the Commission. It recommended that the regular monitoring of fertilizer supply, demand and prices be continued and that member countries be provided with this documentation on an annual basis.

Report of the Sixteenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI)
(Rome, 22-26 April 1985)

143. The Council reviewed the Report of the Sixteenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries. It noted with appreciation that His Excellency Pedro Ojeda Paullada, Secretary for Fisheries of Mexico, and Chairman of the 1984 FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, had delivered the keynote address to the Committee at the invitation of the Director-General of FAO. Thanks were expressed to Mr Ojeda Paullada for the activities he had carried out after the Conference for the promotion and the achievement of its objectives.

144. The Council was informed that 1984 had been a record year for fish production with a total catch of some 80 million tons almost evenly distributed between developing and developed countries. There were, however, signs that production of marine fish had been levelling off over the past ten years, emphasizing the need for governments and FAO to concentrate their efforts on management for the conservation of fish stocks. Future expansion of the fisheries sector would have to be based on increased yield through better management, development of inland fisheries and aquaculture, as well as better utilization of fishery resources, including use of by-catch and reduction of post-harvest losses.

145. The Council fully agreed with the view of the Committee that the proposals contained in the Director-General's 1986-87 Summary Programme of Work and Budget for fisheries were well-balanced, responding to the needs of developing countries and reflecting the priorities laid down by the World Fisheries Conference. It noted that some members had indicated that their endorsement was without prejudice to their final position on the overall Programme of Work and Budget of the Organization. It endorsed the areas of special emphasis defined by the Committee as follows: conservation, management and rational utilization of fishery resources in marine and inland waters; aquaculture development; improved fish utilization and promotion of the role of fish in nutrition; fishery development and investment planning; strengthening of national and regional data services; and technical support to FAO regional fishery commissions as well as field projects.

146. The Council reiterated its unanimous support for the Strategy for Fishery Management and Development endorsed by the World Fisheries Conference and commented favourably on the progress already achieved in its implementation in the short time since it was formulated. It felt that FAO was in a unique position to collect, interpret and disseminate information on the implementation of the Strategy by member countries. It further agreed that periodic reports on such implementation should be submitted to the Committee on Fisheries and to the governing bodies of FAO. At the same time, it considered that such an exercise should not create too heavy a burden on national administrations. To assist member countries in their reporting, it concurred with the Committee that the Secretariat prepare a simple but flexible standard format and guidelines for national progress reports.

147. The Council was informed that the indicative annual target figure of US$15 million to finance the five Programmes of Action approved by the World Fisheries Conference was likely to be reached for 1985. It noted with appreciation the contributions and commitments of UNDP and of donor countries, e.g., Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, as well as the assistance received in kind from France, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom, and the activities carried out by countries and organizations on a bilateral basis, but within the framework of the Programmes of Action. The Council acknowledged the generous contribution of the People's Republic of China in support of the continuation of the TCDC activities of the Wuxi Lead Centre for Integrated Fish Farming. It also commended Czechoslovakia for its offer of expertise in development and training in inland fisheries and aquaculture.

148. The Council expressed the hope that this level of assistance would be continued and enhanced in order to maintain the momentum generated by the World Fisheries Conference. It also pointed out that there was a certain imbalance in the distribution of funds among geographic areas and components of the Programmes of Action and requested FAO to consult with donor countries and interested international organizations with a view to remedying this situation.

149. The Council welcomed the Committee's decision to establish a Sub-Committee on Fish Trade to serve as a multilateral framework for consultations on international trade in fish and fishery products. It noted that the terms of reference of the Sub-Committee gave emphasis to technical and economic aspects of international fish trade and fell fully within the competence of FAO. Several members reiterated the need to collaborate closely with other organizations concerned with trade, such as GATT and UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), in order to avoid any overlapping or duplication of activities.

150. The Council emphasized that, in implementing the Strategy and Programmes of Action, FAO should collaborate with interested regional and international organizations such as the Organizacion Latinoamericana para el Desarrollo Pesquero (OLDEPESCA), the Permanent Commission for the South Pacific, the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. It underlined the growing role of technical and economic cooperation among developing countries for training and transfer of technology and the importance of using expertise from countries in the regions for these purposes. The Council also suggested that active collaboration be maintained with UN agencies such as the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), as well as with other organizations such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).

151. The Council was informed by the EEC (European Economic Community) of its responsibilities in fishery matters and of its own programme for the development of fisheries in developing countries under the Lome III Convention. The EEC considered that it could participate more fully in the work of FAO fishery bodies and meetings concerning fisheries and trade policy which was its exclusive responsibility, if it were accorded a privileged observer status.

152. The Council stressed the continuing importance of the role of women in fisheries. It urged governments to initiate programmes which would increase women's participation in fisheries activities including aquaculture and fish processing. It noted that FAO was already implementing several small-scale fisheries development projects which included components aimed at promoting the role of women.

153. The Council supported the involvement of FAO in the study of technical requirements for the marking of fishing vessels and in the analysis of information on the impact and extent of entanglement of fish and other aquatic organisms in gear and debris abandoned at sea.

154. The Council defined a number of areas of particular interest in the field of fisheries management and development including: the special needs of landlocked countries and island States; monitoring, control and surveillance of fisheries in waters under national jurisdiction; floodplain fisheries; integrated development of coastal forests and aquaculture; and fish feed technology. The need for control of inland and marine pollution affecting fisheries was also emphasized as was the importance of protection of genetic resources through the control of movements of fish species between countries. The unique role FAO could play in assisting with the development of appropriate management policies and plans and with the assessment and management of stocks of fish occurring both within and outside areas under national jurisdiction was also acknowledged.

155. The Council unanimously endorsed the report of the Sixteenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries and commended the Committee for its thorough examination of the achievements of the World Fisheries Conference and its recommendations regarding the effective implementation of its Strategy and Programmes of Action.

Tenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the UN/FAO World Food Programme 5

156. In presenting the Tenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes to the FAO Council, the Executive Director of the World Food Programme emphasized the essentially operational character of the Programme. He pointed out that the Report revealed that 1984 had been a year of considerable achievement for WFP, with record level approvals for new development projects and emergency operations, as well as tonnages of food actually shipped; the latter being up by one third over those for 1983. Purchases of food, mainly from developing countries, had amounted to US$82 million; and the share of resources committed to least-developed countries had risen to 38 percent. Two important indicators of the Programme's success did, however, not appear in the Report: one was the expenditure turnover of nearly US$800 million for 1984, at least 7 percent more than that for 1983, in dollar terms alone, without taking into account the market appreciation of the dollar. The other was that, by 31 December 1984, there were 288 development projects actually operational, in 87 countries, for a total value of US$2 900 million.

157. Regarding activities of WFP in Africa, the Council noted the need for continuing the massive response to the worsening crisis there, by the whole international community. It particularly noted that on the role of WFP, the Secretary-General of the United Nations had said "The contribution of the World Food Programme to the United Nations effort in Africa has been particularly significant. The massive aid which it has provided has been central to the success of the operation. In 1984, for example, some 10 million people, mainly drought victims, will have benefitted from WFP emergency assistance in 24 African countries."

158. The Council noted that the first six months of 1985 had seen twice the value of emergency assistance being extended to Africa as had been given for the same period in 1984. To achieve such results, the resources of the Programme were being geared to an ever-increasing extent to meeting the African emergency. This effort was greatly facilitated by special cash contributions made by countries and organizations as well as NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) and individuals, sharing to an extent of some US$10 million. In addition to its normal activities for food aid provisions, purchases and transportation, the Programme had also become a clearing house for information in the field of food supply and food aid logistics for the entire international community and charged with improving overland logistics through in situ coordination of food shipments in African transit and recipient countries. The focal point for this work in Rome was the African Task Force Secretariat comprising on a temporary basis, seven Headquarters officers, established early this year. Nineteen specially recruited officers, were employed in the field, at ports, on railways and in the other aspects of logistics, assisted of course by the WFP field staff already on the spot.

159. The Council also noted the dimensions of the African operation. In comparison with the 1.9 million tons of food moved over a period of three years during the great Sahelian drought, 3.8 million tons had been moved in the last six months alone.

160. On the question of the best possible use of food aid, it was noted that it could be used to expand on-going food-aided development projects, taking advantage of established administrative, logistics and technical management facilities to support food-for-work activities requiring minimal technical inputs, or to help in the resettlement of populations obliged to leave their original homes. Emergency food aid could also sometimes be supplemented by the local marketable food surpluses which might exist in spite of generally unfavourable circumstances.

161. Noting that food aid, and especially emergency food aid was a growing part of the flow of assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, it was necessary to underline the need for sound methods for its proper use. Unfortunately, the effective use of food aid seemed to be neglected by some national economic planners, as indeed by certain donors as well. In the long term the best use of food aid would be to support employment-led equitable growth strategies, focusing on rural development and infrastructures, as well as changes in agricultural policies where this was desirable.

162. The Council noted with appreciation the Executive Director's expression of satisfaction that the implementation of the decision of the joint report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of FAO on the deliberation of the UN/FAO Joint Task Force was proceeding in an atmosphere of goodwill and cooperation, and that he believed that the two organizations - which had an important complementary role to play - were now entering into a phase of durable relationship. The Council also noted with satisfaction a similar statement by the representative of the Director-General.

163. The Council expressed its appreciation of the Tenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes, which it considered highly informative, comprehensive and balanced. It paid special tribute to the Executive Director and his staff for the impressive achievements in 1984.

164. The Council particularly welcomed the initiative taken by the Executive Director in establishing the WFP Task Force Secretariat to strengthen the Programme's efforts in the coordination of food assistance to the affected African countries. It noted with appreciation the work of the Task Force and its computerized monthly status reports and weekly telexed statements, which helped many donors to programme their food assistance and delivery more effectively. It also appreciated the efforts of the FAO/WFP Task Force and the role of the FAO Global Information and Early Warning System.

165. The Council further commended the Programme for the special emphasis given to the current food crisis in Africa, while at the same time meeting the needs of other regions. It encouraged the Executive Director to continue such efforts. The Council appreciated the special steps taken by WFP, in cooperation with transit countries and other donors, to step up food aid delivery to the affected land-locked countries. The cooperation of transit countries such as Benin, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Senegal was especially commended.

166. The Council supported the priority given to low-income food-deficit countries. Reference was made to the fact that 86 percent of the commitments in 1984 were for countries in this category. It emphasized that while attempting to meet immediate humanitarian needs, the Programme's medium- and long-term emphasis should remain developmental.

167. The Council urged WFP to link food aid, in close cooperation with recipient countries, to national and sectorial development strategies and programmes. It emphasized that focus should be on broad-based employment-led rural development strategy. In this connection, new liaison arrangements between WFP and the World Bank, and WFP's participation in appropriate Bank Consultative Group Meetings and in UNDP Round Tables were highly welcomed

168. The Council noted with satisfaction the high level of purchases amounting to US$82 million, mainly from developing countries, during 1984. Emphasizing the importance of such triangular transactions, it urged the Programme to make more purchases in developing countries to the extent possible. A number of members urged the Programme to use developing country vessels to ship its food aid in order to further improve the present share of shipments on developing country vessels.

169. The Council noted with concern that contributions to the resources of the Programme for the pledging target of US$1 350 million set for the biennium 1985-86 was substantially below the target. It strongly urged all donors to make every effort to reach the target. Many members expressed concern with the low cash contribution which they considered a matter of concern. A special appeal was therefore made to all donors to adhere to the provision of the WFP's general regulations in this regard.

170. The Council expressed its satisfaction that for the third consecutive year, contributions to the resources of IEFR surpassed its target and, in fact, reached in 1984 the highest level ever. Some members, however, while appreciating such improvement, were of the opinion that the 500 000 tons target was far too low and a higher level should be considered.

171. The Executive Director, encouraged by the positive and constructive debate and the interest shown in the work of the Programme, assured the Council that all possible efforts would be made to make purchases in developing countries and, as far as possible, to use developing country vessels. He renewed his appeal to the donor community to make further contributions to the current WFP pledging target to enable the Programme to increase its commitment level in 1986.

Relations of FAO with WFP 6

172. The Council discussed the documents which dealt with the Joint Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the deliberations of the UN/FAO Joint Task Force on WFP relationship problems.

173. The Council was informed that the implementation of the decisions agreed by the Secretary-General and the Director-General was progressing smoothly and with goodwill on both sides, and that both the Director-General and the Executive Director were pleased with the positive spirit of cooperation demonstrated and the level of progress being achieved.

174. The Council expressed its satisfaction with the progress reported. It noted the complementary roles of the two Secretariats and stressed that the implementation of the decisions should continue with goodwill on all sides in order to achieve efficiently the common goals and objectives of FAO and WFP.

175. A few members referred to the deliberations of CFA and requested the Director-General to similarly provide the Council and/or the Conference with an interim progress report and a final report on the implementation of the joint decisions.

Recent Developments in the United Nations System of Interest to FAO 7

176. The Council expressed appreciation of the document which was found to be concise and comprehensive. The Council commended FAO's active and constructive cooperation with other agencies and bodies of the United Nations System which, among other things, contributed to the optimization of available resources.

177. The Council noted the lead role played by FAO in the ACC (Administrative Committee on Coordination) Task Force on Rural Development. It fully supported the activities of the Organization in collaboration with other agencies in the follow-up of WCARRD. It expressed satisfaction at the holding of regional inter-agency meetings which provided an opportunity to discuss rural poverty, changes in agrarian structure and rural development at regional and country level. The work accomplished by the Task Force under the guidance of a Panel convened by IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) on Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Projects and Programmes was noted with satisfaction.

178. The Council commended the Secretariat for its initiative in organizing a thematic discussion, within the framework of the March 1985 meeting of the Task Force on Rural Development, on the impact of the international economic recession on rural development at the country level, and its implications for resource availability for rural development in the United Nations system.

179. The Council supported FAO's active participation in the preparation of the mid-term global review of the implementation of the Substantial New Programme of Action for the 1980s (SNPA) for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to be held in late 1985. It was noted with concern that economic indicators showed that the situation in the LDCs, instead of improving, had worsened since the 1981 Paris Conference which had adopted the SNPA.

180. The Council expressed concern at the significant drop in multilateral commitments to agriculture, especially in lending on concessional terms. It was noted with concern that the longer-term prospects for concessional funds were even gloomier.

181. The Council expressed its disappointment at the lack of agreements during the eighth consultation on the second replenishment of IFAD resources, held in Rome on 16 and 17 May 1985, and repeated its appeal to all concerned to expedite the successful conclusion of the negotiations for the replenishment of IFAD resources.

182. Referring to the report of the Joint Inspection Unit (JIU) on the Office for Projects Executions (OPE) of the UNDP (JIU/REP/83/9) and to its discussion at its Eighty-sixth Session 8, the Council expressed the wish that UNDP make greater use of the competence of FAO for the execution of projects involving food and agriculture. The Council again urged that the agreed consultation procedures in this respect between UNDP and the specialized agencies such as FAO should be consistently followed. 910

183. The Council noted the latest developments concerning the conversion of UNIDO into a specialized agency of the United Nations system, and looked forward to continuing close and harmonious collaboration with UNIDO as a specialized agency.

Preparations for the Twenty-third Session of the FAO Conference

Arrangements for the Session and Provisional Timetable 11

184. The Council examined the draft Conference document prepared by the Director-General on arrangements for the Twenty-third Session of the Conference.

185. The Council agreed to add to the Provisional Agenda under Other Administrative and Financial Matters a sub-item entitled "Emoluments of the Director-General".

186. The Council also decided that Item 7.4 "Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides" should be examined in Commission II rather than Commission I, as well as Item 15 "Follow up of Conference Resolutions 8/83 and 9/83 Plant Genetic Resources". Both items would also be placed on the agenda of the Eighty-eighth Session of the Council. Some members felt that consideration of Item 7.4 should be taken as initially proposed in Commission I, while a few thought that Item 15 should also be considered by that Commission.

187. With the addition in paragraph 185 above and the consideration of Item 7.4 in Commission II and consequential adjustments to the timetable the Council approved the Provisional Agenda and general arrangements for the Conference.

Nomination of the Chairman and Other Officers of the Conference 12

188. The Council noted that consultations had taken place among the Heads of Delegations represented at the Council in order to designate the candidates who would be approached to serve as Chairman of the Conference and Chairmen of Commissions I, II and III.

Deadline for Nominations for Independent Chairman of the Council 13

189. The Council noted that the Conference at its Twenty-third Session would be required to appoint the Independent Chairman of the Council, the term of office of the present incumbent expiring in November 1985.

190. The Council also noted that with regard to nominations for this office, Rule XXIII-l(b) of the General Rules of the Organization (GRO) laid down that the Council determines the date for such nominations which must be submitted by Member Nations and addressed to the Secretary-General of the Conference. The Council accordingly established the deadline for the receipt of such nominations at 17.00 hours on Friday 6 September 1985. Nominations would be circulated by the Secretary-General to all Member Nations by Friday 13 September 1985.

1 CL 87/9; CL 87/9-Sup.l; CL 87/9-Sup.l, Corr.l (English only); CL 87/PV/14; CL 87/PV/15; CL 87/PV/19.

2 CL 87/8; CL 87/PV/15; CL 87/PV/16; CL 87/PV/19.

3 CL 87/9; CL 87/9-Sup.l; CL 87/9-Sup.l Corr.l (English only); CL 87/PV/7; CL 87/PV/8; CL 87/PV/19.

4 CL 87/7; CL 87/PV/16; CL 87/PV/17; CL 87/PV/19.

5 CL 87/6; CL 87/PV/13; CL 87/PV/14; CL 87/PV/19.

6 CL 87/4, paras. 1.12-1.14, 2.185-2.191, 3.123-3.125; CL 87/INF/15;
CL 87/INF/15-Sup.l; CL 87/INF/15-Sup.2; CL 87/PV/13; CL 87/PV/14; CL 87/PV/19.

7 C 85/9; CL 87/PV/17; CL 87/PV/19.

8 CL 86/REP, paragraph 144.

9 The delegation of Canada and of the United Kingdom disassociated their Governments
from the position of the Council on this paragraph.

10 The delegations of Colombia and Cuba expressed the opinion that the aforementioned
reservation was unacceptable.

11 CL 87/11; CL 87/11 (Revision of Appendixes A and B); CL 87/PV/13; CL 87/PV/19.

12 CL 87/PV/19.

13 CL 87/12; CL 87/PV/13; CL 87/PV/19.

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