CUBATable of ContentsTable of ContentsProgramme Entity 2KP01 Output Status

C. Regional Dimensions of FAO Achievements

a) Overview of work in the regions

212.     This section summarises the achievements of the Organization in the five regions: Africa, Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Near East. Information is organised as follows: programme highlights under all sources of funds (Regular Programme and trust funds); a table detailing field programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme; the external financing leveraged by FAO during 2006-07; selective "highlights" under Programme 4E: Technical Cooperation Programme; and in the case of Africa and Europe, an overview of achievements under Programme 3A: Leveraging Resources and Investment.

213.     For the sake of brevity, the narratives below are deliberately selective. Additional information on each of the Organization’s programmes is provided in Section 1.B: Highlights of Programme Implementation, and Annex 4: Supplementary Information on what FAO Achieved.


i) Overview of achievements
214.     The Africa Region benefits from technical cooperation activities more than any other region, with total delivery during 2006-07 exceeding USD 275 million, or more than 37% of the total FAO field programme. Over two-thirds of the assistance went to the least developed countries in the region, and 60% related to emergency situations. Africa is by far the largest recipient of SPFS resources reflecting the priority given by many countries to increasing agricultural production at the subsistence and small farm level.

215.     Examples of substantive work include:

Natural resources management
216.     An assessment of economic and environmental sustainability of irrigation practices in urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA), with case studies developed for Ghana, Benin and Burkina Faso.

217.     A subregional fisheries body was established for six countries in the West Central Gulf of Guinea to strengthen cooperation for effective fisheries resources management and combating illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing.

218.     The regional Aquaculture Network for Africa (ANAF) was created and FAO established the regional Special Programme for Aquaculture Development in Africa (SPADA).

Nutrition and consumer protection
219.     The Organization provided support to the AU Commission, in close collaboration with the NEPAD Secretariat, for the development of an African Regional Nutrition Strategy and its subsequent translation into a practical action plan. The strategy defined objectives and priority areas of action, and laid the groundwork for sensitising African leaders about the importance of food and nutrition dimensions in sustainable socio-economic development.

Animal production and health
220.     FAO provided support, in collaboration with other UN agencies and development partners, to affected countries in the fight against HPAI. This joint intervention was critical in limiting further spread of the disease and in mitigating the socio-economic losses to farmers. This experience again demonstrated that a timely response and effective coordination within the international community can make a difference.

221.     The Organization supported bush fire control in the region, most notably by coordinating the Regional Fire Management Networks (AFRINET); establishing the Fire Management Actions Alliance; and producing a fire management working paper.

222.     Support to the AU Commission, in the framework of NEPAD/CAADP, was provided for the preparation and organisation of the Abuja Food Security Summit (December 2006). The Summit Declaration called for increased Intra-African trade and identified strategic commodities to be promoted in the region (9 at the continental level - rice, maize, legumes, cotton, oil palm, beef, dairy, poultry, fisheries and 3 at subregional level -cassava, sorghum and millet).

Plant production and protection
223.     FAO provided support to pilot participatory field activities to introduce and develop integrated production systems; and to enhance production, transformation and marketing of agricultural products, through the adoption of good agricultural practices (GAPs). Following the request of the AUC, through a wide consultation process, the African Seed and Biotechnology Programme (ASBP) was developed to provide a strategic and coordinated approach for the comprehensive development of the seed sector in Africa. The ASBP, adopted at the 24th ARC in Bamako, Mali, was later endorsed by the AU Summit, and subregional components have also been developed (e.g. ECOWAS, ECCAS, etc.).

Special Programme for Food Security
224.     As detailed in Section 1.B of this document, the SPFS provided essential support to Farmer Field Schools in Sierra Leone.

Table 9: Field programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme in Africa Region, 2006-07
  (USD 000) % of total delivery
Extrabudgetary Support to the Regular Programme 128 0.1%
Field Programme:    
Extra budgetary Support to Field Programme/Assistance to Member Countries 85,423 29.6%
Extra Budgetary funded Emergencies 166,545 43.3%
TCP 19,088 32.9%
SPFS 2,657 70.8%
TeleFood 1,368 36.3%
Total Field Programme Delivery 275,082 37.2%
FAO Field Programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme 275,210 30.7%

Leveraging external financing for investment in Africa
225.     FAO continued strong investment support, as about 39% of such work is dedicated to helping sub-Saharan countries meet the UN MDGs. In 2006-07, FAO collaborated closely with the UN Secretary General’s Special Humanitarian Envoy Initiative on Food Security in the Horn of Africa, in cooperation with the World Food Programme. The Organization also supported the African Union Commission on a new Thematic Group on Agriculture and Food Security, as part of an initiative launched in September 2007 by the UN Secretary-General to expedite achievement of the MDGs.

Figure 5: External financing by sector in sub-Saharan Africa, 2006-07

226.     In sub-Saharan Africa, FAO carried out 381 investment-related missions and contributed to 46 agricultural and rural development investment projects that were approved for some USD 2 billion. External financing for these projects represented 86% (USD 1.7 billion), which will be provided by the financing partners: the World Bank Group, African Development Bank (AfDB), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Islamic Development Bank, the Arab Bank for the Economic Development of Africa (BADEA), WFP and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). In North Africa, 74 investment missions were fielded and one investment project was approved for external financing of USD 100 million.

227.     Investment support in cooperation with the World Bank included preparation work on rural development, irrigation and natural resources management projects, and economic and sector reviews. For example, FAO played an important facilitation role in assisting the Government of Tanzania and development partners (including the World Bank, IFAD, European Union, Japan, Danish International Development Agency, Irish Aid, African Development Bank), in the preparation of the Agricultural Sector Development Programme (ASDP), which is now financed by the government budget, complemented by a multi-donor basket fund, and is the government’s instrument for implementing the agricultural component of its Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy. The Organization’s assistance in relation to environmental and forestry sector programmes for four Central African countries under the revised World Bank Forest Strategy, which focuses on forest conservation and sustainable management, constitutes another salient example.

228.     Support to emergency preparedness and rehabilitation included assistance to the World Bank African Emergency Locust project in West Africa, and preparation of World Bank Avian Influenza and Human Pandemic Preparedness and Response projects in several North African countries. The Organization formulated a Productive Capacity Recovery Programme for Sudan that was approved in August 2007 for funding by the European Union, and which will be implemented by FAO. It also helped WFP to formulate a Protracted Relief and Recovery Operations Programme for Somalia.

Technical Cooperation Programme
229.     The distribution of TCP expenditure in Africa by main programme is shown below.

Figure 6: TCP projects in Africa by programme, 2006-07

TCP Highlights - Uganda: Piloting conservation agriculture for improved land management and livelihoods of smallholder farmers

The Pallisa and Mbale districts of Uganda experience the depletion of soil nutrients and accelerated land degradation. As a way to help the local communities living on limited resource endowments, who are frequently vulnerable to food shortages, assistance was granted to introduce the principles of conservation agriculture (CA) through the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach. The project aimed at demonstrating the applicability of the CA system in the country and its multiple benefits in terms of productivity, sustainable use of resources and environmental protection.

The needs of different types of farmer and interest groups were identified and a targeted training programme was developed. Capacity building to adapt and adopt the principles of CA and improved land management practices was undertaken through on-the-job and field training via 48 FFSs and intensive residential workshops for approximately 380 FFS members, 30 government extension officers and 30 farmer facilitators/trainers from the pilot communities.

The results of the project included improved practices (introduction of soil cover crops, seed multiplication, and improved use of inputs) and reduced labour at the farm level, which encouraged the government, through its National Agricultural Advisory Services programme (NAADS), to replicate the pilot experiences in neighbouring districts. To this end, the TCP also trained NAADS staff and private extension workers. Norwegian funds for scaling-up FFS on land and water management in Eastern and Southern Africa contributed significantly to the wider expansion of project results.

Asia and the Pacific

i) Overview of achievements
230.     Within the framework of the six major thematic priorities identified in the regional strategic framework (RSF): Towards a Food-secure Asia and Pacific, key areas of interventions for the biennium 2006-07 were identified and implemented, through policy advice, technical assistance and capacity building, as well as regional networking and partnership, working closely with regional economic bodies such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Pacific Island Forum (PIF).

231.     More than 200 field projects were operational in 34 Asia-Pacific countries covering crops, soil and water, livestock, fisheries, forestry, nutrition, food safety, land tenure and rural institutional support, as well as agrobusiness and market chain development. 122 publications were produced to disseminate knowledge.

Agriculture restructuring
232.     FAO conducted a diagnostic study "Rapid Growth of Selected Asian Economies: Lessons and Implications for Agriculture and Food Security" to understand the dynamics of change in agriculture and implications of rapid economic growth on agriculture and food security in the region, through case studies on China, India, Republic of Korea, Thailand and Viet Nam. The three-volume publication was well received by the 28th FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific (APRC 2006) and has since been finalised and distributed widely to policy institutes, professionals and libraries throughout the region.

233.     FAO assisted the development of micro-finance institutions through the installation of MicroBanking software. The number of installations more than doubled over the previous biennium from 203 to 469, in 10 countries. The strongest growth was witnessed in Sri Lanka (from 33 to 186) and Cambodia (from 44 to 113). This activity was entirely self-funded.

Reducing vulnerability to disasters
234.     With funding support from Australia, Japan, USDA/USAID, ADB and EC, a decentralized programme was established in the Asia and Pacific region by the FAO Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD). Trainings workshops were conducted for the country counterparts on HPAI outbreak response which allowed them to apply these principles to outbreaks of other transboundary animal diseases. Such occurences, including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), were promptly reported and acted upon by countries, enabling them to prevent the spread of the diseases.

Promoting effective and equitable management, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources
235.     The Organization promoted irrigation modernisation through a variety of knowledge dissemination activities that included training workshops in India, China, Nepal and Thailand and producing technical publications. China, with the help of FAO experts, has formulated a 5-year plan on Agriculture Water Management and Irrigation Modernization in the Shanxi Province. FAO collaborated with the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC) to promote regional capacity development, and as a result, regional organizations, such as ASEAN, are beginning to build on these initiatives. A regional policy study on Reinventing Forestry Agencies in Asia was initiated, and consultative meetings on "Establishing an Asia-Pacific Forest Policy Think Tank" were held.

Strengthening biosecurity for food security and agricultural trade
236.     Two regional standards for phytosanitary measures were developed and adopted by the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC) during 2006-07. These, along with other four regional standards developed since 2003, have effectively helped all members of the APPPC in their plant protection work and trade and export endeavours. Country profiles of plant protection of the APPPC Members were compiled, which catalysed information exchange and improved the capacity of countries to access the International Phytosanitary Portal (IPP). FIVIMS also proved to be useful to Members in the region: for example, results from a regional FIVIMS project in assisting the Anti-Hunger Committee in the Philippines revealed that 49 out of 77 provinces in the country were vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity. In 2006, these 49 provinces became priority areas for the implementation of the Accelerated Hunger Mitigation Program (AHMP) initiated by the President of the Philippines.

Table 10: FAO field programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme in Asia and Pacific Region, 2006-07
  (USD 000) % of total delivery
Extra budgetary Support to the Regular Programme 446 0.3%
Field Programme:    
Extra budgetary Support to Field Programme/Assistance to Member Countries 78,024 27.0%
Extra Budgetary funded Emergencies 91,664 23.8%
TCP 12,535 21.6%
SPFS 1,012 27.0%
TeleFood 707 18.7%
Total Field Programme Delivery 183,942 24.9%
FAO Field Programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme 184,388 20.6%

237.     The Asia and the Pacific region is the second largest beneficiary of field programme interventions. Delivery during 2006-07 was nearly USD 184 million, over 25% of the total field programme. Over 88% of the assistance to the region (USD 162.5 million) came from trust funds, followed by TCP with 7% (USD 12.5 million) and UNDP with 4% (USD 7.2 million). About half of the assistance was devoted to emergencies including Tsunami rehabilitation, HPAI and earthquake relief efforts.

Leveraging external financing for investment in Asia and the Pacific
238.     External financing in Asia and the Pacific gave particular emphasis to irrigation and water management, with over half on all investment projects in this sector, while this sector accounted for no more than 9% in other regions. The other sectors that accounted for more than 5% of the total were agriculture and rural development and research and extension.

Figure 7: External financing by sector in Asia and the Pacific, 2006-07

Technical Cooperation Programme
239.     In Asia and the Pacific, TCP assistance focused on Programme 2A: Crop production systems management, with 15% of regional TCP resources; followed by Programme 2K: Sustainable natural resources management, and Programme 4C: Food security, poverty reduction and other development cooperation programmes, each with 14%.

Figure 8: TCP projects in Asia and the Pacific by programme, 2006-07

TCP Highlights - Nepal: Enhancement of food security and poverty alleviation through improved institutional capacity of agricultural cooperatives

The Government of Nepal has given high priority to agricultural cooperatives as a vehicle to improve food security and to alleviate poverty in rural areas. A TCP project was launched in 2005 with a budget of USD 288,000 to strengthen the capacities of the national institutions responsible for the promotion and development of agricultural cooperative enterprises such as the Department of Cooperatives within the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, the National Cooperative Development Board and the National Cooperative Federation and to pilot practical hands-on training in selected cooperative societies.

The project developed and field tested gender-responsive training approaches and strategic planning and trained 25 senior cooperative policy makers and 25 national and district level trainers in their application. It introduced the concept of success case replication (SRC) as a field level tool to document and learn from existing successful cooperative businesses. Seven training workshops for more than 100 cooperative leaders, district officers and NGO representatives in three agro-ecological zones were conducted focusing on aspects such as business planning, market linkage establishment, financial planning and profit-loss-calculations.

The expansion and wider application of the SRC method and its integration into the regular plans and programmes of national cooperative organizations will help to improve effectiveness and to enhance the capacity of key stakeholders to deliver support services and training to the increasing number of cooperatives all over the country.


i) Overview of achievements
240.     Work focused on various capacity building activities conducted through regional and national workshops, as well as direct technical assistance in identified priority areas of which examples are provided below.

"Delivering as One"
241.     The implementation of the "Delivering as One" pilot in Albania provided the opportunity for FAO to better plan and coordinate with the programmes, projects and activities of the UNCT and to more quickly respond to requests from the government.

Capacity building
242.     A regional trust fund project implemented in the western Balkan countries regarding integrated pest management and control of western corn rootworm successfully promoted the use of Farmer Field Schools. In addition, the project established linkages with national research institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia. During the course of 2006-07, capacity building activities conducted through regional TCP projects in the western Balkan and the Caucasus countries contributed to the improvement of food safety policy, and in the Ukraine, to strengthening laboratory capacity. TCP assistance also proved valuable in addressing innovative forest management schemes.

Fisheries and aquaculture
243.     Tangible results were achieved thanks to support of TCP in aquaculture health management in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result of the input of FAO in this field, a regional approach was developed to aquaculture health management.

Land tenure
244.     Management of agricultural land is at the centre of the reform agenda in transition countries. During 2006-07, FAO assisted the land committee of Tajikistan in implementing the country’s land reform and agricultural enterprise restructuring with a focus on legal assistance centres for awareness raising on land rights. FAO organised capacity building activities in the field of land tenure, including a series of workshops dealing with land consolidation and EU rural development programme support. The Organization furnished direct technical assistance to Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Lithuania on the preparation of land consolidation strategies and pilot projects, the elaboration of improved land resource management schemes, and participatory land use planning.

245.     FAO held a workshop on Enabling Environments for Agribusiness and Agro-industry Development and disseminated information on opportunities for farm enterprise diversification, including a Russian version of the proceedings of Farm Commercialization and Income Diversification on the Road to EU Accession. Direct technical assistance provided under a series of TCP projects strengthened advisory services on agribusiness in Bulgaria, introduced a farm data and monitoring system in Azerbaijan, and strengthened the agricultural marketing unit of the Ministry of Agriculture in Georgia.

246.     FAO provided emergency assistance for the early detection, prevention and control of HPAI in the Eastern European and Caucasus regions (15 countries) and facilitated cooperation at the regional level. An FAO-implemented project established successfully an animal registry in Moldova in line with the EC directives for animal identification.

Knowledge management
247.     Through WAICENT, FAO supported the expansion of the regional AgroWeb Network and in 2006 organised a regional expert consultation on development of thematic networks in Central and Eastern Europe. Recent additions to this Network include thematic communities in human nutrition and animal welfare.

Table 11: FAO Field programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme in Europe Region, 2006-07
  (USD 000) % of total delivery
Extra budgetary Support to the Regular Programme 2,202 1.4%
Field Programme:    
Extra budgetary Support to Field Programme/Assistance to Member Countries 6,446 2.2%
Extra Budgetary funded Emergencies 1,645 0.4%
TCP 5,643 9.7%
TeleFood 50 1.3%
Total Field Programme Delivery 13,785 1.9%
FAO Field Programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme 15,986 1.8%

Leveraging external financing for investment in Europe and Central Asia
248.     External financing in the European region was primarily concentrated in two sectors: agriculture and rural development with 40%, and rural finance and entrepreneurs with 36%. Europe was the only region in which rural finance and entrepreneurs was identified as a priority for investment support work.

Figure 9: External financing by sector in Europe, 2006-07

249.     FAO’s assistance, which ranges from support to sector reviews to full programme formulation and implementation, led to 32 investment projects and programmes approved during 2006-07 by its partners, in particular the World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Global Environment Facility (GEF), for total investments of nearly USD 900 million. Of these, 14 projects benefited Central Asian countries, which represented 39% of the total funding mobilised for the region.

250.     Collaboration with the World Bank covered rural finance, land administration (cadastre and registration), micro and small agribusiness development, export competitiveness and marketing to meet European Union integration, HPAI preparedness, water use improvement, agricultural services, management of natural resources and a first investment project for Slovakia to assist agricultural policy.

251.     Cooperation with EBRD was further strengthened during the biennium. One example was FAO’s support to the Georgian Wine Industry, complemented by a TCP Facility activity on Export Marketing for Georgian Wines and Analysis of Selected Potential Wine Markets. The two projects, which included a series of studies, in-country workshops and seminars and a study tour on the wine appellation system in Italy, assisted the government to improve legislation to decrease a wine counterfeiting problem and strengthened Georgian wine producer capacity to stimulate demand for their products in the global market.

252.     Work with IFAD continued to focus on poverty alleviation. Two projects prepared by FAO were approved to assist farmer access to markets in Armenia and rural poverty reduction in Turkey. Collaboration with GEF related to climate change began in Kyrgyzstan where FAO assisted in the preparation of the reforestation and carbon-trading component of GEF’s Tien Shan Ecosystem Development Project and carried out a fact-finding mission for a proposed afforestation and reforestation project under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. GEF also approved a project prepared by FAO to assist Croatia in agricultural pollution control.

Technical Cooperation Programme
253.     In Europe and Central Asia, TCP assistance focused on Programme 2K: Sustainable natural resources management with 17% of regional project resources; followed by Programme 2A: Crop production systems management, 15%; and Programme 2F: Forest management, conservation and rehabilitation, 12%.

Figure 10: TCP projects in Africa by programme, 2006-07

TCP Highlights - Lithuania: Land tenure and management

During the biennium, several countries have requested and been granted TCP assistance in the area of land tenure and agrarian reform, as well as land management and related aspects. Assistance in these fields focuses on the strengthening of the national or regional capacities to deal with critical areas of land tenure and related legal aspects; participatory methods for the delimitation and demarcation of local territories; land restructuring in support to agrarian reform; and land planning for optimising the use of natural resources and agricultural production.

As an example, a project in Lithuania supported the preparation of an operational land consolidation system and strategy. It provided both the technical and institutional capacity to implement a legislative framework aimed at encouraging the consolidation of small plots into more productive farm units. Through short-term, specific and strategic support, the project successfully paved the way for a national programme on land consolidation in support of rural development.

Latin America and the Caribbean

i) Overview of achievements
254.     Based on the guidance of the Regional Conference, the Organization’s work focused on the areas below.

Diseases and pests of animals and plants
255.     Assistance in transboundary diseases helped countries with the prevention, control and eradication of animal diseases such as FMD, HPAI, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical swine fever and the new world screwworm. Support was provided to countries in the integrated management of animal production and health through the Commission on Livestock Development for Latin America and the Caribbean (CODEGALAC). A regional animal health programme for the countries of the expanded MERCOSUR was formulated with TCP assistance to strengthen the capabilities of national veterinary services.

Sustainable natural resources management
256.     Together with ECLAC and IICA, FAO fostered a discussion of the viability of bioenergy in the region. FAO supported the organisation of seminars and workshops and the preparation and analysis of bioenergy programmes and projects in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Paraguay and Peru. Strategic topics were identified: incentives and penalties for the rational use of natural resources; technology policies that explore feedstock potential; a regulatory framework for the use of biofuels; contractual relations from primary production to final consumption, including the incorporation of family farming; and the biofuel consumption structure.

Nutrition and consumer protection
257.     An investigation into private systems of certification of agricultural health and food safety was conducted by the Organization. FAO developed a training programme focused on public goods versus private gain, in order to identify harmonised systems. Training sessions were conducted on topics that included traceability, equivalence, biosecurity, mycotoxins, safety and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, Codex Alimentarius, risk analysis and preparation for the Regional Conference on Food Quality and Safety. Two regional projects were implemented in Central America and the Southern Cone to implement the quality system based on the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which determines the accreditation of laboratories of chemical and microbiological food analysis, a factor essential for demonstrating analytical capacity and the validity of results, which are current requisites of international trade.

Land tenure, agrarian reform and access to natural resources
258.     Lessons learnt from the practical application of the territorial development approach in five geographical areas (Brazil 2, Mexico 2 and Chile 1) served as valuable input to permit replication in other countries of the region. Case studies were carried out in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and El Salvador to identify strategies, components and economic benefits that could justify government and international financial agency investment in territorial programmes and projects. A trust fund project helped develop a series of technical analyses to strengthen the design and implementation of family farming programmes. The studies highlight the importance of family farming and list the main lessons derived from assessing 17 public programmes with a family farming component.

Food insecurity and vulnerability information and mapping systems (FIVIMS) and Regional Programmes on Food Security
259.     As detailed in Section 1.B of this document, in 2007 the Government of Nicaragua approved an NPFS programme expected to reach 75,000 households in five years, largely through the use of school gardens and the introduction of a food security component in public school curricula. At the subregional level, the expansion phase of the Regional Programme for Food Security in the Caribbean is being implemented in partnership with the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). During 2006-07, the Hunger-Free Latin America and Caribbean Initiative (HFLAC) assessed food security programmes in priority countries and organised courses on food security and on measuring food security in the home; it supported the Network of Research and Training in Food and Nutrition Security (REDSAN) and produced documents on topics such as social cohesion. The Organization provided support in formulating and adopting food security laws in Ecuador, Guatemala and Brazil and is in the process of supporting the formulation of draft laws in Haiti, Nicaragua and El Salvador.

260.     FAO provided the Secretariat to the Inter-agency Group on Rural Development, comprising ECLAC, WB, IDB, IICA, IFAD, the German Cooperation Agency (GTZ), the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). It also supported the interagency groups and participated in formulating UNDP-Spain MDG Achievement Fund projects in 12 countries of the region.

Table 12: FAO field programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme in Latin America and Caribbean Region, 2006-07
  (USD 000) % of total delivery
Extra budgetary Support to the Regular Programme 1,644 1.0%
Field Programme:    
Extra budgetary Support to Field Programme/Assistance to Member Countries 59,389 20.6%
Extra Budgetary funded Emergencies 7,028 1.8%
TCP 15,268 26.3%
SPFS 58 1.5%
TeleFood 1,297 34.4%
Total Field Programme Delivery 83,039 11.2%
FAO Field Programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme 84,683 9.4%

Leveraging external financing for investment in Latin America and the Caribbean
261.     Agriculture and rural development accounted for 75% of external financing in Latin America and Caribbean, 20% higher than any other region. The other sectors that accounted for more than 5% of the total were irrigation and water management with 19%.

Figure 11: External financing by sector in Latin America and Caribbean, 2006-07

Technical Cooperation Programme
262.     TCP assistance focused on Programme 3B: Food and agriculture policy, with 16% of regional project resources; followed by Programme 2C: Diseases and pests of animals and plants, 15%; and Programme 4C: Food security, poverty reduction, and other development cooperation programmes, 11%.

Figure 12: TCP projects in Latin America and Caribbean by programme, 2006-07

TCP Highlights - Chile: Strengthening of national and regional capacities for gender mainstreaming in agricultural sector policy in support of food security

A TCP project was launched in 2005 to reinforce capacities, at the national and regional levels, for the integration of a gender dimension in the programmes and projects implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture. The establishment of regional commissions to promote equal opportunities for men and women was instrumental in improving the collaboration between the central and regional levels. The project was successful in strengthening the institutional capacity of the national and regional services of the Ministry of Agriculture through the provision of training on socio-economic and gender analysis to 20 women and 5 men. A total of 125 professional staff (75 women and 50 men) in four macro zones were sensitised to gender issues through regional workshops. Due to its model character, the project approach was subsequently broadly applied within the National Women’s Service (SHERMAN) and expanded to other ministries. The database developed by the project provided the basis for the collection of gender-disaggregated data in agricultural statistics and the 2007 agricultural census.

Near East

i) Overview of achievements
263.     Activities focused on the priority areas defined by the Regional Conference, as follows.

Field programme development
264.     One of the key achievements was the signing of a new agreement between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and FAO, totalling more than USD 55 million.

Food and agriculture policy
265.     Policy assistance focused on key priority issues, including trade negotiations, water scarcity and transboundary animal diseases (e.g. HPAI). Technical assistance on WTO-related issues was provided to Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen, focusing on strengthening national institutional capacities for effective participation in trade negotiations and in meeting commitments of trade agreements. In addition, capacity building workshops and direct policy advice were organized for North African countries to support negotiations with the EU. Assistance on water policy focused on water resource management, including support to Oman in formulating and implementing policies to adopt a new cropping mix in Al-Batinah Region.

Nutrition and consumer protection
266.     Food safety remained one of the main priorities for countries in the region, especially in relation to sanitary measures and trade. A number of national capacity building workshops (Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, and Iraq) were organised to enhance the countries’ participation in international standards setting fora, notably the Codex Alimentarius. Regional and subregional capacity building workshops were also organised to help improve the quality and safety of fresh fruits and vegetables, fish and fish products, and strengthen food risk analysis.

Diseases and pests of animals and plants
267.     Work included the support provided by the Desert Locust Commission and EMPRES in building capacities in countries for successful preventive control strategies for the desert locust. The Organization has supported the implementation of joint border surveys between neighbouring countries and encouraged the exchange of expertise to enhance skills and enable monitoring of inaccessible areas. Following the outbreak of HPAI in Egypt, an ECTAD unit was established. This unit provided key support to the government including the provision of technical advice and capacity building. An epidemiology unit was established, a surveillance plan developed, and a participatory epidemiology network was implemented on a pilot basis.

268.     Assistance in plant protection focused on IPM using the FFS approach in several countries. Assistance was also provided to countries regarding trans-boundary plant pests and diseases, including Red Palm Weevil, Wheat Stem Rust and the Peach Fruit Fly.

Forest management, conservation and rehabilitation - forestry information, statistics, economics and policy
269.     The overall health conditions of forests were threatened by increasing diebacks, endemic insects and diseases, as well as the degradation of forest ecosystems in many countries. Following a successful expert meeting organized by FAO, in collaboration with the Tunisian Government and supported by the FAO-Norway Partnership Programme, experts from 12 countries of the region assisted by resource persons from the Canadian and US Forest Services reviewed the situation of forest health and invasive species and created the Near East Network on Forest Health and Invasive Species, NENFHIS. This is an important step towards promoting the collection and dissemination of information, and fostering technology exchange.

Fisheries and aquaculture management and conservation
270.     A priority activity in the fisheries sector is to strengthen regional cooperation in support of responsible management and sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources. FAO is assisting countries in improving and harmonising national fisheries statistics indicators and in promoting scientific and institutional capacity in support of the implementation of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, particularly in the Mediterranean subregion.

Knowledge exchange and capacity building
271.     FAO assistance in extension and communication for development focused on activities aimed at strengthening the institutional and human capacities of national agricultural research and extension systems and their linkages. The implementation in Egypt of the Rural and Agricultural Development Communication Network (RADCON) project is one the most important achievements. Drawing on the results of its predecessor, the Virtual Extension and Research Communication Network (VERCON), which has become a model for adaptation worldwide, the RADCON concept combines the use of participatory communication approaches with a modern Internet-based information system to provide farmers with timely access to relevant and technically sound information and services.

Table 13: FAO field Programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme in Near East Region, 2006-07
  (USD 000) % of total delivery
Extra budgetary Support to the Regular Programme 74 0.0%
Field Programme:    
Extra budgetary Support to Field Programme/Assistance to Member Countries 27,022 9.4%
Extra Budgetary funded Emergencies 88,602 23.0%
TCP 4,550 7.8%
SPFS 25 0.7%
TeleFood 351 9.3%
Total Field Programme Delivery 120,551 16.3%
FAO Field Programme delivery and extrabudgetary support provided to the Regular Programme 120,625 13.5%

272.     Total delivery during 2006-07 was over USD 120 million, around 16% of the total FAO field programme. Over 95% of the assistance to the region (USD 115.5 million) came from trust funds, a higher proportion than any other FAO region. 73.5 percent of the field programme was devoted to emergency, higher than any other FAO region, and included assistance for the Darfur region of Sudan, HPAI and livestock and crop disease control.

Leveraging external financing for investment in the Near East and North Africa
273.     Investment in agriculture and rural development accounted for 43% of external financing in the Near East and North Africa, similar to most other regions. However, Near East and North Africa was the only region to identify as next most important categories: environment and natural resources with 16%, and emergencies and rehabilitation with 15%.

Figure 13: External financing by sector in Near East, 2006-07

Technical Cooperation Programme
274.     TCP assistance focused on Programme 2K: Sustainable natural resources management, with 15% of regional TCP resources; followed by Programme 2A: Crop production systems management, with 13%; and by Programme 3B: Food and agriculture policy, with 11%.

Figure 14: TCP projects in Near East by programme, 2006-07

TCP Highlights - Syria: building for a drought early warning system in the Syrian Rangelands

The Syrian rangelands (Al Badia) occupy more than 50% of the country’s territory and are home to 0.5 million pastoralists totally depending on livestock production and another 0.75 million agro-pastoralists living at its margins, involved in sheep rearing but having additional income sources. Mean annual rainfall in the Badia does not exceed 200 mm and drought is a recurrent phenomenon, affecting the sheep and goat populations and increasing the vulnerability of local communities.

TCP assistance was provided to set up an early warning system and to reinforce national capacities for its management in order to allow more timely and effective interventions that could reduce possible impacts of drought.

An Early Warning Unit was established within the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. Procedures for data collection, verification, analysis and presentation have been developed, tested and adapted to local conditions and national staff was trained in their application. Twenty community representatives were selected and trained as field monitors to collect basic data at the household and the settlement level and six field supervisors at the provincial level were trained in compiling and summarising the data gathered by the monitors, forwarding the information to the central unit and providing feedback to the monitors.

A series of drought indicators signaling changes in the environment, rural economy and human welfare were selected and a classification system was developed, recognizing four stages of drought. Monthly household surveys are being conducted for approximately 350 households across six of the nine Badia provinces. The results serve as input to the monthly national drought monitoring bulletins.

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