40. The Council noted that the Introduction of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) clause (Item 7 of its agenda) had been considered by the Tenth Session of the Committee on Agriculture (COAG) and therefore decided to discuss Agenda Items 6 and 7 together.
41. The Council expressed appreciation for the work of the Committee on Agriculture and endorsed the conclusions and recommendations contained in the Report of the Tenth Session. It noted that COAG had structured its discussions under three main themes: (i) Review of FAO's Programme of Work in the Food and Agriculture Sector; (ii) Food and Nutrition; (iii) Selected Development Issues.
42. The Council welcomed the analysis and recommendations made by COAG in its review of the Implementation of the Programme of Work 1986-88 and of the extract of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 concerned with Major Programme 2.1: Agriculture. The Council noted that though Item 14 of its Agenda dealt with the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91
many members would also make specific comments on Major Programme 2.1: Agriculture while addressing Item 6. These comments have also been reported under Agenda Item 14.
43. With reference to the Implementation of the Programme of Work 1986-88, concern was expressed about the slowdown in some activities resulting from the need to make programme adjustments due to financial constraints and in particular, the slowdown in training and in extension activities was regretted. The Council confirmed COAG's view on the priority to be given to these essential components of the Organization's work and stressed the need for a renewed emphasis on training activities at all required levels.
44. The Council agreed with COAG's conclusions that the proposed Major Programme 2.1: Agriculture reflected the wishes of Member Nations as expressed by the Conference, the Council, the Regional Conferences and other fora. It also generally agreed With the programme priorities and supported the Director-General's proposals relating to the Major Programme 2.1: Agriculture which included an overall budget increase of 1.3 percent.
45. The Council supported COAG's views on the importance of environmental concerns and the need to take account of these concerns in appropriate aspects of FAO's programmes. It appreciated the close cooperation and contribution of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to the development of activities in the field of environment and supported continued and expanded cooperation with UNEP and other organizations in this area. The priority to be given to sustaining resource potentials was noted and strong support given to the COAG recommendation that new initiatives on this topic should not detract from the importance of sustainability issues permeating activities of other programmes.
46. The Council agreed with COAG that sustainability should not conflict with countries' overall development objectives and that the sovereignty of states on the management and utilization of their natural resources be respected. It recognized that poverty alleviation was a prerequisite to sustainable development and stressed the need for mobilizing funds to offset costs arising from integration of environmental concerns in the development process of many developing countries, especially those carrying a heavy debt burden.
47. The Council commended the initiatives taken on biotechnology in the crop production and livestock sectors and urged FAO to strengthen its role so as to facilitate access by developing countries to the benefits of the rapidly evolving biotechnologies. However, caution was expressed that biotechnology should not be considered a panacea for solving livestock production and health problems in developing countries. The Council called for close cooperation of FAO with other UN (United Nations) agencies and international research centres dealing with biotechnology.
48. The Council commended the successful efforts undertaken by all concerned in recent years to combat the grasshopper and locust infestations in Africa and the Near East. It expressed appreciation for the important role played by the FAO Emergency Centre for Locust Operations (ECLO) and stressed the need for further vigilance and necessary preventive measures in the area of locust control. It also expressed appreciation for the extensive activities on the control of animal diseases and urged FAO to increase the emergency action initiated for combating the American screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) outbreak in North Africa.
49. The Council noted that the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP) had been brought to the attention of COAG and encouraged greater linkage between the two technical areas of agriculture and forestry, particularly in the development of agro-forestry.
50. The Council commended the activities undertaken on food marketing and agricultural credit. It requested that increased attention be given to credit systems for cooperatives and to the improvement of women's access to credit for agricultural production. The Council welcomed the initiative undertaken in the development of indigenous food, including the production of wheatless bread, especially in non-wheat producing countries. The Council requested FAO, in cooperation with UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization), to give due consideration to the development of indigenous agricultural machinery and equipment which could be manufactured locally.
51. The Council commended the contribution of the Global Information and Early Warning Systems in monitoring crop and food supply prospects and alerting the international community to threats to the food supply. It welcomed the priority being accorded to crop/weather monitoring and the enhancement of remote sensing services provided to GIEWS and related technical support activities to member countries.
52. The need for work on land tenures and promotion of cooperatives was emphasized. The Council supported women in development activities including the implementation of the Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development. It welcomed the action underway to strengthen the Women in
Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service (ESHW) by filling the posts that had remained frozen due to budgetary constraints, and that the Director-General's proposals for the 1990-91 biennium included one additional post for that Service.
53. As regards nutrition, the Council emphasized the importance of traditional food crops in ensuring food security and stressed the need for developing nutrition and consumer education. It also underlined the important role that food quality standards and food safety measures played in protecting consumers' health and in facilitating food trade.
54. The Council agreed that collection of agricultural data was a basic component of the Organization's work and noted in particular the efforts being made to promote agricultural censuses and related training programmes. In this context it strongly supported recent initiatives aimed at improving data management, data dissemination and the development of a World Agricultural Information Centre.
55. The Council stressed the importance of policy analysis and advice at the global, regional and country levels. It agreed that policy activities should be an increasingly important area of work for the Organization.
56. The Council considered the subject "Urbanization, Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrition" which was presented and discussed during the Tenth Session of COAG. It expressed unanimous support for the conclusions reached on this subject by COAG following review of the growth and change in urban food demand and its implications on local production and the nutritional status of the urban population.
57. The Council supported the need to increase assistance to member countries in implementing short-term nutrition interventions and food supply planning in favour of poor urban families. It recognized the importance of efforts to strengthen activities in the area, of food quality control, consumer orientation and education.
58. The Council recognized that in the long-run the main avenue to slowing down rural migration was to develop the rural economic activities and eliminate rural poverty. It stressed the important role of effective and integrated rural development policies as well as appropriate food and nutrition policies for improving nutrition in both urban and rural areas.
59. The Council urged FAO to continue to support nutrition interventions and surveillance in urban areas in addition to consumer education, orientation and food quality control activities. In this context it requested FAO to include information on urban malnutrition in the forthcoming Sixth World Food Survey.
60. The Council recognized the importance of Animal Genetic Resources both for the future of animal production and also as a component of global genetic resources. The Council accepted the view of COAG that the FAO programme on
the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources had a sound technical base and was organized effectively. The Council called for the programme to be expanded and further developed as proposed in the Report of COAG, and recommended that lack of funding should not be the cause of delay in implementation nor lessen the impetus already achieved.
61. The Council recognized that animal genetic resources was part of the larger topic of biological diversity. Many members felt that the Working Group of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources should review in October 1989 the various aspects and possibilities of expanding FAO's Global System on Plant Genetic Resources to include animal genetic resources. Some members stressed the technical differences existing between the preservation of plant and animal genetic resources and requested a technical consultation.
62. The Council requested the Director-General to examine the many technical institutional and policy aspects of FAO's future role and programmes in the important field of animal genetic resources including the possibilities of integrating the institutional infrastructures for animal and plant genetic resources within one system, while at the same time taking account of the relationships and needs of fisheries and wildlife.
63. The Council affirmed its support for the Director-General's intention, subject to availability of funds, to hold an Expert Consultation in September 1989 and a meeting of the Working Group of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources in October 1989. It noted the Director-General's request for extra-budgetary resources to implement these unforeseen and important activities and his intention to report to the Council and Conference in November 1989 on progress achieved.
64. The Council endorsed COAG's recommendations regarding people's participation. This was an important aspect of development that should be integrated into all development policies and development programmes. In this connection it took note of the proposal to prepare a Plan of Action for consideration by the Council and the Conference in due course, and welcomed the offer of a member country to contribute extra-budgetary funds for this purpose.
65. The Council noted the interest shown by COAG in the constitution and activities of traditional, informal groups and their importance for the development process. It agreed that data collection concerning these should be done in a flexible manner using a combination of various approaches, including case studies.
66. The Council stressed the linkages between people's participation and women in development activities, as well as the importance of the attitude of governments to these activities. It recognized that generally a positive and flexible approach by national authorities and the decentralization of administration were prerequisite for appropriate people's participation.
67. The Council considered the documents prepared in response to Resolution 5/87 of the Twenty-fourth Session of the Conference in 1987, when it was decided that the principle of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) should be incorporated in the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides in the next biennium. Moreover, the Resolution had asked the Director-General to arrange for the establishment of a working group to consider the issues involved in the incorporation of the Prior Informed Consent clause in the Code, including those on implementation and advice to member countries on how best to give effect to the principle. It also stated that the results of the work should be presented through COAG and the Council to the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference.
68. The Council noted that the Director-General had taken a number of initiatives to implement the Conference decision, including the convening of an Expert Consultation in March 1988 and a Government Consultation in January 1989. It also noted that the Government Consultation in January 1989 had reached general agreement on the operation of the Prior Informed Consent procedure and the amendments required for the inclusion of Prior Informed Consent in the Code. Based on the results of the Consultation, COAG had considered proposals to revise and amend Article 2 (Definitions) and Article 9 (Information Exchange) of the Code as well as the Guidelines on the operation of Prior Informed Consent. The Committee on Agriculture had reached consensus on the Guidelines on the operation of Prior Informed Consent and the revised text of Articles 2 and 9 of the Code of Conduct, as provided in Appendix F of the Report of the Tenth Session of COAG.
69. The Council agreed to the further amendments to Articles 2 and 9.8.1 and 9.8.4, as proposed by COAG in paragraph 172 of its report and expressed its appreciation of the substantial work performed. It noted with satisfaction that FAO, in the preparation of the present texts, had closely cooperated with UNEP to reach compatibility between the texts of the "London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade" and the Code of Conduct.
70. The possibility was debated of amending the proposed new Article 2 of the Code by deleting the word "participating", however the Council upheld the consensus reached by COAG. Some members proposed that the Secretariat should try to determine the status of compounds which had either not been registered or had been withdrawn by countries but which were still being traded, and that the Secretariat should present proposals on this matter in its next progress report on the implementation of the Code.
71. The Council stressed the importance of close cooperation between FAO and UNEP on the implementation of the PIC scheme. It welcomed the steps being taken by both Organizations to establish a joint programme and a common database and expressed satisfaction that the Director-General of FAO had
proposed to formalize this cooperation in a memorandum of understanding. In this context it underlined the need to establish a unified and administratively simple system. It requested the Secretariat to keep the Council informed on progress on cooperation with UNEP in the implementation of the PIC scheme.
72. The practical application of PIC was a complex issue and developing countries would require assistance in the training of staff to be able to implement PIC procedures and, even more so, many of the other relevant provisions of the Code of Conduct. The Council therefore stressed the need for FAO to continue placing high priority on such technical assistance work, particularly for developing countries lacking pesticide registration and control schemes. It appreciated the assistance already made available or offered by a number of donors.
73. The Council recognized that PIC would serve mainly as an interim measure, until such time as effective pesticide registration and control procedures had been established by all countries.
74. The Council requested the Conference to approve the Revisions and Amendments of the Code (Article 2 and Article 9) and the Guidelines on the Operation of Prior Informed Consent which are given in Appendix E to this report. Some members however stated that they would make their position known at the Conference.
75. In considering the Agenda for the Eleventh Session of COAG, the Council supported the list of possible selected development problems which the Committee had recommended. It noted that an item concerning the Integration of Women in Agriculture and Rural Development would be included in the agenda. Support was also expressed for the inclusion of the following topics:
-Agro-forestry and agro-sylviculture
-Home gardens and their contribution to nutrition
-Technology advances and their effects on the agricultural sector in developing countries
76. The Council stressed the importance of COAG as a technical committee and the need to strengthen and preserve its technical nature through the inclusion of technical experts in national delegations.
77. The Council reviewed the report of the Third Session of the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources. It noted that many of the Commission's recommendations were likely to influence for years to come policies, programmes and activities of FAO and other international organizations. Many of the recommended future activities were long-term and could not all be financed from FAO's Regular Programme.
78. The Council recognized the pioneering work of FAO in developing a unique Global System on Plant Genetic Resources which included: a legal framework, the International Undertaking; an intergovernmental body, the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources; and a financial mechanism, the International Fund for Plant Genetic Resources.
79. The Council noted with satisfaction that the Third Session of the Commission was marked by a spirit of cooperation and that consensus was reached on a number of major issues, including an agreed interpretation of the Undertaking and the draft resolution on farmers' rights.
80. The Council, with some members indicating that they were yet to finalize their position, welcomed in particular the proposals for an agreed interpretation of the International Undertaking to ensure the unrestricted availability of germplasm which recognized the rights of both donors of funds and technologies and donors of germplasm to be compensated through the simultaneous and parallel recognition of plant breeders' and farmers' rights. It recognized that this agreed interpretation was intended to lay the basis for an equitable and lasting global system for sharing the costs and benefits of the world's plant genetic resources.
81. The Council expressed satisfaction for the progress made on in situ conservation, including the conservation of whole ecosystems in which plants, animals and microorganisms were constantly interacting. In this context, many members supported the extension of the FAO Global System on Plant Genetic Resources (Undertaking, Commission and Fund) to cover also animal genetic resources and, in the long-term, to cover the total biological diversity of current or potential interest for agriculture, animal husbandry and wild life, forestry and fisheries. Other members urged caution about these proposals and felt that they required further careful consideration, especially from a scientific standpoint.
82. The Council appreciated the progress made and support received from countries for the establishment of a network of ex situ base collections under the auspices of FAO.
83. The Council agreed that the Secretariat should periodically prepare a State of the World Plant Genetic Resources and that such reports should be based on information compiled by the Global Information System, contemplated in Article 7 of the International Undertaking.
84. The Council noted the potential of new biotechnologies for conservation and use of plant genetic resources, and expressed concern regarding the possible negative implications for developing countries. It endorsed the Commission's request that FAO continue to actively monitor the evolving new biotechnologies in -line with the principles of the International Undertaking.
85. The Council underscored FAO's lead role in developing international agreements pertaining to the conservation and use of plant genetic resources, taking full account of technical, economic, social, legal, political and ethical aspects. Consequently, the Council endorsed the proposed preparation of (i) a Code of Conduct for international collectors of germplasm, and (ii) a Code of Conduct on Biotechnology, as these affected conservation and use of plant genetic resources. It also urged close cooperation with relevant international organizations and interested countries, taking into account the work already initiated by others.
86. Concern was expressed in the context of the proliferation of initiatives in the field of conservation and use of plant genetic resources and biological diversity in general, over the likely overlapping or duplication of activities. In order to foster dialogue, to harmonize responsibilities, to promote cooperation, to ensure coordination and to gain efficiency, the Council welcomed the proposal to establish an Advisory Committee that should include major organizations concerned with these activities. It noted the United Nations Environment Programme initiative to develop an international legal instrument on biological diversity and emphasized that FAO and UNEP, as the lead UN agencies in this field, should join their efforts to ensure that: (a) there was complementarity and synergy in the respective work of both Organizations on the subject, and (b) the concepts of conservation of biological diversity and that of sustainable agriculture and forestry development were fully compatible and complementary.
87. The Council expressed satisfaction that IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources) activities were reported to the Third Session of the Commission. It noted the IBPGR Board of Trustees' decision to move from FAO to Copenhagen and underlined that the major donors of funds and germplasm through IBPGR and FAO were the same. In response to the concern expressed by several Council members that separation might increase cost and reduce efficiency, it was pointed out that the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was still Considering the IBPGR decision to separate from FAO, and had established an ad hoc Committee on IBPGR to advise on the matter and on possible arrangements to be developed with FAO.
88. Some members expressed concern that without the FAO umbrella IBPGR might not be able to implement its work programme. Doubts were expressed whether a non-governmental organization, such as IBPGR, could carry out, outside the UN system, an international mandate and activities, which required full access to all countries and involved worldwide responsibilities on matters of vital importance to agriculture and forestry development, food security and environmental stability.
89. The Council urged that a possible separation of IBPGR from FAO should not involve costs to FAO and that a duplicate of the data bases jointly developed should remain in FAO. It requested that a Memorandum of Understanding between FAO and IBPGR should be prepared, taking into account the objectives of the International Undertaking. Many members agreed that
IBPGR's move would affect FAO's operational capacity and that FAO.'s programme and work might have to be strengthened accordingly. A few members considered that PAO and the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources should play only a coordinating role.
90. The Council generally endorsed the programme, policy and financial implications of the recommendations of the Commission. It agreed that the current programme of work and budget (programme 2.1.2 - Crops) should be restructured in order to address financial implications derived from some of the recommendations, while extra-budgetary funds would need to be identified for others.
91. The Council, with some members indicating that they were yet to finalize their position, approved the text of the Agreed interpretation of. the International Undertaking, which is given in Appendix F to this report, and recommended the following Draft Resolution regarding Farmers' Rights for consideration and adoption by the Conference:
THE CONFERENCE, Recognizing that:
(a) plant genetic resources are a common heritage of mankind to be
preserved, and to be freely available for use, for the benefit of present and future generations,
(b) full advantage can be derived from plant genetic resources through an effective programme of plant breeding, and that, while most such resources, in the form of wild plants and old landraces, are to be found in developing countries, training and facilities for plant survey and identification, and plant breeding, are insufficient, or even not available in many of those countries,
(c) plant genetic resources are indispensable for the genetic
improvement of cultivated plants, but have been insufficiently explored, and are in danger of erosion and loss,
(a) in the history of mankind, unnumbered generations of farmers have conserved, improved and made available plant genetic resources,
(b) the majority of these plant genetic resources come from developing countries, the contribution of whose farmers has not been sufficiently recognized or rewarded,
(c) the farmers, especially those in developing countries, should benefit fully from the improved and increased use of the natural resources they have preserved,
(d) there is a need to continue the conservation (in situ and ex situ), development and use of the plant genetic resources in all countries, and to strengthen the capabilities of developing countries in these areas;
1• Endorses the concept of farmers' rights (Farmers' Rights mean rights arising from the past, present and future contributions of farmers in conserving, improving, and making available plant genetic resources, particularly those in the centres of origin/diversity. These rights are vested in the International Community, as trustee for present and future generations of farmers, for the purpose of ensuring full benefits to farmers, and supporting the continuation of their contributions, as well as the attainment of the overall purposes of the International Undertaking) in order to:
(a) ensure that the need for conservation is globally recognized and that sufficient funds for these purposes will be available;
(b) assist farmers and farming communities, in all regions of the world, but especially in the areas of origin/diversity of plant genetic resources, in the protection and conservation of their plant genetic resources, and of the natural biosphere;
(c) allow farmers, their communities, and countries in all regions, to participate fully in the benefits derived, at present and in the future, from the improved use of plant genetic resources, through plant breeding and other scientific methods.
92. The Council, with some members indicating that they were yet to finalize their position, recommended to the Conference that both the Agreed Interpretation of the International Undertaking and the eventual Conference Resolution become annexes to the International Undertaking, facilitating the withdrawal of reservations which countries might have made with regard to the Undertaking, and securing the adherence of others.
93. The Council's attention was drawn to the Committee's review of the trends and prospects for world fisheries in the next 25 years. It noted that preliminary data indicated a new record catch of over 95 million tons in 1988. However, a greater part of this production increase had arisen from catches of small shoaling pelagic fish which were used mainly for fish meal rather than for direct human consumption. Over 90 percent of the total marine fish catch had been taken within the exclusive economic zones, and approximately half of the total catch had been harvested by developing countries. Aquaculture had developed rapidly during the past five years and currently contributed approximately 12 percent by weight of the total aquatic production. It was also noted that notwithstanding the recent increase in fish production, a number of countries continued to have difficulties in obtaining full economic,
social and nutritional benefits from their fishery resources. It was noted further that, taking into account growing populations and rising incomes in certain groups the demand for fish as food in the next 25 years might be approximately 30 million tons greater than at present.
94. The Council expressed appreciation for the work of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) and endorsed the conclusions and recommendations as contained in the report of the Eighteenth Session of the Committee. It was pleased to note that the World Fisheries Conference's Strategy for Fisheries Management and Development continued to provide principles and guidelines for both developed and developing countries in the formulation of their fisheries development plans and programmes.
95. The Council welcomed the continued efforts by FAO to assist member countries in achieving self-reliance in fisheries management and development. It concurred with the Committee that the rising demand for fish could be met by managing the fishery resources in a rational and timely manner, by seeking the economic exploitation of unconventional species, by improving the utilization of fish through the reduction of post-harvest losses, including by-catch discards and by accelerating aquaculture development. It was emphasized that such policies and actions should recognize the aspirations and needs of small-scale fishing and farming communities; the benefits to be derived from intercountry collaboration in fisheries management and development were also underlined.
96. In considering the long-term role of FAO in the fisheries sector, the Council fully endorsed the Committee's recommendations that FAO should concentrate on those programmes in world fisheries in which it had a comparative advantage or special mandate. The Council agreed that high priority should be accorded to the strengthening of FAO's role in the collection, analysis and dissemination of fisheries information, data and statistics, including socio-economic information. It wished special emphasis to be placed upon the need for FAO to increase further its support to the aquaculture sector, especially in the provision to member countries of assistance, including advice and training in the identification of policies and plans for aquaculture development. Some members referred to specific constraints to aquaculture growth such as feed resources and the Control of diseases.
97. The Council stressed the importance it attached to training in various aspects of fisheries and in the transfer of knowledge and skills and appropriate technology in the promotion of self-reliance of developing countries in fisheries. It underlined the importance of FAO's function as a centre of policy advice and analysis and for integrated research into fisheries biology, economics and technology.
98. The Council noted the negative impact of the burden of external debts and structural adjustments upon the ongoing and planned fisheries programmes and on fish consumption patterns of many developing countries. It was also recognized that there was a need for further efforts to reduce obstacles to trade, both tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers, especially those linked to quality and environment.
99. With regard to the impact on the conservation of resources of certain types of fishing gear such as drift nets, a suggestion was made for FAO to lend its efforts to find solutions to these problems.
100.The Council attached utmost importance to the long-term conservation of marine fishery resources. The Council agreed that FAO should give priority in its fisheries programme to the monitoring and prevention of environmental degradation in both marine and inland waters, as well as in aquaculture operations, and to promote inter-country collaboration in this respect. At the same time, it urged that care should be taken to avoid overlapping with the activities of other United Nations agencies and programmes in this field.
101.The Council welcomed the initiatives taken or planned by FAO to enhance the role of women in fisheries and noted that the Committee on Fisheries would review the action taken by the Fisheries Department at its next session.
102.The Council emphasized the importance of inter-country collaboration in fisheries management and development and recognized the key role played by the FAO regional fishery bodies in this respect, in particular the promotion of TCDC (Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries) and ECDC (Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries) in fisheries. It was pleased to note that the Committee at its Eighteenth Session had undertaken the appraisal of the activities and achievements of these bodies. It also noted with appreciation the fruitful cooperation that had been developed between the FAO bodies and other regional organizations concerned with fisheries management and development. A major obstacle impeding the work of the FAO regional fishery bodies was the lack of financial resources. The Council' appealed to donors to consider providing greater support to these bodies. A suggestion was made that FAO consider the feasibility of establishing a new commission for inland fisheries for the Near East.
103.The Council expressed its satisfaction with the progress achieved in implementing the 1984 World Fisheries Conference's five Programmes of Action, both within and outside the framework of FAO. It recorded its appreciation for the financial contributions provided by donors which in 1988 and 1989 had exceeded the annual indicative target of US$ 15 million for those regional activities implemented by FAO. It agreed that these Programmes of Action should be continued beyond 1989 in order to provide an international framework and guidelines for fisheries management and development and that the annual indicative target figures should be raised to US$ 20 million.
104.Several members of the Council drew attention to the continued imbalances in the support received for activities and projects under the Programmes of Action, in particular those in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. The Council requested the Secretariat to consult with potential donors with a view to rectifying this situation. It also noted with appreciation the generous support provided by the Government of Italy to the Regional Aquaculture Activities for Latin America and the Caribbean (AQUILA) and expressed the hope that more financial support would be forthcoming for fisheries projects in the region.
105. The Council urged, when formulating and implementing activities within the Programmes of Action, that full account be taken of the following Key issues common to all the Programmes: protection of aquatic environment; improvement of fisheries information, data and statistics; investment;' training; and the role of women in fisheries development and research! The need for FAO to assist member countries in their effort to enhance the populations' food consumption, and improve their dietary habits was also mentioned.
106.The Council commended the work accomplished by the Second Session of the COFI Sub-Committee on Fish Trade in October 1988 and endorsed its recommendations. It recorded its appreciation to Horacio Carandang (Philippines) for the manner in which he chaired the Session.
107.The Council welcomed the proposed Technical Assistance Programme for Fishery Commodities and Marketing Development and noted that the Programme would be implemented by the network of regional fish marketing information and technical advisory services. The Committee's concern was shared regarding the future of this network which continued to contribute substantially to the enhancement of international trade in fish and fishery products by developing countries. It therefore urged interested donors to ensure continuation of funding for these activities.
108.The Council concurred with the Committee's recommendation that the Director-General be invited to approach the Common Fund for Commodities in due course requesting it to designate the Sub-Committee on Fish Trade as an International Commodity Body in order to sponsor and follow-up projects of fishery commodities financed by the Fund.
109.In considering the Summary Programme of Work and Budget in fisheries in 1990-91, the Council fully agreed with the conclusions reached by the Programme Committee at its Fifty-seventh Session in May, 1989 that the proposals for Major Programme 2.2: Fisheries, were balanced, responsive to the needs of member countries and constituted an acceptable basis for the preparation of the full Programme of Work and Budget in fisheries and welcomed the proposed modest increase in the budget of the Fisheries Department. In this connection, the Council underscored the unique role of FAO in world fisheries.
110.The Council noted that the Committee had, further examined the technical specifications for a standardized system for the marking and identification of fishing vessels and had reviewed comments received from Member Governments as to the extent to which these specifications met their national requirements. It supported the endorsement by the Committee of the proposed specifications and their adoption on a voluntary basis but noted that it would take time for the implementation of the system because of the special problems of small fishing vessels. As regards the marking of fishing gear, the Council noted that FAO would undertake further studies on this complex matter in cooperation with the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
111. In presenting the Fourteenth Annual Report of the WFP Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA), the Executive Director of the World Food Programme (WFP) emphasized that there was much to be proud of in WFP's 1988 activities. In that year WFP was the first or second largest donor of food to over two-thirds of the countries receiving food aid, and gave over one-quarter of the development grants to developing countries from the entire UN system.
112. The turnover of the WFP in 1988 was almost US$1 250 million, the highest on record, and represented a 39 percent increase over 1986 and a 24 percent increase over 1987. Administrative and programme support costs, as a proportion of turnover, had fallen to just over five percent in the same period; expenditure on staff costs was US$39 million in 1988 or only 3.2 percent of turnover. Included in this turnover expenditure were purchases of more than US$136 million worth of food, including an all-time high of more than US$118 million from developing countries. The Programme spent more than US$200 million on transport alone.
113. The Executive Director expressed concern that the proportion of food aid provided multilaterally appeared to be declining. Of the US$1 400 million target established for the 1989-90 biennium, to date the Programme had only received some US$936 million. On the basis of past experience and known donor intentions, the Programme expected to receive just over US$1 100 million for the 1989-90 biennium, or only 80 percent of the pledged target, as compared to the 89 percent of target achieved in the 1987-88 biennium. At the same time, because most pledges were made in terms of value, increasing food prices resulted in lower quantities of commodities available to the Programme. Thus, WFP development projects were in a double squeeze - some donors were reducing the value of their pledges at the very time that those pledges procured less food for the developing countries.
114. The Executive Director did not foresee at this stage any decline in the value of projects that would go forward to the coming sessions of the CFA for approval, but did warn the Council that unless donors increased the level of their pledges, the Programme might have to reduce or slow down shipments to on-going projects and delay implementation of new projects. He warned that WFP's ability to respond rapidly to requests for emergency assistance would also suffer if pledges to the regular resources of the Programme were not forthcoming. He stated that all the Programme's overhead costs, for both development and emergency activities, were covered by cash contributions for regular resources, and repeated his comments to the CFA, that the development side of WFP's work could not be shortchanged without impairing the Programme's capabilities on the emergency side as well.
115. The Representative of the Director-General, noting that World Food Programme had completed its Twenty-fifth year of operations in 1988 and that it had grown to handle about a quarter of total food aid flows today, stressed that FAO as a parent organization had been closely associated with WFP's evolution and growth, and was proud that the programme had become one of the important institutions for channelling multilateral development
assistance. He suggested the Council might wish to commend the donor support, the hard work and the collaboration between organizations that had led to WFP growing from a small experimental programme in 1963 to an organization that handled a significant share of food aid flows today.
116. The Representative of the Director-General pointed out that a number of radical changes in global food security had taken place during the year including the decline in the volume of food aid in cereals by about one-quarter, the sharp price rises of basic foods like cereals, vegetable oils and dairy products; increased freight rates; and increased food import costs for developing countries. At the same time, food emergencies afflicted more and more people, yet the principal resource designed to cope with their needs, the International Emergency Food Reserve, remained inadequate and unpredictable. 117. The Representative of the Director-General recalled that the Director-General in his address to the CFA had stressed that global circumstances which might affect food aid availabilities in the future were changing. A number of considerations therefore necessitated in-depth review of the role of food aid in the 1990s and beyond. These included: - challenges as to how food aid could best be used in structural adjustment and austerity programmes so as to enhance access to food by the poor and to stimulate economic growth;
116. The Representative of the Director-General pointed out that a number of radical changes in global food security had taken place during the year including the decline in the volume of food aid in cereals by about one-quarter, the sharp price rises of basic foods like cereals, vegetable oils and dairy products; increased freight rates; and increased food import costs for developing countries. At the same time, food emergencies afflicted more and more people, yet the principal resource designed to cope with their needs, the International Emergency Food Reserve, remained inadequate and unpredictable.
117. The Representative of the Director-General recalled that the Director-General in his address to the CFA had stressed that global circumstances which might affect food aid availabilities in the future were changing. A number of considerations therefore necessitated in-depth review of the role of food aid in the 1990s and beyond. These included:
- challenges as to how food aid could best be used in structural adjustment and austerity programmes so as to enhance access to food by the poor and to stimulate economic growth;
- complementary measures to enhance triangular transactions and local purchases, including the strengthening of local storage, as part of a comprehensive assessment of the best ways of ensuring longer-term availability of adequate food supplies and stabilization of domestic markets;
- new visions regarding agricultural policy reforms, especially in the GATT, which could have major longer-term effects on world food markets, for both food exporters and importers;
- the need to reconsider the adequacy of food aid mechanisms themselves, including the resource base of the IEFR, the pre-positioning of stocks and the feasibility of strengthening the Food Aid Convention.
The Director-General therefore considered it important that the CFA should make a comprehensive review and analysis of the implications of these and other related developments on food aid for the future. FAO would fully collaborate with WFP in this important and challenging endeavour.
118. The Representative of the Director-General stated that it was the Director-General's strong belief that these were important issues which the CFA, as the governing body of WFP, should bring to the attention of other relevant bodies, such as the FAO Council and ECOSOC (UN Economic and Social . Council) in order to receive their views and guidance. He noted that, unlike the reports of recent years, the present report did not cover the CFA's deliberations on policy issues, such as food aid and dairy development, WFP's Plan of Action for Africa, and protracted emergency operations for refugees and displaced persons.
119. The Council noted with appreciation the scope and magnitude of the Programme's activities during the course of 1988, particularly its strong support for agriculture and rural development and the development of human resources. The Council commended WFP on providing assistance to millions of people, often at considerable sacrifice by WFP staff. It noted that WFP had Shipped 3.1 million tons of food aid to developing countries in 1988, up
28 percent over the previous record of 2.4 million tons in 1987. It also noted that commitments for development projects in 1988, at US$779 million, were 25 percent above 1987, and the second highest level. The Council expressed concern that the proportion of WFP assistance to sub-Saharan Africa showed a declining trend over the past three years, and expressed support for the actions taken by the Executive Director to strengthen the capacity of the least developed countries to manage and implement sound food-assisted projects.
120. The Council noted with concern the current problem of resource availability faced by the Programme and the fact that as at 31 December 1988 only US$915 6 million, or 65.4 percent, of the US$1 400 million target for the 1989-90 biennium had been pledged. The Council urged donors to fulfil their pledges, and in particular the proportion pledged in cash.
121. The Council stressed the importance of continuing to take all possible measures to avoid the potential disincentive effects of food aid on domestic production in recipient countries and the need to ensure that food aid commodities matched local food preferences and would not cause unsustainable dependence on foods which could not be produced domestically. In this connection, it noted with appreciation WFP's efforts to promote the use of domestically-produced commodities through local purchases and triangular transactions and the Programme's efforts to match its commodity basket to local requirements.
122. The Council expressed concern about the 25 percent decline in food aid levels, which had been partly due to the increases in commodity prices. It noted with regret that commitments in 1988 for emergency operations almost matched the 1987 record, reaching 828 000 tons with a value of US$254 million. It further noted with concern that announced multilateral contributions to the IEFR in 1988 had not even reached the annual target of 500 thousand tons of cereals, thus seriously constraining the ability of the Programme to respond effectively to emergency needs. The Council expressed concern that the Executive Director had had to make special appeals for additional emergency resources,. It underlined the need to strengthen the resource base of the IEFR and in this connection, looked forward to the study on the IEFR which WFP would undertake in collaboration with FAO for consideration by the CFA at its Twenty-ninth Session in 1990.
123. The Council noted the recent decision of the CFA at its Twenty-seventh Session in May 1989 that emergency resources should be restructured so as to put resources for protracted refugee and displaced person situations on a more stable and secure footing. In view of the importance of this issue, which affected many countries which were not members of CFA, a number of members formally proposed that this subject be included in the agenda for the Twenty-fifth Session of the FAO Conference in November 1989. Some other members recalled that the decision of the CFA on protracted refugee and displaced person situations had been reached by consensus in the competent body and therefore should not be reopened in Council and Conference.
124. The Council appreciated that the Fourteenth Annual Report of the CFA had been approved unanimously by Twenty-seventh Session its CFA. It neverthelesss generally considered that there Would be merit in including in future reports by the CFA to the Council more detailed and timely information on the food aid policy deliberations and decisions of the CFA. It noted with satisfaction the readiness of the Executive Director to consider carefully the possibility of including a short synopsis of the major policy decisions taken by the CFA in future CFA reports, recognizing that such reports must serve the needs of ECOSOC and the World Food Council as well as the FAO Council. Some members added that they deemed it adequate for the CFA to submit to the FAO Council and ECOSOC, along with its annual report the full reports of CFA sessions.
125. Some members referred to the composition of the membership of the CFA and in particular to the need for a better balance of geographic representation.
126. The Council stressed the need to reduce the negative effects of structural adjustment programmes especially on the poor, and recognized that food aid could play an important role in this process. Members generally commended WFP for its close cooperation with the main financial institutions in using food aid to alleviate the impact of economic adjustment programmes on the poorest and most vulnerable sectors of the population.
127. The Programme was urged to continue its cooperation and coordination with other multilateral agencies, as well as with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other grassroots organizations, to ensure efficient and effective use of resources The Council particularly emphasized the need for greater cooperation between WFP and FAO, which would be in the interests of all developing countries, the Council took note of the ongoing cooperation in the area of technical assistance between WFP and FAO. In this context, one member pointed out that it was of great importance for WFP to keep its overall reliance on FAO policy advice and technical expertise.
128. Some members, noting that the mandate of CFA covered not only the governance of WFP but also wider policy issues affecting all food aid donors and recipients, considered that in the light of changing global circumstances it would be timely for WFP to prepare an in-depth study of the role of food aid in the 1990s and beyond in collaboration with FAO for consideration by the CFA. In reply, the Executive Director noted that indeed the CFA would be the international body that would undertake such a study, and that in fact each year the CFA considered a comprehensive paper prepared by the Secretariat reviewing global food aid flows and food aid policies and programmes. He further noted that the approach of the CFA was to deal with issues in terms of their practical effects and that it was best able to undertake discussion and provide guidance that was specific and essentially expert.
129. The Council endorsed the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes.
130. Regarding the pledging target for 1991-92, the Executive Director informed the Council of the underlying reasons for recommending to the CFA an increased pledging target level of US$1 500 million development assistance. The Executive Director pointed out that if WFP was to continue to maintain the level of its development assistance, a modest increase in the pledging target was necessary. He stated that despite the current resource situation, there had been no reduction in the need for food aid, nor was there any lack of food available. In 1987-88, cereal food aid shipments represented less than one percent of world cereal production, and only five percent of the stocks held in developed countries.
131. The Executive Director pointed out that the target for the 1991-92 biennium included a cash requirement set at one-third of the total. This was in line with the General Regulations of WFP, but was considerably higher than the 24 percent that the Programme had actually received over the past several bienniums.
132. The CFA had endorsed the pledging target for 1991-92 at
US$1 500 million and the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of FAO supported this target level.
133. The Council unanimously supported the pledging target for the regular resources of WFP for the 1991-92 biennium at US$1 500 million and urged donors to fully meet this target. It also urged them to provide in the aggregate at least one-third of the total contributions in cash pledges in accordance with WFP's General Regulations.
134. The Council adopted the following resolution to which it attached a draft resolution for approval by the Conference:
Noting the comments of the CFA concerning the minimum target for voluntary contributions to the Programme for the period 1991-92,
Recalling Resolutions 2462 (XXIII) and 2682 (XXV) of the General Assembly, which recognized the experience gained by WFP in the field of multilateral food aid,
1. Submits for consideration and approval of the Conference the following draft resolution.
2. Urges Member States of the United Nations and Members and Associate Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization to undertake the necessary preparation for the announcement of pledges at the Fourteenth Pledging Conference for the World Food Programme.
Recalling the provisions of the Resolution 9/65 that the World Food Programme is to be reviewed before each pledging conference,
Recalling the provisions of operative paragraph 4 of its Resolution 8/87 of 26 November 1987 that, subject to the review mentioned above, the next pledging conference should be convened at the latest early in 1990, at which time governments and appropriate donor organizations should be invited to pledge contributions for 1991 and 1992, with a view to reaching such a target as may be then recommended by the General Assembly and the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Noting that the review of the Programme was undertaken by the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the World Food Programme at its Twenty-seventh Session and by the FAO Council at its Ninety-fifth Session,
Having considered Resolution 195 of the FAO Council as well as the recommendations of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes,
Recognizing the value of multilateral food aid as implemented by WFP since its inception and the necessity for continuing its action both as a form of capital investment and for meeting emergency food needs,
1. Establishes for the two years 1991 and 1992 a target for voluntary contributions of US$1 500 million, of which not less than one third should be in cash andor services in aggregate, and expresses the hope that such resources will be augmented by substantial additional contributions from other sources in recognition of the prospective volume of sound project requests and the capacity of the Programme to operate at a higher level.
135. The Council expressed its appreciation of the improved quality of the document, now being more analytical, concise and informative. It recognized that there was scope for further improvement. Some members noted that the document, while serving its main purpose of providing information to the Council, provided a very useful overview of the cooperative role of FAO in the work of the entire UN System and underlined the responsibility and burden that FAO had to carry out in this context,
136. The Council noted the close cooperation of FAO with its sister organizations in the UN System. It expressed satisfaction with the active participation of FAO in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) and its machinery, particularly CCSQ(OPS) (Consultative Committee on Substantive Questions (Operations Activities)) and its collaboration with the office of the Director-General for Development and International Economic Cooperation in promoting greater cooperation in the field of operational activities for development.
137. The Council expressed its appreciation of the results adopted by the Trade Negotiations Committee.(TNC) at its April 1989 meeting on the Mid-Term Review of the Uruguay Round. It noted with satisfaction that, as a consequence of the agreements reached by the TNC in April 1989 on the future directions of the negotiations on agriculture, textiles and clothing, safeguards and intellectual property rights, the Uruguay Round negotiations as a whole, which had been "on hold" since December 1988, could thus be resumed.
138. With regard to the GATT negotiations on agriculture, the Council noted that a "framework approach" had been agreed, comprising inter-related long-and short-term elements and arrangements on sanitary and phytosanitary regulations. The Council drew particular attention to the importance of the long-term objective of achieving substantial progressive reductions in agricultural support and protection sustained over an agreed period of time, resulting in correcting and preventing restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets. The Council, noting that the negotiations on tropical products had already yielded some positive results, urged that further negotiations, as agreed by the TNC, should lead to the fullest liberalization of trade in this sector.
139. The Council reiterated its support for FAO's involvement in the Uruguay Round negotiations, through cooperation with the GATT Secretariat and through technical assistance to interested participants. In this connection, the Council noted in particular that the TNC had endorsed harmonization of sanitary and phytosanitary regulations and measures as a long-term goal. It particularly stressed the importance of FAO's work relating to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the International Plant Protection Convention, in facilitating the GATT work programme on sanitary and phytosanitary regulations agreed by the TNC in April 1989.
140. The Council noted that the Common Fund for Commodities, which had been negotiated in 1980, formally entered into force on 19 June 1989 and that it was likely that the new Fund would become fully operational in the second half of 1990. In this connection, the Council welcomed and endorsed the recent decisions of the Intergovernmental Groups on Hard Fibres, Bananas, Rice, Oilseeds, Oils and Fats, Meat, Tea and the Sub-Group on Hides and Skins, as well as the Sub-Committee on Fish Trade, to encourage the Director-General to approach the Common Fund when it became operational, requesting it to designate these FAO bodies as eligible International Commodity Bodies (ICBs) for sponsoring and following up projects for their respective commodities which might be financed from the Second Account of the Common Fund. The Council further supported the endorsement of these agreement by the Committee on Commodity Problems at its Fifty-seventh Session and by the Committee on Fisheries, in the case of the Sub-Committee on Fish Trade, at its Eighteenth Session. The Council noted that final decisions on the designation of ICBs rested with the Executive Board of the Common Fund for Commodities.
141. The Council took note of the decisions of the UN General Assembly to hold in April 1990 a Special Session devoted to international economic co-operation, in particular to the revitalization of economic growth and development of the developing countries, and to prepare the International Development Strategy (IDS) for the fourth UN Development Decade for adoption at the Forty-fifth session of the General Assembly in 1990. It noted that the General Assembly had invited the specialized agencies to include in their agendas during 1989 items concerning their contributions to the preparation of the IDS as well as the request to the executive heads of the organs, organizations and bodies of the UN System to contribute effectively to the preparatory process for the Strategy by providing all appropriate inputs, including relevant documentation, using analytical studies.
142. The Council emphasized the particular importance of FAO's contribution to the IDS and the Special Session, as the food and agriculture and the rural sector had a vital role to play in revitalizing economic growth and in achieving the objectives in the areas of nutrition, poverty alleviation, human development and the environment. It noted that FAO had already made_ contributions to preparatory work in the UN System as well as to the June 1989 session of the ad hoc Committee of the Whole of the General Assembly for the preparation of the IDS. It stressed the need for the IDS and the Special Session to focus on practical results.
143. As regards further FAO contributions, the Council noted with satisfaction the work already initiated by the Director-General, involving all the relevant units of the Organization, to prepare a long-term strategy for the food and agriculture sector for the 1990s to serve as a framework for FAO contributions to the IDS and the Special Session. The Council welcomed the Director-General's plan to present to the Twenty-fifth Session of the FAO Conference in November 1989 a detailed outline and a preview of the contents of the strategy for the food and agriculture sector and to submit the full strategy document to the Ninety-eighth Session of the Council in November 1990. It agreed that the strategy for the food and agriculture sector should
be based on an elaboration of the findings and recommendations in existing FAO global and regional studies ("Agriculture: Toward 2000" and the regional studies on Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe) as well as on the existing FAO or FAO-sponsored sectoral strategies, plans of action and undertakings. It urged that the proposed Conference document be circulated to member governments as early as possible. It was also suggested that the Cooperative Action Programmes adopted by the Fifteenth Ministerial Meeting of the World Food Council in May 1989 in Cairo, could be an important source of input, particularly as regards the structural adjustment programmes.
144. The Council commended FAO for its continued focus on Africa. It noted with satisfaction that FAO would, within the context of the United Nations Programme of Action for Africa's Economic Recovery and Development 1986-1990 (UN-PAAERD), serve as the lead agency in the preparation of assessment/progress reports on such subjects as early warning systems, national food strategies, food production, food processing, other agro-based industries, promotion of the role of women in agriculture, drought and desertification.
145. The Council took note of FAO participation, in close cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WM0), in the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It recognized the unique contribution that FAO was able to make in the study of the impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry and fisheries. In this connection, attention was drawn to the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 where a new programme element had been proposed, dealing with an analysis of the impact of climate change on agriculture. The Council further noted FAO co-sponsorship of the First African Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development held in Kampala, Uganda, from 12 to 16 June 1989, organized jointly by UNEP and ECA (UN Economic Commission for Africa). Mention was also made of the decision adopted by the UNEP Governing Council in May 1989 recommending a joint FA0/UNEP Meeting on Sustainable Agriculture.
146. The Council noted that, at its Fifteenth Session, the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition had suggested that an international conference on nutrition be convened in order to mobilize efforts and resources to combat malnutrition. It expressed concern that malnutrition was still very widespread and had worsened in many countries during the 1980s and that it was likely to remain as a major problem in the 1990s and probably beyond.
147. The Council, in general, welcomed the proposal to convene an international conference on nutrition and considered that FAO, in view of its mandate and expertise, should take the lead in convening it in the 1992-93 biennium, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other interested agencies of the UN System. In this connection, the representative of Italy, fully supporting this initiative, indicated his Government's readiness to host the international conference on nutrition in Rome. A suggestion was made that, with a view to reducing costs and avoiding duplication, FAO should explore the possibility of including in the agenda of already planned meetings on nutrition some issues which could be of relevance to the proposed international conference.
148. Some members expressed the view that they needed more information and time so as to be able to take a definitive view on the proposal to convene an international conference on nutrition. In this connection the Council noted with satisfaction that a detailed document analysing all aspects of the proposal would be presented to the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference, so as to enable it to take a decision on the convening of the International Conference on Nutrition in the 1992-93 biennium.
149. The Council noted with concern the present situation in Central America and noted with satisfaction the readiness of FAO to assist and to cooperate fully with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the implementation of the Special Plan of Economic Cooperation for Central America. It urged that the capacity of FAO in the formulation and implementation of projects in the rural sector be utilized fully.
150. The Council expressed appreciation of the increased assistance being provided by FAO for the rehabilitation of Afghanistan, in cooperation with the Government of Japan and the Office of the Coordinator for United Nations Humanitarian and Economic Assistance Programmes relating to Afghanistan.
151. The Council noted that the draft Relationship Agreement between FAO and UNIDO would be considered for approval under Agenda Item 19.3 8 and hoped that such an agreement would strengthen complementarity in the programmes of the two organizations.
152. The Secretariat informed the Council that the Government of Tanzania had notified the Director-General that it was not in a position to host the Tenth World Forestry Congress.
153. The representative of France confirmed the offer of his Government to host the Congress. The representative noted that the Congress would take place at a time when consensus was emerging on the importance of forests as the biological, economic and cultural heritage of mankind and when all countries were faced with the challenge to manage them for future generations. The Congress was planned for a duration of two weeks in the early autumn of 1991. It would be organized and its programme drawn up in close collaboration with FAO and other countries. Tropical forestry and the Tropical Forestry Action Plan would receive deserved attention as well as the protection of temperate and Mediterranean forests. The programme would also include study tours in Europe and in the tropics.
154. The Council agreed to accept the generous offer of France as the host country for the Congress and expressed its fullest confidence in that country's ability to organize this most important meeting.
155. Several EEC countries and the EEC offered their cooperation to France in the organization of the Congress, particularly with regard to study tours in Europe. As host of the last Congress, Mexico placed its experience at the disposal of France and FAO.
156. The Council stressed that tropical forestry issues needed, to be treated in depth with due attention given to the sovereignty of countries over their resources and to their developmental needs. In addition, account must be taken of the importance of forests in environment protection and in the conservation of plant and animal genetic resources.
157. The Secretariat emphasized that although the Congress was not an FAO conference, as was customary FAO would provide full cooperation and technical support to the host country. It also mentionned the need to support the participation in the Congress of representatives from developing countries and called on developed countries to assist in this regard.
158. The Council examined the draft Conference document prepared by the Director General on arrangements for the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference.
159. The Council agreed to amend Item 17.1 of the Provisional Agenda for the Conference to read "Recent Developments in the UN System of Interest to FAO (including the International Conference on Nutrition)". The Council was also informed that under Item 8 of the Provisional Agenda the Conference would be receiving a document on the International Plant Protection Convention in addition to the progress report on the Uruguay Round and its implications for FAO.
160. With the changes indicated in paragraph 159 above, the Council approved the Provisional Agenda and general arrangements for the Conference. The Council also noted that the Commissions of the Conference were sovereign in determining the order and timing of their agenda.
161. The Council noted that consultations had taken place among the Heads
of Delegations represented at the Council in order to designate the candidates who would be approached to serve as Chairman of the Conference and Chairmen of Commissions I, II and III.
162. The Council noted that the Conference at its Twenty-fifth Session would be required to appoint the Independent Chairman of the Council, the term of the present incumbent expiring in November 1989.
163. The Council also noted that with regard to nominations for this office, Rule XXIII-l(b) of the General Rules of the Organization laid down that the Council determines the date for such nominations which must be submitted by Member Nations and addressed to the Secretary-General of the Conference. The Council accordingly established the deadline for the receipt of such nominations at 17.00 hours on Friday 1 September 1989. Nominations would be circulated by the Secretary General to all Member Nations by Friday 8 September 1989.
1 CL 59/9; CL 95/15; CL 95/PV/3; CL 95/PV/4; CL 95/PV/18.
2 CL 95/9; CL 95/15; CL 95/PV/3; CL 95/PV/4; CL 95/PV/18.
3 CL 95/14; CL 95/PV/4; CL 95/PV/18.
4CL 95/7; CL/95/PV/5; CL 95/PV/18.
5 CL 95/13; CL 95/PV/15; CL 95/PV/16; CL 95/PV/18.
6 CL 95/13; CL 95/PV/15; CL 95/PV/16; CL 95/PV/18.
7 CL 95/17; CL 95/PV/12; CL 95/PV/13; CL 95/PV/18.
8 See paras. 247-250 below.
10 CL 95/11; CL 95/PV/14; CL/95/PV/18.
9 CL 95/6; CL 95/PV/14; CL 95/PV/18.
11CL 95/11; para. 8; CL/95/PV/14; CL 95/PV/18.
12 CL 95/12; CL 95/PV/14; CL 95/PV/18.