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III - ACTIVITIES OF FAO AND WFP (continued)
III - ACTIVITES DE LA FAO ET DU PAM (suite)
III - ACTIVIDADES DE LA FAO Y DEL PMA (continuación)

10. Report of the Committee on Agriculture (4th Session, Rome, April 1977)
10. Rapport du Comité de l'agriculture (4ème session, Rome, avril 19777
10. Informe del Comité de Agricultura (cuarto Período de Sesiones, Roma, abril de 1977)

S. SAMANEZ CONCHA (Presidente del Comité de Agricultura): Me es grato presentar al Consejo el Informe del Cuarto período de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura celebrado en la sede de la FAO del 20 al 28 de abril del año en curso. Dicho Informe consta en el documento CL 71/9. En la página 4 de dicho Informe aparece una lista de las cuestiones que requieren la atención del Consejo; por lo tanto, haré muy breves comentarios adicionales, pero antes de ello quisiera agradecer, en nombre del Comité de Agricultura, al Director General de la Organización por la alusión que hiciera en su declaración sobre los resultados obtenidos en el Cuarto período de sesiones del COAG. Ello fue posible únicamente gracias a la activa participación de todos los miembros, que en este momento son más de 80 de los que integran el COAG.

Los temas tratados fueron los siguientes: En primer lugar Examen del Programa de Labores de la FAO y ejecución del Programa 1976/77. Consta en los párrafos 6 a 39 del Informe.

Es la primera vez que se examina la ejecución de los programas bienales.

El debate se centró en las líneas generales de la labor y no en una revisión detallada de todas las actividades. El Comité consideró que este examen debería continuar en los próximos períodos, reflejándose más claramente los sectores prioritarios y efectuar un análisis y evaluación más detallados de los resultados, ampliándolo a las actividades de las Oficinas Regionales.

En el curso del debate se dio especial énfasis a los obstáculos encontrados.

El segundo tema es "Las perspectivas a medio y largo plazo del desarrollo agrícola y alimentario''. Consta en los párrafos 40 a 50. El Comité pide al Consejo que, con la asistencia del Comité del Programa, examine las cuestiones del contenido y presentación futura del documento sobre las perspectivas a medio y largo plazo y su relación con otros documentos.

En tercer lugar tenemos el resumen del Programa de Labores y Presupuesto 1978/79, párrafos 51 a 103. Las decisiones del Comité fueron tomadas en consideración por los Comités de Programa y de Finanzas quienes las han tenido en cuenta al elaborar su Informe y este tema ya fue tratado por el Consejo al discutir el tema n° 16.

Se establecieron las principales prioridades sobre la pérdida de alimentos después de las cosechas, tripanosomiasis y enfermedades transmitidas por las garrapatas, semillas y fertilizantes, desarrollo rural, caris, productos básicos y seguridad alimentaria, etc.

El cuarto tema fue ''Reducción de las pérdidas de alimentos posteriores a las cosechas'', párrafos 104 a 124.

El tema ya fue presentado por el Sr. Bommer y contó con el apoyo de los Comités de Programa y de Finanzas. Es de esperar, como lo dijo Vd., Sr. Presidente, al formular el resumen después del debate, que el Comité de Redacción al revisar el proyecto de resolución y formular su informe encuentre una fórmula que sea aprobada por todos los miembros del Consejo y se haga una realidad la creación de dicho Fondo.

El quinto tema fue el ''Desarrollo de los pequeños agricultores", párrafos 125 a 142. El Comité tomó nota que habiéndose previsto la celebración de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural en julio de 1979, el problema de los pequeños agricultores debería constituir uno de los principales temas de examen de la Conferencia; y teniendo en cuenta la resolución 3/71 del 16° Período de Sesiones de la Conferencia, se propuso que el Comité examine los aspectos relativos al desarrollo rural y en particular la reforma de las estructuras agrarias y proporcione un asesoramiento efectivo.

Dado que el Comité de Agricultura se reunirá nuevamente recién en 1979 a pocos días de la Conferencia Mundial, el Consejo, de acuerdo a sus atribuciones, puede crear el Subcomité, un Grupo de Trabajo, o bien autorizar al Director General para que constituya un Grupo de Expertos a fin de que lo asesoren en la organización de la Conferencia.

Asimismo, el Consejo puede autorizar al Director General para que realice los cambios presupuestarios necesarios a fin de que se pueda disponer de los recursos financieros adecuados.

El sexto tema fue el Informe de las actividades realizadas desde el tercer período de sesiones. Se trataron los temas de extension y capacitación agrícola.

El Comité solicitó mayor información sobre algunos extremos de las actividades, se hizo hincapié sobre la capacitación de la mujer en la producción y extensión agrícola, se informó al Comité que un grupo interdireccional de la FAO formula y promueve la participación de la mujer en el desarrollo rural. Mejora de la producción en ambientes poco favorables se observó que se habían logrado pocos progresos y se solicitó de la FAO que presente un informe más concreto para un mejor análisis de los resultados.

Luego se analizaron los temas a tratar en el quinto período de sesiones del COAG. Muchos miembros del Comité han apoyado la propuesta para que en su 5o Período de Sesiones, el Comité examine los temas siguientes: Uso del agua en las poblaciones agrícolas y la mecanización agrícola y sus efectos en el empleo y distribución de los ingresos.

Tal vez los miembros del Consejo deseen hacer algunas observaciones sobre estos puntos propuestos y existe la posibilidad de que puedan sugerir nuevos temas.

Para concluir, debo manifestar que en el futuro sería de desear que en el COAG se estudie y analice un mayor numero de temas y problemas, pues en cada período de sesiones se estudian y analizan únicamente dos temas y a este paso tendrán que pasar varias decenas de años antes de que el COAG vuelva a tratar temas que fueron discutidos en reuniones anteriores. Someto esto a la consideración de los Sres. miembros del Consejo. Yo creo que los problemas en agricultura son sumamente numerosos y sería conveniente que en futuras reuniones del COAG se analice un mayor número de temas.

Eso es todo, Sr. Presidente y estoy a vuestra disposición.

EL PRESIDENTE: Gracias, Sr. Embajador Samanez Concha por su presentación, a través de la cual, en forma muy clara y concreta, Ud. ha indicado al Consejo los puntos sobresalientes del Informe del COAG sobre los cuales conviene que se pronuncien Uds., Sres. miembros del Consejo.

Igualmente, como lo indicó el Presidente del Comité de Agricultura, Sr. Samanez Concha, al comienzo de este documento están señaladas aquellas cuestiones que requieren en particular la atención del Consejo.

Se abre el debate sobre este tema, ¿quién quiere intervenir?.

I. OROZCO (México): Queremos felicitar al Presidente del Comité de Agricultura por su presentación concisa y vigorosa que habla precisamente de la conducción que imprimió al Comité de Agricultura en su pasado período de sesiones.

México es un país eminentemente. agrícola en donde estamos dando cada día mayor importancia al problema del desarrollo rural y a la implementación día a día de un proceso de reforma agraria que ya llevamos varios decenios de aplicarlo.

Es por eso que hemos leído con interés este interesantísimo informe que nos presenta el Comité de Agricultura y que pasa una revista sobre los aspectos que inciden en la producción agrícola y de la alimentación así como los problemas relacionados con el desarrollo rural.

Ya hemos tenido oportunidad de referirnos al importante programa de la reducción de las pérdidas de las cosechas y post-cosechas y del apoyo que hemos dado a la creación de este Fondo para este importante problema, que requiere una solución inmediata.

Nos ha llamado la atención en la presentación que ha hecho el Presidente del Comité de Agricultura lo que expreso sobre la formación de un Subcomité que había quedado pendiente por razones de tipo administrativo o porque aún no se tenía conciencia suficiente de la importancia que el Comité de Agricultura debería de dar a las cuestiones de desarrollo rural y de reforma agraria, como una de sus partes integrales y fundamentales.

Ahora tenemos las perspectivas de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural que ha sido aprobada por el Consejo y prevista para tener lugar en julio de 1979. A nuestros ojos resalta la fundamental importancia que un grupo o que un órgano de este género podría tener para los preparativos de esa importante Conferencia, que para mi país constituye un jalón histórico dentro de los programas, dentro de la concepción y filosofía de esta Organización. Por ello, al escuchar la exposición del Presidente del Comité de Agricultura y al leer las partes pertinentes del Informe, creemos que la formación de ese grupo, como él señalo de un Subcomité o Grupo de Trabajo como órgano asesor que prestara precisamente sus orientaciones para la preparación de la Conferencia al Director General en lo que se refiere a los preparativos de documentación, reuniones subsidiarias, seminarios de todo tipo, sería de fundamental importancia. Por eso nosotros deseamos proponer que obviamente el Consejo, en virtud de sus funciones y de su competencia, decidiera la creación de este Grupo, como he dicho, para las funciones importantes de preparación de la Conferencia y que, obviamente, se dispusieran las partidas presupuestarias o los ajustes presupuestarios necesarios. Hemos leído con interés la asignación que se hace ya por parte del Director General para los preparativos de esta importante Conferencia y, tal vez, sea cuestión nada más que de ajustes.

RAMADHAR (India): My delegation would like to commend the report of the Fourth Session of COAG for endorsement by this Council Session. The Fourth Session of the Committee on Agriculture was significant from many points of view. I would, however, like to mention only two items at this stage which were discussed by the Committee on Agriculture in a realistic and practical manner. These relate to the proposal to set up a $20 million fund to reduce post-harvest losses and suggested practical measures intended to improve production and efficiency in the small farmers sector. The first item relating to the proposal to set up a fund to reduce post-harvest losses has been considered in detail by this Council and there has been a general support of the programme. I would not therefore like to take the time of the Council on this item.

My delegation notes with satisfaction that the Committee on Agriculture made a detailed analysis of the problem of small farmers and reviewed the alternative approaches to programmes and drew attention to the role of FAO in giving assistance in this field. My delegation fully endorses the emphasis given to the social and economic conditions of the small farmers. The need for improvements in the productivity and in the income of the small farmers make it essential that the new potential be opened up for the use of new appropriate technology. Such technology would have to be developed or adapted to the special conditions of the small farmers.

My delegation would like to welcome the initiative taken by FAO in organizing the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development to be held in July 1979. We agree with the recommendation of the Committee on Agriculture that the problems of small farmer development should be a major issue for discussion in the World Conference since in most developing countries the small farmers comprise the majority of the population. The need for comprehensive and careful preparation by the Secretariat and the Member Governments for this Conference, particularly in the context of the small farmers, can be hardly over-emphasised. The documentation should also analyse the growth rate of the production of the small farmers in various parts of the world including the measures undertaken and the policy instruments specifically geared to improve the conditions of the small farmers.

While agreeing broadly with the priorities for development indicated in the document CL 71/9, my delegation would like to suggest a more comprehensive discussion of on-farm use of water as a major item for discussion at the next COAG meetings. Irrigation water, as everyone knows, is a very important basic resource. National governments are laying great emphasis on the creation of irrigation facilities. Much investment has gone into these projects. But it is equally or even more important to use the water judicially to maximize the production per unit or per unit volume of water. The requirements of water for various crops, the time of its application during the different stages of plant growth and the method of application are important aspects of irrigated farming. It would therefore be highly appropriate that a comprehensive study is made of the on-farm use of water and this becomes a regular agenda item for all the future sessions of the Committee on Agriculture.

Another area which should receive greater attention by the Committee on Agriculture is in the field of vegetables and fruits. In some of the developing countries some fruits and vegetables are as significant as staple food items. Fruits and vegetables also provide much needed vitamin, iron and calcium requirements. It is therefore necessary that the Committee on Agriculture discusses this in its future sessions. FAO should make available the technical expertise in drawing up development plans and in accelerating investments in development of fruit and vegetable cultivation.

DONA P. DE CASTRO MONSALVO (Colombia): La delegación de Colombia quiere referirse solamente a las cuestiones que requieren la atención del Consejo para pedir a este organismo que ofrezca la mejor y más seria atención a esos asuntos a fin de estimular la función del importante Comité de Agricultura.

La delegación de Colombia apoya la propuesta para la creación de un grupo de expertos que asesore al Director General en la preparación de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural.

La delegación de Colombia participó en el Cuarto Período de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura. Por lo tanto, está en condiciones directas de destacar el excelente trabajo, la forma inteligente y eficaz como el Señor Embajador del Peru, Sr. Samanez Concha, cumplió esas amplias funciones de Presidente.

N. HINTIKKA (Finland): First, my delegation would like to express its satisfaction with the obvious success of the last session of COAG. The meeting produced good results which will give useful guidance to FAO in its future work. The purpose of my intervention is to touch upon one very important aspect of the Committee on Agriculture report, the question of integrated rural development and small farmers' development. My country, as well as other Nordic countries, has always strongly emphasized the importance of such FAO activities which directly benefit the rural poor in the developing world. We therefore note with satisfaction that COAG in its last session not only supported rural development as one of the six • main priorities for FAO during the next biennium but also put forward a number of useful recommendations on the future work in this field under the title ''Small Farmers' Development''. My delegation fully supports the ideas presented by COAG in this matter.

Although it is not appropriate here to go into details in this very broad and complicated question, I would like briefly to mention some points. The subject of "Small Farmers' Development'' is so far-reaching and complex that an integrated approach within the United Nations system, in other words, a close cooperation between the different United Nations agencies, is necessary if programmes aimed at small farmers are to have the desired impact.

I refer in this connection also to the "Basic Needs Strategy'' adopted by the ILO at the 1976 World Employment Conference. In our view, the leading role in the United nations system in the small farmers' development belongs to FAO, and we welcome the steps taken by the Secretariat in this direction. Many of the constraints of small farmers' development can only be removed by the developing countries themselves. These governments themselves must take at the political level the decision and action necessary for better economic and social justice.

The role of women in agriculture must strongly be emphasized. In some developing countries as much as 70 percent of agricultural labour is women's work. In spite of that, extension services are still directed towards the male farmers, in fact more or less neglecting the role of women.

The coming World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, which will be held in July 1979 is going to offer a good opportunity for an exchange of experiences between countries. My country.will carefully prepare its participation in the Conference. In our view, the experiences of many developed countries, for example in the field of land and agrarian reform, could be of great use also to many of the developing countries.

SRTA. C.J, DOMINGUEZ (Panamá): La delegación de Panamá, después de haber estudiado con atención el informe del cuarto periodo de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura, documento CL 71/9, desea hacer las siguientes consideraciones. En los párrafos 47 al 58 se habla sobre la necesidad de incrementar la producción agrícola en los países en desarrollo. Siendo Panamá un país predominantemente agrícola, el Gobierno nacional concede una gran importancia a este sector, haciendo grandes esfuerzos para incrementar la producción.

Estamos convencidos de que este incremento representará, tal como lo dice el documento, un mejor servicio de comercialización, transporte y almacenamiento, al mismo tiempo que una capacitación mejor del personal. A pesar de la poca disponibilidad de recursos financieros, hemos logrado incrementar la producción a través de los asentamientos campesinos, cooperativas agrícolas, juntas agrarias, pero queremos hacer hincapié en el papel que debe desempeñar la FAO mediante asistencia técnica a los países en desarrollo, con el fin de que podamos utilizar mejor nuestros recursos e incrementar así la producción agrícola.

Nuestra delegación apoya la sugerencia constructiva que formuló el Comité de Agricultura en el último período de sesiones sobre el pequeño agricultor. Una de las iniciativas tomadas por mi Gobierno en este sentido es la creación del Banco de Desarrollo Agropecuario, que a pesar de contar con pocos recursos ayuda al financiamiento de los proyectos que presentan los pequeños agricultores y les garantiza la asistencia técnica necesaria.

Nuestra delegación opina que un papel importante de la FAO es contribuir al desarrollo de las instituciones nacionales ya operantes en los países en desarrollo, que de esa manera, a corto plazo, se puede aumentar la producción de alimentos.

Debido a la importancia que mi Gobierno brinda a la reforma agraria y al desarrollo rural integrado, abrigamos la esperanza de que la próxima Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural Integrado, examine los aspectos esenciales del desarrollo rural y se llegue a conclusiones positivas que eleven el nivel de vida de la familia campesina, evitando así el desplazamiento del hombre del campo hacia las áreas urbanas.

Es a este propósito que queremos apoyar la propuesta hecha por el Presidente del Comité de Agricultura con relación a la creación de un grupo de expertos que asesore al Director General en la preparación de la próxima Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural Integrado.

A. BAOUA (Niger): Après examen du document CL 71/9 relatif au rapport de la 4ème session du Comité de l'agriculture que félicite ma délégation, le Niger approuve et soutient, comme il l'a déjà fait pour la réduction des pertes d'aliments avant et après récolte, les perspectives à moyen et à long terme du développement alimentaire et agricole pour garantir un mieux être à l'humanité.

En effet, le rôle primordial de toute agriculture est d'abord de nourrir celui qui la pratique, et ensuite de dégager un surplus de production afin de lui procurer par la vente de ses produits un revenu monétaire suffisant. Or, depuis quelques années, à la suite des calamités abattues sur le Sahel, à savoir la sécheresse et les ravageurs de cultures, nos pays ont été contraints d'importer, grâce à l'aide des pays amis et des Organisations internationales, beaucoup de vivres pour faire face aux besoins des populations.

En raison de ces dures épreuves, notre politique agricole actuelle est axée sur l'amélioration de la production par l'aménagement des terres irrigables, le développement des projets de productivité, une meilleure utilisation des eaux de surface et de sous-sol, et enfin par la reconstitution du cheptel décimé par de longues années de sécheresse.

Nous nous efforçons donc d'accroître notre production agricole, tant pour satisfaire les besoins présents que futurs, face au taux de notre croissance démographique.

Pour ce faire, nous pensons que: 1) l'information et la formation des paysans afin de les mettre au courant des progrès techniques pour qu'ils les appliquent sur leurs exploitations afin de tirer le maximum de profit; 2) l'instauration d'une saine politique d'approvisionnement du monde rural en intrants agricoles; 3) l'accès facile au crédit agricole par les petits agriculteurs et éleveurs,

priment et retiennent notre attention.

Pour nous, il faut amener le paysan à prendre en charge ses propres affaires et lui faire prendre conscience de son propre développement économique et social. D'où l'idée d'autogestion et d'auto-encadrement des structures paysannes partout où elles s'y prêtent. C'est évidemment une oeuvre de longue haleine, mais qui mérite d'être soutenue.

C'est pourquoi,Monsieur le Président, nous avons foi dans les objectifs 1985 et 2000 des programmes de notre Organisation sous-régionale, le Comité inter-Etats de lutte contre la sécheresse dans le Sahel, et appuyons les propositions du Directeur général et du Comité de l'agriculture telles qu'elles sont présentées dans ce document (paragraphes 47 à 58).

Pour ce qui est du paragraphe 59 du même document, nous sommes d'avis que le Conseil examine, avec le concours du Comité des programmes, la question du contenu et de la présentation future du document sur les perspectives à moyen et à long terme et de ses relations avec d'autres documents.

Dans les questions diverses, nous souscrivons à l'inscription à l'ordre du jour provisoire de la prochaine réunion du COAG les termes proposés au paragraphe 156/1: l'utilisation de l'eau à l'exploitation, surtout pour évaluer les relations sol-eau-plantes, en vue de déterminer les besoins en eau des cultures, mais aussi les doses d'arrosage suivant les cultures et les propriétés agrologiques des terres.

Le paragraphe 156/2 traite de la mécanisation agricole et les effets sur l'emploi et la répartition des revenus. La mécanisation est en effet un des facteurs d'amélioration de la productivité du travail humain qui se traduit par un gain de temps et une économie de l'effort fourni par l'homme. Une telle approche nous permet de dégager l'apport de la mécanisation et de résoudre certains problèmes de son utilisation sur les petites exploitations.

Comme il est dit au paragraphe 158, d'autres thèmes comme l'approvisionnement du monde rural en engrais, pesticides et matériel agricole, peuvent aussi être étudiés surtout pour les pays comme les nôtres, sans littoral, où le coût du transport pèse gravement sur nos prix de vente qui sont le plus souvent hors de la portée des paysans sans subventions de l'Etat.

S.H.A. MOTALAB (Sudan) (Interpretation from Arabie): I should like to pay tribute to the Committee on Agriculture for the excellent report it has put before us. We support the Director-General's strategy to develop agriculture in the developing countries, and express the hope that these efforts will be successful.

I should like to stress some of the points which we feel to be of particular importance and which are related to agricultural research and development in developing countries.

As regards aid to small farmers, this is a very felicitous step that the Organization has taken, and we hope that FAO will continue its efforts in order to assist small farmers and to help them to bring about an integrated development in the sector of agriculture, and will continue to help them to consolidate their land holdings in order to improve production. This can also be done by introducing improved seed and by the introduction of fertilizers and pesticides

Secondly, I should like to say that I share the opinion of the Committee on Agriculture that research is one of the very foundations of agricultural development, but in the developing countries we need applied research much more than purely scientific and academic research. We therefore hope that FAO will stress the importance of applied research, and will also stress the importance of pilot projects.

Thirdly, in the proposals before us, we see no mention of the very important aspect of pastures and arid lands, because as you know most developing countries need to develop this sector of pastures. In Sudan, for example, 90 percent of the land is pasture land, and it is therefore an absolutely essential factor in providing us with our needs in meat, and I think the same applies to Ethiopia, Kenya, Syria, Iraq, etc. Although this is not a sector which is very costly to maintain or which needs large funds to be given by governments, in general governments and organizations do not pay much attention to this sector nor do they devote the efforts to it that it deserves.

We feel, therefore, that here FAO could play a vital role in developing and improving this sector. It could carry out the studies necessary to determine the best type of conditions suited to this sort of land, and could set up pilot projects and extension units, for example, that would enable the population of these areas to make the best possible use of the conditions which prevail in these areas and which would enable them to participate in their countries' development.

Lastly, I should like to refer to natural resources. FAO in its future programme, intends to develop forestry and fish sectors but there are other matters which are of considerable importance as well but to which FAO has not devoted its attention, and here I refer to wildlife and natural pastures. Natural pastures in most developing countries were badly hit by the drought and the fact that there was no cultivation led to a spread of desert in these areas.

The United Nations, through UNESCO and FAO, had this brought to its attention, and in particular its attention was drawn to the deterioration of pasture land throughout the areas which suffer from drought which hit Western Africa particularly badly recently. The United Nations, UNESCO and FAO have devoted attention to this matter, and have been making efforts to develop this sector. Decisions have been taken to increase fodder production and to introduce conservation policies and other policies to make better use of land and water resources.

As a result of the studies undertaken in this connexion, a group was set up which held its first meeting in February 1975. The 73 members of this Programme, which is the EMASAR Programme, studied the problems related to this question. They defined the problem and expressed their concern at the deterioration of these natural pastures.

I believe that Resolution 15/75 stressed the importance of the Programme, so we express the hope that this Programme will be given a new lease of life and that funds will be allocated to it to improve the areas of natural pasture land and the arid zones. The question of wildlife is again a very important aspect of the overall agricultural situation which has been subject to various disasters, and we believe that FAO through technical cooperation programmes could attempt to solve this problem.

I am sorry for speaking at such length, but we believe that FAO should try to make the effort to concentrate its attention on the problems of those Member Countries, particularly the developing countries, and to help them to solve them.

M.B. MESSAUDI (Libya) (Interpretation from Arabic): On behalf of my delegation I should Like to congratulate the Chairman of the Committee on Agriculture on the Report he submitted to us on the Fourth Session of this Committee contained in document CL 71/9. As you know, we are members of the Committee on Agriculture. We believe this is an extremely important report, and we welcome the results which COAG has obtained.

We do not think the Committee on Agriculture could have dealt with many more problems than it has already considered, and we therefore feel that the Committee on Agriculture has achieved real success.

We welcome the stressing by FAO of the need to increase agricultural production, to improve productivity, and increase income. We also welcome the measures that have been taken to prepare the World Conference on Land Reform and Integrated Rural Development, which will take place in 1979. We welcome, too, the stress laid on the need to reduce post-harvest losses, and the appeal made to national institutions in this field.

My delegation attaches considerable importance to the agricultural sector, and we devote very large sums to the development of this. For this reason, we follow the work of the Committee on Agriculture very closely, and we keep a close eye on the results it achieves.

I would like to associate myself with the speaker from the delegation of Sudan when he referred to the EMASAR Programme. Resolution 15/75 indicated the measures to be taken to implement the EMASAR Programme, but which unfortunately are not reflected in COAG's Report, and we hope the Secretary will give us some information on this point.

H.L. CLAVERIE RODRIGUEZ (Venezuela): Seré muy breve en la intervención de esta mañana por lo concreto de las reflexiones que quiero transmitir relacionadas específicamente con la reducción de las pérdidas de las cosechas y con la Conferencia de Reforma Agraria.

Antes de comenzar mi intervención quiero presentar nuestra felicitación al Presidente del Comité, Embajador Samanez Concha, que tan óptimamente efectuó su labor al frente de este Comité.

En esta ocasión mi delegación considera necesario apoyar calurosamente las observaciones introducidas en el apartado destinado a analizar la reducción de las pérdidas de alimentos con posterioridad a las cosechas y, como en otra ocasión anunciamos, el total apoyo de la delegación de Venezuela al Fondo que se piensa crear proyectado por el Director General para solucionar en gran parte las pérdidas que en dichas cosechas se pueden prever.

En cuanto a la Conferencia de Reforma Agraria, la delegación de Venezuela quiere dejar constancia de la importancia tan extrema que nuestro país ha venido concediendo desde hace mucho tiempo a la reforma agraria como solución, como coadyuvante al problema de los pequeños y medianos agricultores, ya que la experiencia de Venezuela en este campo es amplia. Nuestro proyecto de Reforma Agraria ha sido bastante avanzado y bastante analizado a nivel mundial y consideramos que hoy tenemos una experiencia que puede ser un valor, un soporte para el análisis y la corrección de las medidas que tiendan a llevar adelante planos de mejoramiento a nivel del campesino.

En este sentido apoyamos calurosamente las iniciativas que viene tomando esta Casa para implementar la Conferencia Mundial de Reforma Agraria, y damos también nuestro apoyo a la creación del Comité de Trabajo, del Comité de Expertos que tienda a estructurar y a diseñar el trabajo final de esta Conferencia.

Reitero que nuestra delegación considera util poner a la disposición del Director General de la FAO la experiencia que Venezuela tiene en este campo y oportunamente estará en condiciones de, tal vez, aportar nombres para este Grupo de Trabajo.

M.A. PAPAGEORGIOU (Greece): The Greek delegation wishes to express its congratulations to the Committee on Agriculture for their excellent work and the complete report presented to us. Our delegation has taken into consideration the Committee's conclusions and, after examining the implementation of the current programme and the medium and long-term problems recognizes the importance of an increase in production in developing countries and of bringing world food reserves to a safe level. We notice the difficulties that field Programmes have recently been faced with by lack of human, financial, and material resources, especially the serious lack of trained manpower at all levels. We think that they could be overcome in the future by strengthening efforts within the framework of the new orientation adopted for preparing the programmes of the 1978/79 biennium.

In this respect we endorse the Committee's views that marketing, transport and storage facilities should be developed simultaneously with the increase in agricultural production. Land reform could provide a more solid basis for inducing efforts towards increasing production and serves to create more investments to which we attribute great importance for medium as well as long-term agricultural development. So far as technology is concerned, our delegation believes that a transfer of appropriate technology should take place after a careful examination of the social and economic conditions of each developing country. Research institutions must be established in developing countries in order to promote and adapt technological advancement. Education, training and ex-station service activities relating to teaching farmers new technology are fundamental for agricultural development. The complexity of agricultural development in fully recognized and therefore top priority should be given to it at the international level.

So far as the summary programme of work for 1978/79 is concerned, we fully support the priorities chosen by the Director-General and the related proposals on programme changes. On the reduction of post-harvest food losses we agree, as we have already stated, with the Committee's endorsement of guidelines presented for future activities of all involved parties. We also recognize the difficulties in the application of the existing remedies by Member Countries, difficulties connected with lack of information, infra-structure and finance. We feel that it is necessary to initiate the preparation of a list of loss reduction activities as well as of the resources devoted to them regarding all Member Countries and the aid agencies.

We agree with the Committee's view of supporting the principle of the action programme proposed by FAO, adjusted as necessary to meet local requirements, training in post-harvest technology and practice at all levels, and this is considered by our delegation as an item of high importance.

As regards the required criteria and the proposed mechanism for the approval of projects proposed by FAO, our delegation supports them, considering that they will serve mainly the developing countries.

Finally, we recognize the importance attributed to the development of small farmers for the benefit of agricultural progress in many countries and regions. We welcome the Committee's views that the problem of the development of small farmers should be a major issue for discussion in the forthcoming World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. We sincerely hope that the conference will find a proper solution to this highly important problem.

A.J. PECKHAM (United Kingdom): I should like to make two observations if I may. One concerns the report of the Fourth Session of this Committee and the other looks to the future concerning the preparations for the forthcoming Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.

Firstly, I should like to associate myself with what others have already said about the production of this admirably workmanlike report and to recall what the Director-General said in his opening statement last week that the last Session of the Committee was perhaps the most successful since its inception. The report underlines the importance and value at these meetings of a thorough examination of the various aspects, particularly the technical aspects of the Committee's work and because of that the need for strong multi-disciplinary representation. The key to success I venture to suggest is in the level of expertise which is brought to bear on these matters.

Secondly, looking to the future, we firmly support the stress which the Committee has placed on the importance of accelerating the improvement of rural living standards and we agree with the Director-General that the 1979 World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development will provide an opportunity for a fruitful discussion of practical measures of help for the small farmer. We shall be very happy to assist in whatever way we can in the preparations for this extremely important event.

Q.H. HAQUE (Bangladesh): We express our great satisfaction at the success of the Fourth Session of the COAG in which we participated with great interest. I also congratulate the Chairman of the COAG for his very efficient handling of the Committee Session and excellent presentation of the report this morning.

At the very outset I want to mention that we support the Director-General's strategy and priorities for the development of agriculture in the developing countries.

In the Fourth Session of the COAG two issues attracted most attention in the Committee. They were (a) harvest and post-harvest losses and (b) development of small farmers. As regards harvest and post-harvest losses we have already given our views wherein we very strongly supported the Director-General's programme. As regards the development of small farmers, I should like to mention a few efforts that we are making in our country in this regard.

As members will know, in Bangladesh 85 percent of the people are farmers or, in other words, depend on agriculture. The vast majority of that 85 percent are small farmers for the simple reason that at the present moment in Bangladesh the ceiling of land holding per family is only 33 acres, and of that, the vast majority of the farmers have three acres and less, and those we call marginal or subsistence level farmers. We have also a great number of people who are landless agricultural labour. For this reason, whatever the government does for the development of agriculture is for the development of the small farmer. My Government attaches the highest priority to agricultural development and the development of small farmers.

In this regard two aspects are very important. One is the supply of agricultural inputs and the other is the supply of credit. For the supply of agricultural inputs like fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, power pumps, tubewells, etc., we have a Government Corporation called the Agricultural Development Corporation of Bangladesh which operates throughout the country in villages to make sure that they make available the agricultural inputs at the door of the small farmers and, in the case of many of the inputs, at subsidized prices.

As regards credit, we have an agricultural bank which engaged full time in supplying credit to the farmer. Besides this, other scheduled banks are under obligation to set apart a major part of their credit for farmers. These are the institutions we have in Bangladesh which are engaged in the development of small farmers.

One interesting point I recall is that in the Committee on Agriculture and particularly during the adoption of the report when we were discussing paragraph 139 on page 19 which talks about government officials being in touch with the small farmers so that the administration could get to know the problems of the farmers better, a point was made whether somebody said this or not. Our point of view was that this is a very good thing to say, so even if nobody said it,we should incorporate it.

I want to mention in this Council that in Bangladesh not only officials at whatever level, even the President, visit farmers and villages and stay with them for a number of period in the month.

The Permanent Secretary is under obligation to spend ten days of each month with the small farmers to know what are their problems and then to get back to headquarters to tackle them. My colleague, Mr. Salahuddin Ahmed who is presently the Secretary for Internal Affairs, also has to go and spend ten days per month in the village with the farmers to get acquainted with their problems.

As regards rural development, we attach great importance to it. As long as we are conscious of this problem of rural development, and we understand improving the quality of rural life in all its aspects. We have a Department of Rural Development and besides we have an academy for rural development. We hope that by the end of the 1970's the entire country will be covered by our programme of integrated rural development which aims at improving the quality of life of the farmers. We attach great importance to the coming World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development and are looking forward to it. We are eager to contribute our best for the success of the Conference. We feel that in order to make it a success, elaborate and extensive preparations are necessary. We feel that it is a very good idea to constitute ta committee or advisory body to aid and advise the Director-General in the preparation of this conference, so that it is a great success. We support the idea of constituting a committee or an advisory body to aid and advise the Director-General.

E. CAKAJDA (Tchécoslovaquie): Ma délégation voudrait souligner le rôle de la FAO dans la préparation de la Conférence mondiale sur la réforme agraire et le développement rural qui aura lieu en juillet 1979. Ma délégation, ainsi que d'autres pays socialistes, accorde une importance capitale à la solution du problème de la réforme agraire et c'est pourquoi je voudrais suggérer non seulement la constitution d'un groupe ad hoc restreint mais aussi inviter tous les offices régionaux de la FAO à recueillir les informations etfles expériences utiles sur le plan régional et sous-régional.

En ce qui concerne la préparation de la Conférence sur la réforme agraire, j'aimerais attirer l'attention du Conseil sur le fait qu'au cours de la dernière conférence de l'OAA, une conférence Unesco/FAO/ OIT sur l'éducation dans l'agriculture a été prévue pour l'année 1978; la première ayant eu lieu au Danemark

Après avoir écouté les observations des délégués du Niger, de l'Inde et de plusieurs autres encore qui ont mentionné l'apport de la formation agricole et de l'accès aux informations au niveau des petits paysans, je me demande si la prochaine Conférence de novembre ne devrait pas réexaminer l'idée de prévoir une date mieux appropriée pour cette conférence: idée que ma délégation a approuvée depuis le commencement puisque'elle a même offert de tenir la Conférence sur l'éducation agricole en Tchécoslovaquie.

Permettez-moi d'exprimer certains doutes sur l'efficacité de traiter avec succès et avec tous les détails nécessaires les questions de l'éducation de formation (qui représentent des problèmes spécifiques) à la conférence de 1979.

I.A. IMTIAZI (Pakistan): While generally endorsing the recommendations of COAG - 4th Session - as contained in document CL 71/9, there are two points we would like to emphasize, in particular:

(a) The role of cooperatives as a means of promoting small farmer development; and

(b) The special need for improving productivity in the relatively less well-endowed, low - or no -rainfall areas.

On the cooperatives, I had spoken earlier also while intervening in the discussion on Summary Programme of Work and Budget - 1978-79 and I shall be extremely brief on this point. My Government attaches great importance to the formulation and extension of cooperatives as a methodology, especially suited to help the farmers, particularly small farmers, get access to physical inputs, modern know-how, credit, storage, transportation, marketing and so on. We would commend to FAO to examine and explore the possibilities of promoting cooperatives as a means of helping the small farmer in the developing countries. Of course, while doing so, the experience gained both in the developed and the developing countries would be relevant and useful. So far as our own experience with cooperatives in Pakistan, is concerned, we shall be glad to provide whatever information we may have and whatever information FAO may ask for, in this field. As to the need for productivity in relatively we 11-endowed, low-rainfall or no-rainfall areas, we are glad to note that in para 147 of the report under consideration, COAG has taken note of the work done by our Punjab Barani Commission, in this regard. However, the Punjab Barani Commission report covers only a part of the country. The enormity of the problem would be evident from the fact that out of some 200 million acres which constitute my country's total geographic area, only less than 50 million acres are cultivated. Even if we were to leave out 50 million acres, regarded as unfit for cultivation, we are still left with almost 100 million acres which need being attended to, in order to secure their productive use. It is true water is a major constraint in such areas, but it should be possible for human ingenuity to evolve suitable range management policies, plans programmes and projects which would permit productive use of such areas for human good.

Here, we would like to endorse the point made by the distinguished delegate from the Sudan, for early and effective action by FAO.

We are of the view that FAO has an important role to play in relation to such hithertofore neglected areas, and we do hope and trust that FAO in its short-term and medium-term plans will give to these areas the importance and the attention, they deserve.

S. JUMA'A (Jordan) (Interpretation from Arabic): I think that this question has been studied at sufficient length by previous speakers and shall therefore content myself with a very few brief comments. To begin with, I support the statement made by the delegate of Sudan and also what was said by the delegates of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan with respect to small farmers, scientific research and so on. I think that FAO can supply effective aid by providing training and aid to those countries that have no scientific research centres of their own, it being understood that developing countries cannot carry out scientific research on an academic basis, involving vast expenditure. That is why we feel that applied research ought to be stressed, since this has particular effect on production and development in developing countries.

FAO could also provide a considerable role for developing countries through training farmers and providing agricultural extension services. It might even help in setting up agricultural development banks in developing countries or supporting those that have already been set up, because it is through agricultural development banks that the Organization can serve farmers by granting them loans on favourable and long-term conditions. In this way the small farmer may develop his own resources and his own potential in the long run; this is something he is unable to do when he turns to a commercial bank for loans.

That is why it is the duty of our Organization to provide aid to developing countries, especially when it comes to setting up agricultural development banks or consolidating those banks that already exist.

The second point 1 wanted to stress was the matter of agrarian reform and rural development. We know that a United Nations Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development will be held in 1979. It is quite natural for that type of a Conference to deal with such difficult and complicated problems that sometimes contain political aspects. It would therefore be useful for us to prepare ourselves for this Conference as from now so that it is not allowed to deviate from its principal aspects into a morass of political discourses.

We therefore support the proposal to set up a committee of experts to help the Director-General in drawing up guidelines for the Conference and the agenda items that it will discuss. This will ensure that the Conference stays within the framework that we have set for it and pursues the correct objectives. The Committee on Agriculture at its last meeting in Rome dealt with one vital subject: harvest and post-harvest losses. When we were involved in the work on this subject we supported the Director-General's proposal that a fund be set up to aid developing countries control harvest and post-harvest losses. We would like to confirm here and now the stand we took in COAG and we would wish the Council to take a decision according to the guidelines that we have provided.

Several colleagues have spoken of the problem of aid that should be given to small farmers. I do not deny the quantity of aid that should be given to small farmers but that should not lead us, developing countries, to overlook the fact that to concentrate on small farmers might mean cutting down productivity and production because small farmers are not in a position to use modern technology in agriculture because their means are limited. That is why, if we are always stressing the importance of and concentrating on small farmers, we would be stressing under-development and upholding under-development. What we must try and do is involve the small farmer in units or cooperatives. We cannot concentrate on each and every small farmer individually. In this way we would just prolong the life of underdevelopment .

My country is facing up to the problems of small farmers, and the dismemberment of agricultural properties. We are trying to regroup small farmers into cooperatives. I think this is the type of aid that should be given to small farmers. We should not encourage them to work on an individual basis. On the contrary, we must try and unite them in cooperatives that will become highly productive, otherwise we, the developing countries, will remain developing countries until the end of time and we cannot base our production on a proper competitive and commercial basis in this fashion. We shall only be able to stand up to competition in agricultural production if we do otherwise. We therefore propose that at its Fifth Session the Committee on Agriculture study the problem of the splitting up or dismemberment of agricultural property in certain developing countries and the ways and means it should be used to control this dangerous phenomena which acts as a brake on the increase of agricultural production in many developing countries and in particular in those of the Near East.

Among some of the reasons that we give for the splitting up of property there is the question of inheritance, when the father dies the children share the few acres he may have possessed amongst themselves and this leads to continuous reduction in the size of small holdings which makes the establishment of a rational and coherent form of agriculture impossible. That is why I would like the Committee on Agriculture to tackle this question at its next session, since it is one of our major obstacles to the development of agriculture.

N.M. MWAUNGULU (Malawi): We would like to thank the Chairman of the Committee on Agriculture for the clear presentation he has made of what is a very good report.

My delegation supports the emphasis that the Committee has placed on the improvement and the consolidation of food programmes and projects. We welcome the clear re-identification of the major constraints to agricultural development. Especially we feel that the problem of the serious lack of trained personnel or manpower in the developing countries must be given sustained and vigorous attention. This problem is crucial for development, agricultural development. We therefore welcome the increased emphasis that the FAO placeson the training for agricultural development at all levels, especially at the grass roots level where the need is greatest. My Government places a great deal of emphasis on the solution of this problem at all fronts and welcomes every assistance that FAO continues to provide.

We welcome also the emphasis that has been placed by the Committee on the training of women for agricultural production and extension. Malawi again places great emphasis on the role of women in agricultural development. We believe that unless due recognition is given to this role agricultural development will be difficult to come by.

My delegation welcomes the initiative by FAO to give priority to small farmers development. We support the practical measures which have been proposed to improve the small farmers in the fields identified. In Malawi we concentrate on rural development and therefore development of the condition of the rural farmer. My government strongly believes in the will to develop and in hard work in the fields, in the rural areas as well as everywhere. It welcomes, therefore, FAO's assistance in this respect. It is our view that adequate preparation should be made concerning the World Conference on Agricultural Reform and Rural Development. Such preparations will ensure, of course, the success of this important Conference. We feel in this respect that the proposal by Mexico to establish a working group or a subcommittee is practical and merits my delegation's support.

B. de AZEVEDO BRITO (Brazil): My delegation is very pleased to see the report of the Fourth Session of the Committee on Agriculture which shows that this Committee has proved its new viability under the very effective leadership of Ambassador Samahez Concha of Peru. We would like to congratulate him and put on record our satisfaction with the manner in which he was able to bring new life to the Committee on Agriculture.

That being said, we would like to refer to some basic aspects discussed during the time of the Committee session and reflected in the Committee's report. First, in relation to the medium and long-term outlook for food and agricultural development, our views were already advanced, not only at the time of the Committee session but also in the general debate on the food and agricultural situation. We would just like to repeat here that actual levels of agricultural growth have not reached the target indicated in the International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade, which is, of course, a cause for concern. It is true that the target of 4 percent growth seems to have been reached in 1976, but the average for all developing countries for the first years of the decade shows that we barely exceeded two and a half percent, if calculations are correct. Of course, in the developing countries we realize the importance of our own efforts and I believe that the Committee's discussions showed quite clearly that developing countries have in fact placed the highest priority on agricultural development for some years past. These internal efforts, are not enough, for if we do not find an adequate external environment our efforts will not be fruitful, or at least will not produce all the expected results. As we indicated before we believe that it is important that flows of resources to support developing countries be kept at the level called for in the International Development Strategy. The fact that flows of external resources in support of agricultural production, after some growth in 1974/75, seem to have levelled off since 1976, is a reason for concern. Another reason for concern, as we indicated before in the general analysis of the agricultural situation, is that the external environment is also negative in the sense that production policies of some developed countries with a high degree of subsidization have resulted in distortions in patterns of trade and restrictions on.the exports of developing countries. We hope that such restrictions will urgently be removed.

Now, if you allow me to touch very briefly on some aspects of the substantive deliberations of the COAG at its fourth session I would like to refer first to food losses. Of course, we have already had an interesting debate on this issue. We fully agree with the Director-General on the emphasis he has placed in the programming of the activities of FAO in reducing harvest and post-harvest losses. In fact not only do we support his proposals for the regular budget in this respect, but we feel that resources within the budget for this particular section of activities should be increased. We also fully support, as we said, his proposal to establish a special fund, on the basis the utilization of $10 million from the current Suspense Account. As we also indicated in the debate, we very much hope that the activities of the FAO in relation to food losses will be broad enough to include not only staple foods, roots and tubers but also other products and perishable foods. We also hope activities in this field, as we indicated before, will provide for research and extension related to tropical and equatorial agriculture. We also believe that activities to prevent food losses must be approached in an integrated manner from harvesting to actual processing and marketing; we cannot see one aspect of the problem of food losses in isolation.

On rural development, we fully support the emphasis placed on small farmers. We are convinced that in developing countries, a great deal of the improvement of rural conditions depends on better conditions for the small farmer, whose efforts must be supported in many ways through policies of subsidation of inputs, including fertilizers, price support, cooperatives, and rural credit designed in a manner that reaches the small farmer. It is easy to devise a policy of rural credit, but it is not so easy to make it effective in reaching the small farmer.

I must say I very much appreciated the comments just made by my colleague from Jordan about the importance of cooperatives to make the work of the small farmer more effective and to put him in a better position to face commercial competition. I must also say that while Brazil gives great importance to special programmes to help the small farmer, we also believe we have to develop models of agriculture in a balanced manner so that the attention to the small farmer does not cause the neglect of complementary models in which large-scale agriculture is developed. After all, we have to see beyond subsistence; we have to create opportunities for export. Therefore, it is important that we also pay adequate attention to large-scale agriculture often more suited to produce exportable surpluses.

Still on rural development, as my delegation indicated during the COAG meeting, we attach much importance to improvement of conditions of women in rural areas. We believe FAO can play a very useful role in suggesting and creating new programmes to help the situation of women both as participants and beneficiaries in the development process.

We also support the great importance given not only to the work of FAO in commodity policies, - and these issues are reflected rather extensively in the COAG report, - but also to research support. We believe that it is important that FAO, in developing programmes and activities in research support, endeavours to make full use of national institutions. We feel that it is also important to promote cooperation among developing countries, and that FAO can play a role there by stimulating cooperation among research centres in developing countries. Finally, we think that all the research support and research support activities within FAO must be clearly linked with extension and training.

These are the brief remarks that we wish to make at this stage on the debates on the COAG report, and I would like to reiterate what I said in the beginning, that we feel that the Fourth Session of COAG proved the usefulness of the committee, and we are very happy with this development.

E. DIAZ BUSTADAD (Observador por Cuba): Nuestra delegación desea expresar su apoyo a lo expuesto por el Presidente del Comité de Agricultura en su informe a este Consejo y, en particular, en lo que respecta a la creación de un Grupo de Expertos a fin de que asesore en la organización de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y en la elaboración de los documentos, dando una mayor importancia a la evaluación de los progresos hechos en los programas de Reforma Agraria y desarrollo rural llevados a cabo por los Estados Miembros.

Nuestro país, desde el primer período de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura, ha reiterado la necesidad de abordar este problema de la Reforma Agraria en nuestros países. Esto se hizo evidente una vez más en el 4o período de sesiones del COAG, al analizar el tema sobre ''el desarrollo de los pequeños agricul-tores''.

Solicitamos por medio de usted, señor Presidente, que esta declaración se haga constar en las actas de este período de sesiones del Consejo.

I. MOSKOVITS (Observer for Malta): First of all, I would like to thank you, Mr. Chairman, for giving me the floor and the Chairman of COAG who so ably helped to run the meeting and also presented the conclusions in an excellent manner. This delegation attended not only the Fourth but also the previous sessions of the Committee on Agriculture, and we have to state that it was a tremendous improvement. We analyzed why this improvement occurred, and we find that this meeting was much more concrete and practical than the previous ones which were working very much in a vacuum and in a theoretical way.

We would very much like to thank the heads of the two departments and the staff who organized and prepared the session.

The COAG is a unique organ in FAO. As you well know, in the Organization, agriculture and social and economic programmes are divorced. This is perhaps a unique occasion, for the economic and social aspects of technical projects and programmes to be considered together by the same experts. COAG is also an excellent forum to translate the Director-General's ideas and directives in well-defined work programmes, and in this respect it was a great improvement that we had the draft programme of work falling within the competence of the COAG before us, which was not the case in the previous sessions.

But we must note that FAO does much more than what is indicated in the work programme. There are several statutory bodies of FAO which are working on technical matters and falling within the competence of COAG. They are mainly regional bodies, but it would be extremely useful to coordinate these activities and also to make known to the experts from one region what is happening in the other in order that they could organize a collaboration and create a much broader basis for the work initiated in one or the other regions.

Another aspect which is very important is the preparation for major conferences and undertakings in which COAG has excellent possibilities.

I would like to close my remarks by analyzing the future work of COAG and its relation to the Council. According to the statutes of FAO, COAG is an organ to assist the Council, to assist it on matters which belong in its field of competence. Therefore, we think that in future it would be very advantageous, in order to repeat much of what has been said both at the meetings of the COAG and the Council and to elevate the task of the Council, if COAG would make concrete proposals, policy recommendations or policy considerations and the Council would discuss only these aspects of the work resulting from the COAG session.

I think that this is all I would like to say at this moment. I think that the work could be economized in the Council if these ideas were to be accepted.

J. GARCIA E. (Observador por El Savador): En primer termino deseamos felicitar al Embajador Samanez Concha de Perú, por su eficacia y constructiva labor al frente de la Presidencia del Comité de Agricultura en su 4 período de sesiones.

Con relación al informe del Comité de Agricultura, nuestra delegación desea expresar su más decidido apoyo al desarrollo de los pequeños agricultores en sus aspectos integrales como uno de los temas sustantivos de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural a celebrarse en Julio de 1979. Durante la celebración del 4 período de sesiones del COAG fue ampliamente debatida la problemática que ello conlleva y tal como lo ha sugerido el Presidente del Comité en su informe del Consejo, sería procedente la constitución de un Grupo de Expertos a fin de que se asesorase en la organización de la Conferencia Mundial y en la elaboración de los documentos, planteamiento que ha sido apoyado por las delegaciones de México, Colombia, Panamá, Venezuela y otros.

El Director General en su discurso de apertura en el actual período de sesiones manifestó que el desarrollo de los pequeños agricultores debe constituir la base de un fructífero debate en la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural. Compartimos este sentir y para ser consecuentes opinamos que debe autorizárselo para que se realicen los ajustes necesarios presupuestarios a fin de que disponga de los recursos suficientes.

G. VASTA (Observateur pour l'OCDE): Je voudrais mettre en évidence la sympathie et l'intérêt avec lesquels la Direction de l'agriculture de l'OCDE suit les travaux de la FAO, en particulier ceux du Comité de l'agriculture. J'ai eu le plaisir et l'honneur de participer à cette séance du COAG et je voudrais féliciter S.E. l'Ambassadeur Samanez Concha pour sa compétence et la façon exquise avec laquelle il a présidé ce Comité. Je voudrais féliciter le Comité lui-même, et surtout le Secrétariat, qui par modestie s'efface et auquel on doit presque toujours les excellents documents qui nous sont soumis, résultat de nombreux travaux et sacrifices.

Ce matin j'ai eu l'occasion d'écouter une vingtaine de délégations parler de l'importance des travaux du COAG et je me permets de vous dire que je m'attendais à entendre un mot qui n'a pas été prononcé ce matin, il s'agit de la nutrition. Si je me permets d'insister sur ce problème, c'est que j'ai constaté, au sein du COAG, un intérêt particulier et même souvent presque une certaine euphorie qui s'instauraient au sein du Comité, mais je pense qu'il s'agit là d'un problème qui requiert tout l'intérêt du Conseil. La nutrition est un problème de santé et de bien-être. C'est un problème qui s'inscrit dans un contexte un peu plus vaste, que beaucoup d'économies et de gouvernements pourraient résoudre si effectivement quelqu'un se préoccupait de l'éducation alimentaire et accordait à la nutrition la place qui lui revient. L'OCDE, dans la mesure du possible, dans le cadre du développement, fait ce qu'elle peut mais j'insiste encore sur le fait qu'il ne s'agit pas exclusivement d'un problème concernant les pays en développement, c'est un problème qui concerne tous les pays en général, même les plus développés.

C'est pourquoi je lance un appel à ce niveau et j'espère que même au sein du Conseil mondial de l'alimentation, qui va s'ouvrir d'ici quelques jours, ces problèmes seront finalement étudiés de la façon la plus réaliste et la plus sérieuse possible et j'espère que cette flamme pourra être ranimée et qu'à l'avenir on évitera qu'elle ne s'éteigne.

M. FOFANA (Observateur pour la Guinée): Comme observateur, ma délégation voudrait adresser ses sincères félicitations à S.E. l'Ambassadeur du Pérou qui a conduit les travaux du COAG de façon magistrale et je dirai même avec panache. Par la même occasion, je voudrais aussi souligner le rôle combien important joué par le secrétariat à travers les excellents documents qu'il nous a fournis.

Aussi, après l'écoute attentive des autres interventions, je voudrais m'appesantir sur certains secteurs des questions que nous avions à examiner. Nous souscrivons à toutes les propositions faites par le Secrétariat, notamment en ce qui concerne l'accroissement de la production et à ce niveau je crois que nombre de pays en développement ont souligné la nécessité qu'il y avait de renforcer les ressources, non seulement extérieures mais internes, tout aussi bien pour les intrants, le transfert de technologie et de technique, la formation, l'assistance concrète à la recherche appliquée, l'aménagement des terres et des eaux et, bien sûr, la question que vient de souligner le représentant de l'OCDE, à savoir l'appui ferme qu'il faudrait apporter au programme sur la nutrition.

En ce qui concerne la réforme agraire, nous nous félicitons très sincèrement du projet d'une Conférence mondiale en juillet 1979 sur cette question importante qui n'est autre que la base même de l'instauration d'un nouvel ordre économique interne au niveau des nations. Nous souscrivons donc et appuyons fermement la proposition qui tend à créer un comité d'experts qui voudra bien assister le secrétariat de son expérience et bénéficiera aussi des leçons utiles tirées par certaines nations plus avancées dans le cadre de la réforme agraire, afin que les travaux de cette Conférence sur la réforme agraire soient couronnés de succès.

Nous ne terminerons pas sans mettre l'accent sur le problème des femmes. Je crois que la plupart des délégations qui avaient assisté au Comité de l'agriculture ont ouï dire par ma délégation l'expérience que nous avions envisagée au niveau de notre pays quant à la formation et à la promotion de la femme. Nous avions alors souhaité vivement et encouragé, d'une part l'action entreprise par le Directeur général au niveau de l'intégration effective et, d'autre part, la réhabilitation des femmes au niveau des programmes de terrain. Nous avions souhaité également, au niveau du Siège même, que la promotion de la femme soit effective et nous avons salué le Comité intersectoriel qui avait été créé afin de donner dans le programme de cette organisation un rôle beaucoup plus important à la femme, notamment au niveau de la décision. Bien sûr, cela ne peut être qu'un appui à la demande que les pays en développement espèrent de la FAO pour assister leurs programmes nationaux de promotion de la femme.

EL PRESIDENTE: De acuerdo con las disposiciones vigentes la delegación de Rumania entrego un texto a la Secretaría, texto que será incluido en las actas.

M. DIMITRIU (Observateur pour la Roumanie): Au nom de la délégation roumaine, permettez-moi de transmettre des remerciements cordiaux à Monsieur le Directeur général pour la compréhension manifestée et l'appui expéditif accordé à 1 'agriculture roumaine, qui fut affectée par la séisme du 4 mars 1977. En même temps, je désire transmettre des remerciements aux pays membres de l'Organisation, aux observateurs et aux organisations internationales qui ont transmis à mon pays des aides sous différentes formes.

Au sujet des problèmes soumis à être examinés, je voudrais souligner en particulier l'exposé de notre estimé Directeur général, Monsieur Saouma, exposé riche en idées et nouvelles orientations et qui, d'après notre opinion, apporte sa contribution à l'augmentation du rôle de la FAO, en ce qui concerne la résolution des problèmes majeurs, qui préoccupent l'humanité à présent.

Je ne veux pas répéter ce que Monsieur le Directeur général a déjà souligné, mais je désire rappeler que, d'après notre opinion, la mise à l'écart du sous-développement et la création d'une économie prospère peuvent être réalisées seulement dans les conditions d'un développement multilatéral de l'industrie, de l'agriculture, des transports, des services au niveau national, ainsi que chaque zone en particulier.

Tenant compte de la complexité des problèmes qui préoccupent à présent l'entière humanité dans le domaine de l'alimentation nous apprécions qu'il serait nécessaire que la FAO intensifie sa participation aux efforts visant l'instauration d'un nouvel ordre économique international, en entreprenant quelques actions concrètes de la part de l'Organisation, ayant comme but l'appui direct des pays en voie de développement, dans leurs efforts de développer leur agriculture et d'augmenter substantiellement la production agraire alimentaire.

La délégation roumaine apprécie comme positives et encourageantes les mesures entreprises dans ce domaine par la FAO, surtout à l'initiative du Directeur général, reflétées dans le programme de travail et budget pour les deux années suivantes et considère que pour les définitiver il faut mettre l'accent sur le développement et la consolidation des programmes ayant un caractère opératif. Dans ce sens nous pensons que les actions prévues dans le cadre du nouveau programme de coopération technique, ainsi que les ressources prévues à être allouées pour le développement de l'agriculture dans les pays en voie de développement, soient augmentées dans une plus grande mesure.

Dans ce sens, on pourrait présenter des recommandations concrètes en vue d'être adoptées par la Conférence générale.

L'intensification de la coopération internationale dans le domaine de l'agriculture parmi les pays européens et parmi eux aussi les pays d'autres zones du monde en vue du développement de l'agriculture et de l'amélioration humaine, représente une autre direction, dans laquelle la FAO peut mieux actionner du point de vue technique et matériel. Dans ce sens, on pourrait avoir en vue l'organisation de quelques réunions de spécialité, des symposiums ou des séminaires, des cours de perfectionnement dédiés à l'identification et l'acceptation de quelques mesures et programmes concrets avec une application immédiate, ayant comme but l'augmentation de la production agricole dans les pays en développement.

En ce qui concerne les programmes regardant les domaines concrets de coopération, au niveau régional ou sous-régional, la délégation roumaine considère qu'à leur élaboration on doit tenir compte du spécifique de chaque région ou sous-région, conformément aux recommandations des conférences régionales. Dans ce sens, la délégation roumaine propose que, pour la zone européenne, à l'élaboration des prochains programmes on doit avoir en vue les recommandations de la dixième Conférence régionale de la FAO pour l'Europe, spécialement, à celles comprises dans le document présenté par la Roumanie à cette conférence.

Pour que les produits alimentaires puissent avoir un plus large circuit, en vue de satisfaire les besoins de consommation dans une série de pays en développement, l'agriculture et l'industrie alimentaire doivent participer et s'intégrer intensément aux actions internationales, qui ont la tâche de mettre les pays en voie de développement dans la situation de mieux mettre en valeur les propres ressources et de . créer des possibilités de participation, à l'échange mondial de produits et de valeurs matérielles.

Nous apprécions qu'il est nécessaire de concentrer les efforts en vue de créer dans ces pays de grandes bases économiques, ayant un caractère complexe, de production et de recherche, bien dotées et équipées, pour leur assurer une base technique-économique sûre, leur permettant de s'autofinancer et en même temps d'attirer les moyens financiers intérieurs et extérieurs, pour le développement de la production agraire-alimentaire.

Nous considérons que la FAO, la plus grande institutions spécialisée de l'ONU, peut et doit apporter une contribution remarquable dans ce sens.

C'est justement pour cela que nous apprécions d'une manière particulière les mesures entreprises par l'initiative du Directeur général, dans la direction d'une nouvelle orientation dans l'activité de la FAO, pour que cette organisation devienne plus efficiente pour qu'elle augmente sa contribution en vue de solutionner les problèmes de l'alimentation, pour le développement de la coopération internationale parmi tous les pays du monde.

En ce qui nous concerne,nous sommes décidés d'actionner, en collaboration avec d'autres pays, pour le renforcement du rôle de la FAO dans la résolution des problèmes d'intérêt majeur 1/.

V Texte reçu avec demande d'insertion au procès-verbal.

EL PRESIDENTE: Sobre el énfasis que se ha dado a la conveniencia de vincular a las mujeres a las actividades del desarrollo agrícola, el Secretario general del Consejo, que es aficionado a las estadísticas, observa que en el plano intelectual, en este Organismo se está poniendo en práctica esa participación de la mujer pues en esta ocasión seis mujeres son miembros de distintas Delegaciones, lo cual constituye un récord en relación con las sesiones anteriores.

S. SAMANEZ CONCHA (Presidente del Comité de Agricultura): Ha habido numerosas intervenciones y los distinguidos Delegados han hecho hincapié sobre los diferentes puntos tratados en el Cuarto período de sesiones del COAG. Se han sugerido temas de vital importancia para que sean estudiados y analizados por la Organización y se vea la posibilidad de que sean incluidos en las próximas reuniones del COAG, tales como el problema de las verduras y frutas, la importancia de la investigación aplicada, el problema de los pastos, la depredación de los terrenos en las zonas áridas, el estudio de los recursos naturales y la fauna, el grave problema de la concentración parcelaria y las medidas a adoptar para frenar la difusión del minifundio, la organización de los agricultores en cooperativas como un medio de lograr el incremento de la producción y hacer llegar a ellos la asistencia requerida. En fin, una serie de propuestas concretas y recomendaciones. Estoy seguro que la Dirección General toma debida nota de todos estos puntos y en la preparación de la próxima reunión del COAG gran parte de estos puntos estoy seguro que serán analizados y discutidos por el Comité.

También debo manifestar que es muy placentero que todos los distinguidos Delegados hayan hecho mención y enfatizado la importación de la próxima Conferencia Mundial de Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural y la creación del Grupo de Expertos. Yo estoy convencido que en ese foro se van a obtener resultados altamente positivos para el desarrollo rural y se reafirmará una vez más la tesis de que resolver el problema de las estructuras agrarias es una condición básica e indispensable para lograr el desarrollo rural en los países en vías de desarrollo.

Para concluir, quisiera agradecer a todos los técnicos de la Organización por la preparación de los documentos y la organización de la Cuarta Reunión del Comité de Agricultura. Yo creo que si este Comité ha tenido algún éxito ha sido por los magníficos documentos presentados y, como dije, por la activa participación de todos los integrantes del Comité. Estoy seguro que las palabras vertidas por los Delegados serán un estímulo para los funcionarios de la Organización a fin de que las próximas reuniones del COAG sean más fructíferas y podamos elevar la producción y la productividad.

D.J. WALTON (Officer-in-Charge, Economic and Social Policy Department): The discussions of small farmers' development in COAG and subsequently in this meeting have been a very stimulating first-run, as it were, in concentrating on one of the main substantive issues that will be coming up at the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, roughly in two years' time. It has from the beginning been the intention of the Secretariat to draw heavily on outside expertise in the preparation of the Conference. The Director-General, therefore, welcomes the suggestion that has been advanced to go a stage further and establish an expert group to advise him on the technical inputs for the Conference, the conceptual work that will go into it, the preparation of the documents, etc.

I would like to say a few additional words on the context, the set of arrangements, that are being made to prepare for the World Conference. There will, of course, be a Secretary-General for the World Conference, who will work with a small staff. He will be able to draw on the whole resources of the Organization in the preparatory work for the Conference. Not only this, he will be able to draw very extensively on other agencies of the United Nations system.

At the last count, no less than twelve other bodies in the United Nations system had expressed a desire to participate in the work of the preparation of the World Conference - agencies, organizations and smaller units, various development programmes and so forth. We have already had one formal meeting of an inter-agency committee to prepare for the Conference, and we shall have further meetings before the Conference is held.

The FAO Council itself, will, of course, be playing a key role as the preparations proceed, but I would also like to draw your attention to an item which the Council has not yet tackled in this Session, and that is the Draft Agenda for the forthcoming Conference Session. In the proposal before the Council, agenda item 15 of the FAO Conference would be Review of Arrangements for the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Furthermore, nine months, roughly, before the World Conference itself is held, there will, as already decided by this Council, be a preparatory meeting to examine the documentation and to lay the groundwork for the discussion at the actual Conference itself. The contribution of a high level expert committee can, in this process, be very useful and the Director-General will therefore proceed as suggested in the establishment of such a group and will certainly be in consultation with various governments regarding the selection of suitable experts.

I should like to mention one other matter which was raised by the representative of Czechoslovakia. He is perfectly correct in recalling that there was a plan to hold a further world conference on agricultural education and training as a follow-up to the Conference held in Copenhagen some years ago. However, education and training will figure very heavily in the World Conference we have been discussing, and it was the unanimous feeling of the secretariats of the three sponsoring agencies of the former conference, the Copenhagen Conference, namely, FAO, ILO, and Unesco, that it would not be useful to launch another world conference on such a closely related subject at this juncture. We therefore see the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development as providing at this stage the necessary impulse for a follow-up of the Copenhagen Conference. However, that is where the matter stands at the moment and for the slightly remoter future the question will of course need to be examined again.

D.F.R. BOMMER (Assistant Director-General, Agriculture Department): There has not been a reply to the question from the representatives of Sudan, Libya and Pakistan, on EMASAR or on the programme in the organization on rangelands and forestries specifically for the semi-arid areas. The Director-General puts considerable importance on the improvement of this important land resource, specifically in semi-arid area countries and the provisions made in the Programme of Work and Budget are quite appropriate. COAG received a brief report in the documentation on the implementation of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1976/77. I should just recall here that the programmes now beingaformulated on projects are operating already in five countries of the Near East, North Africa and the Sahel, related to the subject of the improvement of semi-arid rangelands and we are eager to react to further requests from countries to assist them in formulating appropriate projects and to seek finance for their operation. In addition, in collaboration with UNEP there is considerable activity in the so-called Phase II of the EMASAR programme in providing the necessary information for training specifically and guidelines for country agencies for the management of semi-arid grasslands and we are continuing our collaboration with Unesco in the man and biosphere programme which concentrates on subject matter three of this programme on such related questions. May I say very briefly that the subject of wild life receives attention in related programmes in the Forestry Department.

EL PRESIDENTE: Debido al estado de nuestro trabajo creo que podría limitarme a presentarles un resumen muy breve sobre este tema.

Entiendo que el Consejo estuvo de acuerdo en destacar la gran importancia que tendrá la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural que se celebrará en 1979. Que el Consejo considero que la preparación adecuada de esa Conferencia constituiría la base del buen resultado que se espera.

A ese respecto, el Consejo apoyo los esfuerzos y la participación del Director General de la FAO en la preparación de esta Conferencia. Particularmente se hizo hincapié sobre la conveniencia de que la asistencia a los pequeños agricultores fuera uno de los temas de los cuales se ocupara esa Conferencia; e igualmente se expresaron ideas acerca de la conveniencia de buscar mecanismos adecuados para que, en realidad, esa asistencia pudiera ser benéfica en favor de los pequeños agricultores respecto a los cuales se sugirió, entre otras, la posibilidad de que las cooperativas podrían ser uno de esos medios que contribuyeran a mejorar el nivel de vida de los pequeños agricultores y a que esos pequeños agricultores hagan el mejor uso de las nuevas tecnologías y de los recursos en favor del incremento de la producción agrícola.

El Consejo estuvo de acuerdo en recomendar la creación de un Grupo de Expertos que asesoren al Director General en la preparación de esa Conferencia Mundial. A la luz de las disposiciones vigentes el propio Director General, en consulta con los Estados Miembros, o también el Consejo puede autorizar al Director General a crear ese Grupo de Expertos.

Se presentaron numerosas ideas sobre los temas de los que debería ocuparse el COAG en el futuro. Creo que no debo entrar en detalle; todo esto pasará al Comité de Redacción para ver la forma en que pueda presentarse en el Proyecto de informe.

Finalmente, quiero asociarme, en nombre del Consejo, al reconocimiento que se ha hecho al Embajador Samanez Concha por la forma inteligente, competente y eficaz en que presidió el Comité de Agricultura.

LE DIRECTEUR GENERAL: Comme l'a dit mon collègue, M. Walton, j'accueille avec plaisir la création de ce comité d'experts et je ne manquerai pas de consulter les gouvernements intéressés dans le choix de ces experts. En fait, je dois dire franchement que j'ai anticipé cette demande, puisque j'ai déjà commencé à établir des contacts officieux à cet égard; c'est vous dire combien je suis prêt à aller de l'avant en cette affaire.

Je crois comprendre, à moins que vous me disiez que j'ai mal interprété votre résumé, que je devrais consulter le Conseil; bien entendu, ce sont les gouvernements que je consulterai et non pas le Conseil.

EL PRESIDENTE: Lamento que haya entendido mal lo que yo dije, Sr. Director General. He dicho con base en los textos legales que, de acuerdo con el párrafo 4 del artículo VI de la Constitución el Director General en consulta con los Estados Miembros, puede crear el cuadro de expertos; el párrafo 5 del mismo artículo VI dice: "La Conferencia, el Consejo o el Director General mediante autorización de la Conferencia o el Consejo, pueden crear esos cuadros de expertos''. Son las dos posibilidades legales de las que Vd. puede hacer uso, de cualquiera de ellas, y me complace que se haya anticipado a esa propuesta que ha contado con la mayoría de los miembros del Consejo.

Si no hay otro comentario, terminamos este tema. Creo que podríamos aprovechar los últimos minutos para pasar al siguiente punto del Orden del día. Se trata del tema 14 a).

14. Inter-Agency Relations and Consultations on Questions of Common Interest (continued)
14. Relations et consultations interinstitutions sur les questions d'intérêt commun (suite)
14. Relaciones y consultas con otros organismos sobre asuntos de interés común (continuación)

(a) Developments Regarding the Ad Hoc Committee on the Restructuring of the Economic and Social Sectors of the United Nations System,
(a) Faits nouveaux intéressant le Comité ad hoc sur la restructuration des secteurs économique et social du système des Nations Unies.
(a) Novedades relativas al Comité Especial sobre la Reestructuración de los Sectores Económico y Social del Sistema de las Naciones Unidas.

(d) Other Questions Arising out of the UN General Assembly, ECOSOC and ACC.
(d) Autres questions découlant des travaux de l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies, de L'ECOSOC et du CAC.
(d) Otras cuestiones derivadas de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, el Consejo Económico y Social y el CAC.

EL PRESIDENTE: Les ruego que tomen los documentos. Señores, les propongo que continuemos por unos minutos más y que sobre el tema 14 tomemos conjuntamente el apartado a), "Novedades relativas al Comité Especial sobre la Reestructuración de los Sectores Económicos y Social del Sistema de las Naciones Unidas'' y también conjuntamente el apartado d) "Otras cuestiones derivadas de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, el Consejo Económico y Social y el CACJ", Repito, tomaremos conjuntamente el apartado a) y d) del tema 14. Voy a conceder la palabra al Dr. Phillips, Presidente del Comité del Programa.

R.W. PHILLIPS (Chairman of the Programme Committee): I need make only two or three very brief comments which relate only to sub-item (a). Here the Programme Committee has tried to keep in touch with the developments regarding the proposed restructuring because of their possible impact on the Organization. However, as will be seen from the three paragraphs which are before the Council we had practically no information and the best we could do was to agree that in our autumn Session in the light of new developments we would try to review the situation at that time in relation to its impact upon FAO. Therefore, like other Members of the Council I can only await with interest what Mr. Walton may have to tell us about new developments since the Programme Committee met at the end of April and beginning of May.

D.J. WALTON (Officer-in-Charge, Economic and Social Policy Department): I should like to be in a position to meet Dr. Phillips' hope that I could shed some light but I am afraid that light is still beyond the horizon. All I can do is update what has been happening without, I am afraid,giving any indication of substance. The report of the Programme Committee referred to the probable final session of the ad hoc Committee on restructuring scheduled for May. At that meeting the ad hoc Committee failed to reach any agreement and the May meeting therefore will not be its final session. The Committee will continue its efforts through informal contacts to reach a consensus on the outstanding issues. On the basis of those informal contacts the Chairman of the Committee will prepare a revised draft report. The ad hoc Committee will then hold a formal session from 6-9 September in order to finalize its report. The Committee's report will then go to the resumed session of ECOSOC in the autumn and to the Thirty-second Session of the General Assembly.

If this timetable is adhered to, the Programme Committee should be able to review the ad hoc Committee's recommendations when it meets at the end of September. There will, however, be no opportunity to bring the recommendations of the ad hoc Committee to the attention of the Council or the Conference before they are considered by ECOSOC and the General Assembly. It might therefore be useful at this stage to indicate very briefly to the Council the Director-General's contribution to the work of the Committee.

The Director-General appeared before the Committee at an early stage of its deliberations and shared with it some of his thoughts on restructuring. Subsequently he made a substantive contribution to a paper prepared by the Administrative Committee on Coordination - the ACC - entitled ''Options and possible courses of action in respect to the problem areas identified by the Committee'', which was submitted to the ad hoc Committee in April of last year. More recently, and subsequent to the discussion in the Programme Committee, the Director-General responded to an invitation of the Committee to the executive heads and made additional comments on three of the eight problem areas selected by the Committee which are of direct importance to the Organization, namely: inter-agency coordination, Secretariat Support Services, and operational activities.

In his presentation the Director-General generally stressed the unity and inter-dependence of the system and the need to avoid proliferation of new bodies. While the United Nations should provide the impulse for the whole system, the principal technical organizations should be enabled to take the lead in their respective sectors. On inter-agency coordination he has suggested to the Committee that ECOSOC instead of reviewing the activities of all the agencies could concentrate on how to harness more effectively the efforts by the United Nations system to handle multi-disciplinary activities and programmes. The adoption of the lead agency principle could avoid the proliferation of new bodies and create confidence that the members of the United Nations system could handle any issue on development by cooperation among themselves.

At the Secretariat level, the Administrative Committee on Coordination should continue to be the main instrument for inter-agency coordination. Certain adjustments in its working procedures were suggested to increase the impact of its contribution.

On coordination with regard to programming and budgeting, the Committee has been asked to make a clear distinction between, on the one hand, harmonization and evaluation of medium-term plans and programme budgets, and on the other hand joint programme planning and implementation. Improvements of the former are possible, while the implementation of the latter is beset with practical difficulties.

With regard to Secretariat support services, suggestions have been made that the General Assembly, as head of the United Nations System, and ECOSOC, with its charter coordinating functions, should lead the way in making maximum use of the expertise and experience of the components of the system. They could increasingly remit to the specialized agencies the preparatory work on a number of matters including those requiring an inter-agency approach, by using the principle of lead agency.

With regard to personnel matters it would be appropriate for the ad hoc Committee to remit the issues to the International Civil Service Commission for study in depth. With regard to operational activities, the Director-General is generally not in favour of consolidation of operational activities and funds. The imminent establishment of the International Fund for Agricultural Development demonstrates vividly the potential capacity of a separate fund to attract new resources. In broader terms, the existence of a variety of funds is a source of dynamism and of stimulation to the system as a whole. Unification would increase the vulnerability of the whole system and would greatly magnify the impact of a crisis such as the one which affected UNDP some 18 months ago.

It has also been suggested that the UNDP should abandon its centralizing tendencies including the direct execution of projects. Both donors and recipients rely on the technical support for operational activities provided by the executing agencies. The links between technical and operational aspects of projects should be strengthened in order to improve the technical quality of operational activities.

Finally, in any further discussions on the subject before the final report of the ad hoc Committee becomes available, the Director-General intends to put forward similar views, taking into account any that might be expressed by the Council. I have been able to give you the views put forward by the Director-General but not yet the views formulated by the ad hoc Committee on Restructuring. It remains for governments through their consultations in New York and perhaps Geneva to formulate definitively the recommendations of the ad hoc Committee which we hope to have in September.

Perhaps you will allow me now to say a few very brief words under Item 14(b), Other Questions; here we are limited to one specific subject, the document contained in CL 71/INF/10, namely the recommendations of the ACC regarding new institutional arrangements relating to nutrition. I am not proposing that the Council engage in a substantive discussion of this matter to which, by the way, I already referred when the World Food Council relationship was under discussion, and the same subject has been mentioned by some delegates in connexion with the Programme of Work and Budget. It is, however, essential that when the question comes before the Economic and Social Council in a few weeks' time, delegations to ECOSOC be fully informed on all espects of the subject. The proposals of the ACC put forward last year fell through in ECOSOC in large part because the delegations present were not fully briefed on the subject and the document was circulated relatively late. I should be happy to answer any questions that members of the Council may have on CL 71/INF/10 but I do not think it is necessary for me to summarise it.

I would, however, like to draw attention to one related recommendation put forward by the Programme Committee. This recommendation appears in the Programme Committee's report on relations with the World Food Council,but it does in fact specifically relate to FAO's activities, and it occurs in paragraph 2.115.

The Programme Committee recommended the postponement of the second session of the ad hoc Committee on food and nutrition policies because the timing originally envisaged, which would have been immediately before this Council Session, did not appear to make very much sense when both the substantive and the institutional arrangements for nutrition were just about to be discussed in the World Food Council and the Economic and Social Council, respectively. It is therefore envisaged that the ad hoc Committee on food and nutritional policies will meet early in 1978 to examine the follow-up to the decisions of the World Food Council and the Economic and Social Council, and I venture to hope that this will be endorsed by the Council.

EL PRESIDENTE: Si alguien quiere intervenir sobre los temas 14 a) y d), tal vez lo más conveniente es que lo haga al comienzo de esta tarde, debido a lo tardío de la hora, y les ruego que quien desee intervenir esta tarde lo exprese a la Secretaría o si no procuraremos limitarnos a tomar nota de los informes actualizados que nos ha transmitido el Sr. Walton.

Tengo ahora dos oradores inscritos, que son Países Bajos y Estados Unidos. Jordania también. Entonces, dejemos para esta tarde la cuestión del tema 14 a) y d) con los oradores Países Bajos, Estados Unidos y Jordania.

The meeting rose at 12.40 hours
La séance est levée à 12 h 40
Se levanta la sesión a las 12.40



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