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I. INTRODUCTION - PROCEDURE OF THE SESSION (continued)
1. INTRODUCTION - QUESTIONS BE PROCEDURE (suite)
I. INTRODUCCION - CUESTIONES DE PROCEDIMIENTO (continuación)

2. Election of Vice-chairmen and Designation of Chairman and Members of Drafting Committee (continued)
2. Election des Vice-Présidents et nomination du President et des membres eu Comité de rédaction (suite)
2. Eleooiòn de Vicepresidentes y nombramiento del Presidente y los miembros del Comité de Redacción (continuación)

C. BATAULT (France): Je voudrais proposer pour cette vice-présidence M. Hugo Baeyens, ambassadeur de Belgique et représentant de la Belgique auprès de la FAO et des institutions spécialisées des Nations Unies à Rome. Je n'ai pas "besoin de présenter M. Baeyens, vous le connaissez tous, c'est certainement un des représentants permanents les plus estimés parmi nous, un de ceux aussi qui ont déployé le plus d'activité en faveur des oeuvres de la FAO et de tout ce que nous essayons de réaliser ensemble. J'espère donc que tout le monde voudra bien soutenir cette candidature qui me paraît particulièrement appropriée.

B. SANCHEZ G: (Venezuela): Aunque lamento que en el pasado período de sesiones del Consejo y en el presente la Región de América Latina no ha estado presente en la mesa directiva del Consejo, en nombre de mi delegación y del mío propio, queremos expresar apoyo a la candidatura presentada por Francia en la persona'del Embajador de Bélgica. Pensamos que este candidato es de notable valór y aspiramos a través de él que se fomenten todas aquellas novedades que puedan impulsar las perspectivas y metas de este Consejo.

MAPELA NGA-MA (Zaïre): Nous aussi, nous voulons appuyer la candidature qui vient d'atre proposée par la France, à savoir celle du délégué de la Belgique en qualité de troisième vice-président du Conseil.

F. ABDFJjMADJIB (Algérie): Ma délégation appuie la candidature qui nous a été présentée. Je voudrais cependant faire une remarque d'ordre général. D'abord, je voudrais féliciter les trois vice-présidents; ensuite, je souhaiterais que le nouveau paragraphe qui va remplacer le paragraphe du Règlement intérieur oonœraairt les trois vioe-*présidences soit rédigé de manière telle qu'on y introduise le oonœprt. d'une rotation géographique équitable, de manière que toutes les régions puissent! Ótre représentées au Conseil au moment où il se réunit tous les deux ou trois ans. Je crois que c'est un principe qui est universellement admis au niveau du système des Nations Unies, d'autant plus que nous voulons introduire l'équité au sein de ce système. C'est la seule remarque que je désirais faire.

G. BULA HOYOS (Colombia): La delegación de Colombia se complace en apoyar la propuesta hecha por el Embajador de Francia en la persona del distinguido Embajador de Bélgica para la tercera Vioepresidenoia.

Apoyamos la declaración que acaba de hacer el colega de Argelia que confirma lo que esta mañana /?/ dicho los delegados de Estados Unidos y Colombia. Consideramos que se sentaré un mal precedente si se reforma el Hsglanento General sin disponer de un texto. Aunque en apariencia se trate de una enmienda insignii cante, el Reglamento General es un contexto de disposiciones que merece el respeto del Consejo y que sólo debe ser modificado a plena conciencia por los miembros del Organismo. Aprovechamos esta ocasión para insistir en nuestro punto de vista de que sólo conviene ahora suspender el artículo del Reglamento para permitir la elecci6n de tres Vicepresidentes según la propuesta suya y en nuestro informe diremos al CACJ presente un proyecto de enmienda al Reglamento General en el cual, además de aumentar a tres los Vicepresidentes se conservara el principio de la rotación geográfica, y así se obtendría el mismo resultado y en octubre próximo habremos modificado el Reglamento, pero de manera racional y ordenada.

CHAIRMAN: Really it la met perniale to imagine that any draft or /?/ ef rules /?/ be made without the amends»nt being brought here, and my understanding is that the Drafting Committee, together with the Legal Adviser, will do this and bring it back to us here, la you yourself said, delegate of Colombia, this is a Vary minor amendment, but we will see it.

M.-A. PAPAGEORGIOU (Giéce): Je tiens á vous dira qua mm délégation se joint aveo join aux orateurs précédents qui ont appuyé la candidatura de l'ambassadeur Bmaymms au poste de vice-president da Conseil. Les qualités exoeptionnelles, personnelles et profeaeiemnellea de l'ambassadeur Beeyens, que nous connaissons tous je crois, constituent une garantie pour notre choix.

I. OZORAI (Hungary) : I would only like to say that my delegation wholeheartedly seconds the proposal made by the distinguished delegate of Prance to elect Ambassador Baeyens to the position of Vice-Chairman of the Council.

At the same time, my delegation also supports wholeheartedly the suggestion made by the distinguished delegate of Algeria that the forum should consider the amendments for the Council sessions in future, that they should ensure equitable distribution of areas for the future.

J.A. BAKER (United States of America): I would like also to associate myself with those who have strongly supported the nomination of Ambassador Baeyens, offered to us by the Chief of the Delegation of France. Ambassador Baeyens, by his experience in this Organization, is eminently qualified to serve on this Council.

At the same time I would like to stress my sympathy with the comments made by my colleague from Colombia. I agree with him that this is not a major item for the amendment of the rules for the election of Vice-Chairman, but I do think as he does that a normal procedure for this would be a good omen for our effort to conduct these proceedings with particular attention to orderly procedure, because it is only the procedure which in the last analysis protects the interests of the members of this Counoil.

W.A.F. GRABISCH (Germany, Federal Republic of): We did not ask for the floor i Nevertheless, we wholeheartedly support the candidature of our friend Ambassador Baeyens.

CHAIRMAN: We thought we saw your flag, but thank you for your inverdention.

S. MADENBA SY (Sénégal): La délégation sénégalaise tient à s'associer aux autres délégations pour appuyer trés chaleureusement la candidature de S.E. l'Ambassadeur Baeyens au poste de troisième Vice-Président.

GHAIRMAN: I am very glad to say we now have a lot of support for the proposal by the delegate of France that Ambassador Baeyens be elected one of the Vice-Chairmen, and I take it this is the unanimous agreement of the Council.

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H. BAEYENS (Belgique): Je voudrais simplement adresser les remerciements de ma délégation et les miens propres à toutes les délégations qui ont "bien voulu me proposer pour oe poste de Vice-Président, en particulier la France, et à toutes les délégations qui ont appuyé cette nomination

Laissez-moi vous dire, Monsieur le Président, que je suis le premier à me réjouir de vous voir á nouveau présider le Conseil. Laissez-moi vous donner l'assurance qu'en qualité de Vice-Président, je suis à votre entière disposition.

CHAIRMAN: We will now conclude item 2 by designating the Chairman and members of the Drafting Committee* The following proposals have been submitted and I pass them on to the Council. Chairman of the Drafting Committee - Mr. Masud of Pakistan. Are there any objections to this appointment? Then Mr. Masud has been designated as Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

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CHAIRMAN: The following members are proposed: Africa : Ghana and Zaire ; Asia : India ; Europe : France ; Latin-America : Venezuela ; Near-East : Lebanon ; North America : United States of America ; South-West Pacific : Australia. These are the proposed members of the Drafting Committee, does that meet with your approval?

Then it is accepted that we designate these countries as members, and I want to call on these countries to submit the names of their representatives who will be on the Drafting Committee to the Secretariat.

II. WORLD FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SITUATION
II. SITUATION MONDIALE DE L'ALIMENTATION ET DE L'AGRICULTURE
II. SITUACION MUNDIAL DE LA AGRICALTURA Y LA ALIMENTION

4. Current World Food Situation
4. Situation actuelle de l'alimentation mondiale
4. Situación actual de la alimentación en el mundo

CHAIRMAN: While members were commenting on the Director-General's statement, a lot of members did in fact touch on this particular item, because this formed part of the statement by the Director-General. Therefore, I am sure that part of the debate has already been stated.

I would now like to call on Professor Islam to introduce the paper before we start the debate.

N. ISLAM (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): The main features of the current world food situation are set out in document CL 75/2 and are updated in 75/2 Sub.1. There is not much need for me to introduce the item at any length, nor are there any new developments to report, since this updating was prepared as recently as the middle of May.

This morning you have also heard the Director-General ' s evaluation of the current food situation. However, I would like to highlight a few points. It is still much too early in the year to have any idea of the production forecasts for 1979.

While estimates of the winter wheat crops are firmly confirmed, the outcome of the spring wheat crop, particularly in Canada and the USSR, cannot be foreseen with any great certainty. Similarly, most of the coarse grain in the Southern hemisphere has been harvested already, but in the Northern hemisphere, particularly in the United States, it still depends on the growing conditions and harvesting in the coming months.

The latest estimates for 1979 for wheat and coarse grain production remain at 1.13 billion tons, 5 per cent below the I978 record, as well as below the 1ong - term trend. This is a tentative forecast, but it now seems most likely that the current production of wheat and coarse grain will be below the requirements in 1979-1980 ; thus, carry-over stocks are likely to be drawn down by the close of the 1979-80 session.

International wheat prices have risen in response to this situation, and the United States national prices have reached the level at which the wheat crop can be released from the farms' own reserves.

This precarious and fragile wheat situation is reflected in recent food import. The total cereal imports of developing countries and China which were about 70 million tons in 1977-76 are expected to reach 78 million tons in 1978-79. The imports of most seriously affected countries which were about 16 million tons in 1977-78 are expected to reach 18 million tons in 1978-79. Moreover our estimates indicate that China has imported about 12.5 million tons during 1977-78 and the U.S.S.R. has imported about 12.5 million tons. During the next year it is estimated that their imports will be substantial and possibly of a higher magnitude. It is expected that the U.S.S.R. alone will import about 15 million tons next year.

The FAO food information system is already giving an early warning of unfavourable crop conditions in 25 developing countries. This is more than the number of countries which had reported to have unfavourable crop conditions a year ago ; in fact, currently sixteen countries are facing food shortages.

The next point on which I should like to bring you up-to-date is the result of deliberations at UNCTAD V which has just concluded its session in Manila. It is too early for a full assessment of its outcome. While many basic issues still remain to be resolved and have been referred to UNCTAD, there was apparently some limited progress in a number of fields. Of these only those relating to perfectionism, economic cooperation among developing countries, commodities and least developed countries were of particular relevance to food and agriculture. On protectionism, which was a major issue of contention in Manila, UNCTAD V called on the developed countries to pursue policies aimed at encouraging re-allocation of productive activities so that the developed countries move out progressively from the less competitive areas, especially where the long-term competitive advantage favours the developing countries.

Concerning economic cooperation among developing countries, a resolution was adopted urging the entire international community to provide appropriate support and assistance to programmes on economic cooperation among developing countries. It also urged effective implementation of the plans of action on technical cooperation among developing countries recently adopted in Buenos Aires, and invited the United Nations Development Programme to devote increased resources to programmes for economic cooperation among developing countries* As the Council knows, the Director-General is convening a technical consultation en economic cooperation among developing countries in the week following this Council meeting.

As regards commodities the Conference urged governments which had not yet pledged to the Second Window of the Common Fund to do so before the Fourth Session of the United Nations Negotiating Conference on the Common Fund scheduled to meet in the latter part of this year. It has also urged governments to expedite the convening of negotiating conferences on commodities for which preparatory work has achieved sufficient progress under the integrated programme for commodities.

Another resolution urged the developed countries and the international organizations to substantially increase investment and technical assistance to accelerate food production in developing countries in order to strengthen food security. The resolution also requested the Secretary-General of UNCTAD, in coordination with other international organizations; to keep under constant review all matters regarding international food trade and to monitor its impact on food production, consumption and food security in developing countries. It also called for the earliest possible resumption of the negotiations on an international wheat agreement.

As for the least developed countries, the Conference adopted a comprehensive new programme of action. This took into account the severity of their basic structural and economic problems which therefore called for differentiated and additional measures as an essential contribution to the new international economic order.

I think this is all I need to say at this stage. My colleagues and I will, of course, be happy to try to answer any questions that may arise during the course of your deliberations.

GHAIRMAN: This paper having now been introduced, and discussion - as I have said - having already started on it, we now open the contentive discussion of the paper.

V.S.BLANCO DELGADO (México): Desde el principio quisiéramos agradecer tanto la preparación como la presentación del documento CL 75/2 y su suplemento 1 que, además de distinguirse por su calidad y brevedad, confirma claramente la difícil situación mundial de la alimentación y permite, tanto formular conclusiones, siempre en el marco de lo estructural y global, como anticipar la magnitud de tareas por realizar en los países en desarrollo y de la urgencia de hacer efectivos, sin más dilaciones, los compromisos programáticos contraídos, sin exclusión, por la Comunidad Internacional; esfuerzo que incluye destacadamente el fortalecimiento y mayor dinamismo de la FAO y de otras instituciones mundiales y regionales íntimamente relacionadas con este vital campo, reconociendo la preeminencia de los foros de alcance mundial. Datos y reflexiones, síntesis y advertencia que también se remiten al Consejo Mundial de la Alimentación, órgano político donde México, como activo integrante país del tercer mundo, también hace su contribución hacia el cabal establecimiento del nuevo orden económico internacional.

Coincidimos plenamente con el documento cuando expresa la incertidumbre en materia de suministros alimentarios y subrayamos la persistencia y aparición de elementos, actitudes y prácticas cuyos resultados más próximos no sólo deterioran el impacto de las realizaciones, sino que atestiguan el olvido de nuestro compromiso político esencial y apuntala un sistema de relaciones internacionales que reproduce y amplía constantemente la desigualdad en que se funda.

Dentro de nuestro permanente afán por sobrevivir, y en consonancia con nuestra inclinación por el establecimiento de relaciones humanas y éticas en la vida internacional, y analizando tanto nuestros grandes desafíos como la necesidad de plantear a fondo los problemas, reiteramos el pensamiento del Presidente de México en el sentido de que casi todo se ha dicho y casi nada se ha hecho. Asimismo, no hay duda, las estadísticas lo evidencian, que los países que quizá convencionalmente seguimos llamando como "en vías de desarrollo" están inmersos en un indiscutible proceso de empobrecimiento, de involución.

La agricultura de la mayoría de los países es el sector más importante y no crece y se desarrolla al ritmo de las necesidades y a pesar del esfuerzo histórico de los países subdesarroilados, el número de pobres y desnutridos aumenta» Los gravemente desnutridos han llegado a sumar casi 500 millones y los que se ubican por debajo de los niveles de pobreza pronto serán mil millones»

Las importaciones de alimentos son cada vez mayores y el concepto de la seguridad alimentaria no encuentra contraparte en la realidad» Se cierran las posibilidades de acceder remunerativamente a otros mercados y se hacen más tardíos o se suspenden indefinidamente importantes negociaciones.

En materia de ayuda alimentaria, aún falta mucho por hacer y las relaciones de intercambio agrícola muestran un empeoramiento nada recomendable» Muchas de las estadísticas presentadas indican mejoramiento. Sin embargo, un importante número de casos apenas alcanza magnitudes semejantes a las logradas hace muchos anos. Estrictamente hablando, no se puede afirmar que estamos lejos de una situación crítica y que la adversidad está por superarse»

Tampoco se puede reconocer que algunos sectores no ponen su imaginación en juego y destacan por su actitud ante los que pretenden imponer criterios.

Así encontramos la creación del Pondo Internacional de Desarrollo Agrícola, institución nueva y pe-quena que pronto habrá de acreditar su origen y a la que se le deberá dotar de mayores recursos; el Programa de Cooperación Técnica y la Cuenta Especial para la Prevención de Pérdidas de los Alimentos de la FAO, instrumentos aún modestos que deben ganar dimensión compatible con la realidad en que se hallan, y de manera especial consignamos tanto la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural por celebrarse aquí el próximo mes y que sin duda habrá de hacer contribuciones sustantivas, y el Programa de Acción de Cinco Puntos propuesto por el Director General de la FAO recientemente y que por la coyuntura merece el más amplio respaldo, al igual que el proyectado Pondo de Lucha con la Peste porcina africana. A este último respecto, reconocemos la participación de la FAO para hacer frente a esta enfermedad en América Latina.

No podemos coincidir con quien llegara a expresar que los países subdesarrollados no otorgan prioridad a la alimentación. Están de moda las categorizaciones y las graduaciones que siempre dañan y esconden la realidad» Nos esforzamos tanto como nuestras capacidades lo permiten y si algunos encuentran aparentes excepciones, también deberían tener en cuenta las razones y las explioaciones reales.

No sólo intentamos corregir nuestra situación interna, sino también la internaoional creada por terceros. No sólo pagamos el curso de la historia hacia la soberanía y la independencia, sino también la crisis, la ineficiencia y la inflación de terceros. Por eso, los propósito» de justicia y equidad no son conceptos huecos como algunos quieren aparentarlo. Por eso, se explica la Carta de los Derechos y Deberes Económicos de los Estados y el Programa de Acción para el Establecimiento del nuevo orden económico internacional.

Si los recursos financieros nacionales siempre escasos no se transfieren de algunos sectores a la agricultura es porque no se puede descuidar la totalidad del desarrollo; si no se emprenden grandes estudios, programas e instituciones, es por la carencia de personal capacitado adecuadamente. No hay que olvidar que las tecnologías disponibles o son caras u obsoletas y con mucha frecuencia diseñadas para otra realidad; y tampoco hay que hacer menos la fuga de cerebros por su contratación por entidades que no necesariamente responden a los intereses nacionales.

Por cuanto corresponde a México, continuamos empeñados en hacer realidad la filosofía del programa popular y democrático de la alianza para la producción propuesta por el Presidente López Portillo al pueblo de México, y que otorga singular prioridad a los alimentos, decisión que se refleja contundentemente en lo político, lo administrativo, lo presupuestario y financiero, y también, en lo programático, técnico y participativo en materia de producción y autoabasteciraiento de productos básicos de la tierra nacional, incluidos el crédito, la asistencia técnica, la investigación, la organización de los productos, la comercialización y, en fin, todo cuanto corresponde a la reforma agraria y al desarrollo rural.

Existe una amplia base de responsabilidad solidaria. En los últimos dos anos, la producción agrícola creció un 5% y las metas para 1979 son aún más ambiciosas. Hemos programado una superficie un poco mayor a los 17 millones de hectáreas sobresaliendo los cultivos de maíz y frijol, y supone una mejor utilización de las tierras ya cultivadas como la incorporación de nuevas, así como tratamiento especial a las áreas de temporal, dando preferencia a las zonas, grupos humanos y actividades más deprimidos.

En el oampo de las agroindustrias renovamos nuestro esfuerzo y se esperan importantes realizaciones. El Programa Nacional de Desarrollo Pesquero sigue su marcha hacia el objetivo de una racional utilización y vigilancia de la zona económica exclusiva.

En fin, México está presente y activo en todo cuanto concierne a los asuntos munciales y propios en el campo de la alimentación. Internacionalmente ofrece su experiencia y capacidad de actitud basada en la comprensión y espíritu de solidaridad que son característicos.

M.S. SWAMINATHAN (india): First of all I would like to offer our sincere appreciation and congratulations to Professor Nour Islam and his band of very devoted colleagues for the excellent report they have produced. If the report is pessimistic it is not their fault. They have given a factual account of the position and we are grateful for the early warning issued by FAO,

We feel the paper is in a way a sad reflection of the state of affairs in the world on the food front, because as I mentioned this morning, in spite of many pious statements and hopes, we still find that even the very small growth rate of 4 percent suggested under the Development Decade 2 has not been realized and you know very well that according to the projections of the International Labour Organization for every one percent growth rate in population a minimum of 3 percent economic growth rate is necessary just to provide employment at subsistence level for that population alone. This is why the paper of FAO clearly brings out their stagnation in dietary energy intake. It has remained practically stagnant. In MSA countries it was 101 in 1969/71 keeping the index at 100 in 61-65 and it has remained at 101 in 1976. Even if we take all the developing countries together we find that the improvement in the average dietary energy intake is very small. The index is 110 in 1976 in contrast to 106 in 1969/71 and we all know only too well that these averages again hide the fact that a very large percentage of the economically handicapped sections of the population, particularly women and children, have a much lower intake than what is revealed by these indices. We are therefore happy that the report has brought out very clearly the sad state of affairs and the question now arises as to where we go from here. Some of the maladies have also been recognized in the paper, for example, the World Food Council has estimated that for achieving an annual growth rate of 4 percent in agricultural production, the minimum of external assistance of $8.3 billion will be needed but the actual availability of external assistance has been of the order of about $4 billion, in other words only less than half of the amount considered to be minimum by the World Food Council.

Now instead of dealing with this in a broader canvas I would like to take off from where Professor Islam mentioned that there are some countries in the world today in the throes of serious crises, that the weather and growing conditions this year are not very optimistic and I can tell this from the experience of my own country because the monsoon, the south-west monsoon, which is our most important monsoon period, is delayed and we hope it will not completely fail. Parts of Bengal, our part of Bengal and parts of Assam are facing drought. Therefore I think I would go in with the statement that the conditions of crop growth do not seem to be very optimistic just now. But where do we go from there, and I think that is where the FAO's role has to be somewhat enlarged. In addition to giving the early warning, in my delegation's view FAO could follow it up under their TCP programme in giving positive assistance in terms of mitigating the effects of adverse weather.

I would like now to deal with the optimistic point of the whole report, namely about 75 countries having already signed the International Undertaking on World Food Security. Therefore at least we hope that these 75 countries will strain every nerve to undo the possible harm resulting from inclement weather. Now we in India are of course committed to building a very strong food security system since we have the privilege of having one-fifth of the human race in our country.

I would now like to deal with three aspects of the world food situation in terms of stability of production and in terms of possible action during this year in mitigating the likely after effects of adverse weather. Ever since the early woman started what we now call agriculture about 10.000 years ago there have been three important factors which have caused violent undulations in production. The first is weather, the second is pest epidemics and the third, which is playing an even more important role in recent years, is public policies, public policies of national governments within their own countries and as well as those which affect other countries.

I would first like to deal in a few minutes with weather. Now, weather; if in India, for example, the monsoon is normal in the next two months, both our own newspapers and international newspapers will be full of stories of floods. Last year we had unprecedented floods and we are grateful to FAO for its part in assistance along with many other countries here. The point I want to make is although we lost several million tons of rice and other grains through floods I am happy to report that our production during 1978/79 has been about 2.5 million tons more than the previous year. Had not these extensive floods occurred we would have been in a happier position, but in spite of the floods we had a good harvest. Now, how was it achieved? This is where man is not helpless today, particularly in the tropics and sub-tropics where we are blessed with sunlight throughout the year. It is possible today to launch, compensatory programmes to offset to some extent the losses but this will also require a much higher priority to irrigation. Taking the entire irrigated land of the world today it has been estimated that about 201 million hectares of land in the world are irrigated but the potential irrigable land, I am excluding from here the possibilities of de-salinized water becoming economically useful for agriculture, excluding that possibility which also may become possible once we are able to tap solar energy, the present irrigable area is 470 million hectares. I would therefore consider that at least in the context of insultation of agriculture from the vagaries of weather it is very important that we give the highest priority to irrigation and I would suggest that the FAO should help, particularly the countries which are prone to various kinds of weather abnormalities, whether it is floods, droughts, typhoons or cyclones, in the formulation of disaster-preparedness plans. The disaster-preparedness plan today deals largely with human beings, it does not deal with farm animals, in many cases and seldom does it deal with crops, what can be done to agricultural crops, the crop life saving techniques which are now available and so on. I shall not elaborate, but I have a feeling that the TCP programmes of FAO can also be used for taking the next step after the early warning. The early warning is the first step, the next step should not be wait to see what can be done, apart from gathering food from the surplus countries and so on, but initiate steps to minimize the effect of adverse climate. The need for applied climate services cannot be over emphasized. In fact: a recent world climate conference held in Geneva, partially with the help of FAO, has clearly brought out the fact that there is considerable knowledge available today to provide more detailed applied climate services in developing countries. The developed countries are better off here, but in the developing countries there is need for a great deal of effort. I would hope that FAO and WMO together will take follow-up action in terms of stimulating the growth of agro-meteorology in developing countries.

The second factor which I mentioned was the pest epidemics and I was happy that this morning the Director-General stressed very considerably the desert locusts and trypanosomiasis and many other diseases. Here again is an area where many times national effort alone will not be adequate. We have the example of the wheat rust situation, India, North-west India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and so on where coordinated action alone can have the maximum benefit. The brown plant hopper menace in the whole of Asia with the introduction of the new dwarf plant types is becoming a very serious threat to the rice crop and these are also carried by, atmospheric winds. So I would suggest that the idea of the desert locust control concept must now be enlarged to cover major rice pests like the brown plant hopper .which, from Indonesia to Pakistan is now facting a grave threat to the rice crop, the wheat rust and so on.,.

The third factor is the public policy issue and we shall be discussing it and I will come to it when we deal with food security, but one cannot underestimate the crucial role of public policies, particularly in the area of post-harvest technology of processing, marketing, pricing. This is why we are lucky that the FAO have given considerable emphasis to post-harvest losses, but apart from that, pricing and marketing, a price that is reasonable to the consumer and remunerative to the grower is becoming a very important task in terms of stimulating national farm production.

I would therefore once again compliment FAO on its good paper. I would like to suggest that we should not assume an air of helplessness and waiting for an impending disaster, saying that so many countries will be affected and so on, but should proceed from the very purpose of the early warning which is to take early action to mitigate the harmful effects of that particular warning message, and I hope that this can also be done, and that the FAO Council will give some serious attention when we come to programmes and budget. I would like to suggest we must enhance FAO's capability to assist those nations which are affected by early warning systems to mitigate possible harm to crops and farm animals in addition to the human population.

G. BULA HOYOS (Colombia) : La delegación de Colombia interviene con mucho desaliento en la discusión de este tema 4» En cada una de las sesiones de nuestro Consejo, cuando consideramos la situación actual de la alimentación en el mundo, el cuadro lamentable es el mismo; en nuestros informes consignamos las mismas preocupaciones y solemos hacer los mismos llamados.

Desde hace muchísimos anos, así concluye siempre la discusión de este punto; luego volvemos al siguiente período del Consejo y el cuadro es el mismo, tal como lo ha dicho con.elocuencia y conocimiento nuestro colega de la India y como lo confirman plenamente los documentos CL 75/2 y su Suplemento 1.

En opinión de la delegación de Colombia, esto demuestra que subsiste la carencia de voluntad política por parte de los países desarrollados, que tienen los poderes y los medios para contribuir a modificar esa situación, y además que el esfuerzo que viene haciendo la Comunidad Internacional no ha producido aún resultados suficientemente concretos, lo cual exige que intensifiquemos esos esfuerzos.

No obstante estas consideraciones para cumplir con la práctica de /?/ ejercicio queremos empezar por el Suplemento 1 del documento breve que se nos ha entregado recientemente, en el cual se dice que los elementos fundamentales contenidos en el documento básico siguen siendo válidos, es decir, que entre abril de este ano y el momento actual, la situación para los países en desarrollo no han cambiado. Si cambio se registra una ligera alza en la estimación correspondiente a los países desarrollados, y se alzan un poco las previsiones sobre la producción mundial de trigo y cereales para 1979t al paso que al final de esta primera página del Suplemento 1 se dice que en el Canadá y en los Estados Unidos se van a reducir áreas cultivables en la actualidad. Esa reducción de áreas cultivadas, como es natural, afectará a los precios, pero además está en contraposición con lo que recomienda el Comité de Agricultura en un documento que estudiaremos más adelante, segun el cual en vista de la situación difícil e incierta de la agricultura en el mundo, es necesario aumentar el área cultivable y no reducirla como proponen estos dos países poderosos.

En la parte final del Suplemento 1, donde se habla de los problemas comerciales, el panorama es igual mente desolador para los países en desarrollo Las Negociaciones Comerciales Multilaterales del GATT continúan todavía y su desenlace es incierto» Es justo reconocer que se ha llegado a una serie de acuerdos sobre las barreras no arancelarias; pero el documento dice muy claramente en forma textual que: "Sin embargo, diversos temas cruciales para los países en desarrollo siguen sin resolver". Es decir, las esperanzas y las inquietudes de los países menos desarrollados continúan en su mismo punto.

La Delegación de Colombia considera que en nuestro informe debemos destacar los puntos fundamentales que sobresalen del documento básico CL 75/2, que a nuestre juicio son los siguientes : la situación alimentaria mundial continúa siendo incierta» las tendencias a largo plazo de la producción de alimentos en los países en desarrollo son insuficientes. la incidencia del hambre y la malnutrición siguen sin disminuir» El mayor suministro de ayuda en alimentos y las buenas condiciones meteorológicas han sido loe dos únicos factores aleatorios que hacen menos dramática la situación: es decir, no se han logrado mejoras estables ni permanentes que garanticen el crecimiento continuado de la producción de alimentos en los países en desarrollo

En efecto, en las naciones menos desarrolladas durante el período de sesiones 1977-78, apenas se logró el promedio anual del 3,0 que corresponde a la misma cifra de los anos 60, muy por debajo del 4 por ciento previsto para el segundo decenio de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; es decir, en ves de avanzar vamos hacia atrás»

Después de mas de cuatro anos las negociaciones para reemplazar el acuerdo internacional del trigo han sido suspendidas indefinidamente.

Sobre el Plan de Acción de Cinco Puntos propuesto por Director General nos referiremos más adelante cuando se discuta el. Tema 5, Mientras tanto en los países en desarrollo las reservas alimentarias están muy por debajo de los objetivos fijados, además todos los poderes y decisiones sobre esa seguridad alimentaria están en manos y a discreción de los países desarrollados, En efecto nos dice el documento que más de la mitad de las reservas se encuentran en poder de los Estados Unidos y del Canadá, Los precios serán regulados por esos mismos países a través del mecanismo de retiros temporales del mercado.

Han aumentado las ayudas alimentarias, pero en proporción muy modestas con las importaciones que lian debido realizar los países en desarrollo; ha disminuido la contribución de los países donantes al Plan Internacional de Suministro de Fertilizantes de la FAO. Seguramente para seguir este mismo juego cuando lleguemos al tema 7 y discutamos el informe de la Comisión de Fertilizantes tendremos que hacer in nuevo llamado con los resultados que siempre se obtienen.

Creemos que va bien el programa de acción de la FAO para la prevenoión de pérdidas de alimentos. Sobre este programa apoyamos el énfasis que se está dando a los proyectos, en los cuales son beneficiarios los campesinos pobres. Esto está en consonancia con la política agropecuaria del actual Gobierno de Colombia,

La Sección del Comercio Internacional y Precios concluye con la afirmación de que a más largo plazo existe una tendencia descendente en el porcentaje correspondiente a los países en desarrollo en los ingresos totales por exportaciones agrícolas.

Por otra parte, se prevé que los países en desarrollo importarán la cifra récord de 77 millones de toneladas de cereales durante 1978-79• En medio de ese panorama poco alentador, hay un signo de confianza, y es el acuerdo sobre la intensificación de elementos fundamentales del Fondo Coman para financiar un programa integrado de productos. Esperamos que las negociaciones en curso obtengan buenos resultados ,

Finalmente la delegación de Colombia condena con toda energía y decisión el resurgimiento del proteccionismo, contra el que ya hemos agotado nuestros argumentos.

Hemos querido, señor Presidente, en nuestra intervención destacar algunos elementos esenciales de estos documentos; veremos después de nuestros debates cómo aparece todo esto en nuestro informe, y, naturalmente, el ano entrante volveremos a discutir de nuevo este asunto,

D. WARE (Canada): Since this is the first opportunity that the Canadian delegation has had to speak I would like to say how pleased we are to have you with us as our Chairman again. We know that under your guidance and that of the three Vice-Chairmen who have been elected and the Chairman of the Drafting Committee we will have a most constructive session of the Council.

I would like to turn now to the two documents under consideration. Frankly, we are pleased with some of the encouraging signs that are brought forward in them, to show that the development of the world food situation is improving, while we fully recognize also and accept the cautions and the concerns at the lack of real gains in many countries, especially in many of the MSA countries. We agree with Professor Islam that with respect to the current situation for 1979 it is of course too early to make any firm forecast. But looking at CL 75/2-Sup.l it is quite correct, Canadian plantings are amongst those delayed due to unusually wet springtime conditions. Cold wet weather had delayed the seeding in the Canadian provinces and may result in some farmers switching out of grains into rapeseed, barley and flaxseed. The areas sown to various crops could vary considerably from the March 1979 farming intentions. Farmers in our country make their own individual planting decisions based on their needs, based on their farm situation, and certainly it is not government policy to indicate cutting down production.

In examining document CL 75/2, in fisheries we note that the introduction of Exclusive Economic Zones is affecting production patterns and agree that in the long run this should lead to more stable production conditions for the fisheries. This emphasis on Exclusive Economic Zones was also mentioned by the Director-General this morning in his comprehensive address and this is an area of work which Canada fully supports.

Again looking at the document before us, we have taken note of the comments by the Secretariat concerning the strains on our producers' rail and port facilities. It is quite correct that we have experienced some difficultires in Canada in this area but these are being solved now by better rationalization of our transportation system and the addition of new rolling stock.

We are frankly quite confident that we will be able to maintain Canada's long tradition of fulfilment of its international obligations in the food and agriculture sector.

One point that concerns us in the document is the figures reporting the carryover of cereal stocks. We feel that this should be distinguished by the type of grain and stocks a little finer in the sense that ample supplies of corn which have been listed are often not fully utilizable by many of the developing countries because of their eating habits, as you well know.

In conclusion, Canada is pleased with the Secretariat's document. They have produced the most useful and relevant statement and I agree with the delegate of India when he says that adequate price policies are really one of the major keys to increased food production.

D. NSABIMANA (Rwanda): Comme c'est la première fois que ma délegation prend la parole, je voudrais joindre ma voix ft celle des orateurs qui m'ont précédé pour vous exprimer notre joie de voir comment voue dirigez les travaux de la présente session. Je profite de cette occasion également pour présenter mes félicitations aux trois vice-présidents qui ont été désignés et nous espérons qu'ils apporteront du nouveau dans notre organisation, compte tenu de leur compétence et de leur expérience respectives.

Ceci dit, la délégation rwandaise remercie vivement le Directeur général de la FAO ainsi que les membres du secrétariat pour la clarté et l'abondance des renseignements présentés dans le document portant sur la situation alimentaire mondiale. En effet, nul ne peut mieux présenter la situation alimentaire mondiale sans évoquer tous les points présentés dans celui-ci. Cependant, la délégation rwandaise, tout en en appuyant les grandes lignes, voudrait faire certaines observations» Il ressort de ce document que pendant la campagne 1978/79 (page 16) on observe une croissance des nouvelles disponibilités alimentaires en stocks céréaliers, et ceci a môme été reconnu par les membres du Comité des politiques et programmes lors de la-dernière session. Cependant, le taux de croissance démographique actuel dans les pays en développement ne cesse d'augmenter et ces pays ont besoin de l'aide alimentaire plus que quiconque. Aussi, compte tenu de cela, face â cette situation, la délégation rwan. daise pense que les pays donateurs, ceux industrialisés surtout, devraient - et ceci dans le cadre de la solidarité internationale - augmenter leurs contributions pour le Programme alimentaire mondial»

Elle pense aussi que les pays tels que l'URSS et la Chine, qui sont de grands producteurs de céréales et d'autres produits alimentaires, devraient faire partie du Programme alimentaire mondial afin de mieux participer â l'oeuvre internationale de lutte contre la faim par tous les voies et les moyens»

S'agissant toujours du problème de stocks alimentaires mondiaux, la délégation rwandaise partage son inquiétude avec le secrétariat quant â la forte concentration des mêmes stocks dans une môme zone géographique et elle propose que des dispositions urgentes, dynamiques et appropriées, soient prises au niveau international de façon ft décentraliser ces stocks alimentaires mondiaux»

S'agissant de la méthodologie de l'expression des engagements de l'aide alimentaire en nature (pages 18 et 19), ma délégation pense qu'il faudrait une fois pour toutes adopter une méthode basée sur le tonnage et non basée sur la valeur, compte tenu des fluctuations monétaires actuelles que tout le monde connaìt bien. Ceci aura pour effet, à moyen et à long terme, pour une même période budgétaire, la-nain* tien des ressources du Programme alimentaire mondial et de la Réserve pour la sécurité alimentaire mondiale.

Pour ce qui est de la fixation du niveau des engagements, ou plus encore de la programmation des engagements, la délégation rwandaise pense que cette programmation devrait se baser sur les besoins des pays bénéficiaires exprimés ou déjà programmés.

S'agissant du programme d'action pour la sécurité alimentaire mondiale présenté par le Directeur général de la FAO, ma délégation appuie totalement ses principes directeurs et comme ce point fera. l'objet d'un examen mentionné ft l'ordre du jour, elle se garde de tout commentaire pour l'instant et demandera la parole au moment opportun.

3. agissant de l'ajournement des négociât ions sur l'Arrangement international pour remplacer en fait l'Accord international sur le blé de 1971 ma délégation est très inquiète quant ft l'avenir de la séourité mondiale et espère que la présente session dégagera des recommandations assess fermes pour une reprise urgente de ces négociations. On se demande si, dans cet ordre d'idées, le nouvel arrangement ne pourrait pas s'étendre sur d'autres produits alimentaires autres que les céréales afin de mieux garantir l'équilibre alimentaire international.

Enfin, je ne voudrais pas terminer sur ce problème sans parler du problème des investissements dans le secteur agricole des pays en développement.

Je partage entièrement l'avis du secrétariat quant â l'évolution faible du volume d'investissements dans le secteur agricole dans les pays en développement. Cependant, je voudrais souligner que dans la plupart des cas la faute n'est pas de ces pays mêmes étant donné que l'appui financier de leur développement intégral est largement tributaire du monde extérieur. Aussi, il convient de souligner ici que la FAO devrait lancer un appel ferme â tous les pays, organismes et institutions participant â l'effort de développement des pays en développement, surtout les plus pauvres et les moins avancés, pour qu'ils accroissent la part réservée au développement agricole en participant aux objectifs d'augmentation de la production agricole et animale.

I. OZORAI (Hungary): Not taking into consideration the brief intervention in the election procedure, this is the first time my delegation is given the floor, so may I therefore extend my sincere congratulations to the three Vice-chairmen elected, and may I say how happy we are, Mr. Chairman, to have you in the Chair once again at our Council Session.

The World Food situation remains uncertain despite some improvements in food supply. This recurrent statement once again is introduced by the report on the current world food situation in document CL 75/2. The document and the additional information supplied in Sup. 1 are comprehensive and concise indeed, offering an excellent basis for discussion. One really cannot blame the report for not being able to take a less dim view of recent developments than in the previous year. Despite the positive aspects in food production in the last year, the rate of growth in food production in developing countries was still far from the target figures, and MSA countries once again experienced a lower increase than the average of the developing countries. In other words, not only has the original gap in food production and supply existing between developed and developing countries remained unchanged, but the rather dangerous situation of the MSA countries has further deteriorated. If food imports were accepted as parameters for the food gap, this gap trebled in fifteen years and was likely to increase even at a faster pace in the next fifteen years.

I do not feel it my duty to expand on the standpoint of my government on the origins, evolution and possible solutions of the food crisis in a good number of countries. This standpoint, I suppose, is well known. May I only state that the longer and deeper adverse conditions in developing countries maintain their course, the greater emphasis we need to put the responsibility and the means to a lasting solution to this problem in the hands of the countries concerned to which the international community is giving valuable assistance.

I would like to raise one point which I feel is pertinent to an Agenda item we are discussing. This refers to the allocation of resoutces to food production in developing countries with special emphasis on MSA countries. The relevant chapter of the paper before us suggests that agriculture in the developing countries and particularly in the poorest ones did not have high priority in investment. I would say that in spite of the poor statistical representation, this statement would prove to be true in the overwhelming majority of the developing countries and perhaps in all of the MSA countries.

From other sources it is known that international agencies like the World Bank, etc., are allocated about half of their funds to develop agriculture in the developing countries. Hungary stated its concern about the scanty information FAO's governing bodies actually have on agricultural investments in the developing countries already at the 74th Session of the FAO Council in December last year. I should like to repeat this concern.

The hesitation of many governments in developing countries to give greater attention to agriculture and food production and to grant a higher priority to allocations is well known.

Being fully aware of the limited resources, we still think every forum should be utilized to call on the governments concerned to give greater attention to agriculture. I think this is the same issue India referred to as public policy.

A number of studies have tried to identify and to quantify investment requirements for food production in developing countries. There is a considerable variety of estimates made by FAO, the World Bank, the IFPRI, etc. A fair average guess would be a yearly investment requirement of about US$ 14 billion at

1975 prices to all developing countries and of about US$ 6 billion per year for the 35 countries with a per capita income below US$ 200/per year. Should the investments fall short of these targets, the food gap is likely to widen even further. It is only obvious to state that without an active interest and full involvement in the food production by the governments concerned, and if I may add, without full attention towards proper means to improve their agricultural infrastructure, there is little hope to achieve these results.

My delegation learned with satisfaction that FAO is about to increase the programme aiming at a very practical approach to the production needs of the developing countries.

Finally, may I say how deeply Hungary appreciates the address this morning of the Director-General. Dr. Saouma's introduction was not only clear, frank and comprehensive but at the same time it was deeply human too, and reflected the action-oriented approach he introduced into this Organization in improving the world food situation. The Director-General and his staff may count on the full support of my Government in this programme.

L.V. BORGES da FONSECA (Brazil): My delegation would like to make a few brief observations in connexion with the report on the current world food situation as presented in the document we have before us, CL 75/2. We consider this to be a concise but extremely precise and well-done document. We do not pretend to elaborate or make detailed comments on it but call the attention of the Council to those we think are some of the most important items it deals with, always having in mind the strengthening of the world food situation in general and especially in developing countries.

With this in mind, it is with great concern that we read in the summary on the first page of this document the assertion that the second United Nations Development Decade target of a 4 percent rate of growth in the food production of developing countries will not be achieved and that the level of the rate of growth for 1970-78 will equal that of the 1960s, that is to say, around 3 percent.

Furthermore, we do not know if the deterioration of the agricultural terms of trade of the developing countries has also been taken into consideration in comparison with the two levels referred to. We sincerely hope that they have been, otherwise the real level of the rate of growth would be even lower.

However, the most important conclusions stated in the document is the one we read in the second paragraph on page 2, which refers to the per caput supplies of dietary energy in the developing market economies, which as stated, "declined between 1969-71 and 1972-74, and the number of undernourished people in these countries rose from about 400 million to 450 million".

With this situation in mind, the reduction of the commitment for food aid in the biennium 1978-79, which is far below the minimum target of 10 million tons and well below the levels at the beginning of the 1970's, as well as the expectancy that the increase in imports of cereals in the developing countries will attain a record of 77 million tons. In the light of the information given in Table 8, page 15, with all these facts the international community of this Council cannot in the opinion of my delegation but express its great concern with the food situation in developing countries in the near future. However, if the situation described in this document is not one for rejoicing, we can nonetheless not consider it to be completely negative. Indeed, it is with satisfaction that we see in the very beginning of page 8, progress made in the field of fishery on the part of developing countries which we think would be greatly favoured by the extension of international jurisdiction over fishery by coastal countries.

It is also with satisfaction my delegation takes note of what is done by FAO in order to achieve the reduction of food losses as described in page 16 of the document.

Finally, we would like to express our deep thanks to the Secretariat who have prepared this very comprehensive document - and, as I have said before, a very concise one.

We would like also to refer to the last paragraph on the item related to pests and diseases where reference is made to the situation of African swine fever in my country. My delegation on this subject would like to state that the action undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture with the cooperation received from several countries under the technical cooperation programme was extremely successful.

According to our governmental information on this matter dated May 2nd 1979, a copy of which was sent to the Animal and Health Division of FAO, the plague was eradicated in 15 states in Brazil and infestation has been restricted to only two states. Today I can assure you the plague is under complete control.

S.A. PERVEZ (Pakistan): First of all, I would like to take this opportunity of expressing our pleasure in seeing you in the Chair. We have been impressed by the manner in which you have handled meetings of the Council which you have presided over and feel confident you will be able to steer this important session to a successful conclusion.

We congratulate the three Vice-Chairmen elected to this Session. It is a matter of pride for us that our Alternate Permanent Representative to FAO has been elected as Chairman of the. Drafting Committee.

I would also like to congratulate members of the Drafting Committee and wish them every success in their important and responsible task. Their election is recognition of the confidence the Council rests in them.

We would also like to thank Mr. Islam for his lucid and comprehensive introduction to document 75/2 which we have read with great interest and would like to compliment the Secretariat on presenting a comprehensive picture of the world food and agriculture situation.

Generally, we agree with the assessment of the current food situation. However, we note that already there are certain disturbing developments. According to Food Outlook No. 5 of 1979 dated 29th May 1979, wheat and grain production has deteriorated somewhat and the FAO forecast has been lowered further to 1.132 million tons - 5 per cent less than last year's record and 3 per cent below the long-term trend. It is estimated that world wheat and coarse grain production will not be sufficient to meet the consumption requirements in 1979/80 and it would be necessary to draw upon the present ample stocks. According to other estimates, the brisk demand and latest crop expectations are continuing to create the tightest world grain market since 1979. Experts feel that the result will be firm prices through next spring, despite the large grain reserve generated by last year's crop. This is only a polite way of saying that developing importing countries will have to pay higher prices, and with imports likely to go up by 8.5 million tons to a record of 77 million tons in 1978/79. This will amount to quite a bill and many developing countries with balance of payment problems will find themselves in a difficult situation.

The threat of desert locust in parts of Africa and Asia hangs, like a sword of Damocles over the heads of affected countries. The problem needs urgent attention in all its aspects, both physical and financial.

It is said that fertilizer consumption in the developing market economies continues to recover, but this recovery may be short-lived in view of the energy crisis. Prices are already rising. Higher prices coupled with higher freight rates may make it even more difficult for MSA countries to obtain adequate fertilizer supplies - a key input to increase agricultural production. Unfortunately, fertilizer assistance has remained much below the level called for by the seventh Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly. Fertilizer aid channeled through IFS continues to decline. From a figure of 103 thousand tons in 1974/75 it has dropped to 59 thousand tons in 1977/78. However, we must thank the Government of the U.K., for their abiding support to this scheme.

A word about the situation in Pakistan. Despite last year's adverse circumstances and poor crop we did not slacken our efforts and continued to strive towards the goal of self-sufficiency in wheat. Various incentives were offered to the farmers: water charges on additional area brought under wheat cultivation were remitted; the procurement price was raised from RS 99.12 per quintal to Rs. 120.60 per quintal; fertilizer prices were reduced and its availability ensured; varieties susceptible to rust attack which had caused unprecedented damage were withdrawn and new varieties introduced. We expect the current crop to be in the neighbourhood of 9.5 million tons.

We have also embarked upon a vigorous programme to effectively contain the locust and pest attack which has too often resulted in damage to our crops. We are determined to do our best in this regard and welcomed FAO assistance that was regularly forthcoming when needed. We are indeed grateful for it.

At the same time, efforts are being made to increase the production of rice. Which is not the staple food in my country, but which is in great demand in certain parts of the world. By 1982/83 we will, God willing, be in a position to spare one million tons of rice each year to ease the world situation.

All this requires increased financial resources to exploit our full potential. We are gratified to note that official commitments of external assistance has increased substantially and concessional assistance is shifting in favour of the poorest countries, but it is only about half of what is required. Unfortunately, available resources are being diverted towards the import of food grains rather than being spent on requisites necessary for exploiting the potential of some developing countries. Rising prices of grains and inputs both join together to erode financial resources, increasing the dependence of these countries to an even greater extent on developed nations. Under these circumstances, it is imperative that liberal external assistance should be provided to the developing nations and at least the targets fixed by the World Food Conference be met.

Lastly, a word about food security, food aid. We were disappointed at the indefinite adjournment of the United Nations negotiating conference on an International Wheat Agreement of 1971, but have been heartened by the Director-General's bold initiative in proposing the 5-point Plant of Action for implementing the International Undertaking on World Food Security of a voluntary basis without further delay. The 5-point Plan of Action has been widely acclaimed and we hope that it fills the void left by the adjournment of the Negotiating Conference.

The examination of this document has become somewhat of a routine. Developing countries highlight their difficulties and stress their solution. Developed countries express their sympathy with the plight of the developing countries and that is about all. Take just one exemple relating to food aid. In 1976 the position in document CL 70/2 was as follows:

"Food aid recovered to 9.3 million tons in 1975/76 but this is somewhat below the 10 million tons agreed by the World Food Conference and this Seventh Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly as a minimum target. Higher level of food aid would lessen the need for other special measures for the MSA countries to obtain their food imports requirements".

Now, in 1979 almost three years later, the document under consideration has thus to say about food aid:

"Although food aid shipments of cereals have recovered in recent years, commitments for 1978/79 are again short of the World Food Conference target of 10 million tons and well below the levels of food aid at the beginning of 1979. The level of food aid also appears modest in relation to the total cereal imports of the developing countries which are expected to increase by 8.5 million to a record of 77 million tons in 1978/79."

It appears that in so far as food aid is concerned time has stood still. We could give similar other examples. This is not meant as criticism but merely to serve as a reminder that in spite of all that has been said and done and the word spoken and written, precious little improvement has actually taken place. We hope that the picture would be brighter in future and they can now be referred to as an imperative need for the future.

MAPELA NGA-MA (Zaire): Ma délégation voudrait elle aussi féliciter le Secrétariat pour la qualité du document que nous examinons. Nous félicitons par la même occasion le Professeur Islam pour la présentation de ce document. Toutefois, nous éprouvons quelques difficultés à accepter ce qui est dit au par. 2 de la section interne sur la production alimentaire, paragraphe qui figure à la page 4 du document dans le texte français. Il y est dit que c'est l'Afrique qui a enregistré le plus fort accroissement de la production vivrière parmi toutes les régions en développement. Nous pensons qu'en effet il s'agit là d'une déduction faite à partir de quelques données statistiques, fragmentaires et surestimées et qui traduisent une situation qui est quelque peu en contradiction avec la réalité. La réalité c'est ce qui a été souligné en septembre de la même année 1978, à Arusha, lors de la dixième Conférence régionale de la FAO pour l'Afrique, à savoir que depuis les années 1970 l'Afrique est restée en arrière des autres régions en développement dans les domaines de la production et des disponibilités alimentaires.

Sa production vivrière n'a même pas suivi le rythme de la croissance démographique, et le taux d'accroissement annuel moyen de sa production alimentaire entre 1970 et 1977 n'a même pas atteint la moitié du taux atteint dans toute autre région en développement pendant la période correspondante.

Je voudrais signaler au Secrétariat, pour mémoire, que ce que je viens de dire est écrit notamment au par. 2 du Résumé des conclusions et au par. 10 de l' Introduction dans le document (ce n'est pas le document présenté) intitulé: "Plan alimentaire régional pour l'Afrique", document qui a été examiné à la dixième réunion régionale pour notre région. A la page 3 il est écrit que "la-part des pays en développement dans les exportations totales de produits agricoles a légèrement augmenté en 1977, etc". Nous pensons, au sujet de cette légère augmentation concernant cette part de l'exportation des produits agricoles des pays en développement, qu'il doit s'agir là, à notre avis, d'une augmentation en volume et non en valeur monétaire. Ceci étant, ma délégation voudrait saisir cette occasion pour remercier le Programme alimentaire mondial et la FAO pour l'aide alimentaire qu'ils ont bien voulu accorder à mon pays à la suite de la sécheresse qui a frappé une bonne partie du pays, ainsi que lors du retour dans notre pays de plusieurs de nos compatriotes qui avaient émigré par suite de la guerre. Nous remercions également les gouvernements de tous les pays amis qui nous ont aidés durant ces moments difficiles. Pour terminer, ma délégation souscrit à ce qui a été présenté par le délégué de l'Inde en ce qui concerne la nécessité d'utiliser efficacement les systèmes d'alerte rapide sur la situation alimentaire mondiale.

Enfin, et à part les quelques remarques que je viens de faire, nous appuyons dans toutes ses grandes lignes l'analyse du document faite par le Secrétariat.

CO. KELLER SARMIENTO (Argentina): Vaya en primer lugar mi saludo de bienvenida a usted y a decirle cuánta alegría nos da tenerle otra vez entre nosotros. Mi felicitación a los 3 Vicepresidentes elegidos por el Consejo, Filipinas, Arabia Saudita y Bélgica se extiende asimismo en esta oportunidad desde nuestra primera intervención.

El documento CL 75/2 y Suplemento 1 informa adecuadamente sobre los aspectos más salientes de la situación actual de la alimentación en el mundo. Vemos con preocupación el incremento de situaciones de urgencia surgidas en los últimos meses y la necesidad de que, pese al amiento registrado en 1978 en la producción de alimentos -de un escaso 3%- existen aún fundados motivos de preocupación en lograr el objetivo de crecimiento del 4% previsto en la Estrategia internacional de desarrollo para el Segundo Decenio de las Naciones Unidas.

Si bien es alentador el aumento registrado en la producoión de cereales, alrededor del 7% en 1978, lamentamos que la primera previsión de la PAD para 1979 señale una disminución de alrededor del 5% con respecto a las cifras de 1978.

Las reoientes disposiciones adoptadas en el objetivo y promesas de contribuciones formuladas en la reunión celebrada por el Comité de Políticas y programas de ayuda alimentaria permite elaborar un cauto optimismo sobre la capacidad de la comunidad internacional de reaccionar a situaciones de emergencia.

Si bien comprendemos las prioridades que deben otorgárseles a los países más gravemente afectados y menos desarrollados, entendemos que no deben descartarse la ayuda a proyectos tendientes a incrementar la producción en el resto de los países en desarrollo, ya que en virtud de sus posibilidades y el factor multiplicador que significa para una economía en expansión el estimular mediante tecnología e inversión, que generalmente no dispone en abundancia, su estructura productiva, redunda en beneficios mayores que la misma adjudicación de recursos pudiera hacer suponer.

En el capítulo correspondiente a plagas y enfermedades del documento CL 75/2, en que se menciona la langosta del desierto y la fiebre porcina africana, debería también incluirse entre las actividades prioritarias de la FAO, la asistencia a la lucha contra otras plagas, como la aftosa, que tantos inconvenientes y pérdidas de proteínas ocasiona en diversos países en desarrollo productores.

En lo que respecta a la situación de los principales productos en 1978, y perspectivas para 1979 correspondientes a la República Argentina, las cifras e información otorgadas en noviembre último en oportunidad del 74° período de sesiones del Consejo no ha sufrido mayores variaciones y me limitaré a destacar las principales por estimar se trate de una información de interés para este Consejo. Trigo: Para la campaña agrícola 78-791 la producción total de trigo ascendió a 8 100 000 toneladas, lo que es un 53% superior respecto al período anterior. Esto se debió a una mayor área bajo cultivo y buenas condiciones climáticas. Esta producción superó asimismo los niveles promedios de los períodos de 1974 a 78 en un 8% y significó un aumento efectivo para esta campaña de 2 8000 000 toneladas. Se cultivaron 5 230 000 hectáreas y el rendimiento fue de 1 729 kilos//hectárea. Maíz: En esta campaña agrícola 78-79, la producoión fue de 9 millones de toneladas y si bien es un 7% inferior a la excelente cosecha de 77/78, que fue de 9 700 000 toneladas, supera los promedios del quinquenio y decenio últimos en alrededor del 8%. La falta de lluvias y fuertes calores que predominaron en el período crítico de la floraoión, han incidido en manera adversa en los rendimientos, haciendo que el volumen cosechado total sea inferior en un 15% al de la oampaña anterior. Se cosechó el 86% del área sembrada, unas 2 840,000 Ha, oon un rendimiento de 3 169 Kg por Ha, bastante inferior a los 3 647 Kg por Ha del ejeroicio anterior. Sorgo granifero: La oampaña 1978/79 produjo 7 000 000 de Tn.: esto fue una ligera flexión dei 3% con relación a la campaña anterior, pero un aumento en relaoión a los últimos quinquenios y decenios del 18% y 46% respectivamente. Soja: Las últimas estimaciones permiten auspiciar una cosecha de alrededor de 3 800 000 Tn para esta campaña, lo que significa alrededor de un 65% de aumento con respecto al ejercicio pasado, que fue de 2 5ÓO 000 Tn. Este producto está incrementando su aceptación entre los productores en forma significativa, ya que esta producción supera los niveles de los últimos quinquenios y decenio en un 187% y 429% respectivamente. Arroz: Se estima que la producción para la campaña agrícola 1978/79 será de 326 000 Tn, cifra un 5% mayor al ciclo precedente.

Por último, en esta parte estadística señalaremos que la cosecha gruesa para este período se mantendrá en las mismas cifras -alrededor de 21 500 000 Tn que en el período anterior.

La cosecha fina, en cambio, se estima en 9 920 000 Tn, lo que es un incremento del 36%. La producción total de cereales del país para esta campaña se estima en 31 440 000 Tn, lo que es un 7,8% superior al período anterior.

En lo que respecta al comercio internacional y precios, vemos con preocupación la falta de reacción de los países industrializados y bloques de países a los constantes llamamientos de suspender las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias que han adoptado contra la producción de los países en desarrollo. Se defienden así producciones ineficientes que luego, por no poder ser absorbidas por sus propios mercados, son lanzadas al mercado internacional, fuertemente subvencionadas por sociedades ricas que se pueden permitir afrontar estos costos, en desigual competencia con producciones de países en desarrollo, que no sólo se ven impedidos en su acceso a dichos mercados de alto poder adquisitivo, sino que deben además afrontar desleales competencias en sus mercados tradicionales.

Mientras no se apliquen las leyes del comercio libre y no se levanten los proteccionismos y la producción altamente subvencionada, no será posible incrementar la producción de alimentos de una manera que sea satisfactoria y pueda enfrentar con éxito los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición.

En este sentido, apoyamos la condena al proteccionismo formulada por el distinguido Representante Permanente de Colombia.

Apoyamos plenamente lo expresado por el Profesor Nuri Islam en la introducción del tema sobre la necesidad de dar cada vez mayor relevancia a la cooperación técnica y econòmica entre los países en desarrollo.

Este es un campo vasto y amplio de aoción para FAO con promisorias perspectivas para el incremento sustancial de la producción de alimentos. Creemos que es esencial una cada vez mayor dedicación de recursos por parte de la FAO en este tema de la cooperación entre países en desarrollo, pues abre cada vez mayores posibilidades al logro de resultados positivos para el buen resultado de los objetivos de nuestra Organización.

La República Argentina es un país en desarrollo, gran productor de alimentos y en el curso de su historia ha dado hospitalidad a inmigrantes provenientes de todos los pueblos, las razas y religiones del mundo, que han emprendido el largo viaje hacia el sur para instalarse a cultivar sus praderas y sembrar sus extensas planicies.

Ese mismo espíritu de universalidad, prima en la política de producción de alimentos, fruto principal de su actividad económica. Y el resultado de esa política abierta de producción y de esfuerzo está a disposición de la comunidad internacional para colaborar oon los hermanos países en mitigar el hombre y la malnutrición. En ese sentido, no escatimará esfuerzos en alentar todos los incrementos que sea posible a la producción de cereales y alimentos.

Pero para ello, puede tenerse en cuenta la necesidad de mantener latentes los estímulos productivos necesarios para alentar una cada vez mayor producción, sobre todo cuando se ciernen graves incerti-dumbres en el panorama internacional, tal como lo señala el documento CL 75/2.

Y uno de esos estímulos es sin duda la capacidad de acceso a los mercados, lo que determinará una mayor adecuación de precios.

En ese sentido, mi delegación formula votos para una mayor comprensión por parte de los países in-duatrialisadoa, lo que permitirá la posibilidad de un acceso al objetivo fijado en la necesidad de un nuevo orden económico internacional. Expresamos nuestra mayor simpatía y nuestra disponibilidad para considerar las valiosas iniciativas formuladas por el Sr. Director General en su brillante alocución de esta mañana y nos referiremos específicamente a cada una de ellas con mayor detenimiento al tratarse en nuestro tenario.

J,A. LEIVA (El Salvador): Quisiera en esta oportunidad manifestar que mi país participa por primera vez en el debate y como miembro del Consejo de la FAO, por lo cual me permito manifestar la complacencia por la elección de la Mesa y por el buen inicio que ha tenido la reunión con el discurso inaugural clarificador del Director General, que constituye un marco de referencia sobre el cual centrar nuestras intervenciones.

En relación al documento objeto de la sesión de esta tarde, CL 75/2t nos parece que es un documento bastante claro y bastante completo que constituye una radiografía, una fotografía de la situación actual alimentaria en el mundo, el cual, indudablemente, tiene que reflejar lo que está ocurriendo y debe servir de base fundamentalmente para todas las acciones que puedan realizarse en el futuro y que tienen una relación bastante estrecha con el Programa de Labores y Presupuesto 1980-81, que tendremos oportunidad en este evento de analizar posteriormente.

Dentro del documento referido nos llama la atención la parte relacionada con la producción de alimentos, principalmente la producción de cereales obtenida durante 1978 y su comportamiento, o el resultado de la comparación con respecto a la previsión de cereales para 19791 lo cual, como es del conocimiento de ustedes refleja un decremento del 5 por ciento, lo cual, obviamente, es preocupante, reconociendo también que estas son cifras presentadas a nivel mundial y que en algunos países podrían variar hacia arriba o hacia abajo.

Lógicamente la producción de cereales obtenida durante 1978, tal como lo establece y lo reconoce el documento en cuestión, ha sido influido o determinado por las excepcionales condiciones metereológi-cas que prevalecieron y que en estos momentos no podemos asegurar que serán las mismas para la próxima campaña. Indiscutiblmenete todavía no tenemos los elementos adecuados como para poder predecir el tiempo y que nos permita asegurar las metas establecidas en cuanto a la producción de alimentos: pero sí podemos llevar adelante una serie de medidas, una serie de acciones, una serie de programas a nivel de gobiernos que nos permitan superar las metas en cuanto a la producción de alimentos básicos.

Al respecto quisiera manifestar que nos complace mucho el Plan de Acción de Cinco Puntos, propuesto por el Director General, en vista de todos los atrasos ocurridos en cuanto a la sustitución del Convenio Internacional del Trigo de 1971 . Asimismo nos llama la atención que como produoto del conocimiento, como producto del diagnóstico en cuanto a plagas y enfermedades, se estén estableciendo todas las acciones para poder establecer un fondo de lucha para combatir la fiebre porcina africana.

A nivel de mi país ya hemos establecido contacto con FAO, a través de la Oficina National en El Salvador, para impulsar, aún más, todas las medidas de control que pueda establecer para combatir esta fiebre porcina africana.

Nos llama también la atención la información existente acerca de la pesca, principalmente en cuanto al programa vislumbrado de las zonas económicas exclusivas. A nivel de mi país estamos trabajando en la parte agropecuaria, pero también estamos realizando esfuerzos para poder desarrollar la faja costera, que es un recurso que nos va poder permitir proporcionar a la población, especialmente de bajos recursos, alimentos de origen animal, proteínas de origen animal, que puedan ayudarnos a comba-tir la desnutrición y que nos puedan ayudar también a diversificar o aumentar nuestras fuentes de trabajo y nuestras fuentes de alimentos.

Posteriormente mi delegación participará cuando se analicen ya los aspectos específicos relacionados con estos puntos de la producción de alimentos básicos.

KONG-CAN-DONG (China) (Interpretation from Chinese): Good harvests were reaped once again in the world's food and agricultural production in 1978. However, in certain areas food production decreased owing to natural disasters and food supplies fell short of requirements. The vast rural areas of the Third World countries continue to be poverty stricken. Such realities call on us to make unremitting efforts to improve the present situation.

In 1978, China's hundreds of millions of working people overcame frequent natural calamities and obtained a good harvest in food production. Increases were also recorded in the output of cotton, oilseeds and most other cash crops compared with the previous year. With the favourable turn in the national, economy life in the rural population has improved considerably. Food grain stocks in the peasants,hands rose by tens of millions of tons. The total area under wheat and other summer crops of the country this year is close to 30 million hectares, a little more than that of the previous year. So far the crops are growing well in most areas.

Since the founding of the People's Republic, Chinese food and agricultural production has developed considerably. However, during the past decade and more the development of Chinese agricultural production has been slow owing to the false subterfuge of long-vested effective policies in agriculture as well as shortcomings in our work. There still remains a large gap between our per capita output and consumption of grain, and that of the developed countries in the world. Our grain production is insufficient to meet the requirements of the modernization programme of the country. The life of our people stands in need of further improvement. Besides, as China is a vast area there are bound to be natural calamities of one kind or another in some parts of the country every year. Therefore we must continue to make efforts to develop food and agriculture production.

At present the political situation at home is stable. Our national economy in developing while being readjusted. We shall unswervingly carry out the policy of taking agriculture as the foundation of the national economy. The state, city and town, industries, science and education will all step up their technical support to agriculture. We shall further implement policies to promote the development of the rural economy, raise the procurement prices of farm produce and lower the selling price of industrial input for agriculture in a planned way, gradually increasing investment and loans in agriculture, try to alleviate the burden on the countryside and earnestly implement among commune members the socialist distribution principle of "to each according to his work" so as to further stimulate their enthusiasm for socialism.

Meanwhile, we must pay close attention to the technological transformation of agriculture, learn modestly from the advanced agricultural technique and mangement expertise of other countries and adopt the necessary measures to tap our rich agricultural resources in a planned way and step-by-step. We are determined to work together with the other Third World nations, learn from each others experience and support each other in striving for the establishment of a new International Economic Order in the food and agricultural sphere so as to facilitate the development of agriculture in all countries.

M. KRIESBERG (United States of America): I too would like to indicate my personal pleasure in seeing our distinguished Chairman in his position as Chairman, and also to acknowledge the vote of confidence in the three Vice-Chairmen that have been selected by the Council.

I would like to address myself to the paper at hand: We are in general agreement with the Secretariat's description of the current World Food situation. The situation is improved, but certainly this is no time to be complacent, particularly as the situation seems not to be improving among many of the MSA countries.

We would like to commend the Secretariat for devoting more attention to the analysis of internal agricultural investment in developing countries; the United States will continue to be interested in and be supportive of the Secretariat's on-going project to provide more in-depth analysis as it goes along on this very well worthwhile project. A number of analyses indicate the close relationship between internal investment in research and in policy matters, and the close relationship between these and increasing production within the developing countries.

I would like to make some further observations. As we examine this very excellent paper and its thorough analysis, we miss references to the impact on food production and distribution of petroleum and petroleum-derived products, such as fertilizers and diesel fuels. Rising petroleum prices will likely have a significant impact on food production and distribution in developed countries and in developing countries including the MSAs.

Another area in which my Government would welcome more information in the FAO report, is on the situation in the USSR and the People's Republic of China. Shortfalls, or for that matter bumper harvests, in grain production in either of these two large countries would have and could have widespread implications on orderly marketing of grain. We are pleased to have the favourable report on conditions in the People's Republic of China which has just been given to us by the Chinese Delegate.

Let me comment a little on some of the references to the situation in our country, primarily to provide an update which was not fully reflected in the paper which was tabled just recently by the FAO secretariat. We should indicate that although there has been a late spring and there has been wet weather and hence delayed plantings, most United States farming enterprises have the capacity to complete seeding during a short span of good weather and they have compensated for the loss of time. Plantings of spring wheat in our Upper Mid West still lag substantially but we feel this too could yet be overcome, and those for grain sorghum are right on schedule. Seedings of corn and soybeans are ahead of the late plantings of 1978 and about match historical averages.

Total plantings of wheat based on our most recent report of planting intentions will be up 7 percent over the 1978 figure to some 26.9 million hectares, and spring wheat will be up about 3 percent to 6 million hectares. Total wheat production is now forecast to range between 57 million metric tonnes with good weather and 47 million with poor weather; if you want to take an average of weather it would be somewhere in the low 50 million metric tonnes. That compares with 49 million metric tonnes that were harvested in 1978.

Plantings of feedgrains are expected to fall slightly below the 1978 level but the feedgrain production is still projected to range between 215 million and 180 million metric tonnes again depending on weather conditions. I should note that these continued high levels of plantings and of production are expected to continue despite record stocks in wheat and feedgrains in the United States.

A word about our farmer-held reserves. In mid-May, as average wheat prices in our domestic market firmed up, they rose above what we refer to as a trigger price, which led our Government to open the farmer-held reserve permitting farmers to sell the reserves in the open market. The intent, of course, is that these farmer-held reserves should be an additional reserve and available as needed and based on market conditions.

Also a word should probably be said about the concentration of stocks in a few countries such as the United States. I think we can be reasonably assured that in the event of an international emergency or sharply increased demand for grain, the United States transportation system has the capacity to move grain into international channels, more readily than might be inferred from the secretariate assessment on page 14. We do not foresee serious restraints either from port capacity or from other factors, in part by virtue of actions which we have taken to further improve port capacity and to utilize more barge capacity than we have heretofore, and hence to speed the movement of grain down our waterways to export ports.

It is true that our transportation system, particularly that which is related to transportation by trucks, could face some problems through diesel fuel shortages but there too we are taking steps to ameliorate and moderate the adverse effects should they occur.

In short, we agree that things are not as good as they might be; they are not as good as all of us would wish. But we are encouraged by the increasing allocation of resources by the multilateral organizations, which we support, and by our own increased bilateral assistance for food and agriculture. Together with our friend in India,we hope that good weather and good policies prevail in many countries so that harvests may continue to hold up well.

P. HALIMI (France): Je voudrais avant toute chose remercier le secrétariat de la qualité des documents qui nous ont été présentés, et remercier M. Islam de la présentation qu'il nous a faite de ces documents.

Le document qui sert de base à nos délibérations nous donne une image très claire de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation au seuil de l'été 1979, et il en dégage les conséquences au regard des multiples préoccupations de l'organisation qui ,sont celles également .de la communauté internationale.

Sans doute la situation annuelle s'inscrit-elle dans une perspective d'évolution à long terme, qu'elle contribue à infléchir. Quelques remarques peuvent être formulées en distinguant, d'une part, la situation agricole alimentaire dans l'intervalle de deux récoltes successives afin de bien caractériser les problèmes du court terme, d'autre part, les perspectives de réalisation des objectifs plus éloignés de façon à saisir les opportunités que la situation annuelle permet d'escompter.

A court terme, le résultat satisfaisant des récoltes confirme l'amélioration enregistrée de la situation agricole et alimentaire mondiale. L'impression favorable est renforcée par la constatation d'une bonne répartition des résultats entre les différentes zones de production. Je note que l'Inde devient exportateur de céréales, ce qui permet de considérer avec un certain optimisme la couverture des besoins alimentaires dans la plupart des pays du monde.

Ces résultats réconfortants sont ceux indiqués à la page 4 du supplément et auxquels ont fait allusion le délégué du Rwanda et le délégué de la Hongrie. J'ai noté que le délégué de la Hongrie a souligné à juste titre l'effort insuffisant d'investissement de certains pays en voie de développement dans le secteur agricole, et je suppose qu'il faut nous interroger sur les raisons profondes de cette situation.

Ces résultats réconfortants nous engagent à considérer avec une sollicitude particulière la situation des populations qui n'ont pas été épargnées par l'adversité, qui se trouvent être celles qui avaient déjà le plus souvent de mauvaises récoltes ces dernières années. Ce sera la première remarque. Un effort particulier au profit des pays du Sahel serait d'autant plus justifié que la situation générale le rend plus facile.

Pour en revenir à la situation générale qui pourrait inciter à l'optimisme, il est certain que l'augmentation des disponibilités alimentaires et la situation des principaux marchés permettent sans doute d'escompter un effet modérateur des prix agricoles et alimentaires qui pourra aider à maîtriser les tendances inflationnistes.

Le document nous rappelle que la production céréalière a augmenté de 7 pour cent en 1978 et que les stocks de céréales devraient s'accroître forcément, ce qui logiquement est un facteur de baisse de prix sur le marché mondial, facilitant l'approvisionnement des pays importateurs.

Ces remarques optimistes paraissent en contradiction apparente avec un certain pessimisme manifesté ce matin par le Directeur général.

En réalité, dans le domaine des céréales, les dernières informations font apparaître qu'en raison des conditions atmosphériques particulièrement défavorables de cet hiver, les récoltes dans la plupart des pays européens seront moins satisfaisantes que prévu. Cette situation conduit déjà à une hausse des prix sur le marché mondial et on ne peut que regretter qu'un accord sur le niveau des prix, à inscrire dans l'arrangement sur les céréales, n'ait pu se dégager lors des dernières négociations de Genève. Sur ce point, les circonstances nouvelles risquent donc de compliquer la tâche des négociateurs. Néanmoins, nous voulons continuer à penser que la raison prévaudra des deux côtés, exportateurs comme importateurs, pays développés comme pays en développement, et que chacun saura faire

les concessions nécessaires pour parvenir à un résultat concret. En effet, si l'occasion de conclure n'est pas saisie rapidement, on peut redouter qu'une longue période ne s'écoule avant l'apparition de nouvelles circonstances favorables.

C'est donc un appel pressant que la délégation française lance à tous pour la reprise des négociations, pour un arrangement sur les céréales comportant trois volets: convention sur le commerce du blé, convention sur les céréales secondaires, convention sur l'aide alimentaire.

La réduction des recettes des agriculteurs, alors qu'ils doivent faire face à une augmentation continue de coûts de production, risque de les dissuader de persévérer dans leurs efforts, surtout dans les productions dont les réserves laissent peu d'espoir à un réajustement rapide des prix. Ce sont les problèmes délicats des stimulants nécessaires à la production agricole (le délégué de l'Argentine l'a dit) et de la diversification indispensable de cette production.

Il conviendrait cependant de mettre à profit une situation favorable, celle devant laquelle nous nous trouvons, pour rechercher une solution au problème de l'instabilité, en mettant au point des accords internationaux dont le mécanisme régulateur favoriserait la gestion des marchés, aiderait les producteurs à prendre leurs décisions, éviterait en fin de compte les retournements de situation toujours dommageables et délicats à maîtriser.

Parmi les préoccupations à long terme, il convient de distinguer les objectifs qui constituent un but en lui-même, tels que la croissance de l'agriculture des pays en développement, de ceux qui ne sont qu'un moyen ou une conséquence de l'objectif réalisé, comme c'est le cas de l'ajustement agricole.

Le rythme de l'accroissement de la production agricole est incontestablement un des indicateurs les plus significatifs parmi ceux qui sont évoqués dans le rapport. Or, si un certain nombre de pays ont atteint le niveau annuel d'accroissement de 4 pour cent, préconisé par la deuxième décennie du développement, il est inquiétant de constater que dans des régions entières, notamment l'Afrique, l'augmentation des subsistances est moins rapide que celle de la population, de sorte que la situation alimentaire, malgré la forte progression de la production en 1978. se dégrade au lieu de s'améliorer.

Ceci souligne l'intérêt du plan alimentaire régional rappelé à la page 2 du document, et dont la réalisation paraît importante et urgente - le délégué du Zaire a évoqué ce problème avant moi.

Le fond commun à toutes les agricultures c'est avant tout leur vulnérabilité. Vulnérabilité aux conditions météorologiques qui peuvent faire passer la situation alimentaire d'excédents encombrants à une pénurie dont les conséquences vont au-delà de l'alimentation des hommes. D'où l'intérêt du

Système d'alerte rapide et de la formation, en liaison avec l'Office météorologique mondial, de chercheurs dans les pays en développement. Ce problème des conditions météorologiques et du Système d'alerte rapide avait été évoqué par l'Inde et le Salvador; je ne puis qu'appuyer ce qu'ils ont dit à ce sujet.

Vulnérabilité économique de l'agriculture qui, en raison des coûts de production rigides, ne permet pas de supporter facilement le choc d'une forte baisse des prix. Peut-être conviendrait-il de réfléchir à cette situation, en particulier pour orienter les agriculteurs des pays en développement vers le type de croissance qui évite ces risques, par exemple en tirant un meilleur parti des cycles naturels de façon à rendre moins rigides les liens entre les facteurs de production d'origine industrielle.

Nous saluons à cet égard l'organisation par les Nations Unies d'une conférence sur les énergies nouvelles dont les résultats aideront les gouvernements soucieux de réduire leur consommation d'énergie importée.

Nous félicitons le Directeur général des mesures urgentes et efficaces prises dans la lutte contre le criquet pèlerin, la prévention de pertes de produits alimentaires et la fièvre porcine africaine.

Sur le plan de la production de viande, il conviendrait de se préoccuper de l'augmentation de la consommation de protéines, et nous espérons qu'à la suite de la dernière session du COAG qui a souhaité que des moyens accrus soient affectés à la division de la nutrition, celle-ci pourra être utilement consultée pour tous les projets tendant à l'amélioration de la production de viande.

J'en viens à quelques remarques concernant justement la production de lait et de viande.

La délégation française estime, en ce qui concerne la production mondiale de viande évoquée à la page 12 paragraphe 3 du document, nécessaire d'insister sur le fait que l'augmentation globale de ia production de viande résulte tant d'une augmentation de la production de viande bovine et porcine que d'une nette augmentation de viande porcine et de volaille. On ajoutera que dans la Communauté économique européenne la production bovine est en augmentation légère et que les prix n'y ont pas subi l'augmentation brutale constatée en Amérique du Nord et sur le marché mondial.

S'agissant maintenant de la production de lait, il est écrit, page 12 paragraphe 4, que dans la Conmu-nauté Economique Européenne, l'expansion de la production de lait se ralentira probablement. A notre sens, il vaudrait peut-être mieux dire que la croissance de production laitière pourrait être aoina

forte.

Enfin, deux orateurs sont intervenus précédemment pour condamner le renforcement du protectionnisme qui, d'après eux, se serait manifesté dans les pays développés. Je ne veux pas ouvrir une polémique à ce sujet, mais il me paraît essentiel de préciser que nous ne partageons pas cette opinion. Aussi bien cette question a été longuement abordée à Manille voici quelques jours seulement lors de la Conférence de la CNUCED, et nous ne pouvons certes pas ici parvenir à des conclusions différentes. Il convient donc à mon avis de se référer dans notre rapport purement et simplement au texte agréé lors de la séance finale de cette conférence le 3 juin, vers 5 h du matin, si mes informations sont bonnes.

CHAIRMAN: As you know, consideration of the world food situation is a major function of the Council. I have therefore not tried to appeal to members to be brief knowing that this is one of our major subjects.

F. ABDELMADJID (Algérie): Je doute fort que d'ici 6 heures on puisse épuiser la liste des orateurs inscrits.

Je suggère que jusqu'à 6 heures on puisse donner une chance à trois ou quatre orateurs qui pourront s'exprimer aujourd'hui, puisque nous devons nous rendre à la réception du Directeur général, et demain matin nous pourrons poursuivre. Ma délégation considère que nous sommes en train d'examiner le point le plus important qui doit faire l'objet d'un débat général, toutes les autres questions étant des points de détail par rapport à cette question.

W.A.F. GRABISCH (Germany, Federal Republic of): The Secretariat has again presented clear and concentrated reports on the current world food situation which give us a comprehensive survey of developments.

As a whole, further progress has been made, in particular with regard to food supply, expansion of cereal stocks, supply with inputs, international trade and granting external assistance. Encouraging is the somewhat improved situation in Africa. It is to be hoped that with the aid of the Regional Food Plan for Africa, efforts will be successful to accelerate agricultural development. The rapid growth in population in many developing countries threatens to impede all efforts to improve the lot of men despite a substantial expansion of food production. This continues to be a critical problem. The situation becomes quite evident when calculating production and foodsuffs available on a per capita basis.

The document before us gives some first information about the launching of the action programme of FAO for the prevention of food losses. The great number of project requests submitted to FAO reveals the importance which is attached to the measures to fight these losses. It is right to focus on the pilot function of this action programme, because the necessary success will only be achieved with the additional assistance of bilateral and multilateral donors. The 20th Session of the Conference of FAO will give us an opportunity to discuss the action programme in greater detail.

I should like to express my special appreciation to the Secretariat for the successful efforts to control the locust plague and the African swine fever. These measures must be continued in order to prevent vast damages.

Quite recently some important trade policy decisions have been taken that will also have further advantages for developing countries in international trade. Basic agreement was reached on the Common Fund. The GATT multilateral trade negotiations have been brought to a successful conclusion.

The negotiations on a new International Wheat Agreement and a new Food Aid Convention are presently interrupted, however, the International Wheat Council will be dealing still this month with the question of resuming negotiations. The European Community continues to consider the conclusion of a new Wheat Agreement the best way to contribute at international level to market and price stabilization and thus to secure supplies and world food security. It will advocate the speedy continuation and a successful conclusion of the conference.

As a member of the European Community, the Federal Republic of Germany takes an active part in taking special account of the interests of the developing countries within the framework of the agricultural market policy of the EEC and in improving, for example, access to the markets of the Community for these countries. The continuous expansion and improvement of the Generalized System of Preferences have led to the fact that the value of my country's imports of agricultural products favoured under the scheme from developing countries rose from 234 million DM in 1974 to 700 million DM in 1977, that is by 200 percent. My country's total agricultural imports from developing countries increased from 1975 to 1977 from 7.65 billion DM to 12.37 billion DM, that is an increase by almost 62 percent.

The Secretariat gives us some information on developing countries' investment in agriculture and on external assistance. This external assistance has risen quite substantially. In this connexion, let me point out again quite clearly that the figure of US $8.3 billion for external assistance is an estimate by the Secretariat of the World Food Council and not an internationally accepted target. The World Food Council at its Fourth Session last year initiated a method for the identification of obstacles which must be removed on the part of developing countries as well as on the part of donors in order to give the necessary priority to an increase in food production and to an improvement of supply, to increase investment and to support these endeavours from outside in a more effective way. At its Fifth Session in September the World Food Council will make an attempt to draw conclusions from the results of this analysis. These will undoubtedly also be of benefit for the further work of FAO.

M. PANJSHERI (Afghanistan): I feel greatly privileged to be here amongst this august gathering once again and avail myself of the opportunity to convey the best wishes of my country as well as of our great and noble leader, Mr. Noor Mohammad Taraki, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the People's Democratic Party and the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council, for the success of this Conference.

Mr. Chairman, we are proud of your dynamism and dedication to this holy cause to salvage millions of those who go to bed either half fed or even unfed. I am sure that we all addressed ourselves to the dragon-headed problem of food on returning to our respective countries after the Seventy-Fourth Session of the Conference. The deliberations and decisions taken were by far comprehensively directed to encounter our food problems in a much better way than we used to do earlier.

I will enumerate the achievements of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan later in this intervention. But now I would express my Governemment's deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to the Director-General, Dr. Edouard Saouma, who has spared no efforts to salvage the people from the cruel clutches of hunger.

We in Afghanistan have adopted "Non, Lebas wa Khana" (Food, clothes and shelter) as not only a slogan but also as the national policy. The Revolutionary Government is leaving no stone unturned to provide food, clothes and shelter to one and all of our noble countrymen. I will deal with the Government's policies, programme and priorities elsewhere in this address.

Afghanistan is predominantly an agricultural country. However, food production in the country is highly sensitive to weather conditions, particularly to the amount of precipitation because of snow and rainfall. Wheat is the major food crop but it depends to a large extent upon national factors. On the other hand, production in rainfall areas is particularly influenced by the total amount as well as rainfall in the season. We may have either a bumper crop or a short crop, depending upon present precipitation conditions. It may bring about serious production shortfalls, as happened in 1970 / 71 and 1971/72. However, in most parts of the country agriculture is carried out in the usual form. The present exceptional state of the agricultural sector is also because of the continuity of the old feudal relationship between the landlord and the farmer. The economic conditions of the farming community have not undergone any change. As a result, the crops have not yielded the desired amount, and there has been a shortfall in production.

In the past few years, production of wheat in Afghanistan has fluctuated widely. During 1978/7 9 it was estimated that there were 2 813 000 tons as against 2 256 000 tons in 1977/78 and 2 936 000 tons in 1976/77, when it had touched the peak level. Production of important cereal grown and consumed in the country, such as corn, barley and rice, have not shown much variation. However, during 1978/79 the output of these grains was somewhat lower compared to 1976/77. Oilseed production and other food crops slightly declined. It is difficult to say anything about the prospect for 1979 and 1980 crops as detailed information from all the providers has not yet become available.

Precipitation in the current agricultural year has been generally normal, without any significant portions of the country showing variations. Deficiency in rainfall has been experienced at the planting stage. There have also been some reports of low temperatures in the planting area.

Some other factors such as large distribution of improved seeds as an effect of the implementation of the Land Reforms Programme should further affect the chances of the prospective crops during 1979/80. Measures taken by the Government for increasing food production since May 1978 should lead to better conditions and possibilities for the development of agriculture in Afghanistan. Trading has been introduced for the benefit of peasants, so that they could fruitfully contribute to the programmes in this sector.

The main object of having the farming industry run on lines of equality and getting rid of an unfair ownership system is being organized by establishing agricultural co-operatives groups in all parts of the country for the participation of the farmers, with the help and advice of the Government.

The first Five Year Plan has been evolved to control the agriculture of the rural sector. Great attention is being paid to bringing about desirable improvements in the irrigation system.

A total of 4 382 000 tons of grains, 766 000 tons of vegetables, 130 000 tons of cotton, 840 tons of fruits and 73 000 tons of beetroots were produced in the year under review, while the purchase of raw cotton by mills is still in progress. The proposed package of action programme has been formulated wherein the available resources and gaps have been calculated, and seed is a most important input. Our most important food crop is wheat, and the seed need of the land recipients and experimental farmers has been estimated as 36 000 tons. The Afghan Seeds Company produced 10 000 tons, another 10 000 tons has been given by USSR under an aid programme, 4 000 - 5 000 tons is expected from other friendly countries and 4 000 - 5 000 tons through exchange programmes.

Adequate arrangements have been made for distributing large quantities of pesticides and insecticides to the needy farmers.

S. PAIMANAGARA (Indonesia): The distinguished delegate for India has told us that agriculture is affected by weather, plus epidemics, and public policies. The weather we can forecast, and act, or hope, for the best accordingly. Pest epidemics hit most developing countries who are not able to control it effectively. We can produce policies every time, and this is our strong point.

I will add one more policy to this, and I will be brief and fairly simple. To overcome the precarious food situation, the only solution is that we must always produce more. Many developing countries have a dual agricultural system, an expert crop sector using modern technology and modern management; the other sector is the food crop sector managed by small farmers in a traditional way. We should consider seriously the development of food crops estates without adversely affecting the fate of the small farmer. In this the motive should be food for hungry people, and not only food for money, as a writer has said in one of his books.

My country is seriously considering developing the food estates for increasing food production. Therefore we appeal to developed countries to consider contributing to this scheme of developing countries with this principle in mind.

S. MADEMBA SY (Sénégal): Je tâcherai d'être bref; je me permets simplement de vous soumettre les observations qui me sont venues à l'esprit â l'examen et à la lecture du document. Lors de la soixante-quatorzième session du Conseil de l'année dernière, une certaine euphorie avait semblé •e manifester devant l'aumentati on globale de la production alimentaire agricole. Le Conseil avait alors mis en garde la Communauté internationale contre un optimisme excessif et surtout contra un sentiment sécurisant et démobilisateur. Combien il avait raison! Aujourd'hui, sans tomber dans l'excès contraire, le sentiment que l'on éprouve à la lecture de l'excellent document qui nous a été présenté par le Dr Islam est plutôt un sentiment d'incertitude pour ne pas dire de pessimisme à l'égard de certains pays en développement. L'aide extérieure à l'agriculture est insuffisante, les termes de l'échange continuent à se détériorer, les fléaux acridiens persistent, les importations des pays on développement s'accroissent de plus en plus, etc.

Il me semble que la conclusion qui s'impose et qu'il faut tirer encore une fois est la nécessité de réorienter l'effort des ressources de l'agriculture vers les pays en développement en leur assurant, par-dessus tout, la maîtrise de l'eau dans les zones arides et semi-arides. Voilà ce que je tenais à dire.

CHAIRMAN: It is almost 6.0 and we still have Bangladesh, Cuba, Greece, and Saudi Arabia. I do not think we should give them the floor now, knowing the eloquence of our colleague from Bangladesh.

If you do not mind, I will ask the delegate for Saudi Arabia to speak now, as he has to take the Chair tomorrow.

H. HAQUE (Bangladesh): I just wanted to enquire from the Chair whether the compliment is left-handed or not!

CHAIRMAN: The compliment is good!

A.Y. BUKHARI (Saudi Arabia) (interpretation from Arabic): In fact, I did not intend to place my brothers in the Council in this position, but since tomorrow I will assume my duty as Vice Chairman, I thank my colleagues for affording me this opportunity to speak.

It appears that the problem before us could be divided into two parts. One part is heading towards one direction, the other towards the opposite. There are many difficult circumstances which are adversely affecting all those efforts deployed by many developing countries to raise their agricultural production, drought, cyclones, pest, desert locusts, and many other important factors which inevitably lead to a drop in agricultural production in most developing countries. We find on the other side that there are some of the main grain producing countries that are striving earnestly to reduce those uncultivated areas in quite a substantial proportion in such a way as to affect their output and to affect the needs of developing countries. It can be claimed that there are circumstances which were imposed by internal sociological factors, but we are also aware why such circumstances have been imposed. Here I should like to thank Dr. Ware from Canada for the clarification he has given us and I am certain of the high ethical standards of Dr. Ware, since we worked together for a long time in the Finance Committee. I therefore accept his clarifications and his explanations when he said that these cultivated areas have been reduced in Canada as a result of circumstances pertaining to the farmers in Canada.

Therefore, from these two angles which I have just mentioned, the current food situation in the world is alarming. We should like to emphasize that if all the efforts of the various countries are not combined and if we continue to ignore the situation, we shall be faced with a disaster which cannot be remedied. This is the situation facing the developing countries now. They must therefore exert all efforts, they must mobilize all their potential and resources in order to protect themselves and in order to re-assert their right to a decent life. They must cooperate together economically and technically, and they must arm themselves with courage in order to defend their peoples. They must benefit from all the organizations, from all the international funds and fora on the regional and international level so as to achieve economic development. It is therefore incumbent upon international organizations and funds to express their sympathy and to extend all possible technical, consultative and material assistance to these countries.

Finally, the main grain - producing countries and the main food - producing countries must also, in this world which is facing famine, extend a hand of assistance in all its forms - material food assistance - to these developing countries that are in dire need of such assistance, regardless of the conditions and of the difficult terms which are often attached to such assistance. These advanced countries must also realize that there are many developing countries which require food assistance, and I repeat: which require food assistance. This is the basic problem they face which we wish to deal with. Thousand and thousands of people die every day; millions are suffering from undernourishment. Yet we are living in a world where people enjoy luxurious cars and live in skyscrapers. Many of these countries, these advanced countries, belong to one international community. The developing countries are always trying to serve as well the interests of the advanced countries, in spite of the differing conditions in each part of the world. I do not wish to dwell upon this; everybody understands what I mean, everybody knows the great contribution of the developing countries to their peoples and to the peoples of the world, the advanced and developed parts of the world.

C. DUMITRU (Roumanie): Monsieur le Président, parce que je prends la parole pour la première fois, permettez-moi de féliciter les vice-présidents qui ont été élus ici.

En même temps, j'exprime toute la gratitude de ma délégation pour la position constructive qui a été exprimée par M. Saouma dans son remarquable discours.

Nous appuyons pleinement toutes les actions inscrites dans le discours et qui seront entreprises en faveur des pays en voie de développement.

Je félicite également le secrétariat pour l'excellent document (CL 75/2) soumis à notre discussion.

L'éradication du sous-développement est l'un des problèmes fondamentaux de l'époque contemporaine, dont dépend directement la détention, la paix et la collaboration internationale.

Comme pays socialiste et à la fois comme pays en voie de développement, la Roumanie se situe fermement du côté des pays qui luttent pour liquider cet état de choses, pour l'instauration d'un nouvel ordre économique international, lequel puisse assurer les conditions pour le progrès plus rapide de tous les peuples et, avant tout, de ceux retardés.

Nous voulons en même temps mettre en évidence le fait que l'accomplissement du nouvel ordre économique international intéresse de la même sorte tous les pays et tous les peuples, tant ceux développés que ceux peu développés ou en voie de. développement, cela parce qu'il est voué à assurer la stabilité et un développement harmonieux et équilibré de l'entière économie mondiale. C'est pourquoi à sa réalisation doivent participer tous les Etats.

La Roumanie retient que dans cette direction un rôle important doit être joué par l'ONU, par les organismes et les organisations économiques spécialisées comme il l'est par la FAO et d'autres.

La Roumanie apprécie que la FAO, en parallèle avec la mise en pratique de projets de terrain visant à la solution rapide de certaines situations imprévues (aide alimentaire d'urgence, lutte contre certaines maladies et ennemis nuisibles, prévention des pertes de récolte, etc.), doit agir aussi dans la direction du redressement de la situation agro-alimentaire des pays en voie de développement à travers l'adoption de certaines mesures, parmi lesquelles:

- l'utilisation des institutions nationales dans la réalisation de certains objectifs alimentaires;

- l'appui dans l'emploi des investissements à l'intérieur et à l'étranger pour le développement agroalimentaire;

- la préparation du personnel;

- l'éducation de la population vers l'utilisation de certains aliments, à un maximum de l'efficience, etc.

Dans ce sens, comme le font aussi d'autres pays, la Roumanie se prononce pour l'engagement ferme, effectif et direct de la FAO, à travers des mesures et des actions concrètes, pour la mise en pratique des recommandations de la Conférence mondiale sur l'alimentation et de la VIIéme Session spéciale de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU.

Pour la liquidation graduelle de cet état de choses, nous nous rallions à ce que Monsieur le directeur général E. Saouma a déclaré, notamment qu'il faut trouver des formes de coopération entre les pays à travers lesquelles on adopte des mesures concrètes qui soient comprises dans les programmes d'activité de la FAO, dans le but d'appuyer les pays en voie de développement dans leurs efforts visant à la mise plus judicieuse en valeur des terrains, à l'extension des surfaces irriguées, à l'amélioration et à la création de nouvelles variétés de semences et de races d'animaux, adaptables aux conditions des respectives régions et d'autres.

Nous apprécions comme positives et encourageantes les mesures entreprises par la FAO dans cette direction, surtout à l'initiative du directeur général et retenons qu'alors, quand il sera question de rendre définitif le Programme d'activité et le budget pour 1980-1981, on insiste sur le développement et le renforcement des programmes ayant un caractère efficient.

Dans ce contexte nous retenons qu'il est nécessaire que les pays développés assument des engagements plus fermes dans les efforts entrepris - y compris dans le cadre même de la FAO - dans le but de hâter le développement dé l'agriculture dans tous les pays en voie de développement.

La Roumanie militera aussi dans le futur de la manière la plus décidée pour que ces problèmes complexes du monde contemporain, ayant de profondes implications pour l'entière évolution de l'humanité, pour la cause du progrès, de la collaboration et de la paix internationale, aboutissent à une solution concrète, en vue de la création d'un nouvel ordre économique international, lequel soit en état d'assurer le développement indépendant de chaque nation sur la voie du progrès, du bien-être et du bonheur 1/.

CHAIRMAN: The meeting is adjourned.

The meeting rose at 18.05 hours
La séance est levée à 18 h 05
Se levanta la sesión a las 18.05 horas

__________
1/ Texte reçu avec demande d'insertion au procès-verbal.

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