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4.1 The Food Situation in Africa (continued)
4.1 Situation alimentaire de l'Afrique (suite)
4.1 La situación alimentaria en Africa (continuación)

J.B. MUTELO (Observer for Zambia): Mr Chairman, I would like to start by congratulating your Vice-Chairmen on their election. We have every confidence that you will steer this Council's deliberations to a successful conclusion, Zambia therefore wishes to assure you of our continued efforts to lighten your burden.

With the general improved health services such as providing good drinking water, improvement in nutritional provisions, most of which are provided by FAO and its associated United Nations organizations, infant mortality has been reduced. Indeed, the general life expectation has been extended. These have contributed to increase the population. Zambia is equally aware that there have been improvements in the production of food with the help of these same organizations. However, food availability has not matched the population growth because of natural and man-made calamities. These, among others, have caused deterioration in the food situation in the developing world, giving a false notion that if you are under-developed you are naturally a hungry nation.

By and large, the world's food reserves have been increasing and agricultural production has globally improved except for 1983, when it was reportedly lower than expected. While the world food resources and agricultural production are rising and the world economy recovering, African economy has been battered by a no less hostile climate, and in all, the developing countries have experienced a much greater storm of recession than anywhere else. Coupled with the drought which started in 1968 and has now spread over southern Africa, the continent is now failing desperately with the problem of feeding itself.

Having improved health services to reduce mortality in both young and old and having improved the agricultural production methods, one would conclude that the lack of food has been caused by over-population. However, the food crisis in Africa is caused by neither of these. It is in fact caused by the general world recession and natural catastrophes such as drought. Zambia is aware, of and fully appreciates the efforts of FAO and its Director-General in conjunction with the World Food Programme in making appeals and arrangements for the delivery of food to the needy who in most cases are in remote areas of the recipient countries. The problem of transporting food to where it is required, what is generally known as the end of the line, has in itself become a crisis within a crisis. When famine strikes and people are dying in thousands, we normally think of emergency food aid, and this has worked very well. The Zambian Government is thankful to the World Food Programme and of course to FAO for the quick response and for the efficient manner in which these cases have been handled. Normally the food aid consignments are air-freighted and rushed to the capitals of the starving countries for the food to be delivered to the needy. Zambia is aware of the general complaint by the donor countries that food does not reach the people for whom it is intended. We appreciate their concern, but they have not taken into account the most obvious aspect of under-development, such as lack of basic infrastructure like roads, transport system, spare parts and fuel. These would have under normal circumstances been made available were it not that every cent is spent for the purchase of food. This completes the vicious circle of inability to avoid hunger single-handed.

Experience has shown that food aid could be particularly effective when associated with other forms of assistance. Zambia feels that food deliveries in remote areas can be effective if appropriate transport and storage facilities are made available. It is our view that donor coordination in food aid should be an integral part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary short- and long-term agricultural development programme package. The inadequate delivery systems and the problem of foreign exchange has made it difficult for Third World countries to harmonize their agricultural aspects of development programmes. FAO should look at this problem of basic infrastructure and the delivery systems in the developing world and come up with a solution to the current problem, either on a country-by-country basis or at the regional level. The comments made in document CL 86/2 paragraphs 101 to 110 should be studied further so that a practical solution could be found to solve the current problems experienced by the Southern African Development Coordinating Conference Region (SADOC), as well as the individual countries themselves. Zambia is one of the Southern African countries and a member of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference which has been badly hit by the current three-year drought.

Like other developing countries, the recession of the late 1970s has done Zambia great damage. Be that as it may, the LIMA Agricultural Programme was launched with a view to making Zambia self-sufficient in food. Unfortunately, the launching of this programme coincided with drought. In addition to this problem, a number of hardships have been experienced and need attention, the most

pressing being lack of foreign echange to purchase fuel, productive machinery, transportation equipment, agricultural requisites, spare parts and inadequacy of agricultural extension services.

The African countries in the Dakar and in the Harare Declarations have reaffirmed their determination as emerging nations to establish an economic viability that would complement and strengthen their hard-won political independence. They have accepted to undertake the burden of developing their agricultural and rural sectors. They now need the means to do so. This was again reaffirmed during the Twentieth OAU Summit Conference in Addis Ababa. In addition, the CFA, the Governing Body of the WFP, passed a resolution at its Eighteenth Session in support of the Declarations.

Given the resources, Africa can easily overcome the present situation. Developed countries should therefore cough up and provide the means for development. We also believe that with the assistance of FAO, a dialogue could be arranged between the developed countries and developing countries to try and identify the correct pattern which could be adapted to different situations.

Finally, Zambia would like to thank the Director-General of FAO for his timely initiative he has taken in spearheading and instituting the Early Warning System. The usefulness of this system cannot be over-emphasized. The Zambian Government fully supports this work and are appealing to the international community to make every effort to act on the findings and reports of the Early Warning System.

J. LADAN (Observer for Nigeria) (Chairman, Africa Group): I could not take the floor before now because normally members of the Council take the floor first before Observers. Therefore, as the Chairman of the Africa Group I could not come earlier to express our views on this Agenda.

May I first of all congratulate you, on the very efficient way you have been conducting this session. I am sure we will reach the final portion of this Agenda and the final part of our discussion in the Session with a most satisfactory result and more concrete proposals to see to the day-to-day running of the activities of FAO.

This Agenda item is indeed very important to Africa and may I, on behalf of my delegation and also on behalf of the Africa Group in Rome, express our sincere appreciation to the Director-General of FAO for his deep concern for and untiring efforts in bringing the critical food situation in Africa to the limelight. His appeals have been fruitful, and today the international community is paying greater attention to the plight of our people. We are also grateful to the many donors who have responded positively to these calls.

When the food crisis in Africa became evident and the Director-General addressed the problem last year and early in 1984 in Rome, not many countries who were in a position to help these countries affected by the crisis, responded immediately. There were many doubts expressed about the extent of this problem. As a result of this lack of response, many people, who could be helped either died or continued to suffer through malnutrition. This situation, although it is now being corrected through greater awareness from the international community, calls for future action which will see to it that whenever a crisis develops of this magnitude there should be no hesitation from any quarter to respond. Steps could be taken to find out if the warning that, for example, came from FAO, could not be relied upon. Countries (donors) could send their own nationals to that region or countries to find out, similarly to what was done by the United States recently as we have been told by the delegation of the United States. At least one government official was sent to Africa to assess the situation and the findings of that official even startled the United States administration and which brought them to take more positive action in the direction they are now taking. We will continue to appeal to the Director-General to go ahead with this humanitarian call for the cause of Africa, and we sill hope that the donors will also not be tired of this call from the Director-General and others.

The Director-General in his address proposed steps to be taken by him, including allocating 5 million US dollars in the area of rehabilitation of livestock and crops. These are welcome steps and we all support him in these directions. However, we feel that this amount allocated in itself may not be enough. Although it is only a short-term measure, we should try and seek better ways of addressing the problems of rehabilitation. We know that in rehabiliating crops in particular we have to think about the long-term, medium-term and short-term ways of facing the problem. In the short-term, for example, those farmers affected should be provided with the seeds for the coming season, because it is obvious that in all the countries that are affected, their farmers have consumed even the available seeds that are needed by them for their next season.

Secondly, the question of providing irrigation inputs is very important. So we should look into ways of providing these for exploring both the underground and surface water for irrigation as proposed by the distinguished delegate of India. I think it is very relevant to respond to the short-term also in this way. Concerning the livestock rehabilitation, we should also try to encourage other countries who have not done so to support the Programme of Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign and also the

Programme of African animal trypanosomiasis. It is evident by now that livestocks are equally suffering from the drought. In many of those countries affected, the infestation by the tsetse fly limits the areas to which the livestock can move to get better pasture and water. So to reiterate, the problem of African animal trypanosomiasis should be included in efforts of rehabilitating agriculture both in the crop and livestock sector. The problems of rinderpest outbreaks are still fresh in our minds as they came at the same time as the drought. Altough this programme will soon be launched in Africa we feel that the scope of the Programme of the Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign should be expanded and pursued. We would welcome positive moves in this direction to this effect.

We have also been told by the Director-General that the crisis is not yet over. Up to about 21 countries may still be at risk of future crisis. So we fully support the proposals to preposition stocks close to the areas that are vulnerable to future food shortages. We also welcome any steps to create pipe-line stocks and, where there is indication that the rainy seasons are better and crops are better, to improve the storage facilities and post-harvest loss-reduction methods to help these countries. We fully support the proposal that the resources of IEFR should be increased, including the cash component so that in moving the aid materials money could be used to purchase foods that are locally produced and more suitable as ad lib material from the region. The cash components will also be used to pay for the local transportation.

Those countries that are now suffering are not alone in their predicament. There are others, and other countries could also be at risk without knowing. We do welcome the proposal of the Director-General to strengthen the early warning system. I am sure we will all agree that if countries that have been affected by the drought had adequate preparation they could be better off. So we fully support the strengthening of the early warning system proposed by the Director-General and we hope that by the time he has completed his study and presented it to the World Food Security next year we shall see concrete action in the line he would propose.

We should continue to look into the long-term solution to the African problem. We now all know that in the Harare Declaration the African Ministers of Agriculture reaffirmed their political determination to address themselves to the problems of their people, and this in itself is a clear indication that Africa is ready to tackle its problems. What is needed now is outside assistance to complement whatever efforts these countries will require. In the long-term plan for Africa, both FAO and the outside donors could greatly assist Africa in the areas of research and training and in the development of a better farming system that will be applicable to the local conditions. In the long run also, FAO, as a leading institution, should continue to carry out more studies on Africa with a view to enlightening the countries that may be interested in the region. However, we do share the view of the distinguished delegate of India that said let us not have "paralysis" from "too many analysis". I think by now we have identified so many problems facing Africa. FAO has a lot of experience on Africa, more than any multilateral organization dealing with agricultural problems. Many of the developed countries have also known the problems of Africa. They can at least start a project or projects in the direction of long-term plans either afresh or in combination with what has been proposed in the Harare Declaration and in the direction of the Lagos Plan of Action and other past studies especially by FAO.

Nonetheless, we also support the proposal of the Director-General to carry out an indepth study into the real problems of African agriculture which he promised to present to the 1986 Session of the Regional Conference for Africa with a view to finding out some other measures that would be more applicable to the situation in Africa. To our mind, the Director-General should identify, in addition, those "white elephant projects" that are not suitable for Africa and the steps to correct them. He should not only identify, "white elephants" projects but also "green elephant projects" that should not have cost that much. This type of study is necessary because some countries that are blaming Africa's failure due to lack of policies are the same countries, though not at governmental levels, whose experts give advice that are not applicable to African conditions. When this advice fails the blame is always put on the African countries. So, as a good gesture, may I indicate to the Director-General that in addition to identifying these "white elephants" and the "green elephants" projects that fail in Africa, he should also ascertain whether the affected countries are still in heavy debt arising from them. He should recommend writing off these debts either by the countries from where these experts come from or from other financial institutions in a more compassionate way. I am sure this suggestion could be applied to what the distinguished delegate of U.S.A. said when she quoted the Bible about wisdom and good heart. I am sure many will agree that many of the problems of Africa c were brought about through wrong advice even if they could be associated with wrong policies.

I wish on behalf of my delegation and on behalf of the Africa Group in Rome, to thank the Director-General, the donors and all those delegates who have positively contributed to this Agenda item and we hope that a solution to the African problem, which has the potential danger of becoming a permanent problem, can be resolved.

P. BOURGODS (PNUD): Parlant vers la fin de cet important débat, j’aimerais m'exprimer surtout, mettre l'accent, sur les aspects pratiques des efforts à faire. Par ses représentants résidents dans chacun des pays affectés, le PNUD a été parmi les premiers à signaler l'approche d'une situation d'une gravité exceptionnelle. L'appel du Secrétaire général remonte déjà à plusieurs mois. L'ampleur et la violence des souffrances humaines dépassent probablement les pires craintes. Les représentants du PNUD dans ces pays, comme coordinateurs des activités opérationnelles du système des Nations Unies et le représentant du PAM sont associés à l'ensemble de l’action d’assistance d’urgence et au réajustement des actions de développement dans chacun des pays. L'excellente documentation, enrichie par le débat, permet d’identifier les différents facteurs qui conduisent à des situations tragiques que nous connaissons. Même si ces choses étaient connues, c’est leurs combinaisons qui ont conduit à cette situation. Elle reflète, en fait, que des économies moins développées ne peuvent résister à des facteurs implacables climatiques et certains facteurs humains. Il est compréhensible qu’au sein de ce Conseil ces problèmes soient considérés sous l’angle le plus dramatique de l’alimentation et de la production agricole. Mais il est clair que si une assistance immédiate de grande ampleur a la priorité, il est nécessaire et urgent de mettre en marche les économies affectées. Le débat a montré les liens qui existent entre le processus de production et l’alimentation et entre les prix, les engrais, les transports ainsi que les questions de population. Mais souvent à l'origine de l'insuffisance de la production il y a les problèmes d’éducation, de santé, de renforcement de la formation professionnelle, etc. C'est done par une approche multidisciplinaire dans laquelle s'insère comme un effort majeur le secteur de la production agricole et de l’alimentation vivrière, qu’il est indispensable d'approcher les problèmes de développement de ces pays. A ce niveau muítisectoriel du développement, la solution n’est pas de repartir de table rase. Je ne peux m'empêcher de mentionner que l'année dernière un ministre chargé du développement d'un des pays du Sahel remarquait que lui et ses collègues avaient dû subir plus de 400 missions d’identification des besoins ou de. projets d'organismes multilatéraux, bilatéraux et d’organisations non gouvernementales. Des structures existent au niveau des pays les plus affectés, qui ont dans une large mesure identifié les besoins, établi les priorités, préparé des programmes et des projets, certes, la dimension du désastre nécessite des réajustements mais le travail de base a déjà été fait. Ces structures comprennent non seulement les responsables nationaux mais aussi les représentants des organisations internationales et des programmes bilatéraux ou d'organismes non gouvernementaux. Le PNUD tient une place importante dans cette structure au niveau des pays et cela non seulement comme fonds central de coopération technique, qui en dépit de ses limites a l’avantage d'une grande flexibilité pour refléter les activités prioritaires des gouvernements, mais également parce qu’il est plus que tout autre un organisme du système des Nations Unies à même d'avoir une approche multidisciplinaire à l’effort de développement. Cette function spécifique du PNUD qui s'appuie sur des relations quasi journalières avec des organismes de planification et coordination du gouvernement d'une part, et, d'autre part sur les avis des représentations plus spécialisées des diverses institutions du système des Nations Unies, est maintenant de plus en plus acceptée par divers organismes d’aide extérieure. Cet élargissement des tâches du représentant résident du PNUD, allant au-delà des ressources strictes du programme, est particulièrement apprécié, en particulier dans les pays moins développés. En Afrique, par exemple, les gouvernements s’appuient sur le représentant résident pour la préparation, en coopération avec les autres organisations du système, et en consultation avec d’autres programmes d’aide, des tables rondes des donateurs. Pour les pays où la Banque mondiale n'a pas de groupe consultatif, le représentant du PNUD joue done un rôle local pivotal.

L'expérience acquise permet aujourd'hui d'améliorer les mécanismes de préparation et le suivi des tables rondes, et de renforcer dans ce processus le dialogue désirable entre bénéficiaires et donateurs, ainsi que d'utiliser pour les études macro-économiques l'expérience reconnue et respectée de la Banque mondiale. Plusieurs interventions hier et notamment ce matin montrent l’importance de ce dialogue pour faciliter le suivi des tables rondes. Les structures done existent; et il est clair qu'en plus de l’aide d'urgence nous ne repartons pas d'une table rase. Il faut utiliser ces structures, les améliorer mais cela signifie aussi changer quelque peu des habitudes bien ancrées d'actions séparées non identifiables et cela, non seulement, d’organismes bilatéraux. Les récentes réunions du Comité d'aide au développement de l’OCDE montrent une prise de conscience de ce besoin d’une harmonisation des approches et des procédures. Il est certain que notre devoir est d'obtenir le maximum de ressources mais nous savons aussi que les besoins demeureront supérieurs. Il est done indispensable de tout faire pour qu'une meilleure harmonisation de l'aide extérieure - et surtout une meilleure intégration de cette aide dans l'effort national de développement - ait lieu.

Les appels du Secrétaire général des Nations Unies et l’action du Directeur général de la FAO pour resserrer les liens de travail entre les divers programmes et institutions du système vont dans la même direction.

Le PNUD pour sa part y donne tout son soutien, et par ses bureaux de Représentants résidents qui sont pour la plupart coordinateurs du système, il se met à la disposition de la communauté internationale pour une action renforcée et mieux intégrée d'aide au développement.

Mon message est ici que sous le choc de la faim et de la misère auquel il faut faire face immédiatement, nous ne devons pas oublier qu'à moyen et long terme il n'y aura d’amélioration que si une aide substantiellement accrue et plus ordonnée est consacrée au développement des pays les moins développés.

Cette aide elle-même devra évoluer, et dans sa composition l'accent devra être mis beaucoup plus que dans le passé sur la formation des ressources humaines. Les organismes de prêt de capitaux l'ont bien reconnu en augmentant depuis quelques années l'élément de coopération technique dans leurs prêts à faible intérêt. Une augmentation essentiellement d'aide pour la formation des hommes et des femmes qui permettront un développement endogène soutenu: c'est l'esprit même de la Déclaration d'Harare. Une grande part de cette aide devra être fournie sous forme de dons. Les bénéfices qui dérivent de la formation des hommes ne viennent qu'à long terme. Malheureusement, en dépit des efforts énergiques de l'administrateur du PNUD pour mobiliser l'opinion en faveur d'un effort accru pour la formation des ressources humaines les chiffres n'indiquent guère qu'une stabilisation du niveau des contributions. L'IDA et l'IFAD ont eu même des difficultés plus grandes. Ainsi, à la dernière Conférence des contributions, nombre de gouvernements ont annoncé des augmentations de ressources; mais ces augmentations ont été annoncées en monnaie nationale; et quand on exprime cela en dollars à un taux aussi élevé les ressources globales marquent le pas. La situation ne doit pourtant pas faire oublier les augmentations très substantielles de certains pays et en particulier de notre pays hôte, l'Italie, dont la contribution a augmenté de quelque 28 pour cent.

Un autre aspect à mentionner pour conclure est que l'aide du PNUD à l’Afrique a progressé ces dernières années malgré la stabilisation des ressources générales du Programme. En effet, 80 pour cent de nos ressources vont aux pays dont le revenu par habitant est de moins de 500 dollars et les chiffres indicatifs de planification, même s’ils sont ajustés, montrent une préoccupation particulière du Conseil d’administration du PNUD pour le développement africain. Je vous remercie.

M. BALLA SY (Observateur du Sénégal): Je voudrais d'emblée vous redemander de bien vouloir m'excuser de mon retard.

Lors de votre élection, M. le Président, mon pays vous avait adressé a juste raison ses vives félicitations et vous avait également manifesté son soutien. Je voudrais done avec votre permission vous renouveler aujourd'hui ces marques de sympathie et de confiance bien méritées eu égard à votre brillante qualité d’homme de science.

A vos vice-présidents j'adresse également les mêmes félicitations.

Je voudrais me féliciter de la qualité du document présenté par le secrétariat général sur la situation alimentaire en Afrique ainsi que de l’introduction concrète et précise qui a été faite par le Directeur général de la FAO. Je rappelle bien que vous avez dit après cette introduction que nous devrions nous consacrer essentiellement à des propositions concrètes. Je suis parfaitement d’accord avec vous pour les raisons suivantes : c’est que le document a posé tous les problèmes et que l'introduction du Directeur général a tracé les orientations très précises qui coîncident rigoureusement avec les préoccupations de mon pays et qui ont toujours été défendues par la majorité des pays africains.

En conséquence je ne peux rien ajouter à ce document mais je voudrais surtout l’appuyer en faisant quelques observations si vous le permettez.

D'abord la situation qui prévaut en Ethiopie et qui menace sérieusement la plupart des pays du continent africain devrait, à mon avis, susciter de la part des pays de la communauté internationale certaines réflexions. A ce propos, je voudrais faire quelques appréciations statistiques qui sont les suivantes :

Premièrement, en 1960 l’Afrique avait réalisé l’autosuffisance alimentaire; deuxièmement, la production céréalière qui atteignait dans la plupart de nos pays plus de 800 millions de tonnes est aujourd'hui à un niveau inférieur à 450 millions de tonnes; troisièmement dans la majorité des pays dy continent africain la croissance démographique a atteint un taux annuel moyen de 2,5 pour cent; quatrièmement, l'aide publique internationale n’a cessé de baisser en volume. La diminution des ressources de l’IDA, la stabilisation des ressources du PNUD ainsi que l'échec des dernières négociations sur la seconde reconstitution des ressources du FIDA sont assez significatifs; cinquièmement, depuis une dizaine d’années la FAO et d’autres organisations internationales ont toujours signalé la gravité de la sécheresse et de la desertification.

Compte tenu de ces considérations, pouvait-on vraiment s'attendre à voir en Afrique une situation meilleure que celle que nous connaissons aujourd’hui ? A mon avis la réponse est négative. Et pourtant depuis dix ans environ 750 à 1 000 millions de tonnes sont injectées chaque année dans les pays en déficit alimentaire. Comment done pouvons-nous expliquer que la situation plutôt que s'améliorer s’empire ?

A ce propos j’éviterai vraiment de m'immiscer dans le débat controversé sur l’aide alimentaire repris ce matin par la BBC. Je dirai seulement que donner a manger à une personne qui a faim est une action noble et louable; un geste qui mérite toute notre admiration en somme. Mais il faut bien dire que cette personne après avoir mangé aujourd’hui, aura toujours besoin de manger à nouveau le lendemain. Et si elle n’a pas les moyens de produire elle devra encore demander de l'aide pour survivre. Comme quoi l'aide alimentaire d'urgence est indispensable et nécessaire, mais son efficacité risque d'être toujours compromise si parallèlement elle n’est pas accompagnée

des mesures suivantes : a) soutien des institutions de financement et d'appui comme la FAO, le FIDA, l'IDA et le PAM en particulier; b) encouragement sur les plans bilatéral et multilatéral des projets de développement conformément aux objectifs définis par les pays concernés; c) élaboration d’un plan d’action pour soutenir les efforts de formation et de recherche scientifique des pays en développement dont la bonne volonté se heurte toujours à des difficultés financières et techniques; d) encouragement de la constitution de stocks de sécurité dans les zones menacées. Cette initiative déjà prise et appliquée par les Etats-Unis d'Amérique mériterait d’être soutenue, encouragée et imitée par les autres pays donateurs; e) des efforts supplémentaires devraient également être consentis pour améliorer les conditions d’acheminement et de distribution de l’aide alimentaire.

Je ne saurais done conclure sans souhaiter qu'à l'avenir le rapport publié régulièrement par l'équipe spéciale FAO/PAM soit mieux exploité afin que leurs suggestions soient désormais davantage prises en considération.

Cela est d'autant plus important que ce qui se passe aujourd'hui en Ethiopie a été signalé par ces rapports, et si les mesures adéquates avaient été prises à temps l'on aurait, aujourd'hui, évité d'être submergé de nouvelles à sensation et d'images humiliantes qui n'honorent pas la communauté internationale. Il vaut donc mieux prévenir que guérir.

Je crois fermement que l'une des meilleures méthodes préventives est une application concrète des orientations dégagées dans les documents qui nous sont soumis; et à cet effet il faut souhaiter que la FAO continue à mettre l'accent sur son rôle d'assistance technique et son appui dans l'analyse des perspectives alimentaires; que les pays développés accroissent l'aide alimentaire déjà importante qu'ils donnent aux pays en développement, et mettent à la disposition de ces derniers les moyens techniques et financiers susceptibles de leur permettre de mettre en oeuvre leur politique de développement agricole. Ces derniers pays sont certes responsables parce qu'ils devront de leur côté renforcer leurs efforts, intensifier la coopération sud-sud, afin de favoriser le transfert du savoir-faire et la nécessaire complémentarité existant entre eux.

Voilà, à mon humble avis, les défis que nous devons tous relever sinon, d'ici l'an 2 000, nous serons encore ici à nous lamenter devant des images dramatiques d'un autre pays ... pourquoi pas peut-être du mien !

W.R. MESWELE (Observer for Botswana): I wish first of all to congratulate you on your elevation to this very important and onerous task. I also wish to congratulate the vice-chairmen on their election. There is no doubt that under your able guidance this Council's deliberations will be steered to a successful conclusion.

My delegation welcomes the statement made by the Director-General on the food situation in Africa as well as the documents which have been prepared for this particular discussion and hopes that the international community will cooperate in this difficult moment that we are facing. The food situation in southern Africa is critical, more especially in Mozambique and Botswana. Due to the calamity that we have been facing for the past three years, the livestock situation has deteriorated tremendously, more especially in the southern part of the country which we rely on as far as crop production is concerned. This year's rains came late, early this month, which means that there is a likelihood that most of the farmers will be reluctant to plough due to last year's experience. The grazing situation in the eastern and southern part of the country has worsened. Hence we are encouraging farmers to move their livestock to the western part of the country where the grazing situation is fairly favourable. But even then it means that the government must drill more boreholes.

The cumulative effects of this calamity on the people as well as the livestock has necessitated the government to commit $40 million for 1984 alone on the drought relief programmes. This could only be done by diverting some of the scarce resources both in terms of manpower and finance from the ongoing programmes. Some of the relief projects which are being implemented include free seed distribution to farmers, labour-based relief projects, the standing of fields, drought power assistance schemes, etc.

The Botswana government has also had to write up the seasonal loans for the 1983/84 ploughing season as well as residual long-term loans in order to reduce the debt burden on the farmers, and the amount involved in this was $2.5 million. For a young country, this is by no means a simple thing.

Implementation of these projects could not have been possible without the generous assistance from the international community, namely the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and donor agencies such as UNDP, FAO, WFP and EEC. The Botswana government is most grateful for these efforts and looks forward to continued cooperation from these agencies.

In the long term, however, it is important to set in place policies and programmes which will alleviate the effects of these calamities. In this regard Botswana is in the process of preparing a national food strategy which will become part of the next national development plan. The

government will also concentrate more efforts on the development of irrigation schemes in the few areas of the country where there is a potential. But the implementation of these programmes is largely dependent upon the availability of resources, with particular emphasis on skilled manpower. In this regard we appeal to the international community for assistance, in particular the FAO.

M. Mokammel HAQUE (Observer for the Commonwealth Secretariat): May I convey the greetings and best wishes from the Commonwealth Secretary-General to this important session of the FAO Council. He has asked me to assure you of our readiness to work closely with this Council and the countries it represents to the very best of our ability at this critical time of food shortage and famine which are hitting many of the countries of Africa.

For the past two days, we have listened carefully to the delegates who have spoken. The crisis in Africa has been building up for quite some time. We agree with several distinguished delegates that in spite of the international recognition of this crisis and the desire to help the affected countries, death and starvation still stalk millions in Africa. It is time to mobilize all the resources at the command of the international community to tackle the crisis in Africa. They require emergency disaster relief and food aid, but other medium and longer-term needs for rehabilitation of agriculture, in making the required adjustments in food policies, in infra-structure building and requirements for investments in agriculture and rural development will all have to be provided by the international community with greater commitment and political will, in a framework of deeper international cooperation, and what Ms Fenwick called this morning, "with greater wisdom, compassion and humility".

We have been told how in the past 20 years, India has been able to change a gaping shortage in food production in the mid-1960s into a national food reserve of more than 22 million tons now, and has become more or less grain sufficient. India's national will and determination expressed through its policies, mobilization of resources and the performance, supported by multilateral and bilateral assistance, led to this significant achievement. Many countries in Africa with greater potential than many countries in other parts of the world have the same potential for the future.

The Commonwealth Secretariat has come forward in helping the African Member Countries through increased technical assistance and human resource development programmes. In addition, for Commonwealth Africa technical workshop on dry-land farming systems, training in the preparation and implementation of agricultural and rural development projects, training for irrigation managers as well as training for aquaculture development and exclusive economic zone management for Africa are in our working programme this year. In all these activities we are in constant touch with FAO and other relevant organizations with their promised collaboration.

We are looking forward to the indepth study of the food and agricultural problems of the African region, with proposals for remedial measures which the Director-General has promised in the implementation of the Harare Declaration made earlier this year. The Commonwealth Secretariat fully supports his initiatives in this regard, also the plans and initiatives taken by the World Bank, World Food Council, WFP, IFAD and other relevant regional and multilateral organizations. We have consistently called for greater resources for them in implementing their programmes in agricultural and rural development; especially for the small and landless peasants, for the poor, the needy and the hungry.

In all these efforts for increasing food production, the small farmer in Africa and other disadvantaged groups in rural areas must receive the recognition and priority they deserve. History and our past experience tells us that in Asia and elsewhere their contribution was significant in changing the food scene from deficit to higher sufficiency, or even into a surplus situation in some cases. They must be allowed to participate in the mainstream of development and in changing their own fate. We also consider that the formulation of national food and agricultural policies with adequate support for management of projects and the need for skilled manpower, amongst other things, are crucial in the successful implementation of their agricultural policies.

As you are well aware, the 49 Member countries of the Commonwealth Secretariat (45 of which are developing countries depending primarily on agriculture for their economic well-being) rely heavily on the services which FAO and its sister organizations can provide. We in the Secretariat therefore are continuously vigilant in linking our programmes with those of the multilateral and sometimes bilateral agencies to avoid overlapping, and to make the best use of the limited resources available. Indeed, the Commonwealth Ministers of Agriculture meet regularly in this building on the eve of the FAO biennial conferences, the last such meeting being held in November last year as a practical measure for ensuring the promotion of our respective programmes.

The Commonwealth contains about a quarter of the world's population, and about a quarter of our members are from the continent of Africa. Two-thirds of the world's rural poor, those below the subsistence level live in our developing Member Countries. The Commonwealth's commitment to the cause of the rural people and the rural poor is, therefore, total. Though we represent a major portion of the world's poor, our resources are limited. We have been very grateful for the support extended to us by FAO in the past and are sure such collaboration will grow in the future. I can assure this Council that we are only too keen to share our efforts with the FAO and to extend the impact of our joint programmes to the wider community represented by the FAO Council.

We, in the Commonwealth, believe that the efforts of this Council under the extremely able guidance and the initiatives of the Director-General of FAO, whose concern for Africa has won widespread admiration, will culminate in the adoption and implementation of the emergency measures, and the other longer-term policies, measures and provision of investment resources, things of which Africa is in dire need, - with the unstinted support of the international community. Africa must be helped to help itself.

J.E. MENDES FERRÃO (Observateur pour le Portugal): Nous avons eu la possibilité de vérifier soit par le brillant exposé très réaliste du Directeur général, soit par les interventions de nombreuses délégations, soit par notre connaissance directe, que la situation alimentaire est préoccupante en Afrique au Sud du Sahara. Mon pays suit avec beaucoup de préoccupations la situation alimentaire africaine pour laquelle les situations de sécheresse anormalement longue ne sont pas les uniques causes, ne sont pas certainement les plus profondes mais sont actuellement les plus évidentes, même terriblement évidentes. Tout le monde se montre très préoccupé par la situation des pays et régions que traversent des famines généralisées mais combien de personnes pourraient aussi exprimer ces souffrances d'autres qui ne peuvent pas s'exprimer parce que pendant notre réunion, pendant nos interventions elles sont décédées. C'est pour nous un sujet de méditation. L'aide alimentaire devrait être urgente et efficace à travers un système de distribution bien organisé permettant d'atteindre les habitants qui vivent loin des grands centres et qui sont, dans la plupart des cas, les plus affectés.

Cependant cette aide ne devra pas être entendue comme une émergence et non comme une fatalité, elle devra croire aux grandes potentialités de l'Afrique et à la volonté et au courage des Africains. Mon pays connaît très bien les problemès d'Afrique. Et il maintient un dialogue généralement reconnu par un grand nombre de pays d'Afrique développés; il maintient également un grand effort pour aider certains pays de ce continent mais en canalisant pour eux des ressources dont notre pays lui-même aurait besoin en raison de notre situation économique très difficile.

Nous pensons néanmoins que l'aide technique que nous avons donnée et que nous sommes disposés à augmenter est aussi une contribution très positive pour le développement des pays africains de telle sorte que dans l'avenir ils puissent rendre autosuffisants les produits de base dans la mesure du possible.

Nous ne pouvons pas oublier les problemès du développement de l'agriculture qui n'est pas indépendent du développement général des pays; mais nous avons conscience que les calamités actuelles sont tellement graves qu'elles exigent des mesures d'émergence coordonnées auxquelles ne peuvent pas être substituées en ce moment des solutions même plus profondes mais qui exigeraient de la communauté internationale des actions à long terme. Nous ajoutons nos préoccupations communes que nous avons eu la possibilité de vérifier ici pour des pays ayant des étatsde développement extrêmement divers. Tout ceci exige, quant à mon opinion, un mouvement de solidarité et de responsabilité collective que j'aime à souligner et je pense qu'avec cet esprit nous aurons la possiblité d'apporter une aide significative aux graves problèmes de la faim en Afrique.

P.G. SCALIERS (Observer for Greece): I wish to join previous speakers and to express my pleasure in seeing you chairing this Session. My congratulations go also to the three Vice-Chairmen for their election.

At this late hour, I shall be very brief. Since my country is a member of the EEC, I associate myse with the statement made this morning by the Representative of the EEC. However, I wish to give additional information concerning the interest of my Government to the food situation in Africa and in particular in Ethiopia.

The Greek Government, in response to the appeals made and wishing to contribute to the common efforts of the International Community to alleviate the sufferings of the Ethiopian people, has opened a special fund, which has so far raised approximately 14 million Drachmas.

Furthermore, 1 000 tons of dried fruit and evaporated milk to the value of 10 Million Drachmas and vaccines worth three million Drachmas, have been earmarked for Ethiopia.

Lastly, the Church of Greece has already handed over a sum of 5 million Drachmas to UNICEF, for the Children of Africa.

Mrs S. PILLAY (Observer for the International Alliance of Women): I shall be brief. On behalf of the International Alliance of Women, as well as the Ad Hoc Groupe of NGO Permanent Representatives to FAO stationed in Rome, I would like to give our whole-hearted support to the efforts of FAO to relieve the misery in Africa. I would like to re-emphasize that we are willing and ready to assist in whatever manner we can in this urgent task.

As the Director-General pointed out yesterday, continuing concerted and intensive action programmes have to be implemented to prevent a recurrence of similar crises in the area. No matter what efforts or concrete approaches on developing issues are made by the countries themselves, continuing and determined international assistance is required to help them. I am told - and I shall be happy if someone says I am wrong - that only as few as 5 countries in Africa today have access to international credit. I am sure you will agree that this situation needs urgent correction. Restoration of environmental balance in the area to arrest future desertification of the Sahel countries and to control floods in those areas is an urgent necessity. Equal emphasis has to be placed, however, on research on indigenous foods, their methods of cultivation and utilization and imparting this to the rural people through an efficient network of extension workers drawn from among the peasants themselves.

Today, in Africa as in all developing countries, there is a fascination and preoccupation with imported foods, as if food produced in affluent countries would magically solve their own food and nutritional problems. Indigenous foods, especially vegetables and fruits which are growing in their own countries are neglected and ignored. Educational programmes at present levels are urgently required to combat this attitude. There are several plant foods which grow in some of these countries which are not utilized at alias food due to ignorance that they are edible and nutritious.

To cite an example, some fruits, such as breadfruit, jackfruit, bitter melon, certain lentils and several others grow wild in Africa - in Nigeria, for instance - and are overlooked as a source of food. Similar ignorance prevails in several other countries in the region. In view of this, my organization is planning a latitudinal seminar in 1985 to popularize hitherto unutilized food - I do not mean imported foods, but indigenous foods growing in the countries temselves. We hope to involve several countries in the African region - Nigeria, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, to mention some of them. We hope to demonstrate the actual use of these vegetables and fruits as food and their nutritional value. While natural calamities like drought, floods and other climatic conditions, population explosion and various similar phenomena have contributed to the present situation, we cannot overlook the fact that the political climate of the area has contributed equally to many of the bad situations that have arisen. May I therefore take the liberty of calling on the countries concerned to ensure that political considerations do not stand in the way of effective national food strategies.

CHAIRMAN: Thank you very much, distinguished representative of the International Alliance of Women. I was interested in the comment you made about the Conference on Underutilized Plants, native plants of Africa. There is also an International Council for Underutilized Plants. There is also a lot of information. Maybe this could be of some help to you.

EL MABROUK SAID (Observer for Libya) (original language Arabic): Let me at the outset express my deepest thanks to the Food and Agriculture Organization headed by its Director-General for his relentless efforts to face problems regarding famine in Africa. I concur with his analysis highlighted in his important statement. The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, being an African country, feels very deeply the profound and deep humanitarian problems facing Africa today. Whe have tried as far as we could to alleviate that crisis, a crisis endangering the lives of thousands and thousands of human beings. My country has decided to provide $10 200 000 to help drought-stricken countries. I would like to indicate also that thousands of tons of foodstuffs and medicines, drugs and equipment were granted to Ethiopia, three carrier planes were given to Ethiopian authorities to transport this assistance to stricken areas.

The Director-General has underscored the structural problems and said that tackling these problems would be the only radical means of solving food shortages in Africa, and I agree with him when he says that we should study all the structural problems so as to be able to find a global solution to this problem.

F.G. POULIDES (Cyprus): I have an announcement to make. I have just been informed by my Government that the Council of Ministers under the Chairmanship of President Kyprianou decided to grant a symbolic amount of Cyprus pounds 50 000 for the relief of drought- and famine-stricken victims in Ethiopia.

J. TCHICAYA (Congo) : Comme vous le savez, nous avons déjà parlé sur ce point de notre ordre du jour mais je voudrais, à mon tour, et a la demande de mon gouvernement, pouvoir annoncer ici que le Conseil des ministres du Gouvernement de la République populaire du Congo a décidé, compte tenu des souffranees qu’endure le peuple éthiopien, d’accorder 2 millions de francs français à la République soeur d’Ethiopie.

DIRECTOR-GENERAL: Mr Chairman, I should like to express my heartfelt appreciation for the debate which has taken place in the Council on this item. Rarely has the Council spoken with as much unity of understanding, identity of appreciation of the issues and strength and determination.

The debate has shown clearly that, whereas in the past some have felt that my warnings were alarmist, today there is complete agreement on the gravity of the critical food situation in Africa, on the need for expanded food aid to avert further deaths and reduce human suffering. By the same token, it is undeniably recognized that food aid is only a temporary measure. The real solution to Africa's food problem lies in the rapid and effective development of its agriculture.

Appraisal and monitoring

Almost every delegation which spoke has recognized the importance of early appraisal and close monitoring of the agricultural situation. Our efforts are based on three distinct activities.

Firstly, we all rely on the Early Warning System of FAO. Once again this system has proven its uniqueness and its value to the global international community. I have been honest in pointing out. to you that like all systems, it is capable of further improvement. I am encouraged to note the full support given to our activities in the Early Warning System and the endorsement of my proposal to strengthen and improve it, as resources may permit during this biennium.

The second level of our activities is the Joint FAO/WFP special Task Force on Africa. Both the African nations affected and the international donor community have expressed their confidence in the work of the Task Force and the need to continue it as long as the food crisis persists. Our efforts will be maintained. There will be a Nº 7 report and a Nº 8; we will continue to monitor.

The third level of activities consists of the missions mounted by FAO to the affected countries. Their continued success will depend on the close involvement of potential donors and the active participation of the governments receiving these missions.

Food aid

I fully share the views expressed in the Council on the importance of the immediate response through expanded food aid. In answer to my appeal for further contributions to the IEFR, the International Emergency Food Reserve, additional contributions of some 64 000 tons have been provided during the past month by several countries. I may mention just some of them: Belgium, Canada, France, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, New Zealand and Sweden. I have maybe forgotten some, and I hope others will also join. We are all grateful for this further generosity.

I should, however, clearly indicate that, as our analysis of needs in 1985 shows, these additional contributions to the International Emergency Food Reserve should not be considered as a one-time necessity. The resources of the International Emergency Food Reserve need to be at a significantly higher level than the target of 500 000 tons of cereals, which, after all, was established almost a decade ago, 1975. Population has increased in the meantime by perhaps 800 million people, most of them living in the developing countries. The greater part of the resources of the International Emergency Food Reserve still go for continuing refugee operations, which show no sign of abatement. There are about 9 million refugees in the world. More than 65 percent of the IEFR goes to the refugees. The African food crisis therefore must be expected to make further demands on the

International Emergency Food Reserve. We are happy that we have for the time being no Asian food crisis, we hope we will never have one, but in such case we shall need many more resources. At the CFA next year we shall discuss ways and means to expand and speed up emergency food assistance.


I am greatly encouraged by the unanimous realization of the imperative need for immediate measures for the rehabilitation of agriculture in the affected countries. I acknowledge with gratitude the endorsement given by the Council to my proposal to refocus the Programme of Work and Budget of FAO in order to allocate $5 million to implement programme activities, including the provision of modest amounts of inputs to the most affected countries. At the same time, I shall strive to moblize extra-budgetary resources from the donors. We have heard this morning and this afternoon some announcements of aid to African countries, and I appreciate these donations and pledges.

Planned development

The planned development of African agriculture must proceed with renewed commitment and determination. We shall hasten our work on the African Food Study so that as a final complement to all the work which has been undertaken by African governments themselves and by FAO on agricultural development policies, we can determine specific agricultural development measures which are not only feasible but also realistic.

Investment needs

Plans and studies will, however, only show fruition when the resources needed for development of Africa's agriculture are made available. Here again we are unanimous in recognizing the need for additional investment resources for Africa on concessional terms. Some two-thirds of multilateral development assistance are devoted to agriculture, whereas just over one-fifth of bilateral development assistance goes to agriculture. Here I would appeal to all governments channelling development assistance bilaterally to make a special effort to increase the share of agriculture in their total development assistance. I intend to include next year as well a special section in the State of Food and Agriculture dealing with the African food situation.

The sympathy of the world lies with Africa. We must not forget, however, that so does our continued confidence in the ability of the governments and people of Africa to overcome the problems which they have long had to face. With the united commitment that the Council has expressed and with the support which Member Nations continue to repose in the Organization, I can assure you and pledge to you our unflagging resolve.

CHAIRMAN: Thank you very much, Mr. Director-General, for both your opening and closing addresses now. I am glad Members of the Council and Observers participated in a very extensive and active manner in this discussion.

I said at the beginning of the discussion on this item that this is the most important item on the agenda for the Eighty-sixth Session on the Council. I am grateful to the 48 delegates and observers who dealt with clarity and emotional and intellectual involvement the problems of agricultural advance and agrarian prosperity in Africa both in the short-term and long-term perspectives. You, Mr. Director-General, explained clearly what needs to be done in both the time dimensions, immediately and in the long term. I join with the Director-General, Dr. Saouma, and the Members of the Council and the Observers who have spoken in thanking the various bilateral and multilateral donors and Non-Governmental Organizations for their generous response to the call of the hungry.

My country, as the Indian Ambassador said this morning, India, has a long reserve of experience in handling famines caused by natural calamities, by drought and floods. Since I have personal experience in managing one of the widespread droughts of this century in my country during 1979, I would like to share with you. briefly some of the principal lessons we have learnt. As the Ambassador of India said this morning, thanks to the generous help from those in a position to help, particularly the United States of America, and thanks mainly due to the country's own efforts, widespread famines and food scarcities have been avoided so far since 1947 when the country became independent. In fact, the last serious famine which claimed nearly 3 million lives was in the undivided Bengal which is now partly Bangladesh and partly West Bengal of India, during World War II. The Drought Famine Management System adopted in India has three major components. First, The Most Seriously Affected Areas (MSA) in terms of human and livestock distress are given the highest priority in relief and rehabilitation measures. Carefully designed Food for Nutrition programmes for pregnant and nursing mothers, children, old and infirm persons and all who are too weak to work are operated in such areas. Simultaneously, a Food For Work programme on an open ended basis is operated both to provide opportunities for all who are in a position to work to earn their daily bread and to develop the infrastructure necessary for handling famine management procedures, such as underground water harvesting, establishment of drinking water sanctuaries and organization of livestock camps near a water source, where livestock are fed with a maintenance ration consisting of any available cellulosic material enriched by urea and an energy source like molasses.

The second component of the strategy is to pay attention to raising food production in the Most Favourable Areas (MFA) through compensatory production programmes and through the additional supply of fertilizer and other inputs at low prices. For this purpose, MFA or Most Favourable Areas, is defined as an area where soil moisture will be adequate to sustain a crop. To implement the compensatory programme, seed and fertilizer reserves will obviously be necessary. While grain reserves are essential for food security, seed and fertilizer reserves are essential for crop production stability in areas prone to natural calamities.

The third, and the most important in my view, component of the strategy is the development of a Good Weather Code for chronically drought prone areas. It is only in the occasional good rainfall years that meaningful work can be done to contain desertification and build the ecological infrastructure necessary for stable agriculture. The Good Weather Code could list all the steps that should be taken in normal rainfall years such as afforestation including aerial seeding, soil conservation, water harvesting, building of seed reserves, construction of storage facilities and many other steps mentioned by the distinguished delegates.

Unfortunately however, in normal years of rainfall neither national nor international sources of additional funding become available and unique opportunities for eco-development are lost. Planning for adverse weather should therefore become an integral part of the planning process in all countries which have this problem of recurrent droughts or floods as the case may be.

I hope the three pronged Drought and Disaster Management Strategy developed in India over the years on the basis of over a century of experience in handling natural and man-made disasters could be suitably adapted wherever they are relevant.

Several delegates have emphasized the need for the development of technologies which can help to elevate and stabilize food production in sub-Saharan Africa. I fully share their view. The agricultural situation in Africa presents several enigmas. Ethiopia, for example, is known as a land with "13 months of sunshine". Agriculture is the most important solar energy harvesting enterprise. Why then should Ethiopia face such difficulties? Similarly, many of the important food crops of Africa like sorghum, maize, millet and cassava are generally feed crops, feed crops fed to the animals in the developed world. Where they are used as feed crops or feed material, the yields are as high as eight to nine tons per ha. Where they are vital staples of the people, unfortunately the yields are less than one ton per ha. What can we do then to harness the "green power" of Africa provided by abundant sunshine and improve the yield of basic staples?

Obviously, the answer lies in developing a blend of appropriate packages of technology, services and government policies. The progress made in Asia and Latin America in improving per capita food production during the last 15 to 20 years was triggered by new technologies coupled with irrigation development. A key component of the new technology is genetic strains which are capable of responding to good management, particularly the supply of water and nutrients. The other and very important ingredient of success, particularly in south east Asia, is the development of early maturing varieties. Such short duration varieties of cereals, which are flexible in relation to sowing dates, have helped in imparting a drought escaping character, except of course in seasons when there is a complete failure of rainfall. For example, quick and high yielding varieties of tef, the unique millet consumed mainly in Ethiopia may help to stabilize production. This is where biotechnology can help because natural variability for these characters is very limited. We must harness all the tools of modern science in restructuring maturity periods and cropping patterns in many African countries.

Concentrating on extension services alone without suitable technologies will not help much. I have seen several extension services which have nothing to extend either by way of new knowledge or the inputs needed to apply that knowledge.

Distinguished members of the Council, history teaches us that calamities often provide the greatest opportunities for quantum leaps in technological and.economic progress.

I am sure our African colleagues will send home the verbatim records of our discussion on this item, since if ever any proof is needed for the existence of human solidarity in handling calamities of this magnitude, the proceedings of yesterday and today will provide it.

In 1965-66, India faced unprecedented drought and the likelihood of extensive famine. The supply of nearly 10 million tons of food grains by donors, most by the United States under its PL 480 programme coupled with well organized delivery systems, organized by both governmental and non-governmental organizations, prevented deaths due to famine. At that time most agricultural experts of the world had written that India can never feed itself. Under what is called the triage analysis, which is

well; know to you and which was very popular at that time of grouping people into three categories, India was written off as a hopeless case. Yet it is in that very year of 1966 when the Government had to, as the Ambassador said, live from a ship to shop existence, the Government of India initiated the High yielding Varieties Programme in wheat, rice, maize, sorghum and millet. This changed the subsequent Indian agricultural history. I am confident that the present calamity will catalyze similar action and results in Africa. An American statesman, William Bryan, once said "Destiny is not a matter of chance: it is a matter of choice. It is not a thing to be waited for: it is a thing to be achieved". It is my fervent hope and prayer that 1984 will be a turning point in the agricultural destiny of sub-Saharan Africa, just as 1966 was the turning point in the history of Indian agriculture.

I once more want to thank you, Mr. Director-General, for the leadership you have given in this matter, and the distinguished delegates for your extremely valuable participation. We are most grateful to all of you and now the discussion on this item is closed.


CHAIRMAN: Now one of our very distinguished Vice-Chairmen, Dr Baharsjah, unfortunately has to leave us at the end of this week and we should not forego the privilege of having him in the chair here, so he has very kindly agreed to chair the discussion on this item.

Now I want to tell you something about Dr Baharsjah. He was very modest this morning when he said that Indonesia this year will harvest nearly 26 million tons of rice. Fourteen years ago Indonesia was producing 10 million tons of rice. This year 26 million tons of rice, and this tremendous progress not so much written and sung, but it is tremendous progress, and in this progress Dr Baharsjah and his colleagues have played a significant role.

S. Baharsjah, Vice-Chairman of the Council, took the chair
S. Baharsjah, Vice-Président du Conseil, assume la présidence
Ocupa la presidencia S. Baharsjah, Vicepresidente del Consejo


6. Follow-up on World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development; for discussion and/or decision
6. Suivi de la Conférence mondiale sur l'aménagement et le développement des pêches
6. Actividades complementarias de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros

CHAIRMAN: As Dr Swaminathan has pointed out, due to the great importance of Items 4 and 4.1 we are somewhat running late. I would like to invite the cooperation of the distinguished delegates so that we can make our deliberation fruitful and efficient, and so that we can still discuss all the items that we have seEto discuss in this Eighty-sixth Session of the Council.

From June 26th to July 6th this year the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development was held here at FAO Headquarters. The initiative of the Director-General of FAO was obviously met with great support, and no less than 147 delegates from Member Countries attended the Conference in addition to a number of representatives of the United Nations organs and bodies, international organizations and international non-governmental organizations. Today, this time, we will deliberate on the report on the results and the follow-up of the Conference. We have a full report of the Conference and we also have the highlights, namely document CL 86/14.

J.E. CARROZ (Sous-Directeur général, Département despêches): Il n'est probablement pas nécessaire, M. le Président, que je résume le document CL 86/14 qui vous est soumis sur la Conférence mondiale de la FAO sur l'aménagement et le développement des pêches. Beaucoup des délégués ici présents ont participé activement à la Conférence. D'autre part, le document est si bref que vous avez sûrement eu le temps de le lire. Il me paraît donc plus judicieux de fournir des informations complémen-

taires dont il n'est pas fait état dans le document, qui a été rédigé à peine un mois après la fin de la Conférence. Ces informations porteront évidemment sur les mesures déjà prises ou proposées par le Directeur général pour mettre en oeuvre la Stratégie d'aménagement et de développement des pêches, les cinq Programmes d'action et les diverses résolutions adoptées par la Conférence.

J'aimerais tout d'abord rappeler que la Conférence avait recommandé que les résultats de ses travaux soient portés à l'attention du Conseil économique et social et de l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies. Ce Conseil s'étant réuni immédiatement après la Conférence, il n'avait été saisi que d'un rapport oral dont il avait pris note et avait décidé de renvoyer la question à l'Assemblée générale. C'est la semaine dernière que celle-ci a examiné le rapport final de la Conférence, qui lui a été soumis par le Président de la Conférence lui-même, Son Excellence Pedro Ojeda Paullada, à l'invitation du Directeur général. Comme j'étais présent, je puis dire que l'exposé du Président a été extrêmement bien accueilli. La délégation des Pays-Bas a alors présenté un projet de résolution qui avait fait l'objet de consultations préalables et était co-parrainé par le Bangladesh, le Canada, la Chine, la France, la Guinée, la Jamaĭque, le Mexique, le Nicaragua, le Pakistan et les Philippines. Aux termes de ce projet, l'Assemblée générale approuve la Stratégie et les Programme d'action; elle invite les états et les organisations internationales concernées à tenir compte des principes et des lignes d'orientation définis dans la Stratégie; elle prie instamment les organismes donateurs de fournir le soutien nécessaire à la mise en oeuvre des Programmes d'action; enfin, elle invite la FAO à continuer de jouer son rôle important en aidant les Etats à améliorer l'aménagement et le développement des pêches.

J'en viens maintenant aux commissions de pêche de la FAO. Comme l'indique votre document, l'intention est de leur soumettre également le rapport de la Conférence mondiale. Ceci a déjà été fait pour les commissions qui s'occupent de pêche en Méditerranée, dans l'Atlantique au large de l'Afrique occidentale, dans les Golfes et dans l'Océan Indien sud-occidental. Il n'est évidemment pas possible d'entrer dans les détails, mais j'aimerais souligner que les discussions engagées sur le rapport servent un double objectif: elles permettent de mieux définir les composantes régionales et sous-régionales des cinq Programmes d'action et elles offrent aux organismes donateurs participant aux réunions de ces commissions régionales la possibilité d'harmoniser leurs activités et leurs plans avec ces Programmes.

Monsieur le Président, c'est évidemment la prochaine session du Comité des pêches, prévue pour fin avril 1985, qui sera l'occasion d'un examen détaillé des mesures prises ou suggérées pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre de la Stratégie et des Programmes d'action. Pour ce qui est de la Stratégie, le document mentionne l'élaboration de propositions concernant la préparation des rapports périodiques qu'envisage l'une des résolutions de la Conférence mondiale. Quant aux Programmes d'action, ils vont exiger un ajustement des activités du Département des pêches, aussi bien dans le cadre du Programme ordinaire que dans celui des programmes de terrain. Le document qui est devant vous donne quelques indications à cet égard, aux paragraphes 19 à 25. Vous noterez que le Directeur général a l'intention d'examiner avec une attention particulière le soutien à apporter aux initiatives découlant de la Conférence mondiale lorsqu'il formulera ses propositions de Programme de travail et budget pour 1986-87 dans le cadre des prévisions budgétaires qu'il soumettra à la vingt-troisième session de la Conférence de la FAO.

Les cinq programmes d'action prévoient essentiellement des activités au niveau sous-régional et régional et principalement, mais non pas exclusivement, dans le cadre multilatéral. Ceci pour un montant d'environ 15 millions de dollars par an sur une période de cinq ans à partir de 1985. Leur execution dépendra évidemment des fonds extra-budgétaires qui seront mis à disposition.

Le document qui est devant vous indique dans son paragraphe 24 qu'un certain nombre de pays a déjà manifesté lors de la Conférence leur intention de contribuer à l'exécution de ces programmes. A cet égard j'aimerais souligner que lorsque nous parlons dans ce paragraphe 24 de la France on a dû dire qu'il s'agissait en fait de la Communauté économique européenne par la voix du membre responsable de la Commission des communautés européennes et celle du représentant de la France agissant en sa qualité de président du Conseil des ministres des communautés européennes. Comme la Conférence s'est déroulée il n'y a guère plus de quatre mois, il serait prématuré de donner des chiffres mais je puis dire qu'aux résultats des consultations déjà obtenus avec un certain nombre de donateurs près des deux tiers des fonds nécessaires pour 1985 semblent déjà acquis, et ceci ne tient pas compte des activités qui pourraient être menées sur une base bilatérale. Je pourrais ajouter que d'autres consultations auront lieu avant la fin de l'année avec des donateurs.

Pour terminer, quelques mots sur les diverses résolutions adoptées par la Conférence. Je n'ai pas d'élément nouveau à apporter sur la résolution concernant la promotion du rôle du poisson dans la lutte contre la sous-alimentation et le paragraphe 28 du document témoigne de l'importance que la FAO attache à cette question; ni sur les résolutions concernant la lutte contre la pollution, les programmes spéciaux en faveur des pays sans littoral et la promotion technique et économique entre pays en développement.

En revanche, la résolution sur le rôle du pêcheur, qui a beaucoup retenu l'attention de la Conférence mondiale, appelle peut-être quelques observations. Dans cette résolution la Conférence mondiale sur les pêches invite le Directeur général à adopter comme thème de la Journée mondiale de l'alimentation en 1986 les pêcheurs et leurs communautés et la contribution de ces pêcheurs et de leurs communautés à la production alimentaire. Comme l'indique votre document le Directeur général a décidé qu'il tiendrait compte de cette invitation. D'autre part, la résolution demande au Directeur général en termes très prudents, d'envisager de proclamer une Journée mondiale de la pêche tous les ans. A cet égard, le paragraphe 34 du document mentionne qu'il y a déjà dans le système des Nations Unies 27 journées ou semaines dédiées chaque année à un thème spécial. Il mentionne également que le Conseil économique et social recommande la plus grande réserve lorsqu'il s'agit de proposer de nouvelles journées ou de nouvelles semaines. De plus, je devrais dire que chaque année une journée dédiée à un thème particulier a évidemment des incidences financières pour l'Organisation qui en est responsable.

Enfin cette même résolution sur le rôle du pêcheur invite le Directeur général à étudier la possibilité de programmer une année internationale du pêcheur et à faire des recommandations appropriées aux organes directeurs de la FAO. La proclamation d'années internationales est désormais soumise à des procédures spéciales établies par le Conseil économique et social et par l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies elles-mêmes. Comme l'indique votre document l'Assemblée générale a déjà décidé que 1985 serait consacrée à la Jeunesse, 1986 à la paix et 1987 serait l'année du logement pour les sans-abris.

J'étais la semaine dernière à New York à l'Assemblée générale et je me suis informé. Il semble qu'à la présente session de l'Assemblée générale aucune décision ne sera prise concernant années internationales. Quelques thèmes ont été mentionnés pour les années immédiatement disponibles c'est-à-dire à partir de 1988, mais aucune décision n'a encore été prise. Je préfère m'en tenir là et naturellement je serais prêt à répondre à toutes les questions.

Mrs M. FENWICK (United States of America): We had a wonderful fisheries conference and I am glad that the report reflects some of the interesting topics that were brought up there. I would like to mention, because there was nothing about it in the report, the UNDP/FAO/Chilanga project for land-locked countries. I have seen it. The small farmers dig their own ponds with expert advice as to whether they have enough water and whether they have the proper soil and they become independent income producers. For anybody who is interested, I have a whole lecture on fish aquaculture for landlocked small farmers.

Second, I would like to stress also the role of the small fisherman. Take Lake Kariba. Lake Kariba used to produce 470 tonnes of fish but now, with 94 percent of the catch due to small fishermen the catch went up to 6 236 tonnes. In other words, we must see what works and foster those people who can make the nutritional improvements.

I also feel very strongly about another thing which is not to do with fish production as such, I would like to say to the countries that are developing and that have national interests to protect, be very careful when you make contracts with outside companies and countries. I know of one very sad case. What I am now recommending is IDLI, the International Development Law Institute, which is here in Rome and is also in other countries. It is financed by a number of countries, I am happy to say, including my own, Italy, France, and so on. What it does is to train, in contract and international law, lawyers who can protect their own countries' interests when they are making any contracts with any foreign company or government.

There is another point that I would like to bring up. That is to those who are going to be trained, to those who are going to take courses and seminars with IDLI, the International Development Law Institute. I do hope that they will consider the independent citizen. I do hope that they will begin somehow strive to establish the rights of a citizen against a state. I do hope that they will begin to discuss and advocate the protection of individual human beings who are wrestling so often with controls that they cannot even influence. Those are my thoughts. I would wish that the people would sit down and listen, and learn to respect and trust the small fisherman, the small farmer, the people who are going to make the improvements. They must go down into the villages and to the beaches, and listen to the small fishermen and farmers who will rescue the world from hunger.

M. FRANCISCI DI BASCHI (Italie): En ma qualité de représentant du pays qui assure la présidence de la Communaute économique européenne, je voudrais vous prier de donner la parole au représentant de cette communauté étant donné que celle-ci a une compétence directe en ce qui concerne les problèmes de la pêche dont le représentant de la Communauté parle directement pour la Communauté et est le

protagoniste direct de cette politique à l’intérieur de la Communauté et pour la Communauté en tant que telle. A ce propos, je voudrais vous rappeler qu'à l'occasion de la Conférence de la pêche il a été convenu que la Communauté, bien que conservant son statut d'observateur sans vote, aurait le privilège de parler parmi le groupe des Etats Membres en raison de cette compétence directe qu'elle a sur les problèmes de la pêche dans la Communauté. Donc je vous prie, Monsieur le Président, dans votre sagesse, de donner la parole au représentant de la Communauté.

CHAIRMAN: I have a list of those who wish to speak. The request of the delegate of Italy will of course be taken into consideration.

M. FRANCISCI DI BASCHI (Italie): Je crois savoir que l'intervention de la Communauté est très brève et, en somme, il s'agit de respecter un précédent qui a résolu la question de cette façon à l'occasion de la Conférence de la pêche, c'est-à-dire sur le même argument.

CHAIRMAN: Normally they would speak after the Council Members. However, I would like to deviate from the rule at this time, if you could be brief - unless there is any objection from the Member countries.

G. DESESQUELLES (Observateur de la Communauté économique européenne): La Communauté tient à féliciter la FAO une fois de plus pour son initiative d’organiser la Conférence mondiale sur les pêches en vue de mettre sur pied une stratégie mondiale de la pêche pour les années à venir, ainsi que cinq programmes d’action pour l'aménagement du développement des pêches.

Concernant la stratégie, la Communauté partage avec la FAO l’avis que les principes et les orientations qui sont définis représentent un cadre souple de référence à l’intention de gouvernements et organisations internationales qui aimeraient unir leurs efforts dans le domaine de la pêche. La Communauté souhaite saisir cette occasion pour déclarer que, comme par le passé, elle entend pour-suivre la collaboration avec la FAO ainsi que pour exprimer son intention de resserrer les relations entre les deux organisations dans l'avenir, notamment dans ce domaine de la pêche.

Par ailleurs la Commission des communautés européennes regrette que le statut actuel d’observateur de la Communauté, ne lui permette pas de participer pleinement à la mise en oeuvre de cinq programmes d’action, pour tenir compte des compétences de la Communauté en matière de pêche comme c’est le cas aussi en agriculture. Il serait souhaitable que la Communauté puisse bénéficier d’un statut adéquat lui donnant davantage de possibilités de contribuer au développement des pêches.

A cet égard je ne reviendrai pas sur l’adaptation nécessaire du paragraphe 24 du document CL 86/14 déjà annoncé par M. Carroz. La Communauté et ses Etats Membres tiennent à réaffirmer, ce qui a été énoncé lors de la Conférence mondiale par la voix du membre responsable de la Commission des Communautés européennes et celle du Président en fonction du Conseil des ministres des communautés européennes, que la Communauté était disposée à continuer à accorder des aides financières et techniques au développement des pêches dans les pays en développement dans le cadre de la Convention en vigueur entre la Communauté et les pays d’Afrique, Caraïbes, Pacifique ainsi que dans le cadre des autres accords de coopération.

H.J.H. TALEYARKHAN (India): Both the documents and the very attractive presentation of the Report of the last FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development are very revealing and give a comprehensive view of the importance which deserves and rightly deserves to be given to fisheries.

Fisheries is a very important source of food and marine products. In addition to being an important source of food it provides a livelihood for millions of fishermen all over the world, and as the seventh biggest country in fisheries production we can speak with some experience of both deep sea fishing and coastal fishing and the steps that have been taken and can be taken, particularly by developing countries, to increase the production still further, because fisheries can now be a very vital supplement to the normal food supplies which sometimes are so much short. To meet the growing demand for fish through better management of widely-fished and overexploited species is the most important part. The development of aquaculture, the elimination of wasteful fish harvesting and utilization practices, is very important to be realized and to be appreciated. The improvement of economic well-being and social conditions of the many extremely poor small-scale fishermen and their families, which we have in plenty and many other developing countries also have them, so that

their welfare would be looked after by this industry of fish, emphasis on the role of fisheries in alleviating under-nutrition is also important. We have an extensive economic zone comprised of 2 million square kilometres and the annual potential harvest of this area comes to nearly 5 million tons. The present production from the marine sector is about 2 million tons; two-thirds of this comes from the traditional non-mechanized sector and one-third from the mechanized sector.

The ways and means by which fisheries can be developed are several. A contribution can be made from large vessels, as is the case in developed countries although in developing countries the percentage of their contribution may not be large. In our case, almost the entire production comes from within 50 metres depth extending to 18 nautical miles from the shore. The annual growth rate of marine fishery production in India comes to about 6 percent and therefore, as in other developing countries, still more momentum could be imparted to this. Deep-sea fishing vessels are extremely important for the development of fisheries. We have permitted a loan of up to 90 percent for the import of such vessels, and the cost of deep-sea fishing vessels is provided by the Government at subsidized rates of interest. For the indigenous construction of deep-sea fishing vessels, with full government incentives, a loan of up to 95 percent of the cost of the vessel is provided. In addition, a 33 percent subsidy is given to shipyards on construction of fishing vessels and a 10 percent price preference provided.

There is another scheme for the charter of foreign fishing vessels and joint ventures. The main objectives in the charter of foreign fishing vessels are the identification of suitable craft and gear for different fisheries in different areas, training of personnel - almost the commonest factor in all agricultural and fishery schemes - transfer of technology through training and personnel, and a clear picture of the composition of catches intended for domestic and export markets. However, charter is a short-term measure, and in our case it is proposed to replace charter vessels with ownership vessels in a phased manner. We also encourage joint ventures with equity participation. We regard the construction of fishing harbours as extremely important, both major and minor. We have about seven major harbours and nearly 30 minor ones already functioning. We have 6 000 mechanized fishing vessels using these harbours. Capacity to accommodate 2 000 fishing vessels is also being provided.

Another important factor as far as small-scale fishing is concerned is small landing centres which help at numerous places to provide accommodation for mechanized vessels. A total capacity of 12 000 mechanized vessels has been created. New fishing harbours are under consideration. Deep-sea fishing trawlers must have proper repair facilities. This is very important because often, due to insuffient repair facilities being available, deep-sea fishing trawlers suffer and have to be docked for a long time. Having been Minister of Fisheries for some years, I am aware of these difficulties.

In our seventh plan this year, it is proposed to have two dry docks; one on the east and one on the west coast of India. They will have terminal marketing facilities, which we regard as being of extreme importance - otherwise, the catch will suffer from deterioration.

The world's fishery resources should be used to a greater extent. We have ten centres in operation but hope to increase this number. Training of personnel would include a central institution of fisheries, nautical and engineering training in south India. It is the organization responsible for imparting training to personnel in deep-sea fishing centres and thousands have been trained not only from India, but from other countries as well.

Another important aspect in the development of fisheries is the outboard motor. We have about 5 000 at the moment for increasing fish production from the traditional fishery sector. Inland fisheries have great potential, particularly in a country like ours with its rivers and banks, ponds, lakes, brackish water, swamps and estuaries. It can be developed, and its potential is tremendous.

For the development of Indian fisheries, we need to have regional fish seed farms, pilot projects, on sewage-fed fish culture, conservation of fisheries in lakes, reservoirs, rivers and game fisheries. Schemes for fresh-water aquaculture, fish farmers and development agencies, with transfer of technology for integrated aquaculture national fish seed programmes, projects of reclamation, reservoirs, fisheries projects, brackish water fish farming - we have undertaken all these and more with considerable success and are prepared to assist any country wishing to take the opportunity of learning from our experience.

The principal objectives of fresh-water aquaculture are resources under the optimum fishery production in the area of its operation, providing training and popularization of new evocations of fish culture. Fish farming must be made economically more viable, and nationally coordinated research projecs are very necessary. Small-scale fisheries play an important role, as they do in all developing countries. In India, two-thirds of the total marine fish production comes from small-scale fisheries. Production from traditional fishing craft can be increased by improving its efficiency. Its marketing system should allow remunerative prices to the fishermen - providing incentives for increasing landing centres, and for fishery industrial estates.

Another important source of development for fisheries is motorization of little craft. The Bay of Bengal programme of small-scale industrial development pointed out a number of important advantages of the regional support programme. A new phase is being launched for fishery technology, aquaculture, extension training, fishery resources, legal advisory services, development support, coastal engineering, fish utilization and project coordination. This is a unique example of regional cooperation between developing countries in the area. The participating countries in the project are Bangladesh, ourselves, Malaysia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand and, if I am not mistaken, Indonesia.

Not all appropriate management of marine and inland fishery resources needs to be developed to a greater extent than has been done already. We must ensure that fishery resources are rationally utilized to make the greatest possible use of food supplies for the benefit of the poorest and the weakest. We must put the accent on nutritional aspects, information, the re-evaluation of national policies of integration of fishery development programmes with national food policies and plans. Attention must be given to nutritional aspects, the establishment of methodology for fishery development projects, improvement of data based on the contributions of subsistence fisheries, on food supplies for use by the government in the formulation of policies with regard to protein availability, and the drawing-up of nutritional expertise from within FAO and other national institutions.

Processed, canned and dried fish are most important for proper development. The diversification of value-added fishery products and the introduction of them into various segments of the market are another vital factor in the development of fisheries and marine products.

With reference to the suggestion made by the Assistant Director-General for Fisheries with regard to the observance of a fisheries day (and I believe there have been difficulties in finding yet one more day for the purpose of its observance) I do not think that that is as vital as doing whatever we can in the well-formulated schemes which appear in the report and the various solutions in the paper before us. That is far more important. We may name a fisheries year or a fisheries day providing that the implementation of these projects during the year can be financed. As it is, FAO does a splendid job throughout, and I do not think there will be any slackening in its efforts whether a day or year is appointed or not.

J.L. MESSEGUER SANCHEZ (España) : Permítame, el primer lugar, felicitar al Director General por el magnífico documento CL 86/14 que contiene un breve pero importante resumen de los resultados obtenidos en la Conferencia Mundial de la FAO sobre Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros.

También la delegación española quiere agradecer las palabras de introducción de este tema pronunciadas por el señor Carroz, Subdirector de la FAO para temas de pesca.

No cabe duda que sobre el régimen jurídico aprobado por la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Derecho del Mar, la Conferencia Mundial de la FAO ha supuesto una importante clarificación en cuanto las directrices a tener en cuenta para establecer, a nivel mundial, una estrategia común en materia de ordenación pesquera encaminada fundamentalmente a la salvaguarda de los intereses nutricionales de la humanidad. En este sentido la Conferencia Mundial de la FAO debe suponer un hito histórico de referenda a la vez que un reto a todos los países, tanto de sarrollados como en desarrollo, para cooperar en el ámbito pesquero contra la malnutrición mediante la óptima utilización de los recursos pesqueros de los mares.

En relación con el párrafo 13 del documento relativo a la ejecución de la estrategia y de los programas de acción, la delegación española quiere manifestar en este momento su total apoyo a la Resolución a la que el mismo se refiere, hasta el punto de estar en condiciones de anticipar al Consejo que el Gobierno Español está dispuesto a organizar, en colaboración con la FAO, un symposium internacional sobre Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros que cumpliría en esencia el mandato de la Resolución de cooperar con el Director General en la elaboración de informes sobre la situación de la ejecución de la estrategia y de los programas de acción.

Este symposium internacional se prevé celebrarlo en la ciudad de La Coruña, uno de los puertos más importantes en materia de pesca, la semana anterior a la inauguración de la exposición mundial de pesca que se celebrará en Vigo entre los días 17 a 22 de septiembre de 1985.

El symposium tendrá como objetivo principal conocer en general la situación mundial de la pesca y en particular la situación nacional de la pesca con sus problemas y necesidades en los países en desarrollo invitados por el gobierno español. El informe que se elabore se elevará al Director General para que le sirva de ayuda en seguimiento de la ejecución de la estrategia y de los programas de acción aprobados por la trascendental Conferencia Mundial de la FAO sobre Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros.

Por último, la delegación española quiere prestar de nuevo su apoyo más decidído a todas las demás Resoluciones aprobadas por la Conferencia Mundial, y estima de gran importancia que la Conferencia de la FAO en su 23° período de sesiones apruebe una Resolución en la que se ratifiquen las conclusiones de la Conferencia Mundial de Pesca.

Mrs. M. SURAKUL (Thailand): My delegation wishes to congratulate the Secretariat on the preparation of Document CL 86/14, the Follow-up on the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. My delegation considers this a well prepared and comprehensive document which covers the whole range of activities undertaken by FAO after the conclusion of that Conference.

In order to fulfil the effective concrete courses of action as agreed upon by that Conference, my delegation fully agrees with paragraph 19 of the Document calling for an adjustment of FAO activities in fisheries, through both the regular and field programmes. We see the adjustment as necessary for the effective implementation of programmes of action. The execution of the programmes, however, will call upon extra budgetary funds and other forms of support from bilateral and multilateral donor agencies and financing institutions.

My delegation is appreciative of the prompt responses by donor agencies and financing institutions. A number of countries have already indicated their intention to support the programmes. In particular, China continued to support and improve the management of Wuxi Centre of the Asian Network of Aquaculture Centre for the benefit of the developing countries within the spirit of TCD and ECDC.

Being grateful for that generosity, my delegation is looking forward to seeing more by way of contribution and assistance in the implementation of the strategy and programmes of action.

My delegation also would like to recall that during the Conference there was unanimous recognition of the key catalytic role of FAO in worldwide fisheries development. In this connection, my delegation wishes to stress the importance of the role of FAO at regional and sub-regional level.

My delegation, therefore, strongly supports the suggestion made in paragraph 5 of the document under discussion, that the delivery of sub-regional, regional and inter-regional development programmes through a network of technical support associated with FAO regional bodies needs to be fully strengthened.

My delegation is of the opinion that FAO should endeavour to maintain the technical support units attached to its regional fishery bodies, as this mechanism has proved to be very useful in Member Countries. For the record, my delegation is pleased to note with satisfaction and to lend its full support to all the action and activities taken by FAO, as indicated in the document.

Sra. M. LIZARRAGA SAUCEDO (México): La delegación mexicana desea felicitar ampliamente a la Secretaría por la preparación de este documento que sintetiza, en forma notable, las actividades de la Conferencia Mundial para Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros, evento muy importante para todos los países porque abordó a la pesca y la acuicultura en su contexto más complete. Felicita asimismo a la FAO por su atinada labor en la puesta en práctica de varias de las acciones complementarias, como nos ha sido brillantemente expuesto en su presentación por el doctor Carroz.

La Conferencia se celebró en el momento de reajuste al nuevo orden jurídico de los océanos, y ante el desafío de hacer el mejor uso de los recursos pesqueros que constituyen el patrimonio natural más importante de alimentos de la humanidad.

En la Conferencia se puso énfasis en que la pesca es una actividad generadora de alimentos, empleos, y en muchos casos de divisas. Se subrayó que la pesca industrial, artesanal y de pequeña escala pueden ser complementarias u opcionales según los paises.

Se destacó asimismo la importancia del comercio internacional, de la inversión en el sector pesquero, la cooperación internacional, la organización, la capacitación, la seguridad laboral, social y ambiental así como el papel de la mujer en las actividades pesqueras. Todo ello, íntimamente ligado al bienestar y desarrollo de las familias y las comunidades pesqueras.

Recordamos aquí que la Conferencia ratificó la estragegia y el conjunto integrado de cinco Programas de Acción que fueron el producto de una importante labor preparatoria realizada por la FAO y los países miembros. Ello se hizo dentro del marco de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar. Se aprobaron asimismo una serie de Resoluciones que han sido presentadas en los párrafos 13 y del 18 al 21 del documento.

La delegación mexicana se solidariza ampliamente con ellas. Nuestra delegación expresa asimismo su pleno reconocimiento a la FAO por su labor de gestión ante organismos y gobiernos donantes para lograr el financiamiento de los Programas de Acción, y felicita a los países que durante la Conferencia, o posteriormente a ella, se han o están pronunciando para contribuir a los logros de esos Programas.

Esperamos que la labor de coordinación con otros órganos y organismos e instituciones internacionales sea ef icaz a fin de poner en práctica medidas tales como las adoptadas o propuestas por el Director General, contenidas en los párrafos 28 al 36 del documento, que son una respuesta a las Resoluciones 4 a 9 aprobadas por la Conferencia.

Esperamos, en particular, que las gestiones de la FAO nos permitan hacer realidad todos los puntos contenidos en la Resolución 7 y se contribuya así a mantener el espíritu de nuestra Conferencia. Esperamos que, conforme se expresa en el párrafo 17 de las Conclusiones, la FAO nos presente para el 16º período de sesiones de COFI, un informe de las medidas ya tomadas o que se estén tomando para ejecutar la Estrategia y Programas de Acción, así como sobre el estado que guarda la aplicación de sus recomendaciones, a fin de que sea presentado posteriormente a la Conferencia de la FAO en 1985.

Queremos finalmente felicitar al Director General de la FAO, Doctor Edouard Saouma por el impulso que le ha dado al sector pesquero y a la estrategia para su desarrollo.

P. ELMANOWSKY (France): Dans un document fort clair que le Secrétariat nous a présenté, ainsi que le Secrétaire de la Conférence mondiale sur l'aménagement et le développement des pêches, M. Carroz, le Sous-Directeur général du Département des pêches qui était alors Secrétaire général de la Conférence, nous a commenté ce document, répondant à l'avance à certaines des questions que je ne proposais de lui poser.

Qu'il me soit permis de le remercier car en fait ce sont ses efforts et le travail que lui-même et toute son équipe ont mené avant la Conférence, qui ont contribué pour une large part au succès de celle-ci, succès d'abord dans l’organisation, succès dans les débats, où chaque délégué a fait preuve de compréhension pour les positions des autres délégations; succès de compétence dans l’appréciation de la situation mondiale des pêches et de l’énoncé des remèdes et des solutions possibles permettant d'oeuvrer utilement pour le développement et l'aménagement des pêches; succès enfin, couronné par l’adoption de la Stratégie et des cinq Programmes d'action.

Bien évidemment, il est encore trop tot pour juger des résultats concrets de la Conférence, résultats sur le terrain, et pour déterminer la mesure dans laquelle les cinq Programmes d'action ainsi que certaines résolutions adoptées par la Conférence, vont contribuer à l'amélioration du sort des petits pêcheurs dans les pays en développement et pour voir comment ces pays vont pouvoir attirer plus efficacement une exploitation de leurs zones économiques exclusives, pour permettre l'accroissement de la consommation de poisson de manière à améliorer l'adéquation et avoir un appoint utile dans la lutte contre la faim.

A ce stade, nous ne pouvons done qu'apprécier et approuver les suggestions et les actions déjà entreprises par le Secrétariat pour assurer le suivi de la Conférence mener à bien le rôle qui a été confié par cette dernière à notre Organisation.

Nous avons noté qu'à côté du Programme ordinaire du présent biennium, c'est-à-dire celui actuel, les plans de travail du Département des pêches sont en cours de réexamen en vue d'assurer dans les limites budgétaires approuvées la fourniture de l'aide technique et du soutien nécessaire pour planifier et exécuter les programmes d'action.

C'est là où M. Carroz nous a donné quelques indications sur les ressources financières dont il dispose: les deux tiers environ, nous l'a-t-il dit, sont déjà obtenus de la part de certaines organisations ou de certains donateurs pour financer ses actions.

Mais j'aimerais lui demander si cela lui est possible, de nous donner quelques précisions sur les modalités pratiques de cette réorientation et également: comment se répartiront les fonds ainsi recueillis vers les cinq Programmes ainsi considérés.

De même, mais là c'est avec hésitation, (en effet, je crois qu'il est vraiment trop tôt): peut-on nous donner quelques informations sur les intentions du Directeur général en ce qui concerne la part qui sera réservée au secteur de la pêche dans le budget du prochain biennium, c'est-à-dire 1986-1987, et sur les éventuelles majorations qui seront certes difficiles à proposer - et plus encore malheureusement à accepter - lorsqu'elles ont des répercussions sur le niveau global du budget. Enfin, dans le cadre du par. 17 du document qui nous a été présenté nous sommes favorables à ce que la prochaine Conférence de l'Organisation à l'automne 1985 adopte une résolution confirmant les résultats de la Conférence mondiale sur les pêches. Ce sera d'ailleurs l'occasion pour le Directeur général de nous donner alors plus d'informations sur les mesures adoptées pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations et des résultats déjà obtenus.

Enfin, comme le disait tout à l'heure notre collègue de l'Inde, je crois que le plus important est la mise en oeuvre des programmes: des résolutions, par exemple, sur "la promotion du rôle du poisson dans la lutte contre la sous-alimentation; le financement des projets d'investissement dans le secteur des pêches; la protection des ressources halieutiques"... plutôt que de créer une année ou une journée du pêcheur, la pratique est beaucoup plus importante que les grands discours. J’ajoute, et vous n'en serez pas surpris, que ma délégation appuie totalement les déclarations du Représentant de la Commission de la CEE, que vous avez entendu tout à l'heure.

REAZ RAHMAN (Bangladesh): My delegation welcomes the discussion of Item 6 and the extremely useful document CL 86/14 introduced by the Assistant Director-General along with important supplementary information this afternoon.

The universal recognition of the unique significance of the First World Conference on Fisheries and the singular unanimity and speed with which the Conference agreed on its outcome makes our task an easy one. Obviously, the role of FAO in following up on the Conference is a paramount one, and we would like to congratulate the Director-General and the members of his staff on the momentum they have already generated.

Bangladesh, of course, endorses the strategy for fisheries management approved by the Conference and the five Programmes of Action to assist developing countries to increase fish production and improve their individual and collective self-reliance in fisheries.

We also endorse the Resolution adopted by the Conference on the follow-up measures to ensure implementation of the strategy and Programmes of Action and urge that this implementation take place as soon as possible. We fully support that the FAO Conference at its Twenty-third Session adopt a resolution endorsing the outcome of the World Fisheries Conference.

We are happy to note the follow-up actions already taken or initiated and those reported to us today by the Regional Director-General, and we expect that these will lead to fruitful results on the overall fisheries management and development in the world, especially for the developing countries.

We have also noted with interest and support the further follow-up actions envisaged by the Director-General, particularly his intention to submit the first report on measures undertaken in pursuit of the strategy to the FAO Committee on Fisheries in April 1985; secondly, the measures being envisaged to adjust FAO’s activities in fisheries through both regular and field programmes in pursuit of implementing the programmes of action; thirdly, the consultations initiated with donor countries, financing institutions and governments for mobilizing extra-budgetary funds and the fact that these are being undertaken on the basis of detailed project proposals for the various components of each action programme. We are particularly happy, as the Director-General mentioned, that already two-thirds of the funds for 1985 have been earmarked.

In recognition of the vital contribution of the fisheries sector to our economy and nutritional and food needs, Bangladesh has already initiated a comprehensive fisheries programme to be incorporated into our third Five-Year Plan 1986-90 envisaging substantial increase in fishery products. This embraces fresh water fish culture, saline and fresh water shrimp farming and concentration on basic research and training. Steps are being taken to polarize scientific and intensive fish culture practices through extension networks. Schemes are under way for aquaculture development in both sweet and brackish water habitats.

In order to facilitate optimum exploitation of marine fisheries, both off-shore and on-shore facilities will be strengthened and expanded for the establishment of landing centres, preservation and marketing facilities, motorization of fishing boats and improvement of fishing gear.

In order to ensure the quality of fish and shrimps for export, a scheme for fish inspection and quality control have been taken up. In line with Resolution 5 adopted by the Conference, it is our hope that necessary arrangements may be made in helping us finance the investment projects in the fisheries sector during our third Five-Year Plan.

An important concern for us relates to the protection of fishery resources .of developing countries from pollution. We believe it is of the most urgent necessity to prevent, reduce and control marine pollution and that action be initiated in this regard.

We also support the proposal for proclaiming an International Year of the Fisherman and urge the Director-General to actively pursue this proposal in accordance with the procedure laid down by the UN General Assembly for early realization.

We also support the proposal for proclaiming a World Fisheries Day to be observed each June 27th and the adoption of the theme “Fishermen and Fishing Communities” for World Food Day in 1986, which we are happy to note is under the active consideration of the Director-General.

In conclusion, Bangladesh supports endeavours initiated to increase assistance provided by FAO to landlocked countries, as also efforts by the Director-General to promote economic cooperation and technical cooperation among developing countries in the fisheries sector.

The meeting rose at 17.30 hours
La séance est levee à 17 h 30
Se levanta la sesiðn a las 17.30 horas

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