M. GONZALEZ (Colombia): La delegación de Colombia considera que la Conferencia Mundial de la FAO sobre Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros constituye la más notable e importante reunión en el campo de la pesca, después de firmada la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar.
Dentro de este contexto, quisiéramos llamar la atención sobre la aprobación de la estrategia para la ordenación y desarrollo de la pesca y de los Cinco Programas de Acción para ayudar a los países en desarrollo a incrementar la producción de pescado y aumentar su autosuficiencia individual y colectiva en este sector.
Si bien como lo afirma el párrafo 8 del documento deben considerarse sus directrices de una manera flexible a fin de adecuarlas a las situaciones y necesidades de los países y en concordancia con la Convención sobre el Derecho del Mar, consideramos de gran importancia la ejecución de tal estrategia para los países en desarrollo y el papel que desempeña la FAO por su especialidad y capacidad para aplicar, coordinar y estimular la ejecución de dicha estrategia y de los programas de acción. Ello incluye desde luego todas sus medidas complementarias.
En especial, apoyamos las recomendaciones I, II, III y IV del párrafo 13 que contienen puntos importantes en cuanto a la estrecha cooperación entre la FAO y otros Organismos de las Naciones Unidas y también con otras Organizaciones Internacionales.
Creemos que el Director General de la FAO es la persona más apta para coordinar este tipo de acciones conjuntas y seguir rindiendo informes a los órganos correspondientes. Consideramos conveniente para tal efecto, un reajuste de las actividades de la FAO en materia de pesca en los Programas Ordinario y de Campo. Apoyamos las medidas que se han empezado a tomar de acuerdo con el párrafo 20; pero como dice el párrafo 21: “la ejecución de los Programas de acción dependerá fundamentalmente de la disponibilidad de fondos extrapresupuestarios y de otras formas de apoyo procedentes de organismos donantes bilaterales y multilaterales y de instituciones de financiacion”. Por lo tanto, pensamos que las consultas para este efecto deberán continuar intensificándose e instamos a los donantes a actuar con su mejor buena voluntad para que sus ayudas sean verdaderamente eficaces.
Dada la gran importancia nutricional del pescado y su incidencia en la alimentación de grupos socia-les muy pobres en los países en desarrollo vemos con agrado, y apoyamos, las medidas de cooperación entre la FAO y el PMA tendientes a aumentar la cantidad de productos pesqueros en los Programas de Emergencia, alimentos por trabajo y ayuda alimentaria y en la identificación de fuentes pesqueras en los países en desarrollo.
La delegación de Colombia considera que este Consejo debe dar su más pleno apoyo a los Programas de Acción aprobados por la Conferencia Mundial de la FAO sobre Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros, pues ellos no sólo constituyen un instrumento de gran importancia para los países en el fortalecimiento de la seguridad alimentaria mundial, sino también en la incidencia que el sector de la pesca tiene sobre muchas de sus economías como fuente de desarrollo.
Finalmente, la delegación de Colombia desea reconocer que el buen éxito de esa Conferencia se debió en buena parte a la manera inteligentey eficaz como dirigió esa importante reunion el Presidente, Secretario de Pesca en Mexico, Licenciado Ojeda Paullada.
A. ABDEL-MALEK (Liban) (langue originale): La délégation du Liban regrette de ne pas avoir participé à la Conférence mondiale de la FAO sur l’aménagement et le développement des pêches qui a eu lieu à Rome du 27 juin au 6 juillet 1984, sur une initiative du Directeur général de la FAO, M. Edouard Saouma.
Nous n’avons pas pu y participer à cause des conditions critiques que le Liban traverse et que tout le monde connait. Nous n’avons pas pu participer à cette Conférence malgré l’importance qu’elle revet pour notre pays. Done, nous ne pouvons que remercier et féliciter le Dr. Saouma pour les efforts qu’il n’a cessé de déployer, ainsi que see. collaborateurs, pour développer et aménager les pêches dans le monde. Nos remerciements s’adressent à M. Carroz, sous-directeur des pêches pour
l’excellent exposé qu’il nous a sounds hier. Le rôle de la FAO et ses efforts déployés vers l’augmentation de la production des ressources afin d’aboutir à l’autosuffisance et à la sécurité alimen-taire (j’ai dit le rôle de la FAO) est extrêmement important et permettra done de pallier la malnutrition découlant de la sécheresse qui s’est abattue sur certains pays d’Afrique.
Le programme mis sur pied pour aider les pays du Sahel dans le domaine de l’aroénagement et du dévelop-pement des pêches a également eu des effets positifs et nous permettra d’atteindre nos objectifs. En fait, ce programme qui coûte 15 millions de dollars pour cinq ans et qui commencera en 1985 est, bien sûr, bien en-deça des efforts combien importants que ce genre de programme peut réaliser, à savoir, surtout, à mettre fin à la malnutrition dans le monde.
Done la delegation du Liban reconfirme son appui pour les différentes recommandations prises par la Conférence générale pour la mise en oeuvre du programe d’action et de la stratégie des pêches et nous sommes en faveur également de la Journée mondiale des pêches.
A.M. KHALED ( Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of) (original language Arabic): My delegation attaches great importance to the recommendations of the FAO Fisheries Conference. The economic and social life of many developing countries depends on the management of these resources, and we are conscious of the importance of fishery resources for our country because this is a sort of income for a large part of the population and is also a resource as far as foreign currencies are concerned. It also makes it possible for us to carry out our Five-Year Plan for the next period.
With regard to the follow-up of the recommendations of the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, we are fully satisfied with the measures taken by the Director-General in order to implement these recommendations. We feel that these are measures which are fully efficient and that they represent a new step towards the implementation of the objectives of this Conference. One of the main recommendations of the Conference is to encourage the bilateral and multilateral cooperating organizations to give their support to these Programmes of Action.
We would like to pay tribute to those countries which have already indicated their generous participation in this type of activity, and we hope that such efforts are going to be continued in the future.
In view, therefore, of the importance of the recommendations of the World Conference on the life of the populations of many developing countries and in view of the measures already taken under the follow-up of this Conference, and in view also of the numerous future activities which have to be carried out both by FAO and by Member Countries, my delegation would like the next FAO Conference to reaffirm the recommendations adopted by the preceding Conference.
SRA. E. HERAZO DE VITI (Panamá): En virtud de que la delegación de Panamà considera los resul-tados y las recomendaciones aprobadas por la Conferencia Mundial de la FAO sobre Ordenación y Desa-rrollo Pesqueros, celebrada en esta Sede a finales de junio y principios de julio del presente año, y a la cual asistimos y en la cual escuchamos con mucho detenimiento todas las intervenciones, y de manera particular las relacionadas con las medidas complementarias para asegurar la ejecución de la estrategia y los Programas de Acción como la primera medida concreta de carácter internacio-nal destinada a sugerir el ordenamiento de las realidades prácticas relativas a la pesca y al nece-sario reajuste del nuevo regimen jurîdico de los acéanos, desea en primer lugar manifestar su com-placencia no solo por la positiva repercusión del que, a nuestro juicio, puede considerarse como uno de los principales eventos del sector alimentario durante el año 1984, sino también porque los países han comenzado a ejecutar las medidas complementarias derivadas del mismo y en particular las que se refieren a los párrafos 13, 18 al 21 y 28 al 36 del documento CL 86/14.
Sugerimos que este seguimiento sea similar en efectividad al que se le ha dado a las medidas complementarias de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural.
Es un hecho real y concreto que la ampliación a 200 millas marinas de la jurisdicción nacional para la pesca asumida por un gran número de países costeros, entre los primeros el nuestro, Panama, y la adopciôn por parte de la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho del Mar del concepto de Zona Económica Exclusiva crea mejores oportunidades para el desarrollo pesquero en el mundo, especialmente entre las naciones en vías de desarrollo.
Asimismo, y tal como expresamos durante la Conferencia de la FAO para la Ordenación y Desarrollo Pesqueros, la delegación de Panamà considera que los recursos ícticos de cualquier proveniencia representan un componente fundamental en los logros de las metas económicas, sociales y nutricio-nales de los países, y que la pesca desempeña, sin lugar a dudas, un rol de importancia básica en la oferta mundial de alimentos, lo que hace de ellos una activa corriente que bien orientada puede en gran medida ayudar a mitigar el hambre y la submitrición, contribuyendo eficazmente a la segu-ridad alimentaria mundial, sobre todo en el mundo en desarrollo en el cual el elevado valor protei-
co del pescado, su digeribilidad, su contenido en aminoácidos esenciales, en particular de licinas, lo hacen el complemento ideal para el tipo de alimentos ricos en hidratos de carbono y pobres en proteínas, de los que carecen nuestros pueblos.
En suma, consideramos esta actividad un importante elemento que, insertado en los programas de desa-rrollo de los países del Tercer Mundo, puede ofrecer un aporte fundamental para alcanzar el fin último de todo proceso de desarrollo: el bienestar de los pueblos.
Es dentro del contexto de cuanto aquí.hemos expresado, y al ratificar que a nuestro juicio las conclu-siones y resultados de la Conferencia Mundial de Pesca recogen las directrices y principios necesarios para planificar y ejecutar la ordenación y desarrollo pesquero, que manifestamos nuestra intención de apoyar y empeñar nuestra disposición para que la Conferencia de la FAO en su 23º periodo de sesiones apruebe una Resolución en la que se reiteren y se ratifiquen las conclusiones de la citada Conferencia Mundial de Pesca.
Para finalizar, señor Presidente, la delegación de Panama desea manifestar que para el logro efectivo de los objetivos señalados por la Conferencia Mundial de Pesca es siempre necesario la buena voluntad de todas las partes interesadas, recordando que cualquier decisionn que concierna a la vida económica debe ser considerada esencialmente en relación a los efectos que la misma tendrá sobre los seres humanos y que para encontrar soluciones reales y duraderas a los problemas de los pobres es necesario revisar las políticas actuales prescindiendo de aquéllas partidistas o ideológicas; es por este motivo que instamos a los países en capacidad de otorgar ayuda tecnológica, económica, financiera o de otra índole a reforzar los programas de la FAO, o que poseen las estructuras y la experiencia necesaria para la ejecución de programas eficaces, garantizando además una justa y adecuada ayuda a quien real-mente la necesita, fuera de cualquier consideración de carácter politico.
H. ZANNETIS (Cyprus): The timing of convening the first World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development was most appropriate, and we would like to congratulate the Director-General and the FAO staff for the excellent organization during the proceedings. The need for good management of fisheries resources hardly needs to be emphasized. This is particularly essential for the Mediterranean, which is a sea of limited resources and in many cases over-exploited. The resources of the Mediterranean have for many years been heavily exploited and are often obviously heavily over-fished. Clearly national management measures are needed. Mismanagement of one’s own resources can and does have repercussions, direct or indirect, on the resources position of other nations. We ourselves have tried to apply measures that are in line with this kind of thinking.
Perhaps you would allow me to cite our own recent national experience from the introduction of such measures.
In 1982 we implemented a set of measures aimed at protecting primarily juvenile fish, which is fish before it reaches commercial size. From observation, it became obvious that this fish was decimated by trolling at the beginning of the season in October. The prohibition of trawling in October of 1982 yielded spectacular results which confirmed the validity of the concept. An established trend has been reversed. Production from the trawling fleet has since 1978 been falling at the rate of 17 percent per year. This downward trend was not only reversed but an 83 percent increase in the trawl fishery landings has been achieved by 1983 in comparison with the production of 1981. Not only that, even the in-shore fisheries, which to a large degree also exploit the same resources, benefited so that in 1983 its landing had increased by over 40 percent compared to 1982. It is expected that the results of these management measures already taken will continue and higher productión is expected for 1984. We believe that such measures and such results can be taken and be achieved in other areas of the Mediterranean. We are in agreement and we support the strategy for fisheries management and development and its implementation. We also support the proposed five plans of action, as they cover all aspects of fisheries management and development and cover all regions of the world.
My delegation strongly believes in the contribution of marine farming to future growth of the sector,’ and the Government of Cyprus is actively supporting through incentives and other measures the establishment of such commercial enterprises in the island. The steps proposed or taken by the Director-General in response to the recommendations contained in Resolution 4 to 9 adopted by the Conference, as described in paragraphs 28 to 36 of document CL 86/14, deserve our full support. We hope that the required extra-budgetary funds for the execution of such action programmes will be secured. In this respect we would like to express our appreciation for the interest already indicated by some donor countries to assist in the implementation of these programmes, and they appear in paragraphs 23 and 24 of the document under review, and as we were informed by Mr Carroz in his introduction. We hope that other donors will follow this example.
Finally, we would like to join previous speakers in supporting the suggestion in paragraph 17 for the submission of a report on the measures already taken to implement these strategies and the Programmes of Action to the next session of the Committee on Fisheries and for the FAO Conference to consider at its Twenty-third session a resolution endorsing the outcome of the World Conference on Fisheries.
W.A.F. GRABISCH (Germany, Federal Republic of): On the Agenda item before us I can be very brief because the Federal Republic of Germany welcomed the holding of the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, it participated in its preparation and in the Conference itself, and it shares the consensus of its deliberations. My delegation notes with satisfaction the additional information on the follow-up to that conference given us by Mr Carroz yesterday. We expect on a medium-term and a long-term basis effective, positive incentives from that conference, and in particular to fisheries development in the developing countries.
My Government will also in the future attach great importance to fisheries development in developing countries and attentively observe the effectiveness of current measures. Within the framework of international bodies, in particular FAO, and also within the European Community, it will continue to contribute towards the achievement of the objective commonly recognized to be right.
The interest of the Federal Government in fisheries development in the developing countries is reflected in particular by the fact that within the framework of our bilateral cooperation alone, support is presently being given to 53 projects in developing countries with a financial volume of 422 million DM.
To achieve the aims of the international community in the field of fisheries management and development it seems to be important, in view of the limited funds available, that, inter alia, these funds should be used in an optimum way and with the greatest possible effect under current monitoring of success; the coordination of international aid should be improved significantly and oriented towards the economic and technological conditions of the recipients; in suitable cases the governments of the countries concerned should give adequate priority to fisheries and development within the framework of their national policies; use should be made of the manifold possibilities of partnership cooperation above all by including the sector of private economy.
Mr Chairman, we consider it, however, a little unrealistic to expect from the World Fisheries Conference and its follow-up, an immediate positive development of fisheries and of the food situation in developing countries. Account in.this context has also to be taken of the following factors: (a) a rapid and large increase in catches will be possible in a few developing countries only; an increased use of fish species for consumption, which have so far not been used for human consumption, is possible to a limited extent only; (c) the cost of fisheries development, be it aquaculture or deep sea fishery are substantial, likewise know-how requirements; (d) the fishery sector, like other sectors of the economy, cannot be separated from general infrastructural problems.
Mr Chairman, the difficulties mentioned should, however, not discourage the community of nations to actively develop further the fisheries sector and to support it with effective measures. As so far, the Federal Government will continue to contribute to overcoming the problems in the field of fisheries development and the best possible management of the living marine resources.
J. MUSHARRAF (Pakistan): The World Conference on Fisheries held this year in FAO, and its report now before us, are events of outstanding significance. They have awakened the world to the fact that from 1982, with the adoption of the Convention on the Laws of the Seas, with the Exclusive Economic Zones and the new legal regime of the oceans, mankind has, in its fishing activities, entered a new era - a new order of things. The door has been opened to new “grand” opportunities as well as new formidable challenges. These key words, opportunities and challenges will, thanks to this report, be forever imprinted upon our memories.
The report before us has, within the compass of a brief document, highlighted a range of issues and offered a set of guidelines pertaining to all the major aspects of world fisheries. It is now for each country to sit down, look inwards towards its own house, take stock of its own situation, and determine what portion of the report, which of its recommendations and guidelines, are of value or significance to its own future policies and programmes.
We would like, briefly, to recount such aspects of the situation of Pakistan in the field of fisheries in the belief that some other countries may find in it, echoes of some of their own problems and dilemmas. From such recounting may also flow thoughts and ideas on policies and programmes which may have wider application and relevance. One may add straightaway, however, that there is nothing specially startling or revealing about the particular situation and experience of Pakistan in this field. Pakistan in fact is, and has been, a rather small and unimportant country - as far as fisheries is concerned. But it is a point in itself that even small and insignificant countries in this field have now, with the new regime of the seas, an opportunity to become large and significant ones. And the very commonness of the problems of these hitherto small fishing countries make them worth taking note of.
The first feature of the situation in Pakistan is that, as far as the fish potential is concerned, we have a considerable, even perhaps a tremendous potential for fish - both marine and inland. On our wide continental shelf, and beyond on the high seas, we have rich stocks of both pelagic and artisanal fish. Our inland waters are extensive. We have the great Indus River system, with
its five big rivers. We have an extensive network of canals, barrages, dams and reservoirs - one of the largest in the world, the natural abode and breeding ground of the carp and other species. We have thousands of small village ponds - in Punjab Province alone, there are some 50 000 of such ponds. In addition to all these bodies of fresh inland waters, we have bodies of brackish water - in waterlogged areas and in the deltaic region where the Indus falls into the sea.
The point in stressing and describing this vast basic water resource, and the tremendous potential it implies, is to contrast it with the fact that average per capita consumption of fish today is only around 1 kg. per annum, that is every person can get only 2 or 3 good meals of fish in a year.
Thus, in terms of actual realization, this vast potential has lain dormant since decades and centuries. The investment resources required for proper development have simply been too vast and have not been forthcoming. In terms of the potential possible, there has been a state of gross underutilization. Yet, along with this overall underutilization and under-investment, there has been, overutilization and over-investment in some of the directions in which investment has taken place, Financial and other incentives have led to uncontrolled growth in the most lucrative parts of the business, namely the catching of shrimps for export and fishing in nearer waters, resulting in rapid depletion of fish of these species and in these zones. In addition to such over-exploitation, there has been the wasteful practice of shrimping vessels to throw overboard other caught fish as “trash” or by-catch.
Some of the lessons that can be drawn from this situation are that unbridled free enterprise can sometimes lead to disaster. The government must step in with a planned effort and far-seeing policies aimed at obtaining optimum yields on a sustainable basis. And whenever, due to past neglect, imbalances of the nature referred to above have been allowed to develop, corrective policies of “rationalization” have to be initiated. And finally, truly huge investments will be required to utilize the full potential accompanied by technical assistance to remove the key constraints of trained manpower, etc.
Investment and technical assistance would be required in fields such as scientific assessment of existing stocks of marine fish; infrastructure such as boats, gear, landing jetties, cold storage and storage facilities, hatcheries for producing fresh water fish seed and special transport equipment for transferring the seed to inland bodies of water that are to be stocked; adoption of known simple wastage-avoiding techniques such as insulation of the fish holds on board the fishing boats and use of more ice so as to reduce spoilage; establishment of demonstration fish farms to popularize commercial fish farming inland; control of the growth of obnoxious weeds in lakes and ponds; quality control of fish products for export; training of extension workers and fishermen in a range of techniques and the opening of training schools and research institutes.
This is but a random and incomplete list of the range of requirements for investment and technical assistance. The point is merely to raise the big question of whether, how and where from such large-scale investments will be forthcoming. Domestic resources are unlikely to suffice and if adequate external resources are not made available, the entire strategy and programmes of action may simply not take off. In this respect it is quite obvious, as pointed out already by others, that the indicative estimates of the resource requirements for the programmes of action contained in the report appear to be gross understatements.
It is heartening to read therefore in the documents before us that FAO has already undertaken the initiative of mobilizing such resources through contacts with international lending agencies and donor countries, and we would surely be looking forward to progress reports in this respect to be tabled during the sessions of the Committee on Fisheries and the FAO Conference. For the present, however, we have to state, with some degree of consternation, that this remains a mere wish and hope.
The same can be said, but perhaps to a lesser degree, about technical assistance. Here we have the further prospect of technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). It is heartening to note in paragraph 22 of the document CL 86/14 that some developing countries have already offered their services in this respect.
I would like to observe about the list of countries in paragraph 22, that in this list, there is only one country - China - which is in the category of Asian countries with tropical waters. Since technical assistance through TCDC would best be between countries with similar ecological conditions, and since there is a large number of other tropical fishing countries in the Asian Region also, such similarly placed countries (in addition to China) will have to share their expertise with each other. In this connection I would like to mention that the World Bank has some time back indicated to Pakistan that two countries, namely Thailand and Philippines, would be in a position to provide technical assistance to Pakistan - certain known and established techniques for fish culture in fresh and brackish waters. I would therefore wish to see Thailand and Philippines also in this list of countries at paragraph 22 of document CL 86/14. Certainly, if they have shared this secret with the World Bank, they should also share it with the FAO and get their name included.’
In addition to the fundamental problem of investment resources and technical assistance, we would like to point to three other important factors or aspects: i) Para 14 (XVII) of the text of the strategy (at page 20 of the report) states that: ‘where access is granted to foreign fish vessels, the flag States themselves should take measures to ensure compliance with the terms of access agreements and with coastal State fisheries laws and regulations.’ We would strongly agree that indeed it should be a moral commitment and obligation on the part of the country whose flag is flying on a vessel to make sure that the vessel does not infringe the new law of the seas and avoid practices that go by the ugly name of “poaching”. It is well known that many countries continue to be victims of such depredations. ii) The other point that needs to be emphasized is that we have to keep in mind the needs and problems of the small fisherman - the artisanal fisherman - to whom Dr Saoumahas paid a justly deserved tribute in his speech before the Fisheries Conference in the glowing words reproduced as Appendix D to this report.
In this respect I would like to point to a little anomaly in the drafting of the Fisheries Report. On pages 20 and 38 of the report it is pointed out very explicitly that there can be a conflict and competition between the small-scale and the industrial fisherman. The relevant sentences read as follows: on page 20 it says: “Another problem is to reconcile the activities of small-scale and industrial fishermen exploiting the same resources in the same area; this has important social, economic and political implications.” This is a quotation from paragraph 15 on page 20. Page 38, paragraph 9 also says - this is in the middle of it – “Additional investment on the catching side has to be undertaken very selectively and carefully, especially where a new industrial fishery may compete with existing small-scale fisheries.” This is I think Mr Chairman a very important point for future policy. The World Bank’s World Development Report (I think for 1982) had also made this very point with much force.
Therefore, in the texts of the Strategy and Programmes of Action it should be explicitly stated that there is a possible conflict and a policy option is there. However, looking at the text of the strategy on page 21, paragraph 16 sub-paragraph (ii), we find that this does not give explicit mention in the Principles and Guidelines enunciated therein.
Therefore we might suggest perhaps that we should not be squeamish or too cautious about raising this issue explicitly and perhaps add in this paragraph 16 sub-paragraph (ii) on page 21 one sentence in the middle saying explicitly something like this - this is only a suggestion – “In this respect the problem of and the need to reconcile the activities of small-scale industrial fishermen exploiting the same resources in the same areas needs to be recognized”. Of course, Mr Chairman, we are not a drafting committee but being the Council, we have perhaps the jurisdiction to make or to suggest an amendment to the strategy and the programme.
I would further like to point to another part of the report on pages 41-43 of the Programmes of Action regarding the second programme of action which is for the development of small-scale fisheries which is on pages 41-43. It is stated in paragraph 17 on page 41 – “In most cases, activities under this Programme will be carried out through regional and sub-regional small-scale fisheries development groups.” On page 43 of the list of the regional groups we find that while most of the Indian Ocean is covered, the Arabian Sea seems to be missing - unless it. is included in the “Gulfs” at number 8, which seems doubtful since the Gulfs (with a plural) probably refers to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman only. A glance at any map would show that the Arabian Sea and its northern coast is thereby excluded. Therefore we would request the Secretariat to perhaps clarify this ommission of this part of the Indian Ocean from any programme and also clarify the difference between what is called an “FAO Regional Fishery Body” - referred to in paragraph 6 on page 37 -and a “Fishery Development Group” referred to at paragraph 17 on page 41.
Finally, we would like to refer to the very timely and genuine concern in the report about the destruction of fishery resources due to pollution and other reasons. We also are deeply concerned with this matter and I am sure that many other countries would also be.
Our river fisheries have been virtually decimated in large areas over the past decade or so by unchecked pollution from industrial effluents and wanton killing of fish by some local people through explosives. Therefore an important part of the Strategy and Programmes of Action will also have to be proper legislation and administrative and punitive actions to stop this callous annihilation of a precious resource.
It would be befitting to end our statement by reading an extremely insightful remark made by Dr Swaminathan, our Council Chairman, in the previous, session, in the context of crop agriculture, which seems to possess similar application here in the case of fisheries, namely that we in the long-term future are entering a phase of intensive exploitation of crops and that to prevent a disastrous mining of the soils (also the exhaustion of the fish resources) the cooperative effort of groups of people and governments vis-à-vis groups of people will have to be devised. This will be a task for social engineering and for the social scientists. Some system of incentives and institutional mechanisms will have to be devised so as to involve the people in the rural areas and motivate them so that they stop decimating fish through polluting the rivers, stop callously killing fish for food or sport through dynamite and explosives, and through unbridled laissez-faire exhausting all the fisheries for quick profit or impoverishing the small fisherman through unequal competition.
With these observations and remarks we would wholeheartedly support the contents of the Strategy and the Programmes of Action as contained in the documents before us and wish FAO and the world community well in seeing the Strategy and the Programme coming to rapid fruition.
L.E.WILLIAMS (Trinidad and Tobago): My delegation listened with keen interest to the introductory statement by the Assistant Director General on this item. As you are aware, Mr Chairman, my delegation actively participated in the recently concluded Fisheries Conference which successfully agreed upon a Strategy and Programmes of Action for the management and development of fisheries. On that occasion, as we are about to do today, we lent our full support to the several measures of far-reaching importance which were outlined in the Strategy and Programme of Action.
Document CL 86/14 before us, together with the related report of the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, is a source of great satisfaction and encouragement to Trinidad and Tobago. The significant value of the world’s fisheries resources in contributing to the alleviation of the world’s food problem is clearly reflected therein, and the fact that the Conference brought together an unusually large number of high-level delegates and observers is, we believe, valid testimony of the universal recognition of the critical importance of this resource.
Trinidad and Tobago wishes to restate its support for the Conference objectives and the Strategy for fisheries management and development, but feels convinced that achievement of the desirable objective of self-reliance of developing countries in the management and development of fisheries is for the foreseeable future inexplicably linked to an appropriate level of international cooperation between developed and developing countries.
In this context we fully appreciate the unparalleled role of FAO in promoting the goal of self-reliance in fisheries of developing countries as well as that of world-wide fisheries development. We were concerned that in the light of the extensive requirement for aid amongst the developing countries for the maintenance or upgrading of the respective food production effort the necessary level of financial and technical support required for the effective management and development of the fisheries resources may not have been readily available. However, we are pleased to note the indication in the Assistant Director-General’s statement that two-thirds of the required funds for 1985 have already been secured. Again Trinidad and Tobago welcomes FAO’s continuing and important role in this area.
Trinidad and Tobago is committed to the goal of self-reliance in its food and agriculture policies. In recognition of the importance of fisheries development and the achievement of this goal we have been taking steps in recent years to ensure the rapid and adequate development of our fisheries resources and industry.
We think it opportune at this point to express our gratitude to the FAO for the invaluable assistance it has provided in a variety of areas related to this endeavour. Again we wish to commend FAO for the assistance it is rendering to the Caribbean region and to the Third World in general. We welcome the intensification of the promotion of fish, an important source of dietary protein in the campaign against malnutrition. We are confident that with proper technology and mangement the oceans and seas around our respective countries will yield rich nutritional rewards. In addition we welcome as being timely the attention being directed to inland fisheries, including aquaculture, as a supplementary source of fish protein and wholeheartedly support the approach.
We wish to indicate our general support to the resolutions emanating from the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. We associate ourselves also with the sentiments expressed by the delegate of India with respect to Resolution No.7 on the proclamation of world days and international years.
Trinidad and Tobago reiterates its interest and commitment to the Strategy for Fisheries, particularly in the context of the declaration in 1983 of our country as an archipelagic state. This declaration not only increased the marine acreage under our jurisdiction but also increased our responsibility with respect to the assessment and management of the resources therein. We wish therefore to contribute maximally to the forthcoming session of the Western Central Atlantic Commission.
Finally, Trinidad and Tobago highly commends the tireless efforts of the Director-General of FAO in support of the development of the fisheries resource of developing countries and his evident commitment to the promotion of international collaboration in this area, an area which we are confident will contribute decisively to the alleviation of the world food problem.
J. TCHICAYA (Congo) : C’est avec beaucoup d’intérêt que ma délégation a suivi hier l’excellente introduction de ce document faite par M. Carroz, sous-directeur général. L’initiative qu’avait prise le Directeur général de la FAO de convoquer une conférence sur l’aménagement et la mise en valeur des pêches avait, en son temps, été saluée par toute la communauté Internationale. Qu’il
nous soit permis de renouveler ici, au sein de cette instance de direction de la FAO, nos félici-tations au Directeur général et au Secrétaire général de la Conférence pour la minutie et la compétence avec lesquelles elle a été préparée.
Le fadit que tous les gouvernements aient été mis à contribution lors de sa preparation à travers les conferences régionales de la FAO et les consultations intergouvernementales d'experts en garantissaient le succès.
Le gouvernement de mon pays qui a activement pris part à toutes les phases préparatoires et à la Conférence elle-même ne peut que s’estimer satisfait des résultats auxquels les travaux de la Conférence avaient abouti, et qui se trouvent parfaitement reflétés dans le rapport qui nous est soumis.
En effet, nombre de gouvernements des pays en voie de développement qui avaient perçu dans l’adoption, en 1982, de la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer un pas décisif vers la justice internationale commençaient à désespérer. II fallait se rendre à l’evidence et recon-naître que les problèmes n’étaient pas résolus avec cette adoption mais au contraire avec cette convention et le concept que la- zone économique exclusive pour être profitable devait faire l’objet d’un aménagement et d’une exploitation équilibrée. Nous nous félicitons de ce que ce soit la FAO qui ait permis à chaque pays de prendre conscience des obligations qui découlaient de cette nouvelle législation ainsi que de ces avantages. Tout est à l’honneur de cette conférence et de la FAO d’avoir su mettre en lumière tous les avantages que les uns et les autres pouvaient tirer d’un aménagement et d’un développement des pêches dans les eaux intérieures. Le rôle du poisson dans l’alimentation et la sécurité alimentaire nationale et collective a été reconnu. Au moment où la faim se manifeste dans toute son ampleur dans certaines regions de notre planète, il était tout indiqué que les ressources halieutiques mondiales puissent suffisamment et rationel-lement être exploitées pour qu’elles puissent jouer correctement leur rôle.
Le moment était done opportun pour nous de donner une nouvelle dynamique à l’activité de la pêche. Il est symptomatique que dans ce domaine un bon nombre de pays développés et en développement possèdent une expérience basée sur une tradition suffisamment longue et disposent de puissantes infrastructures pendant que d’autres, malgré la richesse en poissons de leurs eaux intérieures, manquent plutôt de compétences et de ressources financières à investir dans ce domaine au point qu’ils assistent impuissants au pillage de leurs eaux. La coopération entre les premiers et les seconds sur des bases justes a été heureusement encouragée lors de la Conférence mais il convient de relever ici que le rôle moteur, catalyseur de cette coopération a été réaffirmé. Nous espérons que la FAO ne négligera rien pour aider à son développement.
Il est encourageant que les aspects de transfert de technologies aient retenu toute l’attention de la Conférence. Il convient de noter avec satisfaction que la coopération dans le domaine de la pêche elle-même a été examinée sous tous ses angles et que la FAO a été invitée à oeuvrer pour que les ressources halieutiques des zones économiques exclusives des pays en développement soient inventoriées. Ceci permettra de précieuses connaissances mises à la disposition des pays en développement avec pour corollaire l’encouragement à une coopération plus équitable. Et cela sur des bases saines et rationnelles.
Les recommandations relatives à la conservation des ressources halieutiques rencontrént pleinement l’adhésion de mon gouvernement qui se préoccupe par ailleurs d’accroître sa capacité d’exploitation et de recherche des ressources halieutiques tant marines que continentales.
Le gouvernement de mon pays a pleinement approuvé la stratégie d’aménagement et de développement des pêches et exhorte les gouvernements et les organisations Internationales à oeuvrer pour que les lignes d'orientation et les principes qui les sous-tendent soient pris en considération dans les diverses activités.
Nous sommes également d’accord qu’il s’agit là d’une stratégie d’une valeur inestimable qui aidera les gouvernements ainsi que les organisations Internationales à unir leurs efforts pour promouvoir l’autosuffisance des pays dans le domaine des pêches et accroître ainsi la contribution du poisson aux disponibilités et à la sécurité alimentaire mondiale.
Les cinq programmes d’action visant à aider les pays en développement à accroître leur production de poissons me paraissent réalistes et appropriés. Il reste que leur mise en oeuvre par la FAO nécessite des moyens dont l’insuffisance, une fois de plus, risque de compromettre la réalisation dans les délais.
Nous nous réjouissons de l’intention exprimée par le Directeur général de tenir compte des initiatives découlant de la Conference lorsqu’il formulera ses propositions de programme de travail et budget 1986-1987.
Au regard de ce qui précède ma délégation souhaite indiquer qu’elle est favorable à ce qu’on propose que la Conférence adopte une résolution approuvant les résultats de l’importante Conférence mondiale sur les pêches. De même, nous invitons le Directeur général à tout mettre en oeuvre dans les limites de ses moyens afin que les résolutions prises lors de la Conférence soient traduites dans
les faits autant que possible. C’est ainsi, pensons-nous, que le petit pêcheur pauvre pourra espérer voir ses revenus se renforcer et sa condition de vie améliorée car n’oublions pas que le petit pêcheur est le plus pauvre des ruraux et c’est pourquoi je pense qu’il convient d’inviter la FAO à continuer à réfléchir sur une Journée mondiale des pêches et nous donnons tout notre appui à la résolution No 7.
MA GENGOU (China) (original language Chinese): The Chinese delegation would like to avail itself of this opportunity to repeat its support of the resolutions approved by the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. In the view of the Chinese delegation the Strategy, the Programme of Action and the Resolutions of the Conference have provided the various countries with guidelines for the following fields: the strengthening of fishery management, a rational utilization of fishery resources, the acceleration of aquaculture, the strengthening of economic and technical cooperation on an international basis, with full respect for national sovereignty and equality, and the assistance to developing countries in order to strengthen their self-reliance in the management and development of fisheries. The Strategy, the Programmes of Action and the Resolutions adopted by the Conference and therefore of great importance for the development of fisheries and for world food security.
The Chinese delegation appreciates and gives its support to the measures which FAO has already undertaken and those which are envisaged in order to implement the objectives in this field. China will do all it can to apply these Resolutions and Programmes of Action as well as the Strategy. We would like to offer to developing countries technical assistance in aquaculture in inland waters, to exchange experience and to develop economic and technical training with the other countries in the field of aquaculture in brackish water and the processing of aquatic resources.
In view of that the extra-budgetary funds are very important for the carrying out of the programmes of action. The Chinese delegation feels that a rational adjustment of the Programme of Work of the FAO fbr the present biennium on the basis of the Resolutions of the Conference is very necessary. We agree that the report on the results and on progress in the implementation of the Resolutions of the World Fisheries Conference should be submitted to the forthcoming session of the FAO Conference.
K. SHIOZAWA (Japan): At the outset, my delegation wishes to thank the Assistant Director-General for his excellent presentation of this important Agenda item, Follow-up on World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. The strategy which was adopted at the World Conference contained various guidelines which will be useful for planning fishery development in the developing countries . My delegation is very pleased that we were able to participate fully in the discussion on that strategy, and express our views at the World Conference with regard to the technical base of the Conference and expert consultation. Therefore, we have no intention of reiterating the comments already made at the Conference. However, we would like just to remind the Council of our position on paragraph 14 of the Strategy, which was clearly mentioned in the report of the Conference.
The Action Programmes which identified the broader field activites for both FAO programmes and bilateral programmes are also very useful and important for the further promotion of self-reliance for the developing countries in the sphere of fisheries. My country has a vast amount of experience of fishery development and attaches great importance to fisheries. Japan has been extending fairly large-scale assistance in fisheries to developing countries, either bilaterally or multi-laterally. My country would like to continue to assist the development of fisheries in the developing countries. With reference to bilateral assistance, we give full consideration to the priority activities in the Action Programmes, and we are also considering a way of supporting the FAO field projects proposed in the Action Programmes.
H. HØSTMARK (Norway): As a nation with a long, and to us important, tradition of fisheries we welcome the concept of the World Fisheries Conference. I would like to pay tribute to the Fisheries Department of FAO for its well-planned and well-executed Conference; and to the series of Committee negotiations and consultation groups which worked out Action Programmes and a Strategy that, in the main, we were able to support at the Conference itself. I repeat that support now.
This Conference accomplished first and foremost the placing of the question of fisheries firmly on the global agenda for international development cooperation. We have always believed that these very valuable renewable and traditionally important resources, have up to now been undervalued to a certain extent. We hope with the Resolution of the Conference that this will be taken fully into account in the future and look forward to further direct consultations with the Fisheries Department of FAO concerning particular points.
We see the guidelines of the Strategy as matters on which we can help ourselves when we follow up both bilaterally and multilaterally different development programmes. At this point, we can say only that the report is a fair reflection of what took place at the Conference. We thank the FAO for that report and for its support.
L. ASSEFA YILALA (Ethiopia): My delegation would like to join other members of the Council who have spoken in congratulating you, Mr Baharsjah, on your election as Vice-Chairman of the Eighty-sixth Session of the Council. We are also pleased with the presentation of the document of the World Conference on Fisheries by the Assistant Director-General of the Fisheries Department, and would like to indicate our due regard and recognition.
May I point out also our recognition of the momentum created by the Director-General with his special programme of assistance for the development of fisheries. Ethiopia was represented at the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. Support was also indicated by us at that Conference because of its importance to the development of our country. Yesterday and the day before, Council was discussing the State of Food and Agriculture and the Food Situation in Africa. In these discussions the difficult economic conditions with which African countries are faced, and the critical food situation in Africa, were adequately dealt with. The Director-General clearly indicated the extremely critical food situation in Africa, with special reference to the countries most affected. All members of the Council expressed their concern about the food situation in Africa, and indicated their support for food aid as a means for immediate relief, helping Africans towards self-sufficiency in food production in line with the Harare Declaration, in response to the moving call by the Director-General.
Fisheries management and development is one of the areas where self-sufficiency and self-reliance can be achieved, particularly when it comes to the protein requirements. Africa, with its network of rivers, inland lakes, water and coastal areas, offers a tremendous opportunity for the development of this sector.
The integrated package of five programmes of action to assist developing countries to increase this production and improve their individual and collective self-reliance in fisheries which cover aspects of planning, management, development of fisheries, small-scale fishery development, and aquaculture development, will all get due support.
I would like to make reference to the Ethiopian situation in the hope that this will support my preceding statement. Ethiopia is endowed with tremendous fishery and other water resources yet to be exploited in the Red Sea coastal area and major inland lakes and rivers. Because of limitations in resources and know-how most of it has not yet contributed to either the economic development or the food requirement of our country; and, of course, it is not contributing towards the well-being of the people as much as it should. Yet the fisheries resources are there, but they are very little used.
To my way of thinking, this is an area where resources could be utilized more easily if some basic investment could be spared in terms of training, financial resources and technical assistance. If this happens, the sector will definitely contribute towards self-reliance - something which all delegations have advocated during this session.
A. EL SARKI (Egypt) (original language Arabic): My delegation associates itself with those other delegations who applauded the introduction of this item and wishes to record that we are glad to see the distinguished delegate of Indonesia chairing our present Session.
My delegation, which participated in the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, has been concerned with the follow-up of this Conference, and has noted the resolutions and decisions adopted by the Conference which go hand in hand with the policy followed by my country. We have set up a body concerned with the development of fishery resources on technical and scientific bases, which tries to collect the necessary financial and technical resources in this sphere. This body also endeavours to develop these resources in the best manner possible.
This operation was carried out thanks to the assistance of FAO, WFP, the World Bank and certain friendly countries. Nevertheless, Egypt expects wider and more fruitful cooperation in this sphere.
I wish to pay tribute to the work done in this respect in the Red Sea area. Having studied document CL 86/14 my delegation is very glad to note the content of paragraphs 18 to 21 and 28 to 36. We hope these efforts will be crowned with success, especially with regard to ECDC and TCDC
S. HUSEN (Indonesia): Allow me, first of all, to congratulate the Secretariat for producing such a concise, yet comprehensive report on the conclusions of the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development and its follow-up.
As an archipelago state, with abundant marine and inland fisheries potentials, my country has continuously participated in regional and international undertakings which aim at improved and more productive management and development of these fisheries resources. Therefore, we appreciated the initiative taken by the Director-General of FAO in convening the World Fisheries Conference, and we actively participated in the Conference through a strong delegation headed by our Minister for Livestock and Fisheries Development.
Concerning the Strategy on Fisheries Management adopted by the Conference, my delegation would like to repeat the statement of our Minister for Livestock and Fisheries Development, namely, that as long as the application of these principles and guidelines is flexible, non-binding and always has respect for the sovereignty of the countries concerned, Indonesia will endorse it.
With regard to the Programmes of Action, my delegation appreciates the steps taken by FAO to make available extra budgetary funds and other forms of support from bilateral and multilateral donor agencies such as are mentioned in paragraphs 22 to 26.
In this connection, allow me again to repeat what had been stated by the Indonesian delegation to the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development, namely, that one solution might be the stimulation and reinforcement of regional and sub-regional cooperation supported by assistance from FAO.
With these observations, Mr Chairman, my delegation supports the proposition to offer the outcome of the World Fisheries Conference for endorsement by the Twenty-third Session of the FAO Conference.
P.N. BAIGENT (New Zealand): In speaking this morning, we wish to emphasize the value that the South Pacific members place on the help which FAO has given in the past. In this context, we found the World Conference timely, and are very pleased to see the initiatives arising from that Conference.
The importance of the sea as a traditional source of food for our many island states is perfectly self-evident. We are also a major source of food for the developed nations which fish our waters. In our lengthy discussions in the last couple of days on the world food situation and the crisis facing Africa, much emphasis has been placed on the importance of a stable source of foreign exchange and the opportunity to earn that foreign exchange through trade.
The introduction of exclusive economic fishing zones has been a very positive step in opening up trading opportunities, at least for our island states. Not only has it given us some security from an important traditional source of food, but it has given us a real opportunity to earn foreign exchange from our own resources. Of course, the real challenge now is to develop management systems which allow the fish stocks to be exploited at the maximum but sustainable level, and which confer maximum foreign exchange benefits on our island neighbours. All of us in the South Pacific have stepped up our efforts to increase food production from the sea. Much has been achieved, but we still have a long way to go to get a stable and productive fisheries in our region; we need management systems which avoid over fishing, we need technical training, we need cooperation in marketing and management of our EEZs and so on.
Against this background, we generally support the resolution and action arising from the World Fisheries Conference. In particular we support paragraph 17 and the recommendations of paragraphs 18 to 21. We note that the World Conference emphasized that strategies and action plans are not binding on governments, nor do they involve the commitment of governments, but with this proviso we fully support the recommendations for the Director-General’s actions.
Finally, and bearing in mind the importance of fishing and disparity of our South Pacific nations, we should like to refer to paragraph 5 of document CL 86/14, which concludes with a reference to FAO’s work in collaboration with regional organizations. This reference deserves, we believe, further expansion, as it embraces the work of the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agencies. This is the major inter-governmental fisheries agency in the South Pacific, and it includes seven members of FAO, soon, as we heard early in the week, to become eight, together with a number of other s-mall island states who are not yet members of this Organization. The cooperation between the Agency and FAO is highly valued by countries in the region, and the amount FAO puts in achieves results considerably beyond what might be expected.
With this in mind, we want to ensure that the reference in paragraph 25 to bilateral executions of programmes does in fact provide for continuing and indeed, strengthening of this very valuable work carried out in conjunction with the various South Pacific agencies.
M. ABDELHADI (Tunisie) : Ma délégation voudrait saisir cette occasion pour renouveler l’expression de ses sentiments de satisfaction à l’égard des résultats auxquels a abouti la Conference mondiale des peches, et voudrait dire au Directeur general combien la Tunisie, pays côtier dont la peche constitue l’une des composantes essentielles de son économie nationale, apprécie à juste titre, à sa juste valeur, ses initiatives, ses propositions concretes ainsi que les efforts déjà déployés dans le cadre du suivi pour mettre en oeuvre la stratégie et les programmes d’action de la Conférence.
A cet égard, nous sommes convaincus que la FAO a un rôle déterminant dans le domaine du développement mondial des pêches et notamment dans les pays en développement. C’est pourquoi nous considérons que la FAO a dans le domaine du suivi de la Conférence un rôle important à jouer. Il s’agit là d’une lourde responsabilité dévolue au Directeur général, responsabilité qui serait toutefois aisée à exercer dans la mesure où la coopération des pays membres, et notamment des pays avancés dans la technologie halieutique, serait active. Déjà plusieurs pays, ont manifesté leur volonté d’apporter leur aide et de collaborer à la mise en oeuvre des programmes d’action et d’autres initiatives visant à assurer l’autosuffisance des pays en voie de développement dans le domaine des pêches.
Le document qui nous est soumis et dont nous louons la qualité ainsi que la présentation excellente qu’en a faite M. Carroz, résume d’une façon claire les pas déjà faits, malgré le peu de temps qui nous sépare de la Conférence et de ses objectifs. Ma délégation tient à exprimer sa satisfaction et sa reconnaissance au Directeur général de la FAO pour les résultats obtenus,.et voudrait notamment encourager et appuyer les actions qu’il se propose de prendre, et notamment celles mentionnées au par. 20 du document CL 86/14 où il est dit en fin du paragraphe que je cite “Le Directeur general a l’intention d’examiner avec une attention particulière le soutien à apporter aux initiatives découlant de la Conférence mondiale sur les pêches lorsqu’il formulera ses propositions de Programme de travail et budget pour 1986-87 dans le cadre des previsions budgétaires qu'il soumettra à la vingt- troisième session de la Conférence de la FAO.”
Par ailleurs, ma délégation souscrit à l’estimation du Secrétariat quant à la nécessité de mobilisation de fonds extra-budgétaires pour le financement des programmes d’action.
A cet égard le rôle des institutions de financement des organismes donateurs bilatéraux et multi-latéraux nous paraît revêtir une importance vitale.
Ma délégation prend également bonne note concernant les consultations au sujet des soutiens financiers et autres formes d’aide qui sont actuellement engagés sur la base des propositions de projets détaillés par les divers éléments de chaque programme d’action.
H. CARANDANG (Philippines): First of all, the Philippines participated in the deliberations of the Conference and all the preparations for the said Conference. We therefore fully approve and endorse the report of the Conference, particularly the Strategy and the associated. Programmes of Action. I should like to congratulate Dr Carroz and his staff for the work well done in carrying the Conference to a successful conclusion as well as for the follow-up action after the Conference.
I should like to merely recall some of the main concerns expressed by the Group of 77 during the Conference in order that fish may indeed fulfil the objectives which developing countries have, particularly fish as a source of protein and as a source of income. Many of my colleagues will recall that some of the main concerns expressed by the Group of 77 was the importance of the development of manpower, technology, infrastructure and research capabilities of developing countries in order to plan, manage and exploit rationally their fisheries resources. This would refer to small-scale fisheries, aquaculture and the fishery resources in the EEZ.
In connection with this primary concern of the developing countries, the importance of ECDC and TCDC was stressed and the role of FAO in promoting and giving impetus to this action in ECDC and TCDC. We are glad that action in this field has started but we believe that more has to be done in this regard. Likewise, the Group of 77 during the Conference stressed the importance of access and conditions of access of fish products of developing countries into the world market. This was also very important, because whatever fish the developing countries were able to export especially those that are of high quality and are required in the world market are not able to bring the remunerative returns unless the conditions are favourable.
Aside from these points, the Group of 77 was in full agreement with all the Strategies and Programmes of Action, of course laying stress on the primary objectives of the Group. We hope .that the resources will be available to follow-up and implement the Programme of Action. We would like to congratulate those countries that have up to now indicated their intention to provide resources.
H. DA SILVEIRA SARDINHA PINTO (Brazil): First of all, may I congratulate you, Mr Chairman, for your chairing of this Eighty-sixth Session of the FAO Council as well as the three Vice-Chairmen on their election.
Very briefly, my delegation would like to join previous speakers in reiterating our support for the recommendations put forward by the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development. My delegation is well aware of the fact that it is too early to make an evaluation of follow-up measures to ensure the implementation of the strategy and the five Programmes of Action. Nevertheless, Brazil wishes to stress the importance of coordinating action between donor countries and FAO as well as other interested international agencies as regards to obtaining prompt financial support to the implementations of the priority activities of the Programmes of Action.
F. RIBADENEIRA (Ecuador): Mi delegación se vale de la oportunidad para recordar la importancia que reviste para el Ecuador y los demás países del Pacífico Sur el tema de la pescay la ordenación de sus recursos marítimos. El el año de 1952, mediante la Declaración de Santiago, la visionaria actitud de los tres países signatarios permitió la proclamación de la tesis de las 200 millas que fue considerada, en aquel entonces, una posición irrealista. El paso de los años ha permitido que vaya obteniendo consenso, hasta que en los actuales momentos goza de amplio apoyo universal.
La Delegacion del Ecuador apoya plenamente la aplicación de los resultados de la Conferencia Mundial sobre la Pesca, consistentes en la Estrategia y los Programas de Acción, a la vez que felicita al Profesor Carroz, Secretario general de la misma, por su valiosa contribución al éxito de aquella reunion. Del mismo modo, anticipamos nuestro apoyo a los pasos de la FAO para la ordenacion y aprovechamiento de los recursos pesqueros, que deben realizarse con pleno respeto a la jurisdicción y soberanía nacionales.
Para mi país el tema de la pesca es de gran interés socio-económico. Ocupa el segundo lugar como actividad generadora de comercio exterior. El el ámbito latinoamericano existen varios organismos regionales y subregionales, por lo que exhortamos a que la FAO fortalezca la cooperación con ellos, como son la Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, el Comité de Acción del SELA en la materia y la Organización Latinoamericana de Pesca.
Sra. G. SOTO CARRERO (Cuba): La delegación cubana participo activamente en la Conferencia Mundial de Pesca, así como en su fase preparatoria. En la misma, dimos nuestro apoyo a los cinco Programas de Acción analizados en la Conferencia, lo cual ratificamos en este momento.
La pesca en nuestro país juega un papel fundamental. En estos momentos, consideramos que el verdade-ro éxito de esta Conferencia estará dado por sus Programas de Seguimiento, o sea, aquellas acciones que garanticen que todos los excelentes acuerdos, resoluciones y recomendaciones adoptados por la misma, no se conviertan en letra muerta. En esos Programas de Seguimiento, deben tenerse en cuenta temas prioritarios tales como conservacion y ordenación de los recursos pesqueros, desarrollo de la pesca continental y la acuicultura, desarrollo de las pequeñas pesquerías, planificación, ordenación y desarrollo de la pesca, reducción de las pérdidas posteriores a la cosecha, comercialización del pescado y productos derivados de éstos.
Estamos seguros de que la FAO seguirá desplegando sus valiosas acciones en pro del logro de los principales objetivos aprobados en la Conferencia. En tal sentido, mi delegación reafirma su apoyo al Informe de la Conferencia, y apoya los aspectos nuevos que nos presenta actualmente la Secretaría, así como cualquier otra acción o resolución que nos ayude a cumplimentar los acuerdos de la Conferencia. Especialmente damos nuestro apoyo a los Programas que se anuncian en el marco de la cooperación técnica entre países en desarrollo.
R.G. PETTITT (United Kingdom): The United Kingdom was happy to participate in the World Fisheries Conference and in its preparation. We welcomed its success especially in designing a strategy for development to govern FAO’s activities in fisheries over the next decade and in obtaining commitments from bilateral and multilateral donors to accept similar strategies in fisheries development.
We were particularly glad that the Conference saw identity of view on the importance of the development of domestic fishing capacity by coastal countries, and there was agreement, too, that there was a need to concentrate greater effort on utilizing under-exploited unconventional resources and to reduce waste and post-harvest losses from current catches.
The five Action Programmes in our view represent the basic minimum of action. It is of course now for FAO to secure funding from within existing resources within its own programmes or from close coordinations of work by other donors. My delegation welcomes the information covered in paragraphs 22 to 26 of document CL 86/14 and the additional information given yesterday on the resources from multilateral sources which have been identified. My delegation trusts that the Secretariat will continue regularly to provide information on the progress of securing funds for the implementation of the Action Programmes and also related information about other projects which would coordinate with FAO’s activities.
My delegation, too, will be interested in the answers to the questions raised yesterday by France on the financial aspects.
As regards the potential contribution of my Government, I reaffirm the information given in CL 86/14, and the United Kingdom will continue to collaborate with FAO through its bilateral programmes and through those multilateral agencies with which we are associated. Our own aid programme is not designed sectorally, and the extent of our commitment to fisheries development depends on the view of priorities taken in our discussions with the countries concerned. However, I can say that the Overseas Development Administration will continue to assist small-scale development by an integrated programme in catching, processing and marketing of wild stock and culture fisheries and their management. We expect to be able to continue to provide infrastructure where this is economically indicated and to support applied research into all aspects of fisheries development.
In FAO’s fisheries programme more generally, my Government places great importance on an FAO system of data recording, analysis and dissemination. The various systems managed by FAO are vital and should receive priority in the allocation of funds. Member countries should be forward in providing data to FAO for this purpose.
I also wish to commend the work of the Regional Commission and the wisdom of delegation of much work to them.
Finally, my delegation would support the suggestion that the FAO Conference at its Twenty-third session be invited to adopt a resolution endorsing the outcome of the World Fisheries Conference.
E.D. MUYANGA (Observer for Zambia): Thank you, Mr Chairman, for giving my delegation an opportunity to contribute to this very important item on the Agenda.
There is no doubt that the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development was a great success, as can be seen from the unanimity of delegations which attended the Conference in approving the Strategies and Actions Programmes for fisheries management and development. The Conference passed very important Resolutions which we feel should be implemented.
My delegation appreciates the speedy manner in which the Director-General is taking forward action. The Action Programmes that were approved by the World Conference on Fisheries, if implemented, will go a long way in assisting developing countries in developing their fisheries resources and, where possible in achieving self-sufficiency in their national fish requirements.
The development of fisheries plays an important role in the provision of the much needed animal protein and as a source of employment to thousands of men and women engaged in various activities. In my country, we have about 30 thousand full-time fishermen. Since Zambia is a landlocked country which depends entirely on its lakes and rivers, we have worked out a fisheries development programme which gives a lot of emphasis on the development of agriculture, since our fish resources in lakes and rivers is limited. In our national fisheries we are giving priority to fish stock assessment and conservation of stock in various water bodies.
As for aquaculture, our approach is that of developing integrated fish farming systems which have already been proved to be viable and popular among both small scale fish farmers and commercial fish farmers. But in order for us to succeed in these development programmes, we need some assistance from FAO and other donor agencies.
Mr Chairman, my delegation is very grateful to FAO for the assistance it has been giving to my country in the development of fisheries. Although FAO and other donor agencies have been giving assistance to developing countries my delegation feels that the assistance being given should be coordinated so that there is no duplication of effort. The success of action programmes in developing countries will not only depend on the commitment of developing countries but will also depend on the goodwill of donor agencies in providing training, technical and financial assistance.
I would like now to comment on TCDC programmes. In Africa we do not seem to have TCDC programmes and I would like to urge FAO to use its catalystic role and make it possible for TCDC programmes to be initiated and strengthened in Africa.
My delegation supports the proposal that a resolution endorsing the outcome of the World Fisheries Conference be adopted by the Twenty-third Session of the FAO Conference. Finally, the role of the fisherman has not been fully understood and appreciated by society. The fisherman works under very difficult and dangerous conditions. It is in this context that we support the resolution which requests the Director-General to adopt fishermen and fishing communities as the theme for the World Food Day in 1986.
J.E. CARROZ (Assistant Director-General, Fisheries Department): First of all on behalf of the Director-General -I would like to thank all delegations for their kind words regarding the
preparations for the World Conference on Fisheries and its organization. The success of the Conference is of course entirely yours, and is to the credit of all states which took part in the Conference.
Mr Chairman, I would also like to express our gratitude to those delegations which confirmed their intention to assist with the implementation of the Programmes of Action, or which offered technical assistance in this regard either on a multilateral or on a bilateral basis, and I would in particular like to thank the delegations of India, Spain, China, Japan and Norway.
Mr Chairman, if I may I would now like to try to answer the questions raised by the distinguished delegates of France and the United Kingdom. The distinguished delegates are interested in the ways in which we are reorientating and adjusting our field programmes and regular programmes already during this biennium, and also in what we envisage for the next biennium to take into account the recommendations and the Resolutions of the World Fisheries Conference. First, as regard this biennium, I would like to say that we are already adjusting our Regular Programme within the limits of the resources allocated to the Fisheries Department. In other words, it is an internal adjustment, and the main sectors in which we are doing this of course reflect the priority areas identified by the World Fisheries Conference. I could mention the question of fishery development planning: we intend to organize training courses in 1985, in the South China Sea area, in Latin America, and in Africa for inland fisheries. Other sectors are the improvement of small scale fisheries, the development of aquaculture, and the increased attention we are paying to the nutritional aspects of fisheries and to the use of fish in food aid, as well as the supply of underutilized fish products to combat malnutrition. In this respect, we work in very close cooperation with the Food Policy and Nutrition Division of FAO and also of course with the World Food Programme.
Another sector which may be of particular interest to the distinguished delegate of France is the problem of trade and especially international trade in fish and fish products. As a result of a recommendation, first of the technical phase of the Conference and later at the Conference itself, the Director-General will convene in late January 1985 a technical meeting of experts on trade matters. The main object of that meeting will be to advise the Director-General on the establishment of a multilateral framework for consultations on trade in fish and fish products. The matter will then be placed on the agenda of the Committee on Fisheries in April next year.
As regards our field programmes, we are adjusting them in two ways - I am still speaking about this biennium, - first of all in close consultation with the FAO regional fishery commissions which had their meetings in the past few months - and this has been done already for West Africa and the Bay of Bengal. We also take into account of course the recommendations of the World Fisheries Conference during our consultations with donor agencies. We have already had somme consultations in recent weeks with the Netherlands, Denmark and Italy, and we are soon to have consultations with Sweden and Norway.
Mr Chairman, I think I can say that the distinguished delegate of France was not really expecting an answer from me as regards the next biennium. What I can say is that the Director-General will pay particular attention to the recommendations of the Conference when formulating his proposals for the Programme of Work and Budget 1986-87. We in the Department are preparing suggestions for his consideration, so it would be premature to discuss the matter at this stage.
Mr Chairman, the distinguished delegate of Pakistan raised a number of important points. First we noted carefully what he said about the question of relationship between industrial fisheries and small-scale fisheries, and we will do our best to reflect what he said in the draft report which wè will be submitting to the Council.
The distinguished delegate of Pakistan was quite right in assuming that the Gulfs area does not include the Arabian Sea. The geographical areas covered in the Action Programmes were included at the request of the countries concerned, and as far as I can remember no such request was made for the Arabian Sea. Having said that, I would like to emphasize two points. One is that the Action Programmes do not include national projects. There could be national projects for that part of the world. Secondly, the Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission, which was established by FAO, will hold its next meeting in Goa at the kind invitation of the Government of India in late May 1985, and on that occasion we will in fact discuss the question of the implementation of Action Programmes within the Indian Ocean, and this of course will include the Arabian Sea. Pakistan is a member of the Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission.
Thirdly, the distinguished delegate of Pakistan asked what is the difference between regional fishery bodies and fishery development groups. The regional fishery bodies are the intergovernmental commissions and committees established by FAO to deal with fisheries in specific sea areas like the one I have just mentioned, the Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission. They are standing bodies which meet regularly. The fisheries development groups are normally subsidiary bodies of those regional fishery commissions. They advise on the implementation of the regional projects within the area covered by a particular commission and are established only for the duration of
the project. For example, we have a committee responsible for fisheries development in the Bay of Bengal, and since we have a regional project in that area, we have established an advisory group for the duration of the project which reports to the intergovernmental body.
Mr Chairman, in conclusion I would like to say that we took note of the numerous interventions regarding what is expected of the next session of the Committee on Fisheries, which will be held in late April next year, and which will consider in more detail the implementation of both the Strategy and the Action Programmes.
We have also noted that most delegations, if not all, supported the suggestion that a progress report should be submitted to the next session of the FAO Conference, and that the Conference should, if it so wishes, adopt a special resolution on the World Fisheries Conference.
Lastly, we have listened carefully to what the delegations have said regarding the implementation of the special resolutions adopted by the World Fisheries Conference, particularly the one on the role of fishermen. We have noted the support given to the suggestion that the Director-General might wish to choose the question of fishermen and fishing communities as a main theme for the World Food Day in 1986.
CHAIRMAN: I will not attempt to make a resume of what we have discussed this morning and yesterday apart from saying that there seems to be general support from all the delegates to the resolutions of the World Fisheries Conference, and certainly all the points that have been raised in the interventions will be taken into proper account by the Drafting Committee as well as by the Fisheries Department.
In conclusion I would like to thank you very much for the cooperation extended, and with this I conclude the session on the deliberation on the Follow-up on World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development.
M.S. Swaminathan, Independent Chairman of the Council, took the chair.
M.S. Swaminathan, Président indépendant du Conseil, assume la présidence.
Ocupa la presidencia M.S. Swaminathan, Presidente independiente del Consejo.
CHAIRMAN: I wish to thank Dr Baharsjah, the Vice-Chairman, for chairing so well the discussion on item 6.
N. ISLAM (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): Mr Chairman, distinguished delegates and observers, it gives me great pleasure to introduce the Report of the Ninth Session of the Committee on World Food Security which was held in Rome in April 1984. The report is presented in document CL 86/10.
The Council will note from page 2 of the report that its attention is drawn in particular to three main issues: first, the Committee’s assessment of the world food security situation, particularly its concern about the critical food situation in many African countries; second, the Committee’s conclusions on the Director-General’s proposals for action to implement the revised concept of world food security; and third, the Committee’s review of constraints on food production in low-income food-deficit countries in Africa.
The main issues relating to the food security situation in the world as a whole, as well as in Africa, have already been examined by the Council under the previous items of the Agenda. I would, however, like to refer to one important aspect which was particularly stressed by the Committee, namely, the contribution which non-cereal staples could make to total food consumption and to the stability of food supplies. In accordance with the Committee’s request, the Secretariat plans to give greater attention to this question in its future reviews of the world food security situation. Moreover, we intend to hold a workshop in 1985 on the role of and constraints on production aridd marketing of roots, tubers and plantains in Africa so as to be in a better position to assess the contribution of these staples to food security in countries where they are important.
The Committee also considered the progress made in the implementation of the Plan of Action on World Food Security. It noted with satisfaction that a large number of countries had adopted stock policies or practices in accordance with the Plan of Action but expressed concern that many low-income food-deficit countries in particular continued to face serious difficulties in implementing these policies or practices.
The Committee welcomed the increasing regional and sub-regional cooperative initiatives to foster collective self-reliance in food security among developing countries. It appreciated the assistance provided by FAO to several regional and sub-regional schemes. The Committee, however, expressed concern that the International Monetary Fund food financing facility had been availed of so far by a few countries only.
The Committee devoted considerable attention to the examination of the Director-General’ s report on “World Food Security: Selected Issues and Approaches”, which had been prepared as a follow-up to his earlier report on world food security to the Eighth Session of the Committee on Food Security. In his latest report, the Director-General put forward a number of specific proposals on which he hoped concensus would be feasible. These proposals covered all three main elements of the revised concept ot world food security, namely, production, stability of supplies and access to food.
The Committee reiterated that action at the national level was the indispensable basis for achieving food security and stressed the need for the low-income food-deficit countries to assign priority to domestic food production.
It emphasized in this connection the importance of an appropriate pricing policy, removing physical constraints, developing suitable technologies and providing necessary inputs. It also recognized, inter alia, the important contribution of traditional foodcrops as well as of livestock, fisheries and fruit-bearing trees augmenting food supplies.
The Committee agreed that a national food reserve could play a useful role in stabilizing supplies at the country level; some delegates referred to the need for carefully examining their cost effectiveness on a case-by-case basis. The Committee agreed that developing countries might need financial assistance to set up storage facilities, food aid to build reserves and technical assistance for training in the management and handling of reserves.
The Committee also invited the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes to review the actual working of the arrangement for the lending of occasional food surpluses by developing countries to the World Food Programme, which was approved by that Committee at its Fifth Session.
The need for improving access to food through employment generation, income transfer, reduction of poverty and better distribution of food was stressed although it was recognized that such programmes would impose heavy demands on a country’s financing and administrative resources.
The proposal for an FAO Food Security Action Programme (FSAP) put forward by the Director-General received the general support of the Committee. The Director-General was encouraged to proceed to make the necessary organizational arrangements to establish the FSAP and to define in more detail its modus operandi.
The Committee also stressed the need for strengthening regional and sub-regional cooperation among developing countries, as a complement to national efforts. In order to facilitate the exchange of information and development of cooperative links among regional and sub-regional schemes, the Committee welcomed the proposal of FAO to organize a workshop with the participation of regional and sub-regional economic groupings.
The Committee considered a number of specific proposals for action at global level. There was general support for an interim system of national food reserves under which developed countries and others in a position to do so, would, within the context of their national systems and legislation, earmark grain or funds for meeting the urgent requirements of low-income food-deficit countries in the event of food supply shortfall. It called on all countries which had not already done so but were in a position to do so, to consider the adoption of similar arrangements.
The Committee examined the suggestion put forward by the Director-General for preparing a world food security compact, which would consolidate what had already been agreed upon in various fo.ra on different aspects of food security. While divergent views were expressed about the proposed compact, the Director-General was requested to begin work on a draft text of a world food security compact for the consideration of the Committee.
It will be recalled that the Council and the Conference had generally supported a strengthening of the Committee within its existing mandate. Accordingly, the Director-General outlined at the Ninth Session of the Committee a number of initiatives he proposed to take in order to improve further the analytical basis for the Committee’s work. These included a study on the production and marketing constraints on traditional food crops, a review of the medium-term outlook for world food supplies and requirements, and an assessment of the contribution which food aid might make to world food security in the late eighties and nineties. The Committee welcomed these initiatives.
I now turn to the Committee’s discussion on problems on food production in Africa.
The Committee reviewed the constraints faced by low-income food-deficit countries in Africa in creating effective delivery systems to serve small-scale farmers. This was one of the four priority areas for future action identified by the Committee at its Eighth Session, the other three being training, research and institutional development.
In considering the crucial role played by an effective delivery system in increasing food production, the Committee stressed the importance of a number of operations as well as their cost effectiveness. It suggested that under many conditions it might be necessary to make a comprehensive and integrated approach in reviewing the overall coordination of delivery systems as well as the effectiveness of their components.
The Committee identified a number of areas for action by FAO in cooperation with others concerned. It recognized that activities in these areas were already pursued in FAO’s programme and that the Director-General had given particular priority to Africa. The Committee requested the Director-General to take these proposals together with the recommendations of the Regional Conference for Africa on training, research and technology gaps, and institutional development into consideration when formulating his proposals for the Programme of Work and Budget for 1986-87. Finally, the Director-General was requested to continue to keep the food security situation in Africa under close review and to provide a regular flow of information thereon to the African countries and interested donor governments, agencies and organizations of the U.N. system, and to pursue his;;efforts to mobilize international assistance for the African countries.
Finally, the Committee carried out its fourth biennal review of the activities of the Food Security Assistance Scheme. The Committee regretted that the level of resources of the Scheme during the last biennium 1982-83 had declined sharply. In considering the future orientation in this Scheme, the Committee stressed in particular the use of establishing or reinforcing a national early warning system, and of training and technical assistance.
CHAIRMAN: Thank you, Professor Islam. The floor is now open for discussion.
T.D. DA COSTA (Sao Tomé-et-Principe): La délégation de Sao Tomé-et-Principe voudrait tout d’abord vous féliciter pour votre élection à la Présidence de ce Conseil, ainsi que celle des trois vice-prés idents.
Nous sommes certains que sous votre habituelle et sage orientation les travaux prévus seront bien conduits à leur terme.
Nous vous remercions ainsi que les autres membres du Conseil de nous permettre d’aborder à nouveau aujourd’hui, dans le cadre de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale, la situation alimentaire en Afrique, analysée et discutée hier au sein de ce Conseil. L'éloquente intervention de Monsieur le Directeur general le Dr. Edouard Saouma, principalement, ainsi que celles des orateurs qui se sont prononcés sur le même sujet, nous ont montré avec beaucoup de clarté combien la situation alimentaire en Afrique était grave et combien il est nécessaire de trouver une solution urgente capable de nous permettre de nous en sortir à court, moyen et long terme.
La FAO nous a maintes fois fourni l’occasion de réfléchir à ce problème et, aujourd’hui, étant donné la situation dramatique que rencontre notre continent, nous n’avons aucune autre solution que de nous efforcer à trouver des réponses pratiques aboutissant à de nouveaux efforts et à des actions dont les efforts seront capables de neutraliser et éliminer ces fléaux constants de nombreuses victimes sur notre continent. Nous pouvons conclure de nos analyses et reflexions que le problème alimentaire en Afrique est dû à notre incapacité à en contrôler les causes; il faut insister sur le non-fonctionnement de nos structures, sur une formation déficiente de nos cadres, un manque d’équipement et des facteurs naturels, qui freinent ainsi le développement agricole et l’élevage. Toutefois il ne faut pas négliger les facteurs économiques essentiels qui constituent les éléments de base du problème alimentaire en Afrique.
Ainsi, sommes-nous amenés à nous demander pour quelle raison nous faisons presque tous partie des pays pauvres alors que nous possédons une grande partie des ressources naturelles du globe. De plus, nous sommes conf rontés à la crise économique mondiale au même titre que les pays industrialisés dont les effets se font ressentir de façon plus cruelle dans nos pays étant donné la précarité de nos structures agraires. C’est ce qui nous amène à dire que la situation alimentaire en Afrique doit constituer une préoccupation constante, non seulement pour notre peuple et nos gouvernements respectifs, mais aussi pour la communauté Internationale.
Ceci signifie que nos actions et celles de la communauté internationale doivent nous conduire à l’instauration d’un nouvel ordre économique international, à une nouvelle politique de travail dans le monde, à de nouvelles techniques et technologies, à un changement dans la politique des prix de nos produits de base, à un développement accéléré de nos centres d’investigation nationaux et sous-régionaux, à la formation et à la spécialisation de nos cadres, au financement de projets agronomiques et d’élevage prioritaire dans le cadre des grandes stratégies, pour l’autosuffisance alimentaire allant de pair avec un remboursement à plus long terme des intérêts plus bas.
La situation alimentaire en Afrique, notamment en Ethiopie et au Mozambique, est extrêmement dramatique et c’est avec une grande attention que nous avons suivi l’intervention du Directeur général de la FAO à ce sujet. La façon dont il a traité les problèmes montre bien combien la situation est difficile et je suis certain que les mesures. qu'il préconise trouveront une issue heureuse.
La visite prévue par le Dr. Edouard Saouma en Ethiopie, afin de mettre en place avec les autorités éthiopiennes les opérations d’appui et d’aide alimentaire aux populations les plus touchées, révèle une fois encore l’esprit de sacrifice et de dévouement avec lequel ce dirigeant voit le problème alimentaire en Afrique et sa prédisposition à comprendre davantage nos problèmes alimentaires et nous aider à les combattre de la façon la plus efficace possible. Au-delà de tout ceci, et dans le moment historique que traversent nos peuples sous-développés, l’attitude du Dr. Edouard Saouma, liée à d’autres efforts prévus des pays donateurs en décembre prochain, est encourageante et exemplaire et doit compter avec la participation active de toute la communauté internationale qui semble avoir véritablement pris conscience des problèmes des pays africains.
En ce qui nous concerne, nous Africains, nous devons continuer avant tout à lutter de plus en plus pour connaître avec plus de clarté et de profondeur les causes inhérentes à notre situation pour, qu’avec optimisme et esprit de sacrifice, nous tirions les meilleurs benefices de l’effort consenti par la communauté internationale.
Ceci veut dire que nous devons rassembler nos efforts pour mettre en pratique les idées de la Declaration de Harare que nous avons acceptée unanimement comme document guide, orientateur, de nos actions en vue du développement de notre agriculture et de notre elevage à la lumière de compromis assumes par nos chefs d’Etat à Lagos. L’espace général du développement de l’agriculture, de l’elevage et des pêches à Sao Tomé-et-Principe a changé qualitativement par rapport à l’année passée, année caractérisée par la plus grande sécheresse jamais enregistrée depuis des dizaines d'années, et, dirai-je, depuis les cinq dernières années.
Cette année 1984 au contraire s’est caractérisée par des pluie,s excessives depuis le mois de Janvier entraînant de graves effets dans le contrôle phytosanitaire des plantations cacoyères, notamment, et provoquant une perte d’un tiers de la production prévue. La production horticole a également été désastreuse, celle-ci n’atteignant même pas 50 pour cent de la quantité prévue. En outre, les pluies excessives provoquent des glissements de terrain, posant ainsi le problème de la conservation des sols, des routes et des ponts. L’élevage connaît une légère amélioration et avec l’aide déjà amorcée de la FAO, du PNUD et du FENU, de bonnes perspectives s’offrent à nous principalement dans le développement de cheptels, porcins et bovins. Il est évident, cependant, que tout ceci rend difficile notre développement de l’agriculture et de l’elevage. Entre-temps et indépendamment des aides auxquelles je viens de me référer, nous sommes en train de créer des bases importantes pour les succès escomptés.
Espérons que les initiatives en cours pour la mise en oeuvre de projets de réhabilitation et de renovation de cacaoyers, de caféiers et de palmiers financés par la Banque mondiale, la BAD, la Caisse centrale française, la CEE, et soutenus par le PAM et autres organisations des Nations Unies, pourront être complémentaires de l’effort national, et feront amorcer ainsi une nouvelle étape dans le développement de l’agro-élevage du pays.
Pour terminer, la délégation de Sao Tomé-et-Principe réitère son entière adhésion à l’esprit du système d’alerte rapide de la FAO, et aux initiatives du Directeur général pour la réhabilitation agricole des pays de notre continent qui traversent des situations de famine grave (l’Ethiopie en particulier) en vue de créer des plans de prévention pour que de telles situations soient évitées et qu’il y ait au moins des effets moins néfastes dans un bref avenir.
CHAIRMAN: Thank you very much. May I say how much we appreciate your presence, Mr Da Costa; we are grateful for your most valuable intervention.
H. FONTES DA ROCHA VIANNA (Brazil): I would like to thank Professor Nurul Islam for his introduction to this subject. My delegation, which participated in the last session of the Committee on World Food Security in an observer capacity, takes this opportunity to offer a few comments on the report contained in the document before us.
First of all, I would like to inform the Council that Brazil shares the concern of the Committee regarding the reduction in the food security level in many low-income food-deficit countries,
particularly Africa. In this connection, we join with members of the CFS in commending the Director-General for the efforts made to draw the attention of the international community to the emergency situation in that continent, as well as to mobilize international assistance for the most affected countries.
With respect to the measures suggested by the Director-General in his report during the Eighth session of the CFS, my delegation would like to reiterate its full support for the proposal that at national level the highest priority should be assigned to increasing food production in developing countries, particularly in the low-income food-deficit countries.
In this context, Brazil recognizes the present relevant role of food aid in strengthing food security through improved nutrition, contributing to the development of servicing supplies and response to emergencies. As far as the regional and sub-regional levels are concerned, my delegation stresses the idea that regional and sub-regional action to establish food security should complement and not substitute the national efforts and should be consistent with each region’s needs.
In this way, my Government considers meaningful the following measures aimed at ensuring food security at regional and sub-regional levels; to promote and increase food production and productivity to stimulate inter-regional trade, to include wider price conditions for agricultural products in developing countries, to strengthen national storage, transport and information facilities, to aid research and technological development, to establish a certain degree of coordination of sub-regional, regional and global measures aimed at ensuring food security.
With respect to the measures at global level, my delegation supports the view that trade is one of the main components of food security as well as access between international and national resources. Accordingly, Brazil shares with CFS the idea that the flow of these resources into the low-income countries should be strengthened and efforts should be made in favour of the replenishment of IFAD resources.
Along the same lines of global measures, we think a major role belongs to FAO in the common effort towards world food security. My delegation feels that effective coordination of action should be taken by the existing national organization, and believes that such coordinated efforts will be a highly productive enterprise which will proceed peacefully towards food security.
In accordance with the Brazilian position within the scope of the Latin American Economic Conference held last January, we fully support what is stated by the CFS in paragraph 69 of document CL 86/10:
“... all international organizations concerned with food issues to cooperate closely and to coordinate their activities, taking into account their respective mandates, in order to avoid overlap and wastage of resources and to expedite progress towards world food security.”
A. ABDEL-MALEK (Lebanon): I would like to thank Professor Nurul Islam for his brilliant exposé.
The Lebanese delegation would like to express its appreciation to the Committee on World Food Security for its commendable work. The Report of the Ninth Session of the Committee has addressed itself to important issues which are at the heart of FAO’s mandate to provide leadership within the UN system for safeguarding world food security. My delegation endorses the Report in its entirety, including the conclusions and recommendations contained therein.
The Committee comments that it was paradoxical and unfortunate that despite adequate supplies at the global level, food security in many low income countries, particularly in Africa, had deteriorated to a lower level today than it was in April 1984. The major task on the food security agenda is to correct this unfortunate and unacceptable situation. It is in this light that Section IV of the Report, which discusses measures at national, regional and international levels to implement the revised concept of world food security, should be considered and given special attention.
While action at national level is an indispensable basis for achieving food security, developing countries would need adequate technical and financial assistance in their endeavours to formulate and implement national food security programmes. In this connection, the Food Security Action Programme to coordinate FAO support for formulating and executing national food security programmes, and for mobilizing external assistance to such programmes, would be of particular help.
As regards action at regional and sub-regional level, my delegation agrees that encouraging the exchange of information for developing cooperative links among regional and sub-regional schemes is useful. Such exchanges would help regional and sub-regional organizations to learn from each others’ experiences in cooperative schemes in food security. Thus FAO should proceed, as recommended by the Committee, to organise a workshop with the participation of representatives of regional and sub-regional economic groupings. My delegation appreciates the offer of the Government of Australia to provide financial support for the workshop.
The Committee’s decision to strengthen the analytical basis of its work is also welcome. In this connection, I support the studies outlined in paragraph 67 including a study on the production and marketing constraints on traditional foodcrops; a review of the medium-term outlook for world food supplies and requirements; and an assessment of the contribution which food aid might make to world food security in the late eighties and nineties.
I also commend the Committee for the study that it has undertaken on constraints on food production in low income food deficit countries in Africa. I fully support the Committee’s conclusion that increased international and financial assistance is required to help African countries, and I call on all donor countries and international financing agencies to meet this challenge.
The paradoxical situation in the world - starvation and hunger - can only be resolved by appropriate action at the international level and the readiness of the international community to help low-income developing countries in their efforts to raise production, stabilize supplies and improve access to food. It is for this reason that I would like to call upon members of the Council to give unequivocal support for the Committee’s recommended measures at the global level.
In particular, the Lebanese delegation welcomes the Committee’s request to the Director-General to prepare a draft text of a World Food Security Compact for the Committee’s consideration. My delegation believes that the Compact will activate the political and moral support of the international community for world food security.
H.J.H. TALEYARKHAN (India): We extend our full support to the World Food Security Compact as pronounced by the Director-General, and now elaborated upon by Professor Nurul Islam in his very well presented statement.
We consider that the World Food Security Compact deserves the assurance of all our support. It is an omnibus scheme, meant for assistance to all the afflicted areas in the world at a time when different parts of the world are affected seriously by a series of crises, in particular and so poignantly, in Africa, about which we have heard so much from many distinguished delegates speaking about the crises when that item of the Agenda was under discussion. Now is not too soon to give the Council the enthusiastic support which the Director-General deserves for putting forward this Compact which I consider is a consolidation of what has already been agreed upon by the Committee; it is now only a matter of ensuring that it is properly implemented.
To my mind, this Compact will make a very great global impact, and if it is carried out and implemented in full measure, as FAO has the reputation of doing, it will serve the people of these affected areas by the comprehensive variety of its schemes. The Compact is very necessary in the present state of food conditions in the world, particularly in Africa, as I have said. I would say that the Compact will be the salvation of such unfortunate countries. I hope it will give ideas to those in a more fortunate position as to how they can give, assistance to the more unfortunate countries.
As has been mentioned by Professor Islam, world food security is a responsibility for all of us. There can be no difference of opinion in the matter of safeguarding food security, which is in such jeopardy at present. Yesterday, Mrs Fenwick poignantly described what she saw in Africa, and the conditions pertaining there. Our hearts go out. to them. The question of world food security becomes all the more vital at this particular stage in the history of world food development.
A war against want, as Mrs Gandhi was always saying, is necessary rather than any other sort, of war going on in various parts of the world. If the Council, through FAO, undertakes this war against want in full totality, it will have a great effect on the future. Its eventual purpose is to make sure beyond the shadow of a doubt that all people all over the world are well fed, that they have the capacity to produce, more and to be able to secure at least the basic things they need so that they have a well balanced diet, in the near future, and so that in the years to come there will be no undernutrition or malnutrition, and the growing generation will not suffer as the present generation is suffering.
Mr Chairman, from the vast area of your experience, you will be the first to agree that hunger brooks no delay. Speedy solutions must be found as soon as possible by the expert organization of FAO supported by the distinguished delegates who are here today. Therefore, perhaps I may describe it as an edifice of food resources which we must ensure is erected as soon as possible. It. must be erected on a firm foundation to ensure it does not collapse at any time in the future, because temporary remedies, however urgent and necessary for the moment, may not stand the test of time and we cannot afford a worsening situation in the future, or to take risks with the future.
Therefore, increase of production, its realiability and duration, and our ability to rush food-stocks to the rescue of those in dire distress, should engage the instant attention of the Council of FAO, which is already doing so much. No political strings should be attached to those aims and objectives.
The only consideration permissible should be the chain solely of human and humanitarian consideration and just no other. The concentration should be on more production than dependence mostly on imports, though at particularly critical times that many be unavoidable. As the Secretary-General of the UN has said, agricultural techniques are needed to vitalize agricultural production, to maximize the extent by a greater utilization of arable land, the intensification of production on land already under cultivation and to show the farmers the ways of double and triple cropping and to mix crops on their soil, on some of the soils. The population in the world which is still going on unabated is the penalty we have to pay and to provide for. Although we in India have, as you are aware, the world’ biggest family planning programmes and we have been able to control the population to some extent, we are still growing at the rate of one in Australia, namely 13 million, and this is only one example in many of the developing countries.
I have already detailed in earlier interventions the incentives provided in our country for the farmers, particularly for the small and marginal farmers with holding up to between 2.5 to 5 hectares, and this may be and is the condition obtaining in other countries as well and for which more and more incentives require to be provided through loans from national banks, incentives of types to increase and encourage their further production, provision of inputs and research facilities to which I will presently come, to meet the devastation caused by the invasion of elementary calamity including floods and-droughts, but not only those, there are the various areas of landslides and avalanches. It is most imperative to develop and refine the Early Warning System by a properly organized methodology of forecasts as far as possible, because of course we cannot always be quite accurate in the forecasts of nature, but as far as possible, whatever possible should be undertaken to warn the helpless and hapless people of the danger they might be facing and therefore to provide for getting reserve stock on the ready, also the transport by road and rail and ship to save these helpless people from disaster. The importance of transport cannot be over emphasized. It has been mentioned by me and other delegates in earlier interventions because the generosity of ail the donations which we have been receiving would be lost in its purpose if it does not reach the people for whom it is so urgently required.
In this connection, to ensure world food security over a long-term programme, it may also be required to be mentioned that we must target the period of time for which the food aid which is provided is available to the people. How long is it going to be available? For example, in Ethiopia, the devastation may last for another year or so, one can neverbe sure; it may be longer. Have we got the capacity? With the present stocks that we have (and donations which have been forthcoming and which will be forthcoming thanks to the realization of responsibilities and generosity of the donor countries) to what period of time will they be able to provide it? I am sure FAO will take adequate notice of this.
In this connection, the food habits of the people have also to be watched. I remember our experience in a rice-eating area in India during a rice shortage in a particular area some years ago, the people were saying that they were starving though we had rushed them ample stocks of wheat and other food grains, because their habit was only to eat rice, so food habits are not easy to change and food security will have to take into account and into their care and consideration that matter as well.
The increasing purchasing power of the economically weaker sections is another factor which will have to be made sure of, the purchasing power of economically weaker sections is very fragile, and so improvements in the purchasing power through the efforts of various countries on their own and through assistance is of great necessity.
The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, I recall, has drawn pointed attention to this matter. It is very important for us in the Third World, the developing countries, to work in complete coordination and unity of purpose to give food security the full assurance that it deserves and needs. There must be no difference of opinion within ourselves to coordinate our efforts and to unify them to the maximum extent possible by a continuity of consultations. This will include proper distribution of inputs, hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and exchange of information and the Early Warning Systems to which I have referred. In all these the FAO would be of value and indispensable assistance. It is, however, not only the inter-country endeavours of the developing countries which matters but also the expectation of cooperation from developed countries to ensure that world food security is achieved, so together the coordination within the developing countries themselves and the cooperation from the developing countries through agencies like FAO - the apex agencies I call it of food security in the world - - the apex agencies could be achieved or expected to be achieved as far as possible.
Targets for production and caution on prices are both required to be done. A target of production will have to be fixed if they fail to be reached, reasons will have to be found why they are not reached and unless and until we have safeguards against these elemental calamities and Early Warning Systems and reserve stocks and buffer stocks, it may not always be possible to achieve our goals. Caution on prices is a very vital factor because prices very often run out of hand and the poor people cannot afford them. So the caution on upswing of prices must be checked especially at such critical times. Developed countries, I am sure, will endeavour to ensure more effective ways of helping the poor food-shortage affected countries and make their export prices come within the range of the limits of the importing countries.
The stock sent should be of good quality, efficient and quick in delivery. Payment could be on deferred terms of payment to make it easy for the poor countries to be able to get these stocks. Not only that, the shipping facilities should be provided quickly and they should not suffer from the ships carrying such food-stuffs lying upstream on the sea and not being able to find berths.
For this purpose, even roll-on/roll-off facilities are necessary, in which FAO can intervene to ensure, that roll-on, roll-off ships could be utilized to make sure that the stocks are sent from the contributing countries to rush to the aid or that imports arrive as quickly as possible.
Not only governments but also non-governmental organizations, voluntary organizations and individuals can make efforts in these all-out endeavours which we are committed to make and dedicated to make.
I would refer to one very important point, and that is avoidance of malpractices, which occur galore at times of food crisis, so the elimination of these malpractices, by which I mean the middlemen, who damage the interest both of the farmer and the consumer at such particularly critical times in order to profiteer to the maximum extent they can and the hoarding which happens also during shortages, efforts should be made to save them, and I am quite sure that FAO will draw attention to that fact, that the role of the middlemen should be eliminated in order to assure world food security and to see that the poor man is not his victim.
Political exploitation at times of crisis at the cost of the people should be avoided at all costs, and I am quite sure that all the national governments are fully aware of the fact. World food security is often jeopardized by anxieties of such activities. What is needed to my mind is to ensure longer-term authority of world food security. I use the word authority of world food security. In addition to the assurance, the authority would mean that it could also be quite sure of what it will achieve with the authority of FAO, on which all the days that I have been hearing the delegates speak, there is so much expression of confidence and trust. In this connection, I would only mention a few points; the setting up of agricultural research service throught specially constituted agricultural boards of scientists. You are one of the most internatiónally-renownediacíen-tists, Mr Chairman, and I am sure you will be able to throw more light on how agricultural research services work by setting up agricultural scientists boards in various countries, both at the provincial, national and international levels would be able to contribute the world's food security. It will facilitate maximum utilization of available manpower as well. It will enable desired mobility of scientists from one position to another as required in the interests of agricultural research and of education.
Education in the programme of world food security is another vital factor to which attention will be required to be paid. Coordination projects of rice, wheat, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, dryland agriculture on land and marine fisheries have to be undertaken. At present they are being undertaken but separately and not coordinatedly, and that is why I am stressing the great importance of these coordinated projects of rice, wheat, pulses, oilseeds, dryland agriculture and inland and marine fisheries.
The development of suitable agriculture implements for farmers; sometimes we try to apply the too high technology which the world has applied to simple farmers also. It is not effective for them, and so what requires to be done for the simple farmers is the development of medium technology suitable and appropriate to them, for efficient use of water, water requirements, of crop reclamation and of saline areas to which I referred earlier.
The research on veterinary and animal husbandry; we discussed animal food and husbandry in the CFA at some length, but we have not referred to the extent we should have here because they too go hand in hand, and research on veterinary and animal husbandry or provision of facilities by veterinary clinics and hospitals to allow greater extent in order to save the animal welfare, and animal health which assists in food security programmes, can be provided. Vaccines for the control of various diseases are very important. They have been developed and could be provided to a greater extent, which I am sure FAO will endeavour to do in its package.
Better input management; sometimes the inputs provided by the management are not as efficient as they could be and that requires therefore a vital consideration to be undertaken, given attention and study.
The development and release of high-yielding varieties of crops can play a greater role and increase its food production and so put us on the right road to world food security. The Green Revolution and the White Revolution, which we have had in India, are excellent examples of .what can be achieved.
These are a few thoughts which occurred to me, while endorsing wholeheartedly the Committee’s recommendations as elaborated by the Director-General and by the Assistant Director-General and the full support which I said earlier the Compact deserves, as it will create greater political and moral support to continue the struggle to fight hunger and other difficulties arising from it.
The meeting rose at 12.45 p.m.
La séance est levée à 12 h 45.
Se levanta la sesión a las 12.45 horas.