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5. Food Situation in Africa (continued)
5. Situation alimentaire de l'Afrique (suite)
5. Situación de la alimentación en Africa (continuación)

R. SEVCOVIC (Czechoslovakia) : The Czechoslovak delegation appreciates the important share of FAO in solving the food crisis in Africa. We fully agree with the analysis of the present situation of African agriculture contained in document CL 87/13 and its supplement. We also consider it right that it is the technological assistance of FAO in this part of world that is emphasized by the Director-General in his draft programme for the years 1986/87.

The year 1984 was one of the least favourable years for the economies of African states since the beginning of their new existence. On one hand, the reason was a very complicated situation of the capitalist economy of the present world where elements of economic recovery had no corresponding positive reflection in the African economy. At the same time, a considerable portion of funding, which might have been used for the economic development of the advanced and developing components of world economy, was allocated to the field of armaments.

In spite of its notable natural resources Africa remains to be the economically most vulnerable continent in the world and, as a result of colonial deformation of its past economic and social development and of the present neocolonialist practices, an agrarian and raw material appendage of the industrially developed capitalist states.

The removing of food problems in the developing countries is therefore immediately connected not only with the necessity of improving their own agricultural sector which should be able to ensure their self-sufficiency in the production of basic food-stuffs, but it also requires a corresponding restructuring of international economic relations. We consider it very desirable that great attention should be generally paid to the search for more and more effective forms of assistance by means of which it would be possible to solve the food issue not only temporarily but also with prospects for the future. This strategy is an integral part of the Czechoslovak foreign policy in implementing our cooperation with the developing countries.

The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic takes an active part in the economic and technological cooperation with African countries entirely or partially financed by the Czechoslovak side. Credits, particularly for plant construction, are granted under advantageous conditions. 1 350 African students study in Czechoslovakia who are granted scholarships by the Czechoslovak side. In addition, the Czechoslovak institutions have provided their training facilities to a large number of experts from African and other developing countries. Here I would like to recall that the overall public assistance to the developing countries amounted to 3 600 million Czech. crowns equal to 0.74 percent of the national income already in 1982. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic assists the African countries also in their struggle against drought and famine.

With your permission, I would like to mention some new cooperative projects in Africa: Over the last 3 years work has been intensified in the field of non-metalic sorbents in agriculture and in combatting the problems of environment. The application of bentonites in sand soils in Northern Egypt has clearly demonstrated that Czechoslovak technology had redoubled the output of agricultural products in desert conditions and reduced by more than a half the demand for irrigation water.

These results have generated an effort to utilize local bentonites also in the neighbouring African countries. Besides the Joint Program Czechoslovak geologists made an evaluation of the local bentonites and we are ready to extend this work to other countries through FAO in case of interest.

As the submitted document contains also a number of proposals for measures which FAO and its Member-Governments intend to take for the benefit of Africa, I considered it useful to draw attention also to this new possibility not included in the proposals.

K. SHIOZAWA (Japan) : First of all I would like to thank Dr. Islam and Mr. Lignon for their impressive introduction of this agenda item. Our appreciation also extends to the Secretariat for having prepared this very lucid and informative document before us.

The present critical food situation in Africa cannot, of course, be overlooked not only from a humanitarian point of view but in terms of world peace and stability. Bearing this in mind, my Government has been strengthening its efforts to provide food and agricultural assistance to this region. I wish to state in this context that in the fiscal year 1984, my country extended about 60 percent of its bilateral food aid to the African countries, and that in the current fiscal year

our grant aid and technical cooperation for Africa will amount to about 240 million U.S. dollars. We will also provide this region with 100 million dollars in yen loans, paying due attention to the coordination with the World Bank and other international development banks. With regard to multilateral assistance, my country plans to increase its contribution to organizations, such as FAO, UNDP, WFP, which are engaged in implementing measures needed to solve the African food problems.

The document CL 87/13 focuses upon various aspects of food situations in Africa. We particularly support the analysis made by the Secretariat regarding the root causes of the current food crisis, which are incorporated in paragraphs 30 to 38. It has relevantly pointed out the problems of population growth, rapid urbanization and the inadequate dynamism of the agricultural sector. Looking back over the history of the critical situation in Africa, no one could deny that the fundamental cause lies in the vulnerability of the economic and social infrastructure.

Although the emergency relief operation to the suffering countries is surely a matter of urgent concern as a tentative measure, we believe that the importance of medium and long-term measures to eradicate the main causes mentioned above cannot be over-emphasized. In this connection, my delegation would like to stress one very important element: that is the development of human resources. The development of human resources, although it may seem to be a roundabout approach, is actually the shortest way to improving the economic and social structure.

Without the promotion of human resources in Africa, even the external assistance from the international community cannot be fully effective to the development objectives. As paragraph 68(a) has rightly pointed out, the development of Africa's human capital is, indeed, a priority need. We hope, therefore, that FAO, when providing its future assistance to Africa, will put further emphasis on the activities aiming at the promotion of human resources development. In particular, the development and strengthening of management capability for policy formulation and implementation should be enhanced through FAO's technical advice and training activities.

Now, I would like to briefly touch upon the enhancement of the global information and early warning system mentioned in paragraphs 40 and 41. In order to effectively cope with the food and agricultural problems under severe natural conditions in Africa, it is indispensable to study and learn to predict changes in the weather conditions and the accompanying crop conditions, thus making it possible to adopt appropriate countermeasures.

It is also of paramount importance for formulation of appropriate agricultural development policy to grasp accurate information on forest and water resources, and soil conditions.

We feel that there is much room for improvement in this area by using advanced remote sensing technology. Recently, improvement of the Early Warning System was agreed upon at the Bonn Summit Meeting. We believe that the expanded use of this system in Africa will make a great contribution in combatting with the food crisis in that part of the world. We also believe that further improvement is necessary in order to have greater accuracy and obtain information more rapidly.

My country, noting the great achievement so far made by FAO, is now studying ways of helping African countries, through FAO trust funds, to improve this information system in Africa.

DATO ALWI JANTAN (Malaysia): Since this is the first time I am having the floor at this meeting, I would like to join the other delegations who have spoken before me in expressing our pleasure to see you again in the Chair. We would like also to congratulate the three distinguished Vice-Chairmen on their election. We are confident that under your wise leadership and guidance this important meeting will be brought to a successful conclusion to the satisfaction of everyone.

I also wish to express my delegation's appreciation to the Secretariat for its creditable effort in producing the excellent document as usual, and for the lucid manner these documents have been presented to us by both Prof. Islam and Mr Lignon. It is ironic that hunger and famine persist at a time when the world food situation is experiencing an increase.

It is imperative therefore that this unfortunate situation in Africa be halted and reversed as soon as possible. No efforts must be spared by the affected countries and the International Community to arrest the situation and alleviate the human sufferings.

Some of the reasons cited in the document for this unfortunate circumstance include factors such as degradation of resource base; low yields due to low agricultural inputs such as fertilizer and quality seeds and rapid urbanization. These factors are within the control of human beings. My delegation feels that with sufficient technical and financial backing, most of the above factors can be surmounted.

Of course, the famine and hunger of the magnitude we are facing are not all due to failures of mankind. The drought that has persisted for the last few years has been the major factor which is really beyond human control. Therefore, the best way to deal with this situation is to be ready for it. The FAO Global Information and Early Warning System are appropriate measures which need to be further improved. We fully support the suggestions in paragraphs 40 to 44 of the document to increase emergency preparedness by expediting mobilization of international assistance, improvement in port facilities and internal distribution systems and the possibility of prepositioning food in the disaster areas.

The present concern of organizations dealing in food aid and the International Community, is to alleviate the presenc sufferings as much as possible. Equally important though, is the rehabilitation of agriculture and the long-term solution to the problem.

My delegation fully supports the rehabilitation of agriculture in the affected areas as the. most crucial first step. This undoubtedly would be an overwhelming task and I therefore would like to commend the Director-General and the Secretariat for having formulated the Country Rehabilitation Programmes specifically for this purpose.

As for the long-term solution, the high population rate which outstrips food production is a very distressing trend. We hope that the study FAO is undertaking for the consideration of the African Regional Conference next year will incorporate appropriate measures to change the long-term trend in Africa.

As part of the long-term solution, we also feel that more countries in the position to render technical cooperation should work with one or several African contries consistent with FAO's own concept of technical cooperation. Malaysia, in its own modest way, has been playing this role with Mali by providing some technical cooperation to help stimulate agricultural production in this farming stricken country. We have been providing some training, and also helping in the establishment of an agricultural research centre. Some agricultural machinery has also been provided to supplement the country's needs. Besides, Malaysia has also contributed some emergency food aid and identified trade opportunities with Mali to stimulate economic activities between our two countries. Both the Malaysian Government and the Malaysian public have also contributed to the African disaster fund through various channels.

Finally, I would like to reiterate our full support to the FAO in its noble and monumental tasks to render assistance to the drought affected countries of Africa.

A. M. QURESHI (Pakistan): First of all I would like to thank Prof. Islam and Mr Lignon for their brief and succinct presentation of the documents presented to us this morning. The Secretariat deserves to be commended for the excellent document CL 87/13 and CL 87/13-Sup.1. The documents are well prepared and clearly analyse the food problems, pinpoint their causes, and suggest short and long-term measures to resolve them

We in this Council would be failing in our duty if we did not place on record our deep recognition to the international community, multilateral, bilateral and non-governmental organizations, countries big or small, one and all which responded so readily and generously to the call of the Director-General to meeting the emergency needs of affected African countries. This only shows that the common bonds of humanity tie us all together as one world, the nations united in distress, determined to wipe out the ugly spectre of hunger.

I shall be brief and will touch on major issues of food aid and rehabilitation dealt with by the Director-General in a forthright manner in his opening statement yesterday.

In the context of the African situation, the Director-General highlighted the phenomena of the yawning gap which exists between the severity of disasters and the weaknesses in our capability to render assistance with rapidity. This indeed is a very crucial area which needs to be urgently addressed to. As we see from Table. 2.2 in document CL 87/1.3, 51 percent of all food aid in 1982/83 was committed to Africa, and more than half of the global food aid now is generated towards Africa. Therefore there is an even greater and more urgent need to resolve this thorny problem, and improve the delivery system so that food can reach the hungry mouths.

From our own experience in Pakistan and in the. context of refugees, the lag between the commitments and actual arrival of food puts heavy strains on the economy of Pakistan. We are required to make a reserve equivalent to six months requirement which indeed subjects our economy to heavy burdens.

We generally agree with the analysis put forward in the document CL 87/13, especially the focus on increased dependence on food aid, rising population, rapid shift of population from the rural scene to urban centres, inadequate supply of inputs and limited use of improved seeds and fertilizers, low yields and reduced resource allocation to the agriculture sector in the annual development programmes of African countries. In this context we appreciate the Director-General's concern with putting

Africa back on its own feet, when again in his opening statement he has aptly underlined that rehabilitation should go hand in hand with emergency food aid. We appreciate that the Agricultural Rehabilitation Programme has been designed to yield quick results within the next three years. The programme is well conceived and the projects have been selected according to a strictly laid down criterion. It is encouraging to note that the rehabilitation programme will be strengthened by a rigorous follow-up to closely watch and constantly monitor its progress.

We also agree with the contents of paragraph 65 of CL 87/13 emphasizing the need for formulation of longer-term measures to cope with the extraordinary situations such as that of Africa, so that hunger can be banished from this continent for good.

R. M. MUPAWOSE (Zimbabwe): This being our first attendance of the FAO Council as a Member, I would like to thank you Mr Chairman for some of your kind words of welcome yesterday when we first attended this meeting. I must at the same time commend you on your admirable Chairmanship of the Council.

I also congratulate those elected to assist you as Vice-Chairmen of this Council.

The problems of agriculture in Africa have been recognized by the political leadership on the continent as contained in the Lagos Plan of Action, and of course also recently in the Harare Declaration. Some of our countries are locked in their region with unreliable rainfall and their harsh environment. Even in the so-called good seasons, rainfall is poorly distributed in the bulk of the areas of our regions, and therefore is often inadequate for normal crop production. Turning to the region I am more familiar with, that is the Southern African Development Coordination Conference, some of our countries are going into the fourth year of drought, countries such as Botswana within the region and parts of Mozambique. We are backing a number of projects aimed at alleviating the impact of drought; bilateral and multilateral assistance has been welcomed; a number of studies have been carried out and we now look at practical implementation of some of these projects.

As an example, the initiation of the Early Warning System with assistance from FAO and other donor Agencies,which we hope will provide basic information and also will improve the quality of our planning and of course in the preparation of documents such as the one we have in front of us. There is also consideration of regional food storage and food reserves. There is need to understand the attack and land degradation which some of our areas suffer. Appropriate land use is vital and the relocation of villages so as to identify correctly cropping and grazing areas.

In our region the importance of livestock must be recognized, livestock in addition to meat, milk and manure, and above all to provide draught power.

The work by EGA is being closely watched. Correct land tillage is also important. We also hope to include our inland fisheries projects. Conservation measures must be implemented to arrest the rapid loss of agricultural land. Many measures have been identified which could alleviate the shortage of food. In the SADCC region we firmly believe that irrigation development must be given a high emphasis and priority.

Taking Zimbabwe as an example, fluctuating food production is a result of eratic rainfall. In the last four years we have had marketed surpluses of crops which have fluctuated from 2 million to 620 000 over a period of three years. Where we had in 1980/81 a production marketing surplus of

2 million tons, in 1982/83 it dropped to 620 000 tons. However, we are looking forward to a possible surplus production of about 2 million tons in 1984/85.

We must attempt to even out the troughs in our production. The use of water harvesting methods and drought tolerant crops will only help but will not solve the problem.

We experienced a surplus of millets. As has been mentioned by other members, while they might be suitable for production in some regions they have their attendant problems in disposal when one produces a surplus of them.

We believe in the importance of the installation of irrigation schemes. One is conscious of the misgivings by some donor and finance organizations regarding problems of cost of irrigation installation. Any delay will only make this implementation impossible as costs escalate.

We must aim at improving the management skills of middle managers. But above all it is important that we give adequate and optimum training to the many farmers in our different countries, whether they be large or small.

The developing countries face a unique problem. Once they move beyond the level of subsistence and produce a surplus, as mentioned by some earlier contributors, they are stifled by developed countries in finding export outlets. We are faced even in our region with unfair competition in, for example, beef exports by those countries who literally dump beef at subsidized prices. On the one hand they give us development aid. On the other hand they kill our initiative at selling our produce at economic prices.

Those of us who are landlocked, such as Malawi, Zambia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, appeal to agencies and governments to assist us by purchasing where possible their aid requirfments through our neighbours from within the region. We recognize that this may be difficult, since they may be holding huge stocks at home

We support the idea of strategic reserve stocks, preferably being scored within the regions where there is the need.

Improvement of port facilities, road and rail, some of cur neighbours will assist but there is limitation of inputs and exports of surplus projects.

There is a need to improve our storage facilities. We in Zimbabwe, due to policies by the government on price and infrastructure, have taken advantage of a satisfactory 1984/85 season and we are looking for good harvests which we hope will be better than the bumper crop of 1980/81.. Of course we will only be sure when we have finished the harvesting exercise which is going on today

I should mention here that there has been considerable improvement in the production of small scale farmers, where at Independence in 1.980 they were marketing 5 percent of marketed surplus, and we expect that this year they will market over 50 per cent of marketed maize surplus,

We face a dilemma in that due to lack of foreign currency we cannot meet some of the commitments that we should like to meet to other people in need. Zimbabwe has given food assistance to one of our sister nations, but we have difficulties in finding a country or donor who will assist in meeting transport costs of food to that needy country.

Let me end by thanking the Director-General for a number of practical projects and useful studies in our countries and in our region. Professor Islam and his colleagues should be complimented for a well thought out. series of papers. We are willing to share our experiences with those countries, both in the SADCC region and Africa in general.

LI ZHENHUAN (China) (original language Chinese): Document CL 87/13 gives a detailed account of the current African food situation, famine and food aid. This morning Professor Islam and Mr. Lignon briefed us on the efforts FAO has put: in in helping the African countries. Some delegates in their interventions put. forward many sound recommendations as to how to resolve the African food problem. Now 1 would like to add two points:

Firstly, African agricultural production and food supply have always been the centre of concern of the international community. The drought and famine south of Sahara not only threatened and claimed the lives of millions of people, but also will create serious and protracted social and economic problems for many African countries, We are dcepl\ concerned and sympathetic -with the African countries. Today, as the political end economic ties between countries are getting increasingly close, African food problem is is no longer a poroblem for Africa alone. The international communty has made effective contributions in providing emergency food aid. At present, it is necessary to give more consideration of increasing assistance of fertilizer, seeds, pesticide and other inputs and of providing technical and policy guidance, with a vie to helping African countries especially those disaster-stricken ones to rehabilitate their agricultural production. The March meeting called b the Director-General of Donors for ther rehabilitation agriculatural production in 21 countries was timely and highly necessary. It has proved the Organization is responding quickly to mobilize the international community to to assist the African countries to overcome the pressing food problem. At the donors' meeting, 194 projects in 20 countries were presented. Although these still fall short of practical needs, many of the projects are combined with the local productio projects, and aim to strengthen and expand the excisting production projects. They will play their active role in promoting the production of the recipient production of the recipent countries if they make corresponding efforts. The Chinese government responded actively to the apeal of the meeting by pledging contributions within its means.

Secondly, adequate attention should be given to the deterioration of natural ecológica] envi ronnient in some African regions. The development of agricultural production calls for a sound control of the ecological imbalance and ration al e xploitation, utilization and conservation of natural resources . In this connection, China has its experience and has learnt from these lessons. Some regions in China destroyed forests to open up new land, and. over-grazing on pastures led to desertification, soil alkalization and soil and water erosion, and ultimately to frequent natural calamities, in recent years, the Chinese government has taken a series of measures to protect natural resources and environment. Policies and laws have been promulgated to conserve forests, pastures, cultivated land and water resources. After a national, survey on natural resources and agricultural zoning, programmes were evolved of protecting and utilizing natural production in the light of specific local conditions. Such efforts have obtained initial success. Nevertheless, it requires long-term arduous efforts to transform nature, which has important bearing on the benefit of generations to come. Therefore, we think international agencies should render support to endeavours in this regard.

It is gratifying to note that more and more African countries have shifted their focus of economic development onto enhancing agricultural production and raising the level of food self-sufficiency. Not a few countries have elaborated medium or long-term programmes to rehabilitate and further develop food production according to their specific conditions. We are confident that through their own efforts and the support and assistance of the international community, the African countries can gradually redress the unfavourable trends in food and agricultural development.

A.K. OSUBAN (Uganda): Congratulations, Mr. Chairman, to the Vice-Chairmen who were unanimously elected yesterday to assist you in your work.

The subject under discussion is now a very familiar one to us all. It is a major topic of discussion at almost all international meetings.

Document CL 87/13 before us has brought out the situation very clearly. The amount of land cultivated has declined, fertilizer usage is insignificant, drought, political instability and strife, the population nexus, the natural resources degredation, all have had their efforts. Failure to focus on rural communities has led to migration to urban centres. Low level of technology, inadequate research, training and extension services, poor marketing arrangements, as well as credit facilities, all of these are working in varying degrees in different countries to maintain this sad state.

The problems are well known. The issue before us is how to tackle them. It is true, as the paper points out, that while urgent attention must be directed towards rehabilitating agriculture to increase production as the foundations of sound food security, it is equally important to establish emergency preparedness at country levels, to include an early warning system, food relief contingency schemes, emergency stocks at every level, etc. In an ideal situation the two - that is, rehabilitation and emergency preparedness - would support and promote each other. Africa cannot achieve much of this by its own efforts. So many factors come into play which are beyond our ability to control. For one thing we need capital to implement the development programmes, and even preparedness schemes identified.

Africa's surest way to obtain capital is through trade. This, as is well known, has had its own drawbacks, economic recession, low prices for raw materials, adverse terms of trade, etc. - let alone access to markets. Another possibility of obtaining capital is borrowing. The financial bodies which lend money on concessional terms are not many. IFAD is having replenishment problems, the World Bank more often than not imposes stiff conditions for its loans which often scare borrowers. On the other hand, commercial credit has the problem of accrual of cruel debt with the additional burden of debt servicing made difficult by high interest rates and the continuing appreciation of the United States dollar.

The only other way to obtain capital is through aid. As you well know, aid is more unpredictable. Depending on the political and economic climate it can rise or fall without warning. In recent years it has recorded a fall in real terms. We believe that as independent states, the rest of the world does not owe us a living. We have to rely on their goodwill. In the final analysis, therefore, we must learn to stand on our own feet. Programmes which we design should have as few external components, if any, as possible. If external assistance is received, it should supplement rather than spearhead the development effort.

In Uganda, we are doing everything we can without much external support. This includes policy

reorientation to stimulate agricultural production, and marketing of food crops has been controlled; prices are determined by forces of supply and demand in the market. No subsidies are offered for foods. Emphasis is placed on such indigenous crops as plantains, tubers, root crops and local cereals such as millet, sorghum, maize and grain pulses.This point was made by the delegate of Venezuela yesterday. A national food strategy study has been carried out, but most of the projects identified by the study are pending funding possibilities for their implementation. As usual, we are vulnerable to the vagaries of weather because all our agriculture is dependent on natural precipitation.

1 conclude by expressing our gratitude to FAO for its untiring efforts in assisting African countries in their efforts to solve their own food problems. Professor Islam and Mr Lignon have presented this paper in a very lucid manner, and we congratulate them.

R.G. PETTITT (United Kingdom): We welcome Document CL 87/13. It is a good analysis and, subject to the fairly minor comments 1 will make, we agree with its conclusions. It is, perhaps, a pity that in its introduction it does not distinguish between countries where drought has caused the emergency situation, and those where the emergency is brought about by structural problems, and drought is a contributing factor. For the purposes of mobilizing international action and regional cooperation it may be convenient and wise to treat the African problem as one, but for analytical purposes leading to specific action it is necessary to keep the two situations separate.

Without wishing in any way to underrate the importance of outside help in dealing with the emergency aid or with long-term rehabilitation and development, we agree with the emphasis on the adoption of appropriate policies by developing countries as the key to the avoidance of food insecurity. This is particularly the case in the adoption or effective carrying out of policies designed to raise the status of the farmer and the reward for his production. Our own policies for the long-term developing aid to Africa are intended to strengthen and develop Africa's physical and institutional infrastructure through cooperation from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. With the agreement of governments, this takes the form of manpower assistance to the agricultural sector, support for international research centres, improvement in management of the public sector and emphasis on rehabilitation.

In the current financial year 1985/86 we plan to spend £125 million on bilateral aid for the twenty

countries in addition to Ethiopia identified by the United Nations as being most seriously affected

by drought and famine. This is additional to the amount of emergency aid and at this stage the amount of aid is not normally known or planned in quite this way.

The paper tends to confirm our view that existing food aid budgets can finance the true emergency requirements of Africa if allocated correctly; that is to say, if used for situations where countries cannot afford to purchase food in an emergency situation rather than as a means of helping balance-of-payments difficulties.

We also agree with the authors of the paper that the situation is aggravated by lack of population control, and that action is necessary on this side at the same time as it is necessary for food supply. Our own aid policies are intended to help governments create a social and economic framework conducive to smaller family size, including the reduction of infant mortality through help in the health sector.

On the detailed proposals in the paper, we agree with the key elements in emergency preparedness mentioned in Section 4, but for completeness paragraph 40 should have mentioned appropriate policies for favouring production.

Paragraph 43 commends the pre-positioning of stocks by agreement with donor countries. Emergency food stocks are expensive and stock levels should be kept to a minimum in view of the short time it takes to obtain food from international sources. It is important also that where food stocks are maintained for emergency use, the control should be such that they are not used for non-emergency purposes and then not replaced, as is always the temptation.

I now turn to document CL 87/13-Sup.1. At our last Council meeting, on the specific direction of my Minister for Overseas Development, who is personally in charge of the efforts by the British Government to deal with the African famine, my delegation called for a reorientation of the FAO programme to help with the rehabilitation of African agriculture. We were told at that meeting that the Director-General had this in hand. We were pleased to see the results of this refocusing in the Programme of Work for 1985, and the list of additional activities it has been found possible to finance from administrative savings. Having seen the supplement, we acknowledge we were preaching to the converted. We commend the action taken so far and register our view that even more could be done to place greater emphasis on Africa against components in the Programme of lower priority or administrative savings.

As to the particular proposals for new activities in Appendix B, insofar as we can judge with the degree of detail given, we support the list, subject to one or two minor doubts. The first of these is on irrigation training, mentioned in paragraph 3 of Appendix B. The record of irrigation is not: good in parts of Africa. Irrigation training is fine so far as it goes, but it would be wise if the Secretariat had to hand a dossier of evaluation studies which indicate why performance has been poor in Africa.

I have some reservations about the proposal in paragraph 16 about a regional maize research network. It is said that there are indications that donor support would be forthcoming but that FAO needed to provide the start-up assistance. It is necessary, in my view, to establish not only that donor support is forthcoming, but that the network would be viable once the donor support ceases. I would welcome comments by the Secretariat on both these points either at this meeting, or later if it is more convenient.

H. M. MBALE (Malawi): I would like to join previous speakers, Mr Chairmain, in wishing you every success in conducting this meeting. I can assure you that my delegation will cooperate fully with you in order to achieve the objectives of our meeting. Secondly, I congratulate the three Vice-Chairmen, the delegates from Italy, Saudi Arabia and Cuba, on their election. I have no doubt that they will be of great assistance to you. Thirdly, I wish to commend Professor Islam and

Mr Lignon on the lucid manner in which they presented the papers before us. Above all, I commend the statement delivered yesterday by the Director-General, which has been received by my delegation with appreciation in that he has shown his personal effort and that of FAO in addressing himself to world food programmes as a whole, and those of Africa in particular. I thank the Director-General for the warm welcome and hospitality accorded to my delegation since we arrived here, culminating in the excellent reception last night.

At this point, I wish to endorse completely the views of a previous speaker from Zimbabwe, a sister country, and also the views of the delegate from another sister country, Uganda. I fully endorse the remarks they have made.

My delegation acknowledges with appreciation the aid that Malawi has received from the donors - too many to mention individually in this meeting - who have assisted us, and also other countries in Africa with similar production problems, and addressed themselves to production-oriented activities.

It is the. view of my Government that whereas food aid in times of shortage and disaster is desirable and essential, the ultimate food strategy which countries in Africa and other developing countries of the world should be adopting is that we need to produce sufficient food for ourselves. I wish to emphasize the view of my delegation that the means to produce food must be considered a priority when considering self-sufficiency in food or food security. These means would include the following: first of all, the development of fertilizer and insecticide manufacturing plants, both regionally and nationally where possible.

Secondly, these means would help us to obtain inputs such as farm machinery, fertilizers, improved seeds, insecticides, farm credit - all of them delivered as a package and at a cost which the farmer can afford. Thirdly, they will help us to develop appropriate technology for our use and, fourth, they will help us to develop our irrigation potential.

With regard to this last point, namely, the development of our irrigation potential, I will give as an example the situation in Malawi. Malawi has only one rainy season, so if the rains fail, then we have an immediate problem. Therefore, in order to ensure ourselves against this kind of potential disaster the Government of Malawi is laying increasing emphasis on the following areas.

Firstly, through agriculture research and extension, increased production of food crops with a short growing period, as the delegate from Venezuela referred to, which we refer to as insurance crops, rice, cassava, potatoes and other vegetables and pulses.

Secondly, the development of our irrigation potential. Currently a study on irrigation is going on in my country and it is hoped that when the results of this study are available these will be put to donors, including FAO, to assist us in developing this potential.

Thirdly, the development of food storage facilities. My colleague from Zimbabwe has made reference to this.

So far I have made reference to food aid in an introductory way, but I wish to make a few more comments on this important matter.

The Director-General has pointed out in his statement that food aid to needy countries has not reached the victims in time due to various reasons, including transport problems. It is indeed shameful to admit the fact that the mass media has succeeded in bringing news of food relief aid to the victims long before the actual food has arrived, but there is a solution to this problem.

In most cases food has failed to reach its destination because of the long distance it takes to move it from source. Stockpiles of food supplies from neighbouring countries to countries in need of food aid have not been considered as a possible source. Instead, food supplies constituting food aid have had to be transported for long distances at high cost. Donors should re-examine their policies in this regard because food aid in times of disaster and emergency should be delivered quickly and timely to serve its purpose. The point I am making is that if food aid was sourced from neighbouring countries in Africa, it would constitute a saving in transportation costs on the part of the donor, and in addition it would lead to timely delivery to the needy and act as a catalyst for further food production in those countries.

I wish to make the point that Malawi has surplus maize at this stage and it could be quickly delivered to our neighbours who have a shortage of this very important grain.

I wish to make two additional points through which developed countries or donors can assist the alleviation of hunger in Africa. Firstly, there is a need for them to Took seriously at the earnest appeal that has been made for replenishment of IFAD's resources. For countries in Africa and other developing countries in Asia and Latin America, IFAD has a lot of potential to assist us. It holds a lot of hope for us. If IFAD is to fulfill the purpose for which it was established it should be given the resources it requires.

Secondly, the developed countries or donors can assist the developing countries in Africa and elsewhere by removing tariff barriers and protectionism against agricultural products, and by helping us to develop regional transport routes so that trade in food is facilitated.

M. J. BLAMEY (Australia): Australia shares the world's concern about the situation in Africa, a situation which has been so ably analyzed and discussed in the documents before us.

We have been heartened to hear about the international response to the agricultural Rehabilitation Programme of FAO for the 21 most seriously affected African countries. It is clear evidence to us of increased coordination and collaboration among donor countries, international agencies and financial institutions to the crisis in Africa.

We wish to express our particular appreciation for the valuable work of the United Nations Emergency Operations for Africa. We would also like to commend the work of the WFP African Task Force and the FAO Global Information and Early Warning System.

I would like to comment more specifically but briefly on some aspects of Section 4 of CL 87/13 which deals with emergency preparedness.

Australia shares the assessment that the food aid requirements of Africa will continue to grow, and is providing about half of its current bilateral food aid to drought affected African countries. The Australian approach is aimed at integrating emergency relief with long-term development activities such as through food for work programmes. Australia is already one of the largest contributors to the IEFR. However, we are reluctant to endorse the stand-by reserve proposal without the establishment of appropriate criteria to guide allocations from the Reserve. We feel that there are complex questions of economic viability and technical feasibility with the concept of pre-positioning of food stocks.

We would also like to note that at the last CFS meeting it was agreed that further work was needed on a proposed food aid insurance scheme.

Finally, document CL 87/13-Sup.1 refers to the Resolution at the last Council to reallocate $5 million from the regular programme to Africa. While we were not a member of the Council at that time, we nevertheless welcome the decision to reallocate the resources from areas of lower priority to areas of higher priority. However, we would be interested, as we indicated at the recent Committee on Agriculture Meeting, to hear from what areas of the programme these funds were drawn.

W.A.F. GRABISCH (Germany, Fed.Rep. of): We would like to thank Dr Islam and Mr Lignon for their lucid introduction to the important agenda item before us.

The response of donors, governments or NGOs to the very timely appeal of the Director-General for the rehabilitation of African agriculture, as described by Mr. Lignon, seems encouraging to us. We hope that other potential donors will join in this common effort.

Allow me now to take up some specific issues of the documents before us. My delegation has already stressed at the Eighty-sixth FAO Council Session, as well as during the deliberation of the World Food Council recently in Paris, that we attach great importance to the Harare Declaration of the Thirteenth FAO Regional Conference for Africa. African governments have stated in their declarations that high priority should be given to food and agriculture, and we feel that this is very encouraging. We hold the view that it should be possible to overcome the present difficult food and agriculture problems in African countries, particularly in the 21 most affected on that basis. Strengthened regional cooperation will play an important role in this context. The efforts of African peoples for greater self-reliance continue to require external support.

We share the opinion expressed in the document that Africa has lost ground in its fight for food security, as stated in paragraph 5 in the introduction to the document and as also seen from the following tables.

We fully support what is stated in paragraph 10 that still greater attention and priority to agriculture and rural development from African governments will be necessary if the aim of greater self-realiance is to be achieved.

My delegation welcomes the statements in Part 2, paragraphs 11 to 17 of the document. The analysis corresponds to our findings. However, we are concerned about the view expressed in paragraph 17 that many countries of the African region are increasingly dependent on outside food aid. We are

also concerned about the falling per caput food production in 40 of 46 African developing countries, as stated in paragraph 18 and in Table 1 of the Supplement to the document. However, we would have been grateful if the Secretariat had also given a total average figure under the heading annual change in per caput food production 1971 to 1981 and 1980 to 1984.

We agree with the statement in paragraph 20 that the hard core of the African food problems is located among the region's low-income countries. My delegation shares the opinion stated in paragraph 26 of the document that in view of the development of the population and the large resources of arable land in Africa, additional effort should be made to avoid a further decline in arable land cultivated per agricultural worker, in addition to continuous drought, growing population, pressure on arable land causes further problems as mentioned in paragraph 31 of the document. This also applies to the problem of urbanization, which is referred to in paragraph 32.

It seems to us that it is important for the solution of the African food crisis to raise the technological level of African agriculture by education, training, extension and a better integration of women into rural development activities could play an important role in this context.

We associate ourselves with the statement in paragraph 40 that it is necessary to develop national preparedness plans to cope with major food shortages. However, it seems to us that furter details are necessary in connection with paragraph 43 and the proposal made with regard to a pre-positioning of food stocks in disaster prone areas.

The representative of Kenya to the Eleventh Session of the World Food Council in Paris was very eloquent in describing stockholding practices and policies in his country. The essence of his position was that stocks should be held nationally and distributed adequately all over the country, preferably down to the village and community level. We feel that this is a worthwhile approach.

We have taken note of the references made in paragraph 47, which in our opinion need further clarification, although they have been dealt with previously in other discussions where we have stated our position. The further strengthening of the Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture, an area which was strongly supported also by the delegate of Japan seems of great importance to us.

While recognizing the value of traditional methods and structures of African agriculture, we fully share the view expressed in paragraph 65 of the document that changes and adjustments are necessary to cope with the present situation and also with future requirements.

We agree with the statement expressed in paragraph 68 that it is in the first line the task of Africans themselves to overcome the present problems. There is particular need for greater regional cooperation, as previously mentioned. We welcome the efforts taken by the Director-General in view of the emergency situation in Africa to refocus during the current biennium some of the FAO's Begular Programme to support the rehabilitation of African agriculture, to which the Council gave its full support at the Eighty-sixth Session.

My delegation, at the meeting convened by the Director-General on the rehabilitation of African agriculture at the end of March, gave a detailed account of the action and activities in support of African peoples by my country. I shall therefore refrain from again giving detailed figures, but I would just mention the following:

The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany shifted a considerable amount in the Budget of the Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation in favour of its financial and technical cooperation with sub-Saharan countries. The share of commitments to Africa rose from 30 percent in 1982 to 45 percent in 1985. In absolute terms, that would mean that commitments for projects and programmes in the field of agricultural development rose from DM 387.4 million to DM 527.7 million respectively. The bulk of the resources is earmarked for measures towards increasing agricultural production. As its contribution to a special fund for sub-Saharan Africa of the World Bank, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany set aside DM 100 million for the co-financing of projects together with the Bank. Most recently, our Government responded favourably to the appeal of the Director-General of FAO and the Executive Director of the World Food Programme, made in mid-April 1985, to provide additional emergency food aid to the International Emergency Food Reserve. Additional food products in favour of the African countries most affected by drought and hunger will therefore be made available to the IEFR, a total of DM 8,5 million. Out of this, DM 5 million will be used for purchases of cereals, preferably in African food surplus countries, and, in this case, taking up the idea which was raised by the speaker before me, the distinguished delegate from Malawi, that food should be purchased as close as possible to those who need it.

A.Y. BUKHARI (Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of:) (Original language Arabic): I would like to begin by thanking Professor Islam and Mr Lignon for the very excellent, clear, and precise introductory statement which they made to these two documents.

Africa does have considerable natural resources, which are mentioned in the Lagos Economic and Social Development Plan. This continent does indeed have 97 percent, of the world reserves of chrome, 85 percent of world reserves of manganese, 25 percent of world reserves of uranium; 13 percent of the world rubber production and many other natural resources. But the African continent, which has given without counting and which continues to provide those resources to its colonies, has paid in its very flesh and blood. Most unfortunately, this continent has received nothing in return - indeed, the contrary. The continent of Africa has now to deal with acute and extremely serious economic crises, and its population is now wrestling with famine and food deficits.

The food crisis is forced by the drought which has stricken Africa but it has been coupled by a chronic shortfall in food production, which of course means that the income of African countries has continued to slide downwards. Therefore, we are now in the middle of a situation which is deteriorating and absolutely unsustainable.

We are convinced that the situation in which Africa now finds itself places us squarely face to face with one of the most serious challenges which we have ever encountered. In such circumstances we must find the ways and means of completely assuming our responsibilities, and fulfilling them. It is not only that the African situation is dangerous: it is also a situation which could repeat itself and which can strike any other region in the world, although the causes - and possible repercussions - could be different. But whichever way we look at it, we have to act, and act quickly in the right direction and upon the most solid base that is possible.

A number of years ago - and I am sure you Mr Chairman and members of the Council will recall this - from the rostrum of this Council, and indeed from similar many other fora, an appeal was launched so that the African countries more than any other developing countries, could benefit from the upswing in the world economy as a whole. An appeal was made for priorities to be allocated to agriculture and food development in those countries of Africa so that they could overcome the problems and constraints with which they have always had to struggle. I concur with my colleague from Senegal who said that most African countries require agricultural inputs. He talked about basic inputs such as road construction ... etc. We fully support what he said, and what was also said by our colleague and friend, the Ambassador from the Congo, to the effect that the African countries had already begun to take the necessary steps to develop their agricultural and food productions. The African countries are fully aware of the requirement of ranking their priorities correctly in development plans, so that they can achieve these objectives.

But the African countries still need technical assistance if they are to hit the target, which is to step up food and agricultural production.

We support fully what was said by his excellency the Ambassador of the Congo. Therein lies the true basis upon which the donor countries, the international organizations, the non-governmental organizations, and the African countries themselves have been working together. It is a necessary basis upon which we can build a structure to overcome the constraints and difficulties from which these countries have continually suffered: Studies on the availability of ground water, on geological structure, on the digging of wells, on the supply of the appropriate technology and inputs; all this work is necessary, but we must also help these countries to produce inputs themselves. They must have improved seed strains, build the necessary access roads, overcome the different constraints if they are to build a basis for self-sufficiency and life in dignity.

The international community has come to the aid of Africa in the face of this terrible crisis, but what Africa requires at the present time is not just food aid. Africa requires technology - real, appropriate technology which will allow the citizens of Africa themselves to produce. It is therefore within the responsibility of the technologically advanced countries to provide these technologies and these resources which Africa needs. Let us not lose sight of the role which the African countries must play in this process - and here I refer to paragraph 68 in the document, which this delegation fully supports.

I would now like to praise the magnificent role FAO has played under the leadership of its Director-General. The FAO rang the alarm bell more than ten years ago with respect to this developing situation in Africa: it said that the African countries would run headlong into the most serious food crisis. The Director-General acted. He acted quickly, he acted within his limited resources. He organized meeting after meeting with the donor countries and with the African countries. He mobilized all the resources which the FAO had to hand, in spite of the fact that - as we know -those resources are limited. But the aim was to supply something, anything, to the African countries so that they could at least be helped in their distress, and although we know that what the FAO can supply is a mere drop of water in an ocean, nevertheless it is clear demonstration of the fact that the Director General has assumed fully his responsibilities, and we can but thank him most warmly for the generosity with which he has assumed that responsibility and carried out those tasks.

Mr Chairman on document CL 87/13 supplement 1 we would like to support fully the content of this document and we support everything that the Director-General has done and is doing for the benefit of the African countries. We have to really thank him for that, and this is the least we can do.

A.M. KHALED (Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of)(original language Arabic): I would like to begin by congratulating the Secretariat for the noteworthy effort which they have made so as to present us with these papers on the food situation in Africa. In his opening statement the Director-General of the FAO, Dr Edouard Saouma, sketched out a picture of the food crisis in Africa and the way in which it had to be dealt with, with all the frankness and generosity which is characteristic of him.

Thanks also to Professor Islam and to Monsieur Lignon for the excellent presentation of these documents. Like previous speakers I would like also to express my deepest sympathy with the African countries in their period of distress and crisis, and I thank all the donor countries and all organizations which have gone to the help of Africa. It is a demonstration of international solidarity at times of such crisis.

This delegation would like to support what was said by my colleague, the Ambassador of Congo, who drew a very complete and excellent picture of the situation in Africa and discussed the domestic problems of transport, of storage in those countries, problems which of course require solution.

I have asked for the floor to offer a comment which I think to be of some importance, and that is the role of the international organizations, and at the head of them the FAO, in responding to the challenge of this crisis. Like previous speakers I think that the international organizations, particularly this one, the FAO, have done a fine job through these stages of the crisis. Their work has borne fruits, and I think it is only right and proper that the African countries expect these efforts to go on. Well before the crisis broke the FAO, as we know, launched an appeal towards the whole international community and warned the community that the crisis was on its way. Then programmes and projects for the medium-term to rehabilitate African agriculture, programmes involving technical cooperation, were defined by this Organization above and beyond assistance supplied by other international organizations, and was a supplement to the generous aid coming in from donor countries.

The lesson I believe we should draw from all these activities is that the international organizations have a prime role to play, the FAO above and beyond all of them, in helping these countries, not just in terms of emergency aid but also by technical cooperation with a long and medium-term prospect to it. These international organizations must continue to work along these lines in helping these African countries so that they can achieve self-sufficiency. The present situation does show that there has been a slip back in assistance supplied by the international organizations, and if the present trend is that the developed countries are tending to pull back or threatening to pull back some of the assistance which they intend to supply to the international organizations and the FAO, then I think our conclusion must be that increased assistance must be provided to the organizations working internationally so that they can accomplish their job. I propose that the resolution concerning the appeal which we must make with respect to the world international food situation should include a paragraph which would invite the donor countries to increase the backing which they provide to the international organizations, particularly our Organization, the FAO, as part of their general efforts which they must deploy to clear away hunger and malnutrition from the world.

H. REDL (Austria): The document CL 87/13 and CL 87/13-Sup. 1 before us is, in our opinion, a valuable compliment to the deliberations of the FAO Council in November 1984. As already mentioned by the Austrian delegation on that occasion, the Director-General of FAO had pointed out years ago that the situation in Africa was precarious. However, these appeals have not always found adequate attention. If we talk about the food situation in Africa it seems to be necessary to consider primarily the opinion of the countries concerned and give to them any possible support. The Thirteenth Regional Conference for Africa, and in particular the Harare Declaration, deserves mentioning in this context. At the moment it seems to be advisable to take measures aiming at a solution to problems. This will be possible in a joint effort of all of us. We therefore welcome that FAO within its Programme of Work attributes particular importance to the African region, and 1 can assure you that Austria will constructively contribute in the future as we did in the past.

G. BULA HOYOS (Colombia): Después de las excelentes presentaciones de los señores profesores Islam y Lignon, el débate sobre este importante tema fue iniciado con la declaración afortunada, de nuestro distinguido colega y amigo señor Hutton, de Canadá, quien dijo con razón que la crisis africana representa un desafio para la comunidad internacional.

Todos oímos con el respeto y la admiración de siempre la emocionada delaración de la distinguida Embajadora Fenwick, de los Estados Unidos, quien al hablar con su corazón confirmó el profundo sentimiento social y humano que inspiran sus actitudes personales en favor de los pequeños campesinos. Esas y otras declaraciones importantes nos hacen pensar que de veras los integrantes de este Consejo, aquí, y luego todos los Estados Miembros en la próxima Conferencia vamos a demostrar que la tan anunciada solidariedad hacia Africa no quedará convertida en discursos, retórica y literatura, emociones y buenas intenciones, sino que va a materializarse en hechos concretos y positivos, como lo pidió mi distinguido vecino y colega de la derecha el Embajador Tchicaya, del Congo, quien solicitó a los países donantes que anuncien y cumplan su respectivas contribuciones y medidas; así complementaríamos la lista de los países donantes que han respondido a este llamado reiterado, lista en la cual parece que aún faltan algunos importantes países donantes.

A ese respecto confiamos que por unanimidad el Consejo va a apoyar las medidas pragmáticas adoptadas por el Director General quien, como dijo el distinguido Embajador Bukhari de Arabia Saudita, fue el primero en dar el grito de alarma sobre la difícil situación que amenazaba al Africa.

Particularmente todos vamos a manifestar nuestra complacencia por la forma como se está llevando a cabo la labor de la FAO en favor de la rehabilitación de la agricultura africana a la luz de la Resolución 1/86 de nuestro pasado período de sesiones y la más reciente acción positiva y eficaz del Director General al hacer la propuesta aprobada por el Comité de Finanzas de transferir 15 millones de dólares, fruto de una buena y sana administración, al PCT para ser invertidos en proyectos de rehabilitación en Africa.

Si en realidad la discusión de este tema tendrá, como lo esperamos, un resultado específico, la delegación de Colombia piensa igualmente que apoyaremos los esfuerzos del Director General en favor de la movilización de recursos que permitan colmar el déficit de cerca de 80 millones de dólares para ejecutar los proyectos en 21 países africanos, entre los más afectados.

Convendrá destacar también que todo esto representa un esfuerzo adicional pues, como lo dijo el señor Lignon esta mañana el Programa de la FAO para Africa se sigue cumpliendo sin alteraciones.

Reconoceremos los esfuerzos de los países donantes que han sido citados; Francia, Bélgica, España, Dinamarca, y todos los altruistas países nórdicos; República Federal de Alemania, única organización con Japón, y destacaremos esencialmente la contribución de dos grandes países en desarrollo, India y nuestro vecino de la izquierda, China, que ha dado muestras de gran sentido de solidaridad.

A propósito hemos dejado para el final a Italia, el querido país que nos hospeda, porque el caso italiano merece señalización especial. La suma destinada y la designación de un alto comisario para administrar la ayuda confirma una actitud verdaderamente positiva. Con pleno respeto de su libre autonomía, abrigamos la esperanza de que el Gobierno italiano se preocupará por que esa asistencia se destine en buena parte a los aspectos agrícola y alimentario, basados en la positiva experiencia de colaboración con la FAO. Las autoridades italianas podrían considerar la posibilidad, en la medida de lo posible, de utilizar los buenos servicios de nuestra Organización.

Las declaraciones de los destacados exponentes de países africanos nos han puesto ante la evidencia de que, no obstante las generosidades de la Comunidad Internacional, no se han cumplido todos los compromisos, aún subsisten graves dificultades de congestión en los puertos, escasez de medios financieros, bajo abastecimiento en relación con las grandes necesidades, problemas de distribución y otros, todos los cuales siguen configurando una situación de preocupación y angustia, con la posibilidad de más muertes de seres humanos inocentes, algunos de los cuales pudieron haber sido salvados. Como dijeron Congo y Senegal, se requiere ahora acciones concretas e inmediatas para mejorar esa situación.

Con el deseo de contribuir a que se obtengan estos objetivos mínimos, la delegación de Colombia, siempre solidaria con Africa, apoya la propuesta esbozada por nuestros colegas y amigos de Congo y Senegal, en el sentido de que la importancia de este tema justifica la adopción de una resolución, lo que hace excepcionalmente este Consejo sólo en casos de importancia transcendental como éste.

En nuestra calidad de copatrocinadores de la anterior Resolución 1/86 hemos pedido a nuestros hermanos africanos que nos permitan contribuir con ellos en la redacción del citado proyecto de Resolución, cuyo texto aún no hemos terminado porque, como es natural, estará basado en el resultado de este debate que aún no ha concluido.

De acuerdo con su praxis, la delegación de Colombia bosqueja brevemente las líneas principales, las orientaciones y principios de ese texto, cuyo contenido será discutido por el Comité de Redacción primero y luego por el Plenario cuando considere el proyecto de Informe. Entendemos que así nos ajustamos a los procedimientos tradicionales. En el proyecto de Resolución se. agradecerá a los donantes la ayuda alimentaria, la asistencia logística y todos los demás aportes. Haremos notar las necesidades más por atender y, por consiguiente, la indispensable necesidad de más ayuda de emergencia, especialmente de apoyo logístico. Sin embargo, reafirmaremos el principio de que Africa no puede seguir dependiendo de la ayuda, sino que necesita demandas y exige recursos y asistencia para lograr su propia rehabilitación agrícola. Reconoceremos los notables esfuerzos hechos y continuados por el Director General al organizar las reuniones de 30 de enero y 29 de marzo pasados, ofreciendo a los donantes proyectos concretos de rehabilitación y textos para poner en ejecución, así como la excelente propuesta aprobada por el Comité de Finanzas acerca de la transferencia de 15 millones, al igual que la reasignación de 5 millones dentro de los recursos del Programa Ordinario. En ese mismo texto del proyecto de Resolución señalaremos la responsabilidad y seriedad con que en esta crisis están actuando los gobiernos africanos, a los que se debe ofrecer más asistencia, sobre todo ayuda logística, para que esos gobiernos puedan seguir adoptando todas las medidas eficaces necesarias, dirigidas a asegurar el suministro alimentario oportuno a las poblaciones más afectadas, sin graves retardos. Reiteraremos nuestra llamada a todos los donantes para que concedan altas prioridades a Africa en sus programas de asistencia externa.

Finalmente, pediremos que este Consejo apoye la máxima prioridad que el Director General ha concedido a los países africanos en el proyecto de Programas de Labores y Presupuesto para 1986-87. Confiamos que este Consejo aprobará por unanimidad ese Proyecto de Resolución, y pensamos que con ideas concretas, como indicaban nuestros colegas africanos y todos quienes les acompañamos solidariamente, creemos ofrecer a este Consejo la oportunidad única de cumplir un acto serio y positivo en favor de las nobles y sufridas poblaciones de Africa para que no pierdan la batalla en la que todos estamos a su lado.

L. ARIZA HIDALGO (Cuba): Queremos comenzar expresando nuestro agradecimiento al señor Islam y al señor Lignon por la presentación que nos han hecho de los temas de la situación africana.

Señor Presidente: nosotros coincidimos totalmente con el distinguido representante de Dinamarca cuando expresó que el carácter estructural de la crisis africana es necesario tenerlo en cuenta en forma prioritaria, pero además creemos que es necesario esperar que la crisis africana es estructural en todos los países,que está agudizada donde los problemas de la sequía se han presentado, y que no sólo es así en los países donde hay sequía. Africa, que además de hacer frente a los problemas estructurales, se ha ido empobreciendo cada vez más porque sus exportaciones han ido bajando y han ido tropezando con la severa política de precios en los mercados internacionales y su población ha ido aumentando considerablemente, mientras que el PNB baja. La sequía se ha instalado en el Continente donde se hallaba el 85 por ciento de los países menos desarrollados y donde el servicio de la deuda ha llegado a 115 millones de dólares en 1984 y no es el continente más endeudado. Se ha dicho muchas veces que Africa atraviesa la quinta crisis. A pesar de su potencial económico, Africa en estos momentos está en crisis, sigue siendo el menos desarrollado de todos los continentes y sus indicadores económicos expresan un gran retraso. El comportamiento económico de muchos países africanos se caracteriza por la disminución de la renta "per capita" y por no tener su tasa de crecimiento económico estancado y negativo. De acuerdo con todos los pronósticos, la perspectiva de recuperación, de crecimiento y desarrollo está muy poco definida. A menos que los esfuerzos que se realizan actualmente dentro de los países africanos y por la Comunidad Internacional cuenten con un apoyo total, no creemos que con apoyos medios se resuelva el problema de Africa. Además, Africa es el continente en crisis en medio de la grave situación internacional, que continúa afectando adversamente a los demás países en desarrollo y que particularmente ha hecho un efecto devastador en las ya frágiles economías africanas. Esto se manifestó en el deterioro de las relaciones de intercambio, en la fuerte disminución de los ingresos por concepto de exportación y, como dijimos, en la fuerte carga de deuda externa y fundamentalmente en el estancamiento de los flujos de recursos hacia los países africanos, entre otros. A todo esto debemos decir que los rendimientos de cultivo de esta región, se ven afectados por serias limitaciones climáticas que incluyen elementos tales como intensas y prolungadas sequías de algunas zonas, variabilidad de lluvias, de otras plagas y enfermedades que han encontrado próspero ambiente para su desarrollo en muchos países de Africa.

No podemos tampoco dejar de señalar el papel nocivo de la desertificación, ya que solamente en los países subsaharianos existen más de 685 millones de hectáreas desérticas. Asimismo, el aumento de la población y el crecimiento de los rebaños actuando en las críticas condiciones climáticas de esta región provocan, mediante el pastoreo, la destrucción irreversible de la pobre vegetación allí presente.

Se ha cortado así no sólo la vegetación, sino las escasas fuentes de agua disponibles, con lo que se termina por hacer desaparecer prácticamente toda la forma de vida.

Podemos hablar también de la necesidad de leña y otros residuos vegetales por parte de ciertos grupos de población que necesitan vivir para cocinar, calentarse contra la obra destructora del hombre. La FAO ha calculado, por ejemplo que en una sola provincia desértica de uno de estos países se queman actualmente 548 millones de árboles o arbustos para estos fines. Todo ésto es necesario verlo en el contexto africano que coyunturalmente ahora hablamos de sequía, pero, repito es un problema coyuntural la sequía, porque el otro es un problema inmanente en todas las crisis de Africa y que la FAO ha alertado con suficiente tiempo y que recordamos que hubo momentos en que se llamo alarmista a la FAO, hoy cuando la FAO presenta sus programas de rehabilitación, programas de rehabilitación, que como bien dice el Director General tienen que ir coordinados con la ayuda alimentaria de urgencia, ya que solamente de este modo podrán los países africanos recuperar la capacidad de producción perdida y superar la situación de esta urgencia, evitando una dependencia cada vez mayor de la ayuda de emergencia.

Creemos que el programa especial que la FAO ha presentado constituye un grupo concreto de proyectos elaborados por los propios países interesados y listos para ser financiados y ejecutados. Esperamos que, como se ha expresado por el señor Lignon, este grupo, pueda estar en funcionamiento y se irá materializando en la medida que la decisión política lo decida.

Me ha precedido en la palabra el colega que ha conducido con mucha claridad la situación. No creo que debamos cansar con una situación que es de todos conocida por su gravedad, y que no debemos seguir retóricamente siendo expresión de ella. Apoyamos en todas sus partes la proposición que han hecho los representantes del Congo y del Senegal respecto a que hay que tomar también en consideración la declaración de Harare, que es la voluntad de Africa hacia la producción agrícola, la voluntad para enfrentarse con garantía a la participación activa del africano en su lucha. En la misma posición estamos cuando apoyamos como copatrocinadores que fuimos de la reunión anterior, la número 1/86. Creemos que Tchicaya y B. Said tienen totalmente razón para presentar, en nombre de Africa, otra Resolución especial que nos permita actualizar y que nos permita profundizar en el mecanismo a través del cual la FAO y los donantes puedan resolver el problema del Africa. Queremos no perder la oportunidad de saludar y felicitar a los donantes que han dado ya ejemplo de acción en función del programa especial que FAO ha presentado: Francia, Bélgica, España y Dinamarca, representando a los nórdicos. Especialmente también, como ha dicho nuestro querido colega de la izquierda Gonzalo Bula Hoyos, a Italia que ha dado muestras de generosidad y altruismo en estos momentos en que Africa necesita estas acciones.

Finalmente, queremos expresar que nuestra delegación apoya en todas sus formas la decisión tomada por el Comité de Finanzas, por medio de la cual los ahorros de 15 millones de dólares se utilizarán para financiar proyectos del programa de rehabilitación para Africa. Apoyamos ésto por considerar que en estos momentos es la mejor forma de utilizar el ahorro disponible y creo que debemos sentirnos honrados con la proposición del Director General, aprobada por el Comité de Finanzas, para contribuir así a salvar seres humanos del hambre y de la miseria.

El percurso del cosmos es ya una realidad; sin embargo en la tierra mueren niños de hambre por falta de caminos, de ferrocarriles, de camiones, de carretas e incluso de caballos y muías para llegar a donde viven y han vivido olvidados de los defensores hoy de los pequeños agricultores, los cuales, a través de sus grandes oligopolios y monopolios, dominan el mundo.

Creo, que el reconocimiento que Africa le dá a la FAO por el liderazgo que tiene para implementar sus proyectos de rehabilitación de la agricultura y para coordinar los programas de esta materia, en la cual no existe otra experiencia organizada ni acumulada de un cuerpo especializado de funcionarios como tiene la FAO para apoyar una situación crítica como la de Africa, es acertado.

Esperamos también, como ha expresado nuestro querido Gonzalo Bula Hoyos, que este Consejo apruebe en su totalidad la Resolución presentada por Africa.

G. FRADIN (France): A mon tour, je voudrais tout d'abord remercier le Dr. Islam pour l'introduction qu'il a faite de ce point de l'ordre du jour et féliciter M. Lignon pour son excellente présentation accompagnée de précisions nombreuses et fort utiles.

Au cours de son intervention sur le précédent point de l'ordre du jour, ma délégation a déjà exprimé des observations générales sur le document relatif à la situation alimentaire de l'Afrique.

A propos de ce point très important de nos débats, je voudrais maintenant insister brièvement sur certains aspects fondamentaux, dans le cadre de la recherche d'une relance de l'agriculture en Afrique, points qui ne sont pas toujours développés comme ils le mériteraient dans le document du Secrétariat.

Le premier concerne les politiques agricoles. Le paragraphe 38 s'élève fort justement contre l'éventuelle discrimination que peut encourir le secteur agricole, et plus particulièrement vivrier. Ma délégation est intimement persuadée qu'il importe en premier lieu, pour chaque pays, de définir clairement une politique agricole et alimentaire, et de choisir en particulier le degré d'auto-suffisance alimentaire qui lui semble optimal.

Il est clair que l'objectif d'autosuffisance alimentaire n'est pas à la portée immédiate de nombreux pays. Le problème est donc de définir, en fonction de considérations politiques et économiques, l'équilibre à atteindre entre une dépendance alimentaire qui peut éventuellement s'accompagner d'un accroissement de la vulnérabilité économique, et une dépendance alimentaire qui peut devenir politiquement insupportable.

Le deuxième point concerne les acteurs du développement agricole , c'est-à-dire les paysans eux-mêmes.

Je voudrais rappeler que le développement agricole doit bien entendu permettre aux agriculteurs eux-mêmes de se nourrir mais il faut aussi qu'il permette l'alimentation des populations non agricoles. Dans les pays peu urbanisés, quand la population rurale représente 80 pour cent du total, l'exploitation de subsistance fournit emploi et nourriture à la plus grande partie de la population. Comme il faut quatre agriculteurs pour nourrir un urbain, la petite exploitation traditionnelle est souvent capable de fournir ce supplément de 25 pour cent.

L'urbanisation croissante et la diversification des activités économiques entraîne une augmentation très rapide du commerce et des produits vivriers avec un taux d'urbanisation de 40 à 50 pour cent. Chaque famille agricole doit produire deux fois plus qu'elle ne consomme. Dégager de tels surplus exige une véritable révolution du mode d'exploitation traditionnel. L'émergence d'un type d'exploitation agricole orienté vers la production de surplus vivriers ou des cultures destinées à l'exportation conditionne la modernisation de la paysannerie et ses possibilités d'assurer une certaine autosuffisance alimentaire. On ne peut trop souligner qu'il ne peut y avoir d'autosuffisance sans exploitation agricole vivrière très nettement excédentaire.

Enfin, je voudrais encore une fois souligner l'importance de l'organisation des producteurs agricoles. Il ne s'agit pas d'organiser les agriculteurs, mais de les aider à s'organiser. En fait, on a pu constater, par exemple dans les pays du nord, que l'existence d'organisations paysannes fortes a conditionné le processus de développement agricole. Cet aspect a peut-être été quelquefois négligé dans certains pays en développement qui ont préféré renforcer l'emprise de l'administration plutôt que favoriser l'organisation des paysans et des zones rurales. Dans les pays du nord, ce sont les agriculteurs, leurs associations, leurs coopératives, qui, en plein accord avec les services de l'Etat, ont pris en charge non seulement la fourniture de services mais aussi la commercialisation des produits. La vulgarisation et les expérimentations sont sous la responsabilité des agriculteurs eux-mêmes. Les administrations délèguent de larges pouvoirs aux collectivités locales et aux autres organisations agricoles. Les champs d'intervention offerts aux initiatives locales incluent la planification du développement et l'utilisation de crédits d'équipement. L'intégration des exploitations agricoles au marché se manifeste aussi dans les activités coopératives de transformation et de distribution des produits, prolongeant ainsi la filière agro-alinventaire qui est le fondement des agricultures performantes.

Cette remarque n'a évidemment pas pour objet de mettre en avant les mérites des pays du nord, mais de souligner l'importance de l'initiative locale et d'une organisation efficace des agriculteurs. Suivant les pays, ce pourraient être les groupements villageois de coopératives de services, des mutuelles de producteurs, des associations d'usagers qui seraient encouragés par les autorités centrales. Le succès des programmes gouvernementaux dépend plus de la solidarité paysanne et des possibilités d'initiatives locales done de l'adoption de ces programmes par les bénéficiaires que d'un programme difficile à organiser de manière efficace compte tenu du nombre d'agriculteurs.

Pour conclure sur ce dernier point ainsi que sur ma déclaration, permettez-moi de citer le Ministre français de l'agriculture, M. Henri Nallet, Président du Conseil mondial de l'alimentation, dans une déclaration prononcée à ce Conseil de l'alimentation la semaine dernière:

"La croissance démographique, l'exode rural, le changement des habitudes alimentaires, ont profondement modifié la structure et rendu caduques bien de prévisions et les politiques de développement dont elles résultaient. Il est vain aujourd'hui de penser que l'Etat puisse déterminer et satisfaire les besoins des acteurs du développement que sont les paysans. S'il peut fixer les règles du jeu, définir les objectifs, dégager les moyens budgétaires, l'Etat - l'expérience le prouve - ne peut se substituer à l'initiative des agriculteurs, assurer les activités de production. Là où s'arrête l'action de l'Etat commence celle des agriculteurs et notamment de leurs organisations."

CHAIRMAN: If no other Council member wishes to speak, the floor will be open to the observers.

E. BONEV (UNDP): I read with interest the documentation prepared on this very important item, and I have listened carefully to, and was impressed by, the numerous interventions which have shown once again the concern and interest of the world community in this important issue of the problems confronting Africa today. With your permission, Mr Chairman, I will give a brief account of what the UNDP is doing to assist Africa in alleviating the problems confronting it.

Worsening conditions in Africa greatly occupied the attention of the international community in 1984, placing urgent demands on the resources of the UNDP and underscoring the need for renewed programming efforts throughout the United Nations system. The severity of the situation requires no elaboration. Its basic implications are there for all to grasp. UNDP offices in the region and our agency partners are playing their full part in assisting immediate relief efforts, often acting as centres for logistical support and coordination as well as for important country information. But, as the Administrator of UNDP informed delegates to the Second Committee of the General Assembly last November, "the only way to deal effectively with these kinds of emergencies is to anticipate them and address the underlying development issues before they reach crisis proportions. Longer-term solutions are required or these crises will recur". I am glad that this issue has been re-emphasized in this meeting by many speakers, as well.

UNDP recognizes the close link between emergency assistance and the medium-term and longer-term programmes of development which are the only foundation for avoiding emergencies in the future. UNDP field offices in the affected countries have been reorganized so as to ensure that work on the emergency does not pre-empt the continuation of development activities by temporarily enlarging their capacity to cope with these pressures. Within our available resources, steps towards those longer-term solutions are already being taken through our current and planned programmes for Africa.

Core indicative planning figure (IPF) inputs to sub-Saharan Africa for the period 1982-1986 will total nearly $1 billion of which $200 million was budgeted in 1984. Supplementary inputs provided through the year from the Special Measures Fund for the Least Developed Countries, the liquidated United Nations Emergency Operations Trust Fund, from our Special Programme Resources and from the United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office (UNSO) and the United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) bring the total up to $255 million. These figures do not include a $27 million Italian Government contribution to the UNDP Trust Fund to Combat Poverty and Hunger in Africa that the Administrator established last December, and which will go towards rehabilitation measures in Ethiopia, nor do they include resources from cost-sharing and parallel financing, on the increase since 1983, when UNDP projects attracted nearly $17 million in third-party support.

Nevertheless, Africa's long-term rehabilitation needs will require further efforts by UNDP, the agencies of the United Nations system and the international community. The present momentum must not be lost when new rains reach the continent or new claims command our attention. On the contrary, it must be expanded to ensure that fresh initiatives under way to increase our effectiveness in Africa indeed have their due chance of success, and that the fundamental task of reactivating affected African economies can be carried forward.

In this connection, I can mention UNDP's redoubled support for the round-table process which has assumed critical importance in the context of Africa. Following a systematic evaluation of some 20 meetings conducted in the last three years, we are now implementing a number of careful reforms in the total process. The object of these reforms is to base such consultations on a more thorough sectoral survey of country-requirements, conditions and resources and to place findings within a macro-economic analysis of the country's situation. It is hoped that these modifications will provide donors and recipients with a more rigorous framework for identifying programmes for support; and early observations of this enhanced process in action confirm its greater effectiveness.

With regard to our main programme thrust in Africa, we have drawn up a threefold plan of action to be carried out in cooperation with our agency partners. Existing programmes are also being reexamined critically in the light of these new plans. Briefly summarized, our programme elements, in collaboration with agencies of the United Nations system are the following: (a) the focusing of existing regular and supplementary resources on projects in agricultural development and food production, processing and storage, in forestry development, meteorology and drought management, and in development planning and public administration. Where justified, resources are being reallocated to these priority sectors; (b) the redirection of inputs towards production-oriented activities involving grassroots communities and aimed at stimulating their income-generating potential. United Nations volunteers are being deployed to particular effect in this area; (c) the reinforcement of macro-economic policy formulation capabilities, and the strengthening of planning mechanisms in governments. Coordinated with World Bank and bilateral measures, this long-range effort offers the most vital hope for enduring results.

These and related actions are reviewed in greater detail in the main programme section of the report of the Administrator to the present session of the Governing Council of UNDP in New York, while budgetary proposals for strengthening our field offices in Africa are the subject of a separate paper. I am sure that the documents are in possession of all Member Governments, but if some of the delegations are interested, such documents are available.

D. YOMAN (Observateur de la CÔte-d'Ivoire): La délégation de CÔte-d'Ivoire que j'ai l'honneur de représenter ici voudrait vous présenter toutes ses félicitations, Monsieur le Président. Nous sommes très heureux de vous retrouver à l'occasion de cette quatre-vingt-septième session du Conseil. Votre très grande compétence est mondialement connue et respectée et c'est avec beaucoup d'intérêt que nous écoutons toujours vos analyses pertinentes et vos conseils sur la situation actuelle de l'agriculture.

L'examen des documents CL 37/13 et 87/13-Sup.1 relatifs à la situation alimentaire en Afrique ne peut laisser indifférent mon gouvernement, solidaire de tous les autres pays africains et particulièrement de ceux de plus en plus nombreux qui souffrent le plus de la famine et de la pauvreté. Oui, pauvreté car c'est aussi de cela qu'il s'agit quand on aborde n'importe quel aspect de la crise africaine, autant les causes de cette crise que ses conséquences. N'ayons pas peur des mots, c'est un problème de ressources d'abord et avant tout qui nous font cruellement défaut. La volonté politique: là il n'y a aucun gouvernement africain qui ait déclaré que nous soyons contre l'augmentation de la production vivrière et contre l'autosuffisance alimentaire. La FAO doit être à juste titre félicitée et encouragée. Faut-il répéter ici que M. Lignon et le Prof. Islam ont annoncé au Conseil la décision du Directeur général de préparer un programme de relance de l'agriculture africaine en concertation avec nos propres pays. 4,8 millions de dollars débloqués au titre de l'exécution des projets, 4,8 millions de dollars qui ont dû être prélevés sur les ressources ordinaires de l'Organisation après 5 millions et avant 15 millions de voyages dans les pays donateurs pour sensibiliser et obtenir un soutien technique et financier de la part de ceux qui possèdent.

Une mobilisation constante au sein du système des Nations Unies et dans toute la communauté internationale voilà concrètement ce que fait la FAO pour aider l'Afrique bénéficiaire de 40% du maigre budget de l'Organisation parce que la conjoncture économique et sociale de ce continent l'exige. Ne soyons pas longs et bavards au cours de cette 87ème session car tout ce que l'imagination des experts et des diplomates peut avancer comme solution au drame de notre continent est là sous nos yeux dans les documents, dans nos bureaux et ici même à la FAO. Seule une très grande détermination d'aboutir fait encore défaut. Mesdames, Messieurs les délégués, notre rôle, votre rôle, est de persuader nos gouvernements, vos gouvernements, en plus des gros sacrifices déjà consentis pour l'Afrique,de commencer de financer les 146 millions de dollars restants du programme de relance de la FAO, d'accélérer les livraisons d'aide, de souligner les logistiques, puis d'établir avec nos gouvernements et de financer les projets de développement, projets que vous pouvez financer. Voilà ce que notre Conseil devrait nous recommander et recommander à nos gouvernements. Puisque nous sommes réunis dans le cadre de la FAO, est-il dramatique de commencer par solutionner ce que la FAO nous a proposé le 29 mars? Y-a-t-il un danger à rendre la FAO plus opérationnelle sur le terrain? Faut-il que je revienne sur la question liée à l'environnement économique et monétaire international qui influence et détermine le degré de pauvreté de L'Afrique. Je vous en prie, Madame, Messieurs, Monsieur le Président, j'ai entendu dire ce matin avec beaucoup de franchise qu'il y avait parmi nous des grands-pères voire des grand-mères; c'était très touchant. Eh bien, nous ne sommes pas encore arrivés à ce stade. C'est une grande responsabilité que vous risquez de nous transmettre. En effet quels seraient l'avenir et la responsabilité que nous sommes entrain de laisser à nos petits-enfants, à nos arrière- petits-enfants si déjà en 1985 personne, dans une partie du monde, ne mange à sa faim? Je vous pose la question. Nous aurions perdu notre temps et gaspillé nos énergies si nous n'arrivions pas à faire passer le message de la solidarité agissante auprès de chacun de nos gouvernements, solidarité envers 21 - j'allais dire seulement -pays sans défense qui sont tous membres de l'Organisation et que la FAO doit aider et à décider de le faire à travers son programme de réhabilitation agricole et vriviére. L'Afrique veut sortir de cette dramatique situation avec l'appui de la FAO et des autres organisations internationales FIDA, PAM et PNUD entre autres. Elle a les terres et les hommes qu'il faut pour cela. Certains pays comme le dynamique Cameroun et d'autres sont aujourd'hui pratiquement autosuffisants sur le plan alimentaire. Rappelez-vous les remarques pertinentes de M. Eugène Whelan à l'ouverture du Conseil mondial de l'alimentation à Paris: Donnez-nous les moyens financiers, techniques, technologiques et la formation dont nous avons le plus urgent besoin, vous verrez que nous consacrerons moins de temps à parler de la faim en Afrique.

T.F.F. MALUZA (Observer for Zambia): Since this is the first time I have taken the floor, my delegation would like to welcome you back to Rome to chair this august Council. As usual, we are convinced that you will guide the deliberations of this Session to a successful conclusion.

My delegation would also like to congratulate your three Vice-Chairmen on their election.

The food crisis in Africa has reached an alarming stage and calls for all time effort and war-like mobilization of political, financial, technical, social and concerted effort for all donors, developed countries and the affected countries themselves, to combat the situation.

The initiative which has been taken by the Director-General of FAO and his call for rehabilitation of agriculture in Africa is a move in the right direction and should be fully supported by the world community so as to bring hope and life to this continent. It is essential that the African countries should be given the means to make the people there produce food for themselves. The rehabilitation of agriculture in Africa should go along with human resource development. Programmes should be worked out for training of people in improved methods of agriculture. The countries should have their people trained in food crisis management and in food policy analysis.

In the light of this, more and more aid should be directed towards better agricultural management. The time is now ripe to consider using food aid in strengthening and upgrading of agricultural extension systems in Africa. While the Train and Visit system has been introduced in a number of African countries, its effectiveness is still questionable due to logistical problems which need to be addressed. As a result of this, the small farmer, the man whom we all want to receive the goods, is left out. The extension services should be directed more for the benefit of the small farmer, the peasant upon whom the cries for eradication of hunger and malnutrition in the world lies.

If we need the farmer to produce food for himself, this man should not only be given the seed and fertilizer but also the training and advisory services. There should be visits to the farmer both in time and space. The farmer has to be encouraged. It is in this respect, Mr Chairman, that my delegation is requesting the Director-General of FAO through this Council to see how food aid could be used in this respect.

My delegation supports the Director-General's call for prepositioning of stocks in strategic places or in areas most vulnerable to calamities. This is the only way in which the international community could answer emergency food aid calls and ensure the delivery of food at a time when it is mostly needed. The practical possibilities of the prepositioning of stocks should be worked out soonest and action taken.

The call for a new world economic order is timely and my delegation supports it. It is now common knowledge, Mr Chairman, that debts and very high interest rates are very important among the reasons why third world countries, especially in Africa, become desperately short of foreign exchange which is a self-reinforcing process. A shortage of foreign exchange in the import dependent modern sector of our economics leads to a shortage of agricultural and industrial inputs, spares, transport and so on. Because African countries have no foreign exchange, they cannot afford purchasing the vital equipment, requisites and the fuel required for development and rehabilitation of their agriculture. Because Africa has no forex, it cannot possibly import food for its nationals thus resulting in famines, hunger, malnutrition and ultimate deaths. The food and economic crisis in Africa today is a result of this.

Africa needs a breathing space, a space to make it come out of this dilemma, the food crisis. In the call for a new world economic order consideration should be given to putting a moratorium on debt repayment by the overburdened countries. Through you, Mr Chairman, perhaps FAO could bring world awareness to the huge debt burden which is being carried by the developing countries.

It is sad to note that while the world community is all talking about the problems in Africa, no effort has been made to ensure and secure the existence of IFAD. The effectiveness of IFAD in servicing the needs and the well-being of the peasant, the small-scale farmer, being echoed in all independent evaluations and studies carried out so far. In this respect, my delegation is appealing to donors to bring about the survival and existence of this youngest and most effective United Nations agency. As the delegate of Malawi said earlier on, IFAD has a lot of potential to help Africa and IFAD has the secret of success in helping the small farmer, the landless and the poor.

Finally, I would like to thank and congratulate Professor Islam and Mr Lignon for their impressive presentation of the documents under discussion.

Mme M. LOURDES DUARTE (Observateur du Cap-Vert): Tout d'abord ma delegation voudrait vous féliciter ainsi que le Vice-President et vous demander de me permettre aussi de féliciter le Secretariat pour la qualité du document et la presentation du Prof. Islam et de M. Lignon.

La crise alimentaire de 84-85 éprouve terriblement les populations africaines et encore ce n'est que la moitié de l'aide promise qui est deja arrivée dans les pays sinistres, vu que la plupart des pays africains sont exposes aux risques d'une crise alimentaire, il est urgent que l'on se prépare a y faire face et toutes les mesures doivent être prises pour faire démarrer la production vivrière dans les secteurs de l'agriculture de l'élevage et des pécheurs. La relance est donc d'une urgente nécessité.

A cet effet, le Directeur general de la FAO, a la réunion du 29 mars dernier, a présenté aux donateurs un certain nombre de projets reconnus a l'unanimité comme s'agissant de projets bien choisis et bien préparés et dont le mérite était de permettre de pouvoir être mis en oeuvre immédiatement par les bénéficiaires et les donateurs. Il est préoccupant que 21 des 30 pays victimes de pénurie alimentaire exceptionnelle se trouvent en Afrique et aillent augmenter le nombre de pays africains ayant besoin d'une aide exceptionnelle dont 13 ont eu des besoins exceptionnels pendant toute la période considérée. Il faut donc se préparer a faire face aux crises alimentaires non seulement a cause de l'augmentation du nombre de pays à pénurie exceptionnelle mais aussi a cause de l'augmentation de leur besoin d'aide alimentaire. Un effort accru doit être fait non seulement pour être prêt a faire face aux crises mais surtout pour améliorer les disponibilités alimentaires nationales et les moyens de distribution. De 1980 a 1984 la production vivriére a baisse dans 40 des 46 pays africains. Les terres ont été exploitées plus intensivement sans que l'emploi des engrais ait augmente de façon uniforme et l'irrigation y reste peu développée. La situation nutritionnelle de l'Afrique,notamment celle des pays a bas revenus qui sont les plus frappés est préoccupante. Les problèmes alimentaires forment vraiment un ensemble très complexe qui varie d'un pays à l'autre. La delegation du Cap-Vert consciente que les pays africains doivent agir de façon concertée avec l'assistance internationale pour faire face aux crises alimentaires apporte son soutien aux principales mesures proposées à cet effet au point 4 du document CL 87/13.

Pour terminer, tout particulièrement et une fois de plus, ma delegation voudrait féliciter le Directeur general de la FAO pour le programme de relance au profit du continent africain et les mesures adoptées pour réorienter les programmes de la FAO et aussi pour sa persistante intervention auprès de la communauté internationale et les pays donateurs.

G. LAZARE (Observateur du Burkina Faso): Permettez-nous également de féliciter le Secrétariat pour la présentation des documents CL 87/13 et CL 87/13-Sup. 1. Ces deux documents traduisent directement les problèmes alimentaires en Afrique. On peut se demander, sinon affirmer comme l'indique le document du Secretariat, que l'Afrique perd effectivement du terrain dans la lutte pour la sécurité alimentaire. Notre continent est de plus en plus tributaire de l'aide alimentaire extérieure pour nourrir ses populations. Le nombre des pays ayant des besoins exceptionnels d'aide alimentaire ne fait que croître. La production vivrière par habitant a diminué dans 32 des 46 pays africains en développement considérés au cours de la période 1971-1981 comme l'indique le document du Secrétariat. Il y a donc nécessité de se préparer aux crises.

Au niveau du Burkina il a été élaboré un programme de réhabilitation du nord du pays durement éprouvé par la sécheresse et les pénuries alimentaires. L'exécution de ce programme est placée sous la tutelle de la Commission regionale de lutte contre les effets de la sécheresse et les traits principaux de ce programme visent a la réalisation de certains projets avec la participation effective des populations intéressées dans les domaines de l'hydraulique, petite irrigation, forage, production agricole, restauration du cheptel, désenclavement de la zone par la construction de routes, ouverture de pistes, constitution de stocks de céréales suffisants dans la zone, constitution d'une brigade mobile dans la zone dotée de moyens de transport et de personnel adéquat pour intervenir efficacement au secours des populations intéressées en cas de nécessité.

Bref, tous les 21 pays dits les plus gravement touchés sont intéressés par chacun des programmes tendant a les libérer de cette situation inconfortable par une relance de leur agriculture qui engloberait des domaines très variés comme l'approvisionnement en intrants, les semences, les engrais, l'irrigation, les vaccins, l'augmentation de la production agricole. Mais cette relance exige des moyens financiers et techniques tels que les pays africains malgré leur bonne volonte ne peuvent a eux seuls se mobiliser.

Au-delà de toute rhétorique, le vrai problème pour ces pays africains est un problème de moyens financiers et techniques que seule une prise de conscience et une solidarité de la communauté internationale peut résoudre. C'est pourquoi nous tenons à rendre hommage a la FAO et au Directeur général pour leur effort en faveur de l'Afrique. Je pense en particulier aux différents

appels du Directeur general depuis près de dix ans sur la situation précaire de l'Afrique. Je pense a la proposition du Directeur general, approuvée par le Conseil a sa session de novembre 1984 de réorienter durant l'exercice en cours une partie des ressources ordinaires de la FAO jusqu'a concurrence de 5 millions de dollars pour appuyer les efforts de relance des pays sinistrés. Enfin je pense à la relance de l'agriculture en Ethiopie, à la réunion spéciale tenue à Rome le 29 mars 1985 sur la relance de l'agriculture dans 20 pays africains, dont le Burkina Faso sur la base de projets simples bien élaborés en collaboration avec les gouvernements intéressés.

Je ne saurais terminer sans témoigner notre gratitude à tous les pays et organismes qui ont deja manifeste leur disponibilité a financer ces projets.

Je terminerai par un appel: donnez a l'Afrique les moyens financiers et techniques et le reste se fera comme sur des roulettes. Donnez à l'Afrique les moyens financiers et techniques et vous verrez que les petits exploitants, pour reprendre un mot d'un de nos délégués,vous seront trés reconnaissants.

K. MAÏGA (Observateur de la Banque Islamique de Développement): Monsieur le Président, la Banque islamique de développement se réjouit de participer à ce Conseil de la FAO traduisant ainsi l'excellence des relations qui existent si heureusement entre la FAO et la Banque .

La qualité des documents présentés par la FAO, la clarté des exposes de vos collaborateurs et de vous-même Monsieur le Président, sont une légitime source de satisfaction. La Banque saisit cette opportunité pour vous présenter toutes ses félicitations. Le Président de la Banque islamique de développement et le Conseil d'administration de cette banque, les directeurs executifs, ont le même souci que la FAO pour imprimer une veritable acceleration dans la realisation de projets agricoles, donnant ainsi la plus haute priorité a l'agriculture.

Ceci se traduit, pour la Banque Islamique de Développement, par: 1. la création d'un comité d'ingénieurs agronomes au sein de la Banque; 2. le contact d'organisations regionales s'occupant des problèmes de sécheresse et de lutte contre la sécheresse, telles que le Comité inter-Etats de lutte contre la sécheresse ayant son siège à Ouagadougou; le Comité inter-Etats d'études hydrauliques qui, avec les organisations gouvernementales se charge de la realisation des études pour les cours des fleuves et la réalisation des études d'eaux souterraines. Dans le cadre du programme ordinaire de la Banque, il y a la participation dans le financement des ouvrages de maîtrise de l'eau à des fins agricoles. C'est ainsi que la Banque a participe aux financements des barrages de Gorgol, en Mauritanie, de Mantali sur le fleuve Sénégal, pour le compte de l' OMVS, des projets d'agriculture tels que le projet intégré du Manchoum au Cameroun et a participé également au projet d'inventaire de forêt en Guinée-Conakry, (la forêt de Lola); ainsi que le projet de reboisement au Sénégal dans la région du Cayore. La Banque a participé également a la Conférence ministérielle sur la désertification, à Dakar les 18 et 29 juillet 1984, où est né le vocable de "pays agressés par la désertification" (les PAD) devant lutter globalement et de façon coordonnée contre la désertification. 4. Devant la sévérité et la persistance de la sécheresse, la Banque a conçu et réalisé un programme d'aide d'urgence à neuf pays sahéliens Membres, que je cite dans un ordre dispersé: Niger, Tchad, Burkina Faso, Mali, Sénégal, Mauritanie, Guinée-Bissau et Gambie; ce programme d'un montant de 50 millions de dollars E.-U. se subdivise ainsi: 20 millions de dollars sous forme de subventions et 30 millions de dollars sous forme de prêts, sans charges administratives et pour un remboursement d'une durée de 30 ans. Il sert à financer, dans un premier temps, que nous appelons la première phase, pour 20 millions de dollars E.-U. des aliments de bétail constitués de graines de coton, de tourteaux d'arachide, etc. qui seront achetés localement ou dans la sous-région, permettant ainsi aux opérateurs économiques de pouvoir utiliser cet argent sur place; ensuite l'acquisition de vaccins pour la santé animale, vaccins et produits biologiques avec tout le système de conservation, donc achat de congélateurs, achat de véhicules de transport pour les aliments de bétail - véhicules de gros tonnages et petits véhicules pour les campagnes de vaccination.

Ensuite, toujours en ce qui concerne les subventions, il y a l'acquisition d'intrants agricoles, semences, engrais, fongicides, petits outillages, etc., qui pourront être achetés localement, tant sur le plan régional que sous-régional ou même international.

Cette première phase s'achève en ce moment, puisque nous avons déjà lancé l'opération dermis mars 1984.

La deuxième phase, qui commence actuellement, c'est la phase qui consiste en la réalisation de petits ouvrages hydrauliques: réalisation de puits de forages dans les zones critiques, avec installation de pompes à main, ou d'électro-pompes immergées qui permettraient à des régions telles que le Niger ou la Mauritanie, qui ont des forages assez profonds, d'utiliser ces électro-pompes immergées. Cela, c'est ce que nous appelons la petite hydraulique villageoise.

La deuxième phase consiste également en la réalisation de petites irrigations qui comprennent l'acquisition de moto-pompes, pour utiliser l'eau des rivières et des fleuves et dans certaines

régions, telles que le Niger et la Gambie, d'utiliser des forages à titre experimental pour l'irrigation.

Cette expérience de la petite irrigation permettrait de faire un programme-pilote pour accroître la production pour les petits agriculteurs. Ce qui, nous pensons, pourrait améliorer la qualité de la production agricole en vue de l'autosuffisance alimentaire.

Dans cette deuxième phase la Banque pensait également à un programme que nous appelons : "Etude de surveillance des nappes" puisque, à cause de la sécheresse, les nappes ont baissé.

Ensuite nous avons vu dans certaines régions telles que le Sénégal l'intrusion d'eau marine, ce qui rend inaccessibles, ou bien même inutilisables, les eaux de forages et des puits. Nous avons donc consenti pour ce volet des nappes environ 500 000 dollars par pays pour qu' à partir des piézomètres nous puissions suivre les fluctuations de la nappe et déterminer l'intrusion des eaux marines et ainsi maîtriser ce fléau pour permettre de savoir comment utiliser rationnellement cette eau, qui est quand même assez précieuse pour la survie de l'homme et de son environnement.

Ensuite la Banque islamique de développement, en raison de sévérité de la sécheresse dans un pays tel que le Soudan est en train de concevoir un programme spécial pour ce pays et elle a déjà effectué une première investigation. Actuellement nous sommes en train de concevoir un programme pour venir en aide au Soudan, et par voie de conséquence, pour essayer de l'étendre aussi à d'autres pays.

Monsieur le Président nous pensons que cette action de la Banque est déjà positive et c'est une information que nous pensons donner pour compléter déjà celle très intéressante de M. Lignon qui a fait un exposé extrêmement clair. Je crois qu'il est bon, dans cette phase, que ces informations soient portées à la connaissance de l'assemblée pour constater qu'à ce niveau, la Banque est en train d'épauler également l'action des organisations nationales et internationales.

I. KABA (Observateur de la Guinée): Je vous remercie Monsieur le Président et je vous félicite, ainsi que vos vice-présidents. Que le Directeur général trouve ici l'hommage de ma délégation guinéenne pour sa déclaration importante.

Les documents soumis à notre examen méritent des éloges pour leur pertinence, leur précision et la clarté de leur présentation; que le Secrétariat en soit félicité.

Après les interventions qui m'ont précédé, auxquelles je joins ma voix, je serai très bref.

J'interviens pour insister sur l'inquiétude qu'éveillent la non-livraison des aides promises et le non-acheminement vers les nécessiteux du stock d'aide alimentaire accumulé aux portes des pays bénéficiaires. La menace du mauvais temps risque de rendre inutilisable cet important stock d'aliments. Cette perte serait plus considérable que les moyens actuellement nécessaires à l'acheminement des aliments tant attendus par les affamés de la campagne.

Nous nous tournons encore vers ceux qui en ont les moyens pour que le nécessaire soit fait dans le temps très court qui reste encore avant les grandes pluies. Cela est une situation qui souligne la nécessité d'une infrastructure appropriée tant pour le stockage que pour le transport. Ceci rejoint le fait évoqué aux paragraphes 42, 43 et 44 du document CL 87/13 que nous appuyons.

Les différents paragraphes des points 5, 6 et 7 du même document traitant de la relance des mesures à long terme du défi relevé, sont ceux qui répondent de manière définitive aux problèmes de fond qui se posent au continent africain d'abord et ensuite à la solidarité internationale.

Nous félicitons le Directeur général et, à travers lui, la FAO, pour ses initiatives et ses démarches appropriées tendant à la mobilisation de l'opinion internationale, à l'obtention des moyens pour la réalisation des projets de développement.

Que les donateurs trouvent ici la reconnaissance de notre pays qui depuis quelques années s'efforce réellement à travers une restructuration efficace, avec l'application de stratégies de développement dynamiques, d'améliorer leur production pour réaliser leur autosuffisance alimentaire. En tous cas, mon pays, la Guinée, s'y ingénie avec tous les moyens à sa disposition; en témoigne le plan intérimaire actuellement exécuté et auquel collaborent la FAO et d'autres organismes internationaux.

Mais le succès des efforts des pays africains dépend beaucoup de la conjoncture internationale, du commerce, de la dette extérieure et aussi de la contribution au renforcement des organismes internationaux tels que le FIDA.

Permettez-moi de terminer mon intervention en espérant que le Conseil approuvera le projet de résolution proposé par l'Afrique.

C. KAREKEZI (Rwanda): Monsieur le President, comme c'est la première fois que ma delegation prend la parole, je voudrais tout d'abord me joindre aux délégués qui m'ont déjà précédé pour vous préciser que ma délégation est heureuse de vous revoir présider ce Conseil.

La délégation rwandaise a été fort encouragée par la déclaration du Directeur général de la FAO qui présente la situation alimentaire mondiale en général et d'une manière particulière la crise alimentaire de l'Afrique, ainsi que le programme de relance à entreprendre pour satisfaire les besoins alimentaires.

Permettez-moi de remercier le Directeur général et ses collaborateurs pour les efforts énormes qu'ils déploient constamment en vue de contribuer efficacement au développement de l'agriculture et d'assurer une meilleure alimentation des populations des pays en développement en particulier.

Comme il a été souvent démontré au Conseil de la FAO, depuis dix ans, l'Afrique ne parvient pas à réussir son programme d'autosuffisance alimentaire. De 1950 à 1984 la production vivrière a baissé dans 40 des 46 pays africains en développement et la situation nutritionnelle, notamment des pays à bas revenu, reste préoccupante.

Le rapport de la FAO indique également que l'apport calorifique par habitant n'a augmenté que

de 4 pour cent dans 23 des 46 pays africains en développement et qu'il a diminué dans les 16 autres.

Comme les crises alimentaires deviennent de plus en plus inquiétantes et que les besoins annuels d'aide alimentaire ne cessent d'augmenter, ma délégation invite les pays développés à accorder une aide alimentaire d'urgence suffisante à toutes les populations menacées par la famine.

Compte tenu qu'aucun pays africain, même en dehors des déficits dûs aux calamités naturelles et aux aléas climatiques, n'a pu satisfaire complètement les besoins de sa population, ma délégation estime que l'aide alimentaire est nécessaire pour combler les déficits de nos productions.

Mais, par définition, cette aide alimentaire doit devenir, sauf en cas de calamités, la cause de sa propre élimination en servant essentiellement à l'augmentation de la production nationale par l'utilisation judicieuse, par exemple en constituant des fonds de contrepartie dans les projets de production vivrière et d'élevage.

Ma délégation soutient sans réserve le programme de relance agricole proposé par le Directeur général de la FAO.

Tout en reconnaissant que ce programme ne pourra être réalisé sans l'effort continu des différents pays en développement, ma délégation pense néanmoins que les modestes ressources de ces pays et l'insuffisance de cadres nationaux qualifiés constituent des obstacles majeurs qui nécessitent encore des interventions extérieures, aussi bien dans le cadre multilatéral que bilatéral.

C'est dans ce cadre que le gouvernement de la République rwandaise est fort préoccupé de la dégra dation constante de l'équilibre entre la production vivrière et les besoins alimentaires de la population. Cet équilibre devient d'autant plus difficile du fait de la mise en culture de la quasi totalité de terres cultivables et de l'augmentation constante de la population.

En même temps qu'un programme de planning familial est en train d'être instauré, le gouvernement cherche toutes les voies et moyens pour augmenter la production vivrière en vue de satisfaire les besoins nutritionnels de la population.

La mesure de premier ordre qui est prise est la protection du patrimoine sol qui se dégrade au fil des ans, compte tenu de la topographie accidentée.

Dans cet ordre d'idée, mon gouvernement mène depuis plusieurs années une campagne visant à intensifier la production vivrière en mettant en oeuvre tous les facteurs indispensables, à savoir notamment l'utilisation de semences sélectionnées, l'association de l'agriculture à l'élevage, l'utilisation des engrais organiques et minéraux. Cet objectif figure en tête du deuxième plan quinquennal du développement économique et socio-culturel 1977-81, ainsi que du troisième plan quinquennal 1982-86.

Pour accomplir cette mission, les ressources locales ne peuvent à elles seules suffire. C'est la raison pour laquelle mon gouvernement prend contact avec les pays développés et les organisations internationales pour qu'ils y contribuent.

En 1984, le Rwanda a connu une période de sécheresse intense qui a provoqué un déficit alimentaire de 120 000 tonnes de céréales et légumineuses.

L'appel urgent lancé par mon gouvernement à la communauté internationale a été heureusement compris et une partie du déficit a été comblée.

Je saisis cette occasion, au nom de mon gouvernement, pour remercier les pays et organisations internationales qui nous ont apporté un appui dans cette période difficile.

S.M. MATIUR RAHMAN (Bangladesh): I wanted to be one of the last speakers so that I could listen and learn and make some short comment. The agonizing situation in 21 African countries for a long time is a challenge to the international community to show their solidarity and also to solve the problem so that the African people can come out of this serious problem and become self-reliant.

It appears from the document that there is a shortfall in the requirements by more than one million tons and that 40 percent of the food has not reached its destination. There is port congestion and there are internal difficulties which means that the food is not reaching the hungry people and the food is rotting. As Professor Islam has said in his introduction, if the food does not arrive in time and comes at a time when the crop will come up that will be more disastrous than it is now, and again this food will be rotting at the port. So this is a challenge for the international community to see that the food reaches the people in time and to see what they want and for an effort to be made by all international communities, including FAO and the donor countries, to resolve this situation.

The Director-General of FAO has through his dynamic leadership and his tireless effort done his best and is still doing his best to mobilize the world community to meet the requirement of the emergency need of the African countries. Now that he has taken up the job of helping the agriculture of African countries we are thankful to the Director-General of the FAO for all that he has done and we support all that he has done for the African countries and the action that he has taken.

Mobilization and the rehabilitation programme should go hand in hand so that the African people can get out of this problem as quickly as possible. In this connection the programme of work undertaken by the FAO in the Regular Programme has our fullest support. Also the $15 million which is being allocated with the approval of the Finance Committee and the Programme Committee has our full support.

We thank the international community for the generous support that they have given. Also my delegation would support the proposed resolution being brought up in this connection.

T.D. DA COSTA (Sao Tomé-et-Principe): Monsieur le Président, c'est avec une très profonde satisfaction que la Délégation de la République démocratique de Sao Tomé-et-Principe à la 87ème Session du Conseil de la FAO prend la parole. Que ce soit tout d'abord, Monsieur le Président, pour vous adresser nos plus vives félicitations à l'occasion de votre élection comme Président de cette Session, dont les travaux seront, nous en sommes convaincus, couronnés de succès, dirigés par votre coûtumière sagesse, en collaboration avec les deux Vice-Présidents élus, que nous félicitons également.

Nous avons analysé très attentivement le Document de base présenté par le Secrétariat; pour sa richesse, tant en terme d'objectivité que de clarté, nous voudrions ici féliciter et remercier tous les membres du Secrétariat pour avoir réalisé ce travail si important, et plus particulièrement MM. Lignon et Islam pour leurs brillants commentaires qui nous aideront à mieux situer et éclairer les débats.

Nous avons également écouté avec beaucoup d'attention la déclaration de Monsieur le Directeur général, déclaration qui a fait naître en nous de profondes réflexions. Encore une fois, nous sommes en possession d'un grand document d'orientation, fruit de l'effort gigantesque et incessant de ce tiers-mondiste qui, inlassablement, étudie et analyse en profondeur les problèmes de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation en Afrique, proposant des solutions toujours valables et durables pour que ces problèmes soient progressivement dépassés et leurs effets constamment minimisés, là où ils peuvent exister.

Nous remercions et félicitons Monsieur le Directeur général de la FAO pour cette grande contribution à la recherche continue d'une solution aux problèmes de l'agriculture, de la faim et de la

malnutrition en Afrique.

Nombreux ont été avant nous les orateurs qui se sont exprimés sur le sujet en discussion, abordant ses aspects les plus variés. Dans leur essence, toutes ces interventions ont révélé des préoccupations sur la situation alimentaire grave dans laquelle se débat aujourd'hui l'Afrique. Pour nous, le sujet que nous discutons est un sujet vital, parmi ceux que la présente Session doit analyser. Il est vital en effet, parce qu'outre le fait d'aborder des sujets qui ne sont pas nouveaux, il recouvre des préoccupations, oh combien inquiétantes, quant à ses effets qui ont causé et causent encore des préjudices sociaux et humains incalculables dans le Continent africain, préjudices auxquels il nous faut trouver une solution.

Ainsi que nous le constatons, les multiples interventions faites ici attirent l'attention de l'opinion publique sur la situation vraiment grave et sur l'urgence de prendre des mesures décisives et plus pertinentes, puisqu'aujourd'hui cette situation se révèle être non seulement un problème africain mais un problème que la Communauté internationale se doit de traiter avec fermeté, ainsi que l'a exprimé une des délégations présentes.

La situation alimentaire difficile que connaissent aujourd' huí les Peuples africains et plus particulièrement ceux des Pays au sud du Sahara qui sont victimes d'innombrables calamités naturelles et des effets persistants de la crise économique mondiale, constitue le point culminant d'une situation qui évolue dans le temps.

Si nous nous référons aux antécédents historiques, nous pouvons dire que le Continent africain a déjà vécu dans l'abondance et non dans la pénurie alimentaire qui se constate aujourd'hui. Eu égard à cela, nous dirons que l'Afrique vit actuellement une période de transition, puisque les problèmes qui se posent maintenant, nous en sommes convaincus, peuvent être résolus.

Cette solution viendra d'abord de la conviction de l'Africain qui doit ne pas ménager ses efforts et ses sacrifices dans le travail pour développer l'agriculture, en cherchant sans désemparer le véritable noeud de l'étranglementqui étouffe ce développement, ce qui nous permettrait d'être plus conséquents dans les mesures à prendre.

Ensuite, et compte tenu de notre degré de pauvreté, il nous faut pouvoir sentir le soutien de la Communauté internationale, dans tous ses aspects: appui financier, matériel, en cadres qualifiés et, enfin, en tout ce qui peut contribuer à relancer le développement pour une agriculture plus moderne, c'est-à-dire capable de nous donner une croissance constante de nos productions agricoles, piscicoles et d'élevage, pour aller de paire avec notre croissance démographique.

Enfin, nous avons besoin que la FAO poursuive ses efforts et sa lutte, avec la participation active de tous ses membres pour atteindre avec une efficacité sans cesse accrue, les objectifs qu'elle poursuit actuellement.

La bonne volonté de tous, pour que, tous, nous sortions de cette situation, est évidente. Il faut toutefois que nous accélérions la prise de décisions pratiques de telle sorte que nous puissions avant la fin de ce siècle, enregistrer des résultats extraordinaires qui permettront de reléguer le souvenir de la faim dans les tréfonds de la mémoire humaine.

Sao Tomé-et-Principe est parmi les Pays Moins Avancés qui lutte avec le problème de la famine et de la malnutrition. Cette situation a des causes diverses dont l'inadéquation d'une structure agraire héritée du passé, les effets de certaines calamités naturelles et les effets de la crise économique mondiale persistante. Des actions pratiques sont en cours, sur base de l'effort national et grâce aux appuis multiformes de la FAO et des autres Organisations des Nations Unies, ainsi que des Pays et Organisations Non Gouvernetrentales avec lesquelles nous avons une coopération, visant à l'accroissement de la mise en oeuvre de la politique de diversification de l'agriculture telle que définie par le Gouvernement et pour la réalisation des objectifs définis dans la Déclaration des Chefs d'Etats africains à Lagos et la Déclaration de Harare. Toutes ces actions sont en train d'avoir des effets, dont nous n'osons encore dire qu'ils constituent les préludes d'une solution aux problèmes auxquels nous avons à faire face à court terme. Cependant, les résultats sont encourageants et nous incitent à redoubler d'effort, certains que nous sommes de la réussite. C'est pourquoi nous voulons, au nom de notre Gouvernement, au nom de notre Délégation et en notre nom propre remercier très sincèrement et très profondément tous ceux qui, directement ou indirectement, contribuent à appuyer Sao Tomé-et-Principe dans l'effort de développement de son agriculture et qui, par conséquent, l'aident à combattre la faim et la malnutrition de sa population. Nous voudrions ici, et parce que cela exprime notre sentiment profond, rendre un hommage particulier à Monsieur le Directeur général de la FAO qui n'a, à aucun moment, épargné ses efforts pour d'une façon ou d'une autre, nous encourager et nous offrir son meilleur appui.

Pour terminer, Monieur le Président, nous voulons exprimer le plein accord de la Délégation de la République démocratique de Sao Tomé-et-Principe avec le programme de la FAO pour la relance de l'agriculture en Afrique.

N. ISLAM (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): I have only one or two points to respond to. A number of delegates have questioned whether the Secretariat distinguishes clearly enough between current food emergency and long-term food problems and prospects in Africa. By the nature of this document heavy emphasis is placed on the discussion of the current food emergency and the rehabilitation programme and not on long-term problems and policies, even though reference has been made to these aspects as well. The in-depth study of Africa's food production constraints which is under way now and which will be discussed next year is expected to go into these details of the long-term aspects.

A question has also been raised as to whether we have distinguished clearly enough between countries suffering from the current food emergency and those which are suffering from chronic food problems. As pointed out earlier, current food emergency in most countries in Africa is superimposed on the long-term food problem. This is explained in paragraphs 28 to 30 on page 9.

In fact there is some analysis in this document about the characteristics of those countries which have persistently encountered food emergencies in recent years. Such an analysis was provided to the Council last year in November. It is pointed out in that document that 15 African countries recurringly suffered acute food shortages between 1977 and 1984. All but five were low-income countries with declining or stagnating per capita income. Secondly, in all these 15 countries average dietary food and energy supplies were low. Thirdly, in ten out of these 15 countries declining per capita food production was present since the 1970s, and in 13 of them further declines took place between 1979 and 1983. In all of these 21 countries which FAO has identified for 1984/85 as facing exceptional food aid needs, food production has been adversely affected in 1984 by drought or other unfavourable weather conditions. Thus these countries face emergency food aid needs over and above any structural food aid requirements which could exist even in a normal production year.

It is true that in some of these countries exceptional food aid needs have arisen as a result of other factors, such as internal civil strife, influx of refugees, etc.

We also recognise the usefulness for analytical and operational purposes of estimating separately the emergency food aid needs and structural food aid needs. This subject was discussed at a recently held expert consultation in March 1985 here in FAO and was also stressed in the recent meeting of the Committee on World Food Security. I would add that we are considering this position and hope to be able to make some progress in the near future.

A number of delegates referred to paragraph 47 in the main document which mentions a number of international measures which are needed to improve the responsiveness of the international community to emergency needs. These measures, such as stand-by for IEFR, improvement of food aid convention, internal food reserves, etc. were discussed at the last meeting of the Committee on Food Security.

The Secretariat recognizes that some of these measures need further study. In fact they will be so studied and elaborated for further discussion and consideration in the future sessions of the Committee on Food Security.

R.S. LIGNON (Sous-Directeur general, Departement du développement): Je ferai aussi deux brefs commentaires pour répondre à des préoccupations qui ont été évoquées par certains délégués.

Le premier de ces commentaires portera surtout sur les questions suivantes: certains délégués ont souligné l'importance de la formation, de la promotion des ressources humaines, d'autres délégués ont souligné l'importance des facteurs de production dans la relance de l'agriculture en Afrique.

Je crois que l'originalité du programme qui vous a été présenté réside dans le fait qu'il est constitué d'un ensemble de projets qui tous contiennent une composante d'assistance technique, qui, sous diverses formes, prennent en charge des problèmes de formation, de transfert de technologies, des problèmes d'organisations paysannes, de sorte que cette originalité du programme de coopération technique le différencie d'une simple évaluation des besoins disant: il y a besoin de six millions de dollars d'engrais pour tel pays d'Afrique, etc. Chaque projet est constitué pour être efficace en lui-même et pour être réalisable dans la situation qui prévaut dans le pays. Je pense qu'il était important de le souligner.

Ceci me permet de passer au deuxième commentaire qui est le suivant: je pense que la gestion de la crise africaine ne peut pas se faire en tranches séparées en disant que l'on s'occupe maintenant de l'urgence et que l'on s'occupera demain de l'agriculture et que plus tard on s'occupera du long terme ou réciproquement. Je pense que la FAO, par son mandat, par sa vocation et par les moyens et les instruments dont elle dispose, englobe tous les problèmes qui se posent à l'agriculture africaine et le programme de relance s'intègre dans le continuum qui va de la prévision de la crise, avec le système d'information et d'alerte rapide, jusqu'aux problèmes d'investissement à long terme, action que la FAO mène par le Centre d'investissement avec les banques de financement. Je pense que dans ce domaine la FAO est prête à coopérer avec tout le monde. Vous avez vu que beaucoup de donateurs et d'institutions internationales ont déjà participé à ce programme. Lorsque le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies a créé le Bureau des opérations d'urgence en Afrique, la FAO n'a pas ménagé sa coopération puisque c'est sur la base des recommandations et des évaluations faites par le Système d'alerte rapide et les groupes spéciaux que la liste des pays qui sont dans le champ du Bureau des opérations a été faite. Ce sont encore les projets menés par la FAO qui ont été examinés pour le secteur agricole et pastoral à Genève, et c'est encore maintenant dans le cadre des réunions qui se tiennent dans les pays que ces programmes sont examinés.

Je peux donc dire que dans le cadre du mandat général de la FAO qui va de la prévision de la crise jusqu'aux problèmes de développement à long terme, nous pensons que ce programme a une place particulièrement spécifique et comble une lacune qui existait jusqu'à maintenant.

Le DIRECTEUR GENERAL: J'ai écouté avec beaucoup d'attention tous les orateurs, ils étaient nombreux, je les remercie. Je voudrais les assurer que je ne ménagerai aucun effort en vue de mobiliser une aide en faveur de l'Afrique touchée par la sécheresse.

Ce n'est pas la dernière fois que nous allons discuter de la situation agricole et alimentaire en Afrique. J'ai d'autres rendez-vous. Le Sommet des chefs d'Etat africains en discutera du 18 au 21 juillet à Addis-Abeba; j'y serai présent pour faire entendre la voix de la FAO. L'ECOSOC consacre quatre jours pour discuter de la situation alimentaire de l'Afrique du 22 au 27 juillet et ce point est à l'ordre du jour de la Conférence de la FAO en novembre.

Le drame de l'Afrique n'est pas dû seulement à une conjoncture, à une sécheresse. Ce n'est pas la sécheresse d'une année; c'est une sécheresse qui dure depuis dix ans: cela a commencé par l'Afrique de l'Ouest, puis à l'est, puis l'Afrique australe. Les causes sont aussi beaucoup plus profondes: elles sont structurelles. Les remèdes que nous utilisons en ce moment consistent essentiellement à fournir une aide alimentaire. Il n'y a pas de bateau qui emporte des sacs d'engrais ou des sacs de semences qui vont en Afrique, ce sont surtout des produits alimentaires. Ces remèdes prolongent l'agonie, mais ne mettent pas fin à la maladie.

Il faut des facteurs de production. Je voudrais voir les producteurs européens faire les semailles sans mettre d'engraisI Ils mettent 110 kilos d'engrais à l'hectare alors qu'en Afrique on met 8 kilos d'engrais à l'hectare, et surtout pour des cultures de rente et non pas pour des cultures vivrières. Je voudrais voir l'agriculture européenne sans subvention! L'agriculture africaine n'est pas subventionnée. Les gouvernements sont pauvres, les particuliers sont pauvres.

Au début des années quarante, l'Afrique était exportatrice de produits alimentaires. Qu'est-il arrivé? En quarante ans la population africaine a triplé. Elle doublera encore dans vingt ans. Le taux d'augmentation de la population est de 3,2 pour cent par an. Est-ce que les terres cultivées ont doublé? Non, parce qu'il y a très peu de terres de bonne qualité. En Afrique, seulement 12 pour cent des terres sont des terres de bonne qualité. Le reste c'est le désert: le Sahara, le désert de Kalahari dans le sud, et au milieu le "désert Vert" où il y a la trypanosomiase et la mouche tsé-tsé. Si les terres africaines étaient bonnes, il y aurait peut-être trois milliards d'habitants comme en Asie. L'Afrique n'a que 580 millions d'habitants parce que les terres ne sont pas bonnes, les conditions de vie ne sont pas bonnes. La nature fait les choses d'elle-même et il ne peut pas y avoir deux milliards et demi d'hommes.

Donc il y a au départ une situation très défavorable pour les pays africains. On doit le dire et le répéter. J'ai fait toutes ces remarques parce que certains délégués ont fait des discours, ont donné leurs idées sur la façon dont les choses devaient être organisées en Afrique. La FAO fait aussi une étude qui sera prête l'année prochaine, comme l'a dit l'Ambassadeur du Congo, qui illustrera la situation et proposera des schémas.

Que faut-il faire? Il faut intensifier l'agriculture, parce qu'on ne peut pas conquérir de terres nouvelles ou tout au moins les possibilités sont très limitées. Il faut mettre des engrais, c'est la seule façon d'améliorer l'agriculture. Combien en faut-il? Il en faut des quantités énormes pendant plusieurs années. Il faut donc produire les engrais. Or, toutes les usines qui ont été faites en Afrique sont fermées aujourd'hui. Il faut pendant plusieurs années fournir des engrais, fournir des pesticides. L'Afrique ne représente que 5 pour cent de la consommation mondiale de pesticides. Il faut aussi avoir de bonnes semences comme font les Européens et les Asiatiques. Il faut une irrigation: il y a seulement 5 pour cent de terres irriguées en Afrique et cela coûte quatre fois plus cher qu'en Asie.

C'est un travail gigantesque de plusieurs années. Qu'on ne me parle pas de nos pauvres millions de dollars: il faut des milliards de dollars. Il faudrait être vraiment malhonnête pour ne pas savoir que le remède ce n'est pas des sacs de blé qui font leur effet momentanément, mais c'est le développement de la production vivrière avec les intrants. Aujourd'hui on n'a pas d'agriculture sans engrais, sans semences. On ne peut pas semer des graines dont 15 pour cent seulement vont germer. Il faut que 80 pour cent des graines germent. Il faut des vaccins: l'Afrique est très riche en cheptel, c'est une des plus grandes richesses de l'Afrique.

Evidemment, le climat économique mondial et la situation politique ne sont pas favorables pour lancer ce qu'on pourrait appeler un "Plan Marshall" pour l'Afrique. Je suis réaliste, je sais que le moment n'est guère propice. D'ailleurs il y a un "grippage" dans l'aide; l'aide diminue, l'aide baisse. Dans certains pays, l'aide publique au développement est constituée maintenant par 40 pour cent d'aide alimentaire ...

Il ne faut donc pas se leurrer; nous allons continuer à discuter de la situation en Afrique pendant longtemps, ici même et ailleurs, parce que l'aide à l'Afrique ne va pas dans le sens voulu et parce que ça coûte très cher. Je comprends les pays donateurs : on a parlé de 35 milliards; on ne peut guère aller au-delà. La Banque mondiale a bien compris qu'il faudrait un fonds spécial pour l'Afrique. On a parlé de deux milliards; on a peut-être obtenu un milliard et encore dans des conditions qui ne sont pas ce que la Banque souhaitait, pour trois ans.

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Encore si l'Afrique pouvait recevoir une plus grande partie du commerce mondial. Mais pas du tout. Tous les produits de base, agricoles et non agricoles, qu'exporte l'Afrique ont vu leurs prix diminuer en termes réels de 20 pour cent en vingt ans, que ce soit le café, le sucre (c'est une catastrophe : 3 cents la livre), les autres produits tropicaux, que ce soit le cuivre, l'uranium pour le Niger, le fer ou la bauxite pour les autres pays.

Les projections de la Banque mondiale et de la CNUCED sont très claires. La demande pour les matières de base agricoles ou non agricoles va rester stationnaire dans les pays occidentaux. Le prix des matières premières est fixé par les pays occidentaux. Les prix baissent.

Il va donc falloir continuer l'opération que j'appelle "charité". On va dire dans nos prochains rapports "il faut cette année 5,6 millions de tonnes de céréales". Il y a là un grand danger, comme je le dis souvent. En effet, aujourd'hui l'Afrique reçoit plus de la moitié de l'aide alimentaire, près de 60 %. Heureusement que nous n'avons pas de catastrophe dans les autres régions. Mais savez-vous que cette année le Pakistan, qui avait atteint l'autosuffisance en céréales et même était exportateur de blé, doit en importer cette année 2 millions de tonnes? Voyez comme la situation est précaire. Ceci fait que si nous avons des situations de baisse de production alimentaire en Asie, il faudra choisir quelles populations sacrifier. Sait-on combien de personnes cette année sont mortes en Afrique, d'enfants et de femmes morts de la faim? On nous parle de millions en Ethiopie. Je ne sais pas. On parle de centaines de milliers au Soudan, au Tchad, au Mozambique. Est-ce qu'on n'aura jamais de statistiques officielles? Quel organisme va afficher ces statistiques? L'Afrique a fourni cette année sa part de morts, la majorité meurt avant 35 ans, la moindre maladie les fait mourir et la longévité est tout-à-fait diminuée. Il y a un drame africain qu'il faut regarder en face avec lucidité. L'avenir africain est en péril. Le sort de 580 millions de personnes mérite que l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies, je l'ai toujours souhaité, un jour puisse s'occuper de ces problèmes et y consacrer une semaine, dix jours pour étudier la maladie de A à Z. Ce n'est pas la main, le bras, c'est tout le corps qui est malade. Aux "médicaments" qu'on donne (j'appelle cela des "vitamines", de "l'aspirine"), il y a accoutumance mais il faut aider vraiment le malade dans son entièreté. Je n'ai pas besoin de parler d'une façon sentimentale mais il n'y a aucun peuple qui a été exploité comme en Afrique. On a exploité ses ressources minières, on a exploité ses ressources agricoles, on a même exploité ses ressources humaines, on a vendu des cargaisons d'hommes dans des bateaux, on les a enchaînés et on les a achetés pendant des années et des années. Nous avons tous des obligations vis-à-vis des pays africains.

Ce n'est pas seulement une question de charité, mais aussi une question d'interdépendance économique. Le Président Mitterrand l'a dit, "aider le tiers monde c'est nous aider à sortir de la crise" car l'Afrique peut devenir un marché considérable pour les gadgets qui sont produits en Europe ou ailleurs. Beaucoup d'entre nous ici ont deux télévisions, deux voitures, deux radios alors que de nombreuses usines sont fermées et qu'il y a du chômage.

A ce sujet, un dernier mot sur les engrais. C'est une chose qui me préoccupe beaucoup. Les usines d'engrais travaillent presqu'à moitié de leur rendement aux Etats-Unis, au Japon et ailleurs parce qu'il y a mévente en raison de la baisse du prix des engrais, alors que l'Afrique souffre de manque d'engrais. Voilà une situation où il y a une capacité de production des engrais qui est sous-exploitée et qui peut être augmentée beaucoup en Europe, aux Etats-Unis et ailleurs. Et en Afrique, tous les jours, les ministres africains, tous ceux qui viennent d'Afrique ou qui nous écrivent nous demandent des engrais.

Je voulais faire ces remarques, croyez bien qu'elles viennent du coeur, ce sont des vérités et nous allons continuer à donner la priorité à l'Afrique et je le dis à nos amis africains, la FAO restera toujours à leurs côtés.

CHAIRMAN: Thank you, Mr Director-General, for your statement. It is appropriate at the conclusion

of a whole day's discussion on this very important topic. I think you have clearly explained the

complexity of the problem. We cannot over-simplify the problems or the solutions. Therefore, your message has been very appropriate.

DEPUTY DIRECTOR-GENERAL: I have been asked to reply to a question from two delegations concerning the $5 million. I thought this was a rhetorical question when it was asked, but apparently it was not. I think there is still a misunderstanding about it rather like the one that occured between me and my wife last night. After the party I said to her that I was just about to kiss a lady when a delegate came up to me and engaged me in the most fascinating conversation about the future of Africa, and she would be absolutely fascinated to hear what he was saying. She asked, "Who was it?" I said "The distinguished delegate from Canada." She said: "No! Who was the lady you nearly kissed?" There was a misunderstanding of what we were talking about.

I think it was explained in paragraphs 9 and 10 of CL 87/13 Sup.1 that this was not a case of cutting planned activities and replacing them with something else, but refocussing activities, mostly already planned, for Africa within the Programmes to have a rehabilitation focus rather than a general medium- or long-term focus. You find this explained in paragraphs 9 and 10 of Appendix A,

CL 87/13. Sup.1.

Then in Appendix A there are indications of various points. Paragraph 13 states that "activities to strengthen national research systems... are being reoriented towards providing assistance to rehabilitation". Paragraph 15 states that "Reductions in global activities on alternative energy use and on potato storage has allowed the inclusion of work on food grain storage". So, instead of potato storage, food grain storage. Paragraph 24, "Sub-regional meetings on Women in Agricultural Production ... will focus on the specific role of women in rehabilitation tasks". They were going to take place on other things, but now they are going to focus on rehabilitation tasks. Paragraph 32, "Ongoing training activities have been reviewed in Niger, Mali, Senegal, and resources redeployed for assistance in project formulation, analysis, monitoring and evaluation".

To go beyond a few examples would mean examining the total programme and having a high stack of books on what might have been done if it had not been focussed on rehabilitation and how it is being focussed on rehabilitation. This is not a case of activities which could be described as low priority and therefore perhaps used by some delegations to say that they should be cut in the next biennum. It is nothing like that, it is the refocussing of existing high priority activities, but with a rehabilitation focus.

If the delegations concerned want to have more information they can come and see us: and we will talk, and I hope that they will be satisfied.

M.J. BLAMEY (Australia): It was just a straightforward simple question. I am grateful for the answer.

CHAIRMAN: I hope Canada is satisfied. I can see that they are. Thank you.

May I once again thank Mr Hjort, the Director-General, Mr West, Professor Islam, and Mr Lignon for introducing this topic and for the information they have given, as well as the 27 Members of the Council who intervened and the 7 Observers who also spoke.

With any problem of this kind there are three components to it. One is the awareness of the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of the problem. The second is the analysis and, finally, the action.

You will agree with me that in all of these areas, that is the generation of awareness, organization of the analytical portion, including the compilation of strategies and, finally, the implementation of the action programmes, FAO under the leadership of the Director-General has done yeoman service during the last year and we are proud of this. FAO has risen to the occasion.

In the past I have often observed that an early warning system has no significance without timely action because the purpose of a warning is to be fore-armed. This is one occasion where early warning and timely action fortunately were synchronised. We hope that hereafter this will become the pattern of further utilization of the knowledge provided by the Global Information and Early Warning System. FAO will not only help by giving warning, it will also help to generate prompt action.

I would like to add only two comments. One of the aspects which worries me is the lack of opportunity for involving the actual producers in the development of action plans. We have meetings of this kind. We have meetings of the World Food Council, meetings of administrators, experts, scientists, but seldom are there meetings of the farmers themselves. One should not underestimate the importance of -even if we do not want to call it expert consultation - consultation among farmers who, after all, are the producers of food.

Just two weeks ago in my institute we had a meeting of rice farmers, both men and women from ten countries, who possess less than two hectares of land each, but who are successful in their own right by producing about 10 tons of rice per hectare. There is always the problem of language and communication. Many of these people are not articulate. However, if we can overcome such problems in a hall like this where we have simultaneous interpretation and an excellent body of people all working together, then if there is a will, there is a way of overcoming the problem of communication among farmers drawn from different countries.

FAO and bilateral donors should provide an opportunity for actual working and successful small farmers from contiguous ecological zones to come together. There is no point in bringing together groups of farmers from diverse ecological zones. If we could do this, it would help us a great deal in giving substance and content to some of FAO's action plans. Several delegates have mentioned the need for technology transfer, education, agricultural extension, and so on. But on so many occasions our diagnoses of what the problems of the farmers vary differently from the farmers' own perceptions. Mention has been made of farmers' organizations. One thing I have seen in many African countries is that there has been a traditionally organized tribal society which we disrupt because they are not individual farmer-oriented. But if we disrupt a group-oriented society and try to introduce an individually-oriented action plan, and then later try to get them back into a group-oriented society, it is like going round and round the mulberry bush.

So there is need for serious attention to be paid in all these rehabilitation plans to the question of the involvement of the small farmers themselves, both in terms of sharing experience and expertise and getting their advise on how these programmes can be best implemented.

The other problem which worries me is location-specific technology development and transfer. We all know that under such diverse conditions there is need for more and more location and situation specific technology. In emergencies people are often asked to supply seeds but do not know what kind of seeds to supply. The seeds supplied may not be appropriate to a particular area. If they get a disease, that brings about a setback for several years and you shatter the confidence of the farmers. It is difficult to transfer varieties unless there has been a lot of pretesting, and this is where one wonders what pattern of technology development and transfer one should foster. We all know that the present method of providing expatriate experts is very expensive, but in fact it is a drop in the ocean. In fact, the gap between national salaries in developing countries and international salaries is widening, with the result that often national experts want to become expatriate experts. How will we overcome this problem?

The representative of the UNDP talked about the United Nations Volunteer Programme. There have been several suggestions of this kind, such as mobilizing young professionals, the Peace Corps kind of idea. But one must give serious thought to a low-cost method of making available high-level expertise. A low-cost method should not mean that we send out persons with inadequate experience or who are unemployable elsewhere and who can just be dumped there. We want high-level expertise with the combination of human motivation. We should give some thought to this question because the dimensions of the technology generation and transfer problem are large.

From the little I know of some African countries the problem is so great that it requires a lot of study, knowledge and work. I believe that in any such large-scale volunteer programme designed for the ecological rehabilitation of Africa a large percentage must be local people. There must be a mixture of locals and people from outside the country, all working together in clusters.

These are tasks for the long term. The immediate task is the alleviation of human suffering and human distress, and providing food for the people who need it most. I join with other members of Council and the FAO Secretariat in thanking the donors for their liberal and generous contributions. There have been difficulties in getting food where it is most needed, but the milk of human kindness has been evident in a large measure. We are grateful to you, Mr Director-General, for arousing that spirit.

J. TCHICAYA (Congo): Nous avons suivi avec beaucoup d'attention vos paroles, à la fin de ce débat fort intéressant, mais au terme dudit débat nous aurions souhaité que vous puissiez nous dire quel est le sort que vous avez réservé à l'idée du projet de résolution que nous avons lancé au cours du débat, idée qui a reçu un large appui de ce Conseil. Je crois que les membres de ce Conseil aimeraient être fixés d'abord par vous-même avant de pouvoir poursuivre.

CHAIRMAN: I did specifically not refer to it, because the Draft Resolution is not in our hands; but you and several others - the distinguished delegates of Colombia and Cuba - you all mentioned that it is under preparation and that it should be referred to the Drafting Committee. What I would like to suggest is that as soon as your draft is ready, if you would kindly submit it to me, we will get it into the hands of all members of the Council. Simultaneously it could be examined by the Drafting Committee. I would however like to see that all members of the Council have access to the document at the same time as the Drafting Committee. Thank you very much for your suggestion. I personally feel that the problem is of such great importance that I am happy that these Ambassadors have taken the lead in drafting a resolution.

The meeting rose at 18.30 hours
La séance est levée à 18h30
Se levanta la sesión a las 18.30 horas

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