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III. ACTIVITIES OF FAO AND WFP (continued)
III. ACTIVITES DE LA FAO ET DU PAM (suite)
III. ACTIVIDADES DE LA FAO Y DEL PMA (continuación)

10. Report of the Seventeenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries (Rome, 18-22 May 1987) (continued)
10. Rapport de la dix-septième session du Comité des pêches (Rome, 18-22 mai 1987) (suite)
10. Informe del 17 período de sesiones del Comité de Pesca (Roma, 18-22 de mayo de 1987) (continuación)

Hidayat GANDA ATMAJA (Indonesia) Indonesia, a country which has a substantially large potential of fishery resources, is extremely happy with the document on the Report of the Seventeenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries under consideration. We are happy not only because of the excellent quality of the document, but more importantly the content of the report is in line with the policy of the Government of Indonesia in its fisheries development.

In particular, my delegation would like to express its support for the report of the First Session of the Sub-Committee on Fish Trade and its future work, especially in the promotion of new value-added products: a cooperative in the areas of quality control, standards and training; and also for the study on the effect of tariff and non-tariff barriers. We welcome the Programme of Work of FAO in the field of fisheries for the next biennium of 1988/89. My delegation particularly supports the sub-programmes on the strengthening activities related to small-scale fisheries and training, including women and youth.

We also support the sub-programme with regard to training on the planning of fisheries development, management and investment, and assistance to the member countries in their efforts to design and implement effective systems for monitoring, control and surveillance of fishing efforts in their fishing zones, especially of the economy exclusive zones.

Indonesia also supports the sub-programme on the development of inland fisheries and aquaculture.

In conclusion, my delegation endorses and supports the report of the Seventeenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries.

Tomofumi KUME (Japan) I would like to make a very brief comment on this urgent, item. My government fully supports the action programmes which were adopted at the World Fisherie-s Conference. We have, therefore, already contributed to the trust fund established for the implementation of the FAO Programmes of Action at an annual total amount of US$700 thousand, of which 5400 thousand was a regional South Pacific aquaculture development project and $300 thousand was an Indian Ocean fisheries resource analysis and development project. We would like to continue such a contribution to the action programmes in future.

Because of the importance of fisheries, we support the proposed strengthening of the Fisheries Department activities and the Regular Programme. We endorse and support the reports of the Seventeenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries.

M. Afzal Qadir (Pakistan) We are equally pleased to see you, Mr Chairman, a good friend chairing this session.

I would like to convey the appreciation of my delegation to Mr Lindquist for the able manner in which he has introduced the document under discussion. We are very pleased with the contents of the document because it provides'an insight into the nature of the focus FAO is beginning to give to fisheries.

FAO's involvement in the fisheries sector would mean increased availability of rich sources of protein by the developing countries, mired as they are in acute problems of malnutrition. We are also beginning to give greater attention to the development and management of fishery resources, considering them to be an important element in our diet; and considering them to be an alternative source of protein needed by our people as we begin our struggle to eliminate residual malnutrition from our country. We have two sources of fisheries: one is the off-shore and the other is the inland propagation


Our coastal area is rather small and that means that the exclusive zone under our control is also small. In the past,our catch used to be highly erratic This was characterized by overcatching in one season, creating the attendant problem of post-harvest losses in enormous quantities and less than optimal catch in the following season with the attendant problem of resulting unemployment. We are regulating our catches in such a way that neither the problem of post-harvested losses nor the seasonal unemployment should occur.

We have also set up a marine security force in order to police the exclusive economic zone we have so as to prevent poachers and illegal trawlers from coming into our area. Because the size of the catch we get from our offshore fishing operations is less than our consumption dictates, we are devoting greater attention to inland fisheries. We have mad much progress in this particular area. We have been helped by many countries, including China, in developing our inland fisheries and we hope to benefit in the future from the action programme adopted by FAO. We are happy to note the budgetary allocations made for this sector and we hope we will be able to benefit from this allocation.

In conclusion, I would like to say that we are entirely supportive of the document, as well as the conclusions and the recommendations contained therein.

Dodou Jome (Gambia) The Gambian delegation would like to take this opportunity to thank the FAO

and members of the Committee on Fisheries for the report it has prepared for this Council which is now before us.

The Gambian delegation has no problems with the report of the Seventeenth Session of the Committee on Fisheries. On the contrary we are pleased to note the increase, although modest, in the allocation for fisheries in the Programme of Work and Budget for 1988/89.

We are also impressed by the declared emphasis on the need to give more attention to aquaculture, the reduction of post-harvest losses and the management of small--scale fisheries. In this regard, my delegation would like to add another area in fisheries that it believes should be given some emphasis. FAO should look into how best it can give assistance to weak developing countries with coastlines and territorial waters they have difficulty in protecting. Poachers wreak a great deal of havoc in fishing resources in some unguarded territorial waters because surveillance facilities are lacking in such areas.

Once more we thank the FAO Secretariat for assistance in this sector and its plans for the immediate future. We also thank the donor countries such as Norway and the EEC for the assistance they have been giving us, which we have cause to believe will continue.

Amadou Moustapha KAMARA (Sénégal) La délégation sénégalaise se réjouit que vous présidiez la présente séance et adresse ses félicitations au Sous-Directeur général adjoint chargé de la pêche pour la qualité du rapport soumis à notre examen ainsi que la pertinence avec laquelle il nous en a fait le résumé.

La 17ème session du Comité des pêches a fait à mon pays l'honneur de l'élire parmi les huit présidents de ses travaux. Je voudraisau nom de mon pays, en renouvelant mes remerciements aux 84 autres membres de ce comité, appuyer les recommandations contenues dans le document en insistant sur les points suivants:

- la nécessité de soutenir davantage le programme 5 approuvé par la Conférence mondiale des peches et relatif à la promotion du rôle de la pêche dans la lutte contre la sous-alimentation;

- l'urgence pour les organes régionaux de pêches de la FAO de s'atteler dès à présent à l'élaboration de programmes d'action devant prolonger les programmes actuels dont la mise en oeuvre est prévue pour se terminer en 1989;

- l'opporunite pour la FAO de perssverer dans le soutien du Comite des peches continentales pour l'Afrique, ce qul est essentiel pour ameiiorer ia situacion nutritionnelie des pays enc!aves du Sanel de l'Afrique de l’Est et de l’Afrique du Centre.


Permettez-moi de souligner l'importance que revêt pour le Sénégal la surveillance des opérations de peches sur l'intégralité de la zone territoriale maritime qui lui revient, de façon à favoriser l'exploitation rationnelle de nos ressources halieutiques au profit de notre pays.

Ma délégation ne sous-estime pas les efforts importants consentis pour la pêche. L'objectif indicatif d'investissement de 15 millions de dollars par an projeté pour la pêche a déjà été atteint pour l’année 1986.

Ma délégation, tout en soulignant la priorité accordée par l'Organisation aux activités de Pêche, tel que cela apparaît dans le sommaire de Programme de travail et budget que nous avons déjà examiné, lance un appel aux pays donateurs pour que les espoirs soulevés dans nos pays par la Journée mondiale de l'alimentation aient des chances d'être réalisés.

H. CARANDANG (Philippines) The Philippine delegation attaches great importance to the item under discussion since fish constitutes the major source of protein for the greater portion of our population. The Committee on Fisheries has pointed out the likelihood of a gap between supply and demand by the year 2000. The Philippine delegation agrees with the thrust recommended by the Committee on Fisheries to address this problem. With regard to fisheries management, the Philippine Government is very much aware of the danger of over fishing in the municipal fishing area. Likewise, the Philippine Government is aware of increased possibilities of increased production in the EE2 and the need for improved surveillance in this area. The Philippine delegation has already voiced its policy thrust with regard to conservation and management of fishery resources during COFI. The only point I should like to stress is the need to strengthen the action programmes of FAO related to these objectives so that FAO would be in a better position to respond to Governments' requests for planning and policy advice, as well as technical assistance. The importance of reducing post-harvest loss cannot be overemphasized. The question is related not only to the volume that can be made available for consumption, but also to the profitability of the fishermen since returns are determined both by the volume of the product as well as the quality or degree of freshness with which the product reaches the markets, both domestic and international. Of course, the improvement of quality can be done by the improvement of the distribution system and refrigeration. FAO's relations to these programmes could also be bolstered.

In Asia, aquaculture, as everybody knows, has achieved great strides, including in the Philippines, and there is promise that further progress can be achieved to provide fisheries production for the ever increasing populations of Asia. Our Government is taking steps to prevent the destruction of mangrove areas for conversion into fishponds.-The problem areas identified in aquaculture in Asia, for example, are high technology for the production of rice, the control of fish diseases, especially when you have a high intensity of production and also the production of feeds that would allow margins for the aquaculture producers.

The Philippine delegation is of the view that technical cooperation among developing countries can play a great role in addressing these three problems identified in aquaculture. FAO has done a lot to promote TCDC in Asia, and we believe that it can do much more in the future. The Philippine delegation commends the work being done by the regional office and the regional bodies in Asia in TCDC, particularly NACA and the other fisheries bodies. We believe that the action of FAO to promote TCDC in these areas should be commended and should be further strengthened.

Finally, the Philippine delegation can support the proposals for the Programme of Work of the Department of Fisheries.

Sra. G. SOTO CARRERO (Cuba) Quisiera decirle que mi delegación se siente muy complacida en verlo a usted, Señor Presidente, nuestro vecino aquí en el Consejo, presidiendo esta sesión. Agradecemos la presentación tan completa de este tema hecha por el Señor Lindquist.

La delegación de Cuba participo muy activamente en el 17 o Periodo de Sesiones del Comité de Pesca contribuyendo a la aprobación del documento que hoy analizamos. Como es conocido, la pesca es una actividad prioritaria en nuestro país y en los últimos años ha contribuido grandemente a elevar el nivel proteico en la alimentación de nuestra población, para lo cual hemos contado con la decisiva ayuda de la \FAO.


En primer término la delegación de Cuba quiere expresar su apoyo a las estrategias y prioridades que han sido elegidas en el sector pesquero para ser incluidas en la preparación del resumen del Programa de Labores y Presupuesto para 1988-89.

En cuanto al Informe que hoy analizamos consideramos que, efectivamente, como se plantea en los párrafos 14 al 16, deben hacerse mayores esfuerzos en la ordenación pesquera, a lo que se refirieron más ampliamente los distinguidos delegados de Canadá y Nicaragua.

Consideramos que deben hacerse mayores esfuerzos en el mejor aprovechamiento del pescado, incluidas las pérdidas posteriores a la captura.

Todo esto, Señor Presidente, es muy importante para nuestros países. Mi delegación entiende que las medidas tomadas por algunos países para mejorar el marco jurídico administrativo e institucional de la ordenación y desarrollo.pesquero, deben ser ampliadas y adaptadas por otros países, teniendo en cuenta las recomendaciones de la Estrategia aprobadas en la Conferencia Mundial de Pesca.

En cuanto a la ejecución de los programas de acción, mi delegación quiere expresar su reconocimiento por el apoyo financiero que ha recibido la FAO y algunos países e instituciones financieras donantes.

Llamamos vuestra atención, sin embargo, sobre el Programa de Acción V, referido a la promoción de la función de las pesquerías para mitigar la subnutrición. Consideramos que al ser éste uno de los programas que va dirigido directamente a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria, debe dársele un mayor apoyo presupuestario.

También quisiera recalcar, la utilidad que consideramos tiene el Subcomité sobre Comercio Pesquero, entendiendo que debe mantenerse sumamente ligado a las labores del Comité del Códex sobre pescado y productos pesqueros y celebrar sus reuniones antes de la reunión del COFI.

Finalmente, la delegación de Cuba apoya el Informe aprobado por el 170 Periodo de Sesiones del Comité de Pesca, y exhorta a este Consejo a que así se pronuncie.

S.M. GUANTAI (Observer for Kenya) We are pleased to see you on the podium to steer this important session. We also welcome and appreciate the work of Dr Lindquist and Mr Dada on their team. My delegation was fully represented and active during the Committee on Fisheries. We will therefore not take much of the Council's time. My intention, in fact, is to endorse in full the report and to reiterate our stand on the training means both for the fishermen and those involved with the fishery industry.

The need to improve the quality of handling and processing through which health standards as well as their 11 value added" quality as food cannot but be re-emphasized. We hope this will be prioritized for the developing countries. We understand the Council underscores the importance and the need for increased developmental efforts in regard to aquaculture. We see this as very crucial for both the landlocked countries and for such developing countries as my own, Kenya. We would like to underline the importance of the regional fisheries bodies, and we do recognize their role and contribution to our countries. We strongly believe that TCDC is vital and crucial in our region, more so because many of the communities in our region are beginning to appreciate fishing and fisheries products. The cultivation of this new awareness needs to be developed to the fullest. We also see economic cooperation for the developing countries as vital, not only in improving the trade links, but also in expanding our regional food self-sufficiency and economic stability.

Allow me to make a brief comment in regard to the comments made by the honorable and distinguished Minister for Tanzania this morning in connection with the tilapia in our inland lakes. As we reported during the 17th Committee on Fisheries meeting, we believe better biotech information on fisheries in our lakes is required. There is obviously an urgent need for increased studies, not only to improve our fisheries' production, but to highlight che. ecosystem of the fish in our fishing grounds. The indication in our inland lakes was that tilapia was being devoured by the Nile perch.


But recent studies show that there is more to that hypothesis and that catches of the Nile perch have come up very well. We therefore agree and support the Minister for Tanzania for increased studies in our inland lakes much more so to make our knowledge better as to exactly what is taking ρ lace.

H. LETEKA (Observer for Lesotho) We wish to congratulate Mr Lindquist for his highlighting and lucid introduction to document CL 91/7.

My delegation feels that those colleagues from landlocked countries like mine, Zimbabwe and Zambia, have already encapsulated what we had intended to say. My delegation also observes that the two said countries at least have an advantage of inland fishing which in my country is non-existent. However, Mr Chairman, we still feel it is our duty to emphasize the role of fish in alleviating hunger and malnutrition facing developing countries like mine.

My delegation marked the increasing interest shown by Member States in the last COFI in fisheries, both as a dietary supplement and as a source of income. We mark the importance of fish as food and would therefore wish to stress the need for conservation and rational utilization of fishery resources to the advantage of all. Of course for my delegation and for my country this can only be achieved through acquaculture, and Member States and FAO have recognized its potential towards increased food supplies as an alternative source of protein in order to alleviate malnutrition.

Notwithstanding the cost factor in inputs for acquaculture, my delegation wishes to make a strong plea to donor countries and other countries with necessary technologies, including international organizations, for their contribution in terms of capital equipment and technology for the establishment and effective development of agriculture in Lesotho. This could go a long way if integrated in the overall rural development strategies for food self-sufficiency. FAO's assistance in the mobilization of resources in this regard for training purposes would be highly appreciated.

In conclusion, my delegation has studied the report of the 17th Session of COFI with its proposals and conclusions made thereon, and these no doubt are acceptable and suitable to us.

CHAIRMAN I wish to inform the Council that the Secretariat has received a written statement from the Observer from Burkina Faso which will be included in the verbatim records, and now I have the final request who is the Observer from OECD.

A. PITROIPA (Observateur du Burkina Faso) Ma delegation voudrait appuyer le rapport de la 17ème Session du Comité des pêches. Lors de la 17ème Session du Comité des pêches, ma délégation avait insisté sur la nécessité d'aider les pays sans littoral, notamment en Afrique, dont le Burkina Faso, à aménager leurs eaux intérieures et à dével-opper la pisciculture et l'aquaculture en les intégrant au développement rural. Nous renouvelons notre soutien à l'organisation d'une conférence internationale sur l'aquaculture l/.

G. VASTA (Observateur de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques) Je vous remercie. Monsieur le Président, pour avoir bien voulu me donner la parole. Un sujet aussi important mérite sans doute quelques considérations, car je m'occupe de ce problème depuis longtemps.

Je félicite le Secrétariat pour cet excellent rapport et le Comité des Pêches pour la réussite complète de sa session.

Je n'ai jamais manqué de recommander une alimentation à base de poisson, puisque cet aliment est riche en protéines, et à l'inverse de la viande bovine, ne produit pas de purines. En outre, les graisses contenues dans le poisson servent à nettoyer le système vasculaire, à neutraliser une partie du cholestérol et à diminuer la quantité de triglycérides, c'est-à-dire les acides gras saturés dans l'organisme.

1/ Texte recu avec demande d’insertion au procès-verbal.


Pour ce motif de caractère médical, et aussi parce que le poisson est généralement moins cher que la viande bovine, il faut intensifier la propagande en faveur d'une plus grande consommation de ces produits qui pourraient résoudre une bonne partie des problèmes posés par la carence en protéines.. Une meilleure connaissance de ce sujet pourrait aider bon nombre de personnes affligées par toute une série de maladies.provoquées par une alimentation erronée.

Je me suis permis, M. le Président, de souligner cet important aspect de la question, parce que je pense que chacun de nous devrait être en cette matière un vrai missionnaire, et devrait informer les personnes de son entourage qui n'ont pas la possibilité d'avoir des notions scientifiques sur la question.

A. H. LINDQUIST (Assistant Director-General, a.i., Fisheries Department) Thank you Mr Chairman. First of all I would like to express my appreciation for the unanimous adoption of the report of COFI. We are very glad about that.

We also note with satisfaction that the Programme of Work and Budget 1988-89 has been fully endorsed. Some delegations even wish to put still stronger emphasis on the fisheries in this context.

The few additional comments I would like to make concern the FAO Regional Fishery Bodies and the Programmes of Action adopted by the World Fisheries Conference.

Many delegations stressed the important role of the Regional Fishery Bodies in the transfer of knowledge and technology, and in increasing cooperation between developing countries. We fully agree with that.

The suggestion by the Committee on Fisheries that the Regional Fishery Bodies should review their own structure was endorsed, and this would be done actually for the first time now in the Western Central Atlantic Fishery Committee, the so called WECAFC which was mentioned by the delegate of Mexico to take place at the end of July. During that occasion and in the following meetings of Regional Fishery Bodies there would also be ample opportunity to discuss the future programmes of action and the revision of present ones as adopted by the World Fisheries Conference.

As an example of new and important matters to be discussed at Regional Fishery Bodies, I would like to mention the introduction of alien species into inland water bodies which have been mentioned several times here. It is interesting to note that one of the FAO Regional Fishery Bodies, namely that for Europe, the EIFAC,has already adopted a code of conduct for the introduction of species, and this code is now tried out within the framework of other Regional Fishery Bodies, namely the African Inland Body-CECAF-in the Lake Victoria, and in the Pacific Fishery Council. The meaning is to avoid the upsetting of the biological balance, and it is an example of how the experiences from one fishery body could be used in other parts of the world.

The unequal and insufficient funding-at least partly-for the five programmes of action has been mentioned by many delegations, and as you are aware this reflects not FAO's preferences but the preferences of donors. The insufficient support in the fight against malnutrition can only be compensated to a very minute extent by certain activities within the Regular Programme.

Many delegations mentioned acquaculture and rural development, and as there are several field projects covering these areas I will, with your permission Mr Chairman, ask Mr Kojima to comment on this, and with your permission Mr Chairman, I will also ask Mr Dada to comment on a matter mentioned about management and surveillance of the resources, especially in Africa.

Finally I would say that regarding the marking of fishing vessels, I wish to assure you that we will again make sure that all members are receiving another copy of the background material which has been discussed during the Committee on Fisheries, so that there will be ample time for the different governments to review this matter before the next meeting. Now Mr Chairman I will ask Mr Kojima and Mr Dada to continue.


Ν. KOJIMA (Director, Fisheries Operations Service) Thank you Mr Chairman. Many delegations referred to the importance of acquaculture and integrated rural development in the context of fisheries, and I just want to bring the Council up-to-date on the action programmes in those fields. You remember in the report it says that we are negotiating now with the UNDP for the African regional programmes, and one of the important programmes we are presenting to them--is a comprehensive acquaculture development and training programme for Africa, and we hope that we can commence this activity shortly with preparatory assistance.

With regard to the integration of small-scale acquaculture into rural development, which is one of the most important developments and requirements in the area not only Africa but some other parts of the world, thanks to support from Sweden we have commenced a pilot project in Zambia. Small-scale fisheries for East Africa and the islands off East Africa, UNDP has agreed in principle to prepare a rather comprehensive programme for this which has to be funded from several donors, and we hope that we can come up with a good package which could be supported by many donors.

We have also had posted from Regular Programme a start in Bujumbura, in that part of the world, to help the Government in identifying and formulating a number of projects in the small-scale fishery and agriculture sector.

With regard to West Africa, we have been operating and implementing, an integrated small-scale fishery development project based in Benin, and after a joint deliberation mission it was agreed that this project should be extended and expanded, and I hope this will continue for several years to come, thanks to support from Denmark and Norway.

Moving into Asia we have the Bay of Bengal programme which was referred to already by a number of delegations, which has entered into a new phase from this year supported by Sweden and Denmark, and this will mainly concern trade on coastal acquaculture. With the strong support of UNDP we have also been implementing this NACAD, National Network of Acquaculture Development for Asia, and this project is also expanded by scope search support from UNDP to integrate the fish disease component and also sea farming.

We hope this body will move gradually into a self-sustaining intergovernmental body. The Japanese delegation mentioned the support they gave to the South Pacific agricultural support programme. We are starting a new programme for small-scale fisheries with the support of the UNDP.

With reference to the Latin American area, with general support from the Italian Government we have been implementing an acquaculture regional programme for research and training. After a review of this activity, its scope is to be reoriented to meet changing requirements.

That is a summary of some of the highlights of our activities.

B. F. DADA (Director, Fishery Policy and Planning Division) Several delegations in the course of their interventions referred to the question of monetary control and surveillance of fisheries

within the Exclusive Economic Zone. This is one of the important aspects of Fisheries Department work in the area of fishery management. We provided advisory services to many countries by means of the consultancy services. In the past this activity has been carried out under an FAO programme of assistance to developing countries in the management of fisheries. This programme has now been consolidated within Action Programme 1, Planning, Management and Development, which will be approved by the next Conference.

In the case of West Africa, about which some delegations requested more information, it may be recalled that in the past FAO, through a regional project based in Dakar, the CECAF project, organized a regional seminar on systems of monetary control. This took place in 1981, and several countries participated. Subsequently, there was a workshop on this subject, also in Dakar, at which demonstrations were carried out on the various forms of executing control and surveillance in the EEZ, including air surveillance. Some countries requested that the consultancy advise them on what sort of system they could adopt in planning their programme for managing fishery operations within their Exclusive Economic Zone.

Of course, we have carried out a number of studies, not least a recent one delivered just some two months ago to the sub-regional commission. As part of our programme for the next biennium,


FAO will co-operate in a fisheries forum in which not only West African countries but others from all over the world will participate. They will examine the various policy options available for fishery management.

We cannot participate actively in the arrest of vessels, but will continue to give advice and training as required in assisting the various countries to develop a type of system suitable for them in managing resources within the EEZ and through an appropriate monetary system.

CHAIRMAN There are no other speakers, so I shall conclude this interesting debate on agenda item 10 by thanking all delegates and observers for their stimulating interventions. Altogether we have had 29 in a very short time, and I think you have all cooperated with the Chair in making them brief.

On behalf of the Council, I thank the Secretariat for the additional explanations given to us by Mr Lindquist, Mr Kojima and Mr Dada.

Since we are short of time, I will not attempt to sum up the debate in detail. I shall leave. this to the Drafting Committee. However, I shall state only that the Council has unanimously endorsed document CL 91/7 and given broad support to the work carried out by FAO in the fisheries sector. This concludes our debate on item 10.

11. Forestry Matters: Report on Financing Requirements for Action to Protect and Conserve the World's Forests
11. Questions forestières: Rapport sur les ressources financiers nécessaires pour les mesures à prendre afin de protéger et de conserver les forêts dans le monde
11· Cuestiones forestales: Informe sobre las necesidades de financiación para intervenir en la protección y conservación de los bosques del mundo

M. A. FLORES RODAS (Subdirector General, Departamento de Montes) Sr Presidente, el octavo período de sesiones del Comité de Montes recomendó en abril de 1986 que el Director General presentara un informe al Consejo sobre las necesidades de financiación para una acción encaminada a proteger y conservar los bosques del mundo, con particular referencia al Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos. Con el fin de cumplir con tal recomendación, se preparó el análisis cuyos resultados se describen en el documento CL 91/16.

A continuación, quisiera destacar algunos de los aspectos más revelantes de tal análisis. En esta tarea mantendré una perspectiva más bien enfocada hacia la acción internacional. Sin embargo, debo decir que las conclusiones del estudio se aplican con igual validez a las acciones de los órganos nacionales.

Es necesario hacer hincapié en que la protección, la conservación y el uso sabio de los recursos forestales son inseparables, principalmente para que su manejo sea apropiado y, por lo tanto, de que su valorización sea válida como elemento importante para el desarrollo económico sostenido.

En primer lugar, es necesario poner en relieve que las necesidades de financiación para la protección y conservación de los bosques en el mundo en desarrollo, incluyendo la asistencia técnica necesaria, son de una magnitud considerable. Ellas alcanzan niveles que, de acuerdo con diversos supuestos que se adopten, varían entre los 13 000 y los 17 000 millones de dólares por año. En los países desarrollados tales requerimientos de inversión son aun mayores. Sin disminuir la importancia de las acciones forestales necesarias en el mundo industrializado, parece evidente que los problemas de financiación serán en el futuro mucho más agudos en el Tercer Mundo, el que debe enfrentar los conocidos problemas derivados del crecimiento demográfico, de seguridad alimentaria y la escasez de recursos económicos.

Segundo. También es necesario enfatizar que, excluyendo las actividades industriales, una proporción importante de las necesidades de financiación se refieren a actividades que no son obviamente comerciales y que, por lo tanto, probablemente no atraerán espontáneamente a los capitales privados.


Aquí me refiero a actividades tales como las que son necesarias para controlar la desertificación y la degradación ambiental, abastecer las necesidades apremiantes de energía para las poblaciones más pobres, asegurar el manejo adecuado de las cuencas hidrográficas para la producción agrícola sostenida o para la generación de hidroenergía y para fomentar la conservación de los ecosistemas forestales y de los recursos genéticos in situ.

Ninguno puede negar que estas actividades son indispensables para el desarrollo sostenido y el bienestar de los pueblos, pero, por el hecho de no generar utilidades comerciales inmediatamente cuantificables, es posible que tendrán que ser financiadas principalmente por fondos públicos.

Tercero. En los países en desarrollo existen las limitaciones a la movilización acelerada de fondos que no son proporcionadas con sus necesidades. Por este motivo, el estudio no se limitó a la mera estimación de las necesidades de financiación. Así, se concentró más bien en un análisis delas formas en que se pueden expandir los volúmenes de fondos disponibles y de los mecanismos para movilizar fondos hacia el sector forestal. Esto permitió analizar las posibilidades concretas que existen para aumentar el volumen total financiero dedicado a programas y proyectos forestales y para mejorar la eficiencia en su uso.

El estudio del aumento del flujo de fondos hacia el sector forestal indica que hay por lo menos dos aspectos que son sumamente importantes. Por una parte, los requerimientos de inversión en el desarrollo industrial serían satisfechos en gran medida por el sector empresarial. Aun así, los gobiernos deberán tomar las medidas de política necesarias para asegurar un ambiente económico apropiado con incentivos financieros adecuados y para eliminar ciertas incongruencias e ineficiencias que afectan a la política económica y la forestal en muchos países.

El análisis demuestra que existe una buena posibilidad de acrecentar el volumen de la inversión a nivel de las comunidades campesinas. La experiencia adquirida en los últimos años en materia de financiación forestal indica que, con la participación organizada y efectiva de la población rural pueden realizarse importantes inversiones en actividades forestales a costo bajo en cuanto al gasto público se refiere.

No se trata tanto de una persona o una familia de campesinos invierta una gran cantidad de tierra, tiempo y esfuerzos, sino que, más bien, es posible conseguir un impacto importante a través de la participación de un gran número de personas en forma organizada. Por ejemplo, frecuentemente el suministro de plántulas, la prestación de un asesoramiento técnico elemental y la realización de demostraciones con buenos resultados son los principales ingredientes necesarios para generar una respuesta positiva y significativa. Esto requiere un conocimiento profundo de las condiciones locales, de sus valores y prioridades y de los otros problemas que enfrenta la población rural.

La capacidad institucional para realizar tales esfuerzos es probablemente la mayor limitación en la mayoría Ge los países; por tanto, se requiere una inversión inicial importante en esta materia, particularmente en lo que se refiere a la formación del personal a distintos niveles y a la creación de políticas que estimulen, sobre todo en los períodos iniciales, la organización rural y su participación efectiva en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

En efecto, se ha detectado que en muchos casos los países no cuentan con la capacidad de absorción de recursos financieros. En estos casos, por desgracia numerosos, es muy urgente la necesidad de mayores inversiones en asistencia técnica a fin de ayudar a los países a mejorar y a ampliar los conocimientos necesarios para identificar, diseñar, evaluar, y por último ejecutar eficientemente los proyectos de inversión y de prestarlesel apoyo institucional necesario.

Fueron identificadas varias medidas para aumentar la eficiencia de los mecanismos de financiamiento; entre ellas se destaca una mayor cooperación y coordinación de la asistencia al sector forestal; una mejor integración con los organismos no gubernamentales, los que han demostrado ser muy eficaces en sus acciones forestales en varios países tales como Haití, Botswana, Senegal, India y Costa Rica, por mencionar sólo algunos de ellos; y la utilización de metodologías innovativas en los procesos de formulación de las necesidades sociales del país al momento y en el futuro cercano.

Entre estos últimos se encuentra el enfoque de programas integrados de una magnitud apreciable en vez de proyectos individuales de un tamaño más restringido y la incorporación de nuevos métodos de cofinanciamiento, incluyendo los del Estado, organismos financieros multi y bilaterales y el sector privado.


Señor Presidente, en resumen los requerimientos de financiación para la protección y conservación de los bosques son considerables y hay oportunidades para aumentar la movilización de fondos, así como la eficiencia en sus usos.

Se plantean por lo menos tres cuestiones importantes que el Consejo podría analizar: la primera se refiere a la efectividad de los mecanismos de inversión; la segunda a la capacidad de absorción de los países en desarrollo, necesaria para diseñar y administrar efectivamente los programas de inversión que se requieran, siempre y cuando el sector forestal represente una solución, repito,a los problemas sociales del momento y del futuro cercano. La tercera se refiere a los medios para aumentar el nivel de los recursos financieros internacionales.

Con respecto a la efectividad de los mecanismos y los criterios de asistencia, los aspectos que requieren consideración son la cooperación y la coordinación de los programas de asistencia de los diversos organismos multi y bilaterales, la financiación de programas frente a la financiación de proyectos, los criterios de cofinanciación y la participación de las organizaciones no gubernamentales en el desarrollo y la conservación de los bosques.

En cuanto al aumento de la capacidad de absorción debe examinarse el equilibrio existente entre la asistencia técnica y las inversiones, y en particular la necesidad de intensificar las actividades de asistencia técnica para la capacitación, investigación y el mejoramiento del diseño y la ejecución de proyectos de inversión.

En relación con la movilización de más recursos financieros se ha sugerido que la Comunidad Internacional podría considerar la posibilidad de establecer un nuevo mecanismo para la canalización multilateral de fondos hacia el sector forestal, por ejemplo, un fondo forestal mundial.

Si se considera que la magnitud de la transferencia de recursos necesarios para generar impacto apreciable y duradero podría requerir un nuevo mecanismo de financiación, entonces habría que realizar un estudio de viabilidad sobre su naturaleza y estructura; pero dicho estudio sólo se justificaría si hubiera indicios de que los principales países donantes, o potenciales, están dispuestos a examinar la viabilidad de su creación y ulteriormente a aportar contribuciones al mismo.

Señor Presidente, con esto concluyo mi presentación del punto y, por supuesto, estoy dispuesto, con mis colegas aquí presentes, a contestar cualquier pregunta o aclarar cualquier duda al respecto.

A.K.M.Fazley RABBI (Bangladesh). We congratulate the Secretariat tor the preparation and presentation of the excellent paper on World Forestry Development.

Bangladesh has been experiencing a serious and acute ecological imbalance. Forests cover less than 10 percent of our land, although the requirement is of the order of 20 percent. Even the present forestry reserves are under a tremendous pressure from the increasing population who require ever increasing quantities of fuelwood and timber.

In order to arrest and reverse the process of deforestation we need to undertake massive investment, but the level of investment required is beyond our national resources.

At the present time we have three projects in the forestry sector under implementation. The sum of $42 million is involved in these projects. The IDA and the Asian Development Bank are financing them.

We have formulated two more projects involving $64 million for implementation during the current Five Year Plan ending in 1990.

We have to continue with conservation and development of our forests and intensify our efforts in this regard during the decade of the nineties. The social forestry policy has to continue. Protection and conservation of the coastal mangrove forest is to be intensified. Additionally, we have to undertake the rehabilitation of the degenerated forest land. The process of desertification of once fertile land is to be arrested and improved. All of this requires investment. Our investment during the nineties has been estimated at $400 million.


In the light of our national scenario as explained above we consider the Secretariat paper on the subject extremely timely. It focusses attention on a number of issues bearing on the conservation and development of forestry in the world. We endorse the report in general. We particularly welcome the findings of the paper as stated in paragraphs 15, 16 and 17 regarding the growing interest of multilateral donors in the development of forestry.

We urge the donor community not only to continue their interests but also to intensify it in the future.

Considering the urgency of the attention needed in this sector, we hold that the concept of a world forestry development fund is sound and reasonable. We suggest that a feasibility study on such a fund should be undertaken immediately. Such a study need not wait for a commitment from prospective donors. If the feasibility is established, donors may be called upon to accept the concept and to come forward and contribute to it.

G.H. MUSGROVE (Canada) I should like to thank Mr Flores Rodas for his very clear introduction.

My authorities found document CL 91/16 to be very well written, informative and balanced presentation. We fully support the strategies under the Tropical Forest Action Plan, and in that connection we have recently had the honour to coordinate a donor mission to Peru. As well, we have participated in missions to the Sudan, Ghana, Kenya and to Cameroon.

In recent years Canada has become the second largest donor in the forestry sector with commitments this year estimated at about $70 million Canadian.

Our programmes seek to address a variety of goals, most of which are in line with the strategies outlined in this document or stressed in the Committee on Forestry. These include the promotion of sound resource management, strengthening of the human resources development area, a preservation of the natural resource base for agriculture and in the food security context, as well as stabilizing the energy, the supply capabilities, of forestry in the form of fuelwood.

We particularly appreciate the assistance of the Secretariat in helping to mount the Tropical Forest Action Plan and to mount the sector missions connected with it. We are particularly impressed by the role the FAO has played in servicing and fostering recent donor meetings. Indeed, the spirit that has marked these arrangements might well be a model for other FAO endeavours in its relations with the donor community at enhancing the coordination amongst the many assistance agencies involved.

It is in these circumstances that we feel that confidence in such leadership really helps to mobilize the donor community to increase the availability to financial resources for such programmes, and indeed ensures that such resources are most accurately targetted to the desired effect.

In closing I would simply register two points of a mildly critical nature, and that is that we are not sure that the major field programme initiatives in forestry, or indeed in other sectors, can be mounted without taking a look at the organizational structure of the FAO itself. We are of the view that the administration of field programmes would benefit from consolidating considerably more of the operational and support activities. Within such a structure a forestry development unit, for example, could serve to provide support and continuity to the Tropical Forestry Action Plan while at the same time enjoying full access to technical backstopping.

Secondly, we have some doubts about the utility of establishing a world fund for forestry and think that such proposals are most unlikely to lead to additional resource flow. Rather we think the effective coordinating role that we referred to a few minutes ago will maximize the funding and resources that could be made available from bilateral and multilateral agencies to such programmes.

Peter A. WIESKANN (Suisse) Je tiens à remercier le Secrétariat pour la rédaction tres claire de son document; mes remerciements vont également à M. Flores Rodas pour la bonne introduction qu'il en a faite.

Je ne vais pas entrer dans le détail de toute cette problématique décrite et soulignée par le délégué du Canada. J'aimerais me concentrer sur deux points.

Ma délégation se plaît à souligner le rôle très utile que joue la FAO en mettant sur pied le Plan d'action forestier tropical. Dans notre opinion, c'est un instrument très valable de coordination


et qui peut jouer le rôle de catalyseur pour les Pays Membres situés dans les tropiques. Mon pays a décidé de collaborer avec le PAFT et est prêt à participer à des études sectorielles conjointes dans les pays où nous avons déjà un programme substantiel de coopération et de développement.

Mais j'aimerais poser une question au Secrétariat à propos de la coordination.

Mon pays est récemment devenu membre du Conseil international des bois tropicaux qui a tenu sa première session en mars 1987 au Japon. Je lis dans un message qui a été publié en Suisse:

"L'objectif principal de cette nouvelle organisation est la promotion des activités de reboisement, de transformation industrielle sur place, et d'information statistique et commerciale, et cela dans la perspective du maintien de l'équilibre écologique et d'une utilisation économique des ressources forestières tropicales. Le financement des programmes approuvé par le Conseil se fera grâce à des contributions financières. L'exécution des projets individuels incombera aux organismes compétents en la matière, tels que la FAO"

Il est également mentionné que la Suisse a décidé de mettre à la disposition du Conseil une somme à concurrence de 1 million de dollars.

La question qui se pose, M. le Président, est de savoir quelles sont les relations entre la FAO et le Conseil International des Bois Tropicaux, parce que, d'après la description de son programme d'action, il semble qu'il y ait presqu'une sorte de double emploi. Quel est le role que joue la FAO en formulant les projets qui seront financés par ce Conseil, et quelle est la relation avec le PAFT?

V. MACHINEA (─érgentina) De acuerdo a lo oportunamente requerido por el Director General de presentar al Consejo el informe sobre la necesidad de financiación encaminada a proteger y conservar los bosques del mundo, con particular referencia al Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos, debo agradecer en nombre de mi delegación el esmerado trabajo realizado, que satisface plenamente nuestras expectativas.

Argentina posee una importante área forestal y sin embargo no ha logrado un desarrollo industrial relacionado con dicha área. Y basándonos en la necesidad de diversificar nuestras explotaciones agrícolas, este proyecto surge como una meta imprescindible para nuestras aspiraciones de desarrollo.

A su vez la importante amplitud de nuestros parques nacionales exige la necesidad de asistencia técnica y el mejoramiento de las instalaciones con el fin de aumentar la eficiencia de las administraciones forestales. Coincide que las áreas forestales argentinas están situadas en zonas de bajo desarrollo económico y social, por lo que una acción directa cumple con un doble propósito, como es el mejoramiento socioeconómico de pequeños agricultores y una excelente tasa de rendimiento-para la sociedad en su conjunto.

Por todo ello coincidimos en la necesidad de ampliar la corriente futura de recursos internacionales

y de asistencia técnica al sector de bases forestales. Además, como se encuentra señalado en dicho informe, es preciso adaptar las condiciones de los préstamos a las características de los planes de desarrollo forestal.

Por todo lo expuesto, Señor Presidente, no nos queda más que agradecer a la Dirección General las tareas realizadas y darle nuestro apoyo al Informe, así como reconocer la excelente labor realizada por el Departamento de Montes.

E. Wayne DENNEY (United States of America) Like others before us, we also compliment the Secretariat on this well-prepared document. The United States recognizes a need for greater investments in technical assistance in tropical developing countries aimed at the conservation, protection and management of forest resources but realizes that this need must be seen in the context of current fiscal constraints. We agree with the Secretariat report that a substantial portion of financial requirements must come from industrial, commercial and other private sources as well as from sources within the developing countries themselves, based on the priority which they accord to the forestry sector.

We support the Tropical Forestry Action Plan as a useful framework for supporting forest conservation and development, and particularly for the role it is playing in coordinating donor assistance.


We do not believe that a World Forestry Fund is needed as a new mechanism for increasing or disbursing assistance funds. Rather we agree with paragraph 41 of the report that the existing infrastructure of bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies is capable of handling significant funding increases without major changes.

Table 1 of the report includes defensible estimates of current annual investment requirements for the forestry sector of developing countries. The amount needed from bilateral and multilateral sources depends on the amount available from private sources and from the developing countries themselves.

We endorse the report's statement in paragraph 26 that local resources must ultimately replace external resources. We believe that a strong commitment by the developing countries to the Tropical Forestry Action Plan is a vital condition for its success. Long term sustainability is only achieved when funds for primary non-commercial forestry activities derive primarily from local resources.

Regarding sources of external funding, we note in paragraph 17 that three-quarters of all forestry assistance comes from seven major international organizations, plus bilateral aid from only three countries. Thus, there is a real need to broaden the base of support for tropical forest conservation and development. Recent increased coordination among forestry sector donors, as is mentioned in paragraph 36, is encouraging and can be seen partially as a response to the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. Donor coordination can greatly improve the current mechanisms for funding forest development projects, thereby multiplying the effectiveness of available resources.

The report identifies the low capacities of many countries to absorb additional aid resources due to limited institutional development and a relative shortage of skilled human capital, in paragraph 31. Thus, we agree that investment and local research education, training and extension must accompany investment in forest conservation and development projects.

To sum up, we believe that a World Forestry Fund as suggested in paragraph 57 is not justified and is inconsistent with statement elsewhere in the report, particularly in paragraph 41. Although existing mechanisms for raising and disbursing forestry investment and assistance funds are not perfect, they are reasonably effective and can be improved by better donor cooperation and greater involvement of non-governmental organizations as noted in paragraph 42.

H.J. KRISTENSEN (Denmark) As I already mentioned in my statement under agenda item 15, the intensified focus in world forestry development is well justified and should have high priority in FAO's programme of work. We also fully support the five areas in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan as a basic strategy for development in this field. Therefore, we welcome this document, down to earth and practical as it is.

We also agree with the point made in the document that there is a need for balancing the activities between, on the one hand, actual actions and works in forest-based production of goods and services and, on the other hand, in the support for education and training in order to maximize the effectiveness of all resources involved. Clearly, the main investment in this field has to come from developing countries themselves. The document confirms that there has been an increased interest in channelling development aid to the forestry sector, not least because of the recognition of the high social return which can be seen as a result of certain forestry development activities. However, the share of total ODA for forestry development still remains at a level of less than one percent.

Turning now to the issue relating to the possibility of extending the volume of funds going into forestry development, the document rightly states there are many sources. However, as far as external aid is concerned, both bilateral and multilateral, the general financial situation seems to indicate that the scope for increasing the overall amount of aid is limited. This implies that the growing emphasis put on development of the forestry sector calls for clearer priorities both within the developing countries and the international donor community in order to be able to channel the limited resources to high priority areas. My delegation is therefore in full agreement with the document concerning the need for increased cooperation among donors.

Under point 5, issues for discussion, my delegation does not find that the basic function of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan is to increase the mobilization of funds for forestry development.


We rather see the plan as a general strategy giving the overall framework for countries to establish relevant development programmes in that sector. We realize, however, that the mobilization of resources, both internal and external, is an important ingredient in the plan.

My delegation does not agree that institutional innovations are necessary in order to secure financing of the development of the forestry sector. We find existing international financing mechanisms adequate for such purposes. Here again, the key word is priority-setting. As already mentioned when discussing the possibilities of establishing an international fund for plant genetic resources, my delegation is not in favour of establishing new international funds with limited scope. We are of the opinion that the necessary additional funds for development in the forestry sector must come from existing sources by giving higher priority to forestry. As a consequence, my delegation sees no need for the proposal in paragraph 57 for a special feasibility fund.

Milan KARIC (Yugoslavia) First of all.I would like to thank Mr Flores Rodas for his very dear introduction The Yugoslav delegation underscores the importance and pressing nature of the problem relevant to the issue of forestry development and conservation in the world. In our opinion, FAO should normally play an important role in the promotion and coordination of multilateral coordination aimed at mobilizing resources needed for investments and technical assistance in developing countries. My delegation agrees with the comments and conclusions contained in the document, and I wish particularly to emphasize that it is necessary to increase multilateral development assistance in forestry proceeding from the fact that forests are an important element of the ecosystem. In view of such importance, my delegation also supports the proposal that FAO should play a central coordinating role in the application of the action plan for tropical forests as well as in all other activities in the field of conservation and protection of world forests.

John R. GOLDSACK (United Kingdom) First, may I record the pleasure my delegation has in seeing you in the Chair today. We thank the Secretariat for the document CL 91/16 and Mr Flores Rodas for his clear introduction of the subject. The report, particularly at paragraphs 21 and 29, highlights some of the problems that exist in attracting investment to the forestry sector, including the frequent inability of the forestry departments to succeed with their own ministries of finance in requests for assistance. The aim of the Government of the United Kingdom is to increase investment in forestry, particularly in the areas of forestry for rural communities, environmental conservation and multipurpose management of forest resources. It is the indention of my Government to play a full role in Tropical Forestry Action Plan activities by involvement in donor cooperation meetings, in joint funding integration and coordination of projects and in joint sector reviews. Recently, my Government has participated in joint sector forestry reviews in five African countries. These have been conducted under the auspices of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan and the World Bank.

At paragraph 57 of the document, the suggestion is made that a feasibility study might be undertaken to examine the establishment of an additional funding mechanism. The position of my delegation remains as it was when we discussed the possible establishment of a world forestry fund at the 90th Session of Council in November of last year. We would not support the establishment of such a fund and would recommend that the Tropical Forestry Action Plan is the most appropriate basis on which to secure investment in the forestry sector, using existing channels for international assistance from multilateral and bilateral sources in accordance with individual countries' possessions of their needs and priorities.

G. C GARAGUSO (Italie) Nous avons maintes fois déjà souligné l'importance toujours croissante du

chapitre Forêt dans le cadre mondial, et dans le cadre des activités de la FAO. Nous sommes partant d'accord sur le contenu de ce document, et en particulier sur l'opportunité d'examiner la possibilité d'une éventuelle intervention multilatérale qui puisse servir à rationaliser le flux de fonds et les activités déjà en cours dans ce domaine, et aussi à les accroître ultérieurement, tout en évitant naturellement les risques de double emploi et le manque de coordination.

Nous sommes également d'accord en principe pour discuter de la suggestion faite au paragraphe 57 du document et relative à la création d'un Fonds forestier mondial chargé d'acheminer les investissements multilatéraux.

Si elle constate que, comme elle, les pays membres ne sont pas contraires à cette initiative, l'Italie ne manquera pas d'accorder son appui à l'idée d'une étude de faisabilité. Il serait peut


être utile, à ce sujet, que le Secrétariat nous donne-dès que possible quelques indications plus détaillées soit sur le coût de cette étude, soit sur les économies découlant de l'utilisation des informations déjà existantes en la matière et à la disposition de la FAO.

Masahiko YASUMURO (Japan) May I begin by thanking Mr Flores Rodas for a very clear presenit.ation of this item and the Secretariat for the preparation of this document CL 91/16. In paragraph 15 it states that developing assistance to forestry is a relatively recent phenomenon and has been expanding rapidly over the past decade. The Japanese Government recognizes the importance of international cooperation in the field of forestry and its industry from the viewpoint of forestry development and forest conservation in the world and has increased its contribution to forestry development cooperation in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Taking Japanese bilateral cooperation within the technical cooperation scheme as an example, the amount for forest aid development in 1975 was 94 million yen. In other words, 0.4 percent of the scheme's total. By 1985, the amount for forest aid development had increased 25 times over to 2 392 million yen, or 2.4 percent of the total. Also in multilateral cooperation, Japan contributes to ITTO and FAO and so on.

As my delegation stated last week in reference to the agenda item 4, the Japanese Government, while endeavouring to move up the target in Japan's third medium-term ODA expansion programme, we will at least advance the original 7 year doubling target by 2 years and make all the disbursements, more than 7.6 billion dollars, by 1990. With my Government taking such policies, we believe that assistance to forestry aid development will be promoted as one of the most important fields in Japanese economic cooperation in favour of developing countries.

In paragraph 31 it is stated that a serious barrier preventing the increase of investment in forestry development for many countries consists in their limited capabilities to utilize additional resources productively. Recognizing the importance to increase support so as to improve and build up skills in recipient countries, Japan has developed with its technical cooperation scheme the so-called project-type technical cooperation whereby the training of counterparts and officials, the despatch of Japanese experts and the provision of equipment are all implemented effectively and in combination.

I would now like to touch on the issues of local costs as referred to in paragraph 26. Japan considers that funding local costs would be an important element in the promotion of activities for agroforestry, fuelwood production, conservation and so on. In order to consider and study the issue still further, the Japanese Government recently started to put the funding of local costs to the test in one of the projects for fuelwood production.

Mr Chairman, finally 1 would like to point out that my delegation is not in a position to support the establishment of a new mechanism such as a world forestry fund. The establishment of this kind of fund is bound to bring about an increase in administrative costs without improving the effectiveness of the aid. This was indicated by the delegation of Japan at the last Council and at the last session of the Committee on Forestry.

My delegation believes that document CL 91/16 has been well prepared by the Secretariat and that it helps us to promote international activities on forestry development in an effective and efficient manner.

In this connection, my delegation believes that what is needed from the point of view of helpfulness and usefulness, is further study of the current flow of assistance and an adept handling of the assistance given by the existing mechanism in forestry aid development, as opposed to the feasibility study for the establishment of a new mechanism.

Mr Chairman, before closing my statement I would like to state that my Government continues to support TFAP and also, because of the importance of forestry, my delegation supports the proposed strengthening of the Forestry Department Activities under the Regular Programme.

Humberto CARRION M. (Nicaragua) Nuestra delegación considera que el conceni do del documento CL 91/16 es muy importante. Agradecemos al Sr. Flores Rodas la presentación del mismo. Movilizar fondos para el desarrollo forestal es de interés mundial, particularmente a partir de la adopción del Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos.


La función de la silvicultura en la conservación y aprovechamiento de la tierra para la producción agrícola tiene una alta prioridad en Nicaragua. Esta prioridad se basa en la certeza de que la explotación racional de los bosques y las actividades programadas de reforestación para la producción de madera y de leña, así como la protección de los recursos de suelos y aguas constituyen una inversión indispensable para el futuro económico y social de nuestro pueblo.

Las actividades de reforestación han comenzado ya con éxito en la zona occidental de mi país, donde el tradicional cultivo del algodón no sólo desplazó cultivos alimenticios para el consumo interno, sino que provocó una desforestación acelerada e irracional de consecuencias funestas. Durante más de 30 años esa zona del país estuvo sujeta a la erosión hídrica y eòlica. Por lo tanto, reforestando en áreas seleccionadas con especies de crecimiento rápido, como el eucaliptus y la eucalea, hemos logrado resultados satisfactorios y nuestros gobiernos, a través del Instituto Nicaragüense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente, han elaborado un Programa Nacional de Control de la Erosión y de la Conservación de Suelos, que necesita de la asistencia financiera y técnica externa.

Por otro lado, no hemos olvidado el sector forestal industrial para la producción de madera y de leña, pero también en este sector hemos lanzado una campaña de reforestación en la zona

nordoriental, donde empresas multinacionales habían explotado irracionalemente nuestros bosques sin dejar beneficios para nuestra población.

A partir de 1979, nuestro nuevo gobierno ha reivindicado nuestros recursos forestales para protegerlos, conservarlos y explotarlos de manera racional. Estas motivaciones nos llevan a hacer un llamado a los países donantes para que incrementen el nivel de recursos para el desarrollo forestal según se entiende en la estrategia y en el Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos.

De acuerdo con los párrafos 2, 9, 10 y 11 del documento, las necesidades en inversiones y en asistencia técnica para el fomento de las actividades forestales y las industrias forestales en los países en desarrollo se calculan en un mimino de 13 000 millones y un máximo de 17 000 millones de dólares hasta final de siglo.

Nuestra delegación está de acuerdo en general con el contenido del documento CL 91/16. incluyendo la parte IV del documento que sugiere una mayor cooperación y coordinación bilateral, multilateral y bimultilateral en la asistencia al sector forestal, pero también apoyamos los párrafos 54, 55, 56 y 57 del documento. Apoyamos particularmente la intervención hecha por la distinguida delegación de Italia sobre el párrafo 57.

Dato' Seri Mohd. Khalil HUSSEIN (Malaysia) The Malaysian delegation is pleased to welcome the indepth studies carried out in the report on financing requirements for action to protect and conserve the world's forests, as documented in document CL 91/16, and would like to commend the Secretariat for presenting the document and Mr Flores Rodas the Assistant Director-General, Forestry Department,-for his clear introduction to the subject.

It is encouraging to note that the development assistance to forestry has been expanding rapidly over the past decade to an annual commitment now of some 400 to 500 million dollars per year. We see this trend as an increased realization amongst the governments, international organizations as well as the public, of the importance of forests in ensuring the conservation of the environment and its contribution to the economy of the country.

My delegation also welcomes the increasing level of cooperation and coordination among countries and multilateral funding organizations over recent years as mentioned in paragraph 36 of the document. We agree that such recognition is essential and imperative to improve forestry assistance, cooperation and coordination for forestry development, particularly in the developing countries. Referring to paragraph 31 of the document we agree wholeheartedly on the need to increase investments and technical assistance, expert skills, improved human expertise in education, training and research for developing countries. These programmes would greatly increase the capability of many countries which currently do not possess the capacity to absorb a sudden infusion of financial investments. We feel that there should be an appropriate balance between technical assistance and investments.

Relating to this matter Mr Chairman, my delegation wishes to inform the Council that Malaysia recently has been granted a loan of 22.5 million Malaysian Ringgit, or about 9 million US dollars,


by the World Bank for a project to curb the rapid decline of Malaysia's forest resources through improvements and reorientation of forest research and development. We are grateful to the said organization for their support.

We are also very encouraged to note the prominence given to the Tropical Forestry Action Programme in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for 1988-89. The Tropical Forestry Action Programme for Malaysia is now under preparation with the assistance of FAO. The programme concentrates on national forestry management, plantation development and industrial development in forestry. It is also establishing incentives for an industrial master plan prepared with the assistance of UNDP and UNIDO. In view of the importance of TFAP relating to our own forestry development, we wish to reiterate our strong support to this programme.

In conclusion Mr Chairman, my delegation therefore is in general agreement to support the need to increase the mobilization of international resources to this sector.

J. J. GARCIA DEL CASTILLO (Espana) Primeramente, hemos de felicitar al Sr. Flores Rodas por la excelente exposición que ha efectuado del documento CL 91/16.

Nuestra delegación ve con satisfacción el cumplimiento dado a la recomendación formulada en el octavo período de sesiones del Comité de Montes, en el sentido de que el Director General presentara un informe al Consejo sobre las necesidades de financiación para una acción encaminada a proteger y conservar los bosques del mundo, con particular referencia al Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos.

El informe presentado reúne una serie de antecedentes y sugerencias sumamente orientativas, si bien creemos sería oportuno ampliarlo, incluyendo un análisis de la cuantía de la financiación actual por conceptos y, de ser posible,siguiendo la misma pauta del cuadro número 1 del informe, pues ello permitiría tener una más clara idea de los incrementos que la financiación debería tener para cumplir las distintas hipótesis presentadas.

Nuestra delegación apoya decididamente la idea de expandir el volumen de fondos destinados al desarrollo forestal, puesto que de ello puede depender que la calidad de la vida de la humanidad no sufra ulteriores retrocesos.

Coincidimos en la idea de que los fondos, cuyo destino final vaya dirigido a actividades productivas de carácter comercial, deben ser originados por fuentes privadas que, bien es verdad, requieren de una adecuada capacidad de absorción de los países beneficarios. Creemos que es en el aumento de la capacidad de los países en desarrollo para absorber recursos adicionales donde las fuentes de financiación públicas pueden jugar su gran papel.

Es el país presuntamente beneficiaric de fondos destinados al desarrollo forestal el que tiene que asumir una firme voluntad política de destinar los recursos con dicho fin, tomándolo, fundamentalmente como una acción nacional complementada con la cooperación internacional, y es por ello que consideramos esencial desarrollar desde ahora una acción continuada y agresiva para cooperar en la mejora, a nivel nacional, de los conocimientos técnicos para poder identificar, diseñar, evaluar y ejecutar proyectos de inversión, lo cual se logrará apoyando la investigación, la capacitación y la educación a nivel nacional.

Felicitamos a la FAO que ha jugado un papel sumamente importante en el sector forestal de los países en vía de desarrollo a través de los proyectos ejecutados en distintas etapas para la formación de los cuadros profesionales, para conocimiento de las masas forestales de los distintos países, para el fortalecimiento institucional y el apoyo a actividades productivas, y es por ello que creemos que su acción en los futuros proyectos en muchos países puede ser trascendente y que debería orientarse prioritariamente hacia el apoyo a la búsqueda de una mayor cooperación en la dotación de recursos financieros, una mejor coordinación en su utilización. Hay que formar personal técnico a nivel nacional capaz de planificar y supervisar proyectos profunda y coherentemente.

Creemos que las directrices seguidas y los primeros pasos dados a través del Programa de Acción forestal en los trópicos son prometederes.


Para incrementar eficazmente las acciones dirigidas mediante la asistencia técnica, el perfeccionamiento del capital humano y el aumento de la capacidad de absorción de los países en desarrollo y lograr una mayor cooperación y coordinación de los programas de asistencia en los diversos organismos bilaterales y multilaterales.

Finalmente, estimamos que las instituciones existentes requieren evidentemente de innovaciones para adecuarse mejor a las actuales circunstancias y por ello antes de crear nuevos mecanismos para la canalización multilateral de las inversiones en el sector forestal debería hacerse un estudio profundo sobre las características y la factibilidad de estas innovaciones en dichas instituciones, de forma que permitan-absorber los posibles incrementos en la transferencia de recursos.

J. WINKEL (Germany, Federal Republic of) We wish to thank the Committee on Forestry for the work done at its 8th Session in April and welcome the presentation of document CL 91/16.

Before commenting on single questions in the document before us, let me first make a few preliminary remarks. As already stated in paragraph 2 of the introduction to the document, the financial needs for forestry and forest industry development are vast. We endeavour to take this always into adequate consideration in our financial and technical cooperation.

The Federal Republic of Germany agrees,to what is said in paragraph 4 of the introduction and is of the opinion that the Tropical Forestry Action Plan is a suitable means to ascertain the needs on the basis of special country studies and to open up funding sources. As you know, the Federal Republic of Germany takes an active part in these activities. We will also continue this cooperation with developing countries which has proved to be very useful.

Let me now make a few comments on some individual questions in the document. First, we share in principle the opinion, as reflected in paragraph 25 of the document, that an increased mobilization of the resources of local populations is of basic importance for a promising implementation of programmes on forest conservation and afforestation. Greater use has also to be made of the resources of non-governmental organizations.

We are in agreement with the statement in paragraph 19 of the document according to which sources of financing are numerous. Therefore, we advocate the opinion that there is no need at the moment to establish a special world forestry fund. It has not yet been clarified how such a fund will operate and what are the financial requirements for it. The implementation of a feasibility study, as suggested in paragraph 57 of the report, would involve considerable cost. We are of the opinion that there is sufficient technical knowledge within the FAO Secretariat in order to assess potential financial requirements on the basis of studies on the TFAP as well as to work out guidelines for the activities of such a fund.

In conclusion, let me point out that we very much welcome the overproportional even though insignificant increase in absolute terms of forestry programmes in the draft Programme of Work and Budget for the biennium 1988-89. We share in this connection the opinion of the Committee on Forestry that the regular programme of our Organization should be reviewed with the aim of an even higher priority setting for forestry programmes, by means of possible savings on other items.

C. MEKI (Zambia) I would first of all like to congratulate FAO for having initiated the Tropical Forestry Action Plan and for making efforts to mobilize resources for financing the plan. My delegation supports these efforts which are important in the preservation of the tropical forest ecosystem and in improving its productivity.

As we are ail aware, the tropical forests are being depleted at an alarming rate and unless something significant is done these forests will slowly but surely disappear. Zambia has long been known for its abundant forest and woodland resources. But today there is growing concern among planners about the magnitude and pace of deforestation. To a large extent the appearance of localized wood supply deficits is associated with rapid urbanization. Urban demands for wood fuel and other forest products is widening their commercial supply zones. As nearby supplies are depleted the market penetrates further into the countryside. Left behind are denuded and degraded landscapes threatened by environmental deterioration. Hardships are also emerging from many sectors of the population, women and children


who are mainly responsible for collecting wood fuel have to travel long distances to reach supplies, preferred species are harder to find or become locally extinct. The poor must rely on the market for wood products instead of collecting them freely, and prices for wood fuel and items rise.

Zambia has long emphasized the importance of conservation and forest protection. About 7.5 million hectares of forest and woodland have been gazetted as reserves. Gazettement of these areas has seriously reduced, though not entirely eliminated, forest enchroachment. Efforts to conserve woodland in the past, whether within or outside the forest estate, have been hindered by a general lack of concern among members of the public about deforestation. The trend is now changing. There are now indications of great potential for action among the public. Most people now recognize the need for forest conservation. Some have planted trees for their own use, mainly for providing fruit, shade and fencing. It is therefore important that projects initiated in tree growing and forest protection must involve the local people who will be the beneficiaries. This will go a long way in reducing the amount investment required, as rightly pointed out in document CL 91/16. In this respect areas of funding should include forest extension so that the public becomes aware of the value of forest conservation and the socio-economic benefits that will accrue to them.

Other areas which need support are research and training, and strengthening of institutions involved in forest conservation and management. Unless there is trained manpower to implement the various projects in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan, the resources mobilized may not be put to effective use. Similarly unless meaningful research is carried out in the conservation and management of tropical forests, the resources may again be wasted.

In conclusion, I would like to urge the Council to support FAO in its efforts to mobilize resources for the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. The time to act is now because the longer we delay the longer it will take to rehabilitate the tropical forest ecosystem.

Philippe PIOTET (France) Ma delegation a noté avec intérêt l'étendue des besoins en investissements dans le secteur forestier. J'ai déjà rappelé dans une précédente intervention le souci de mon pays lorsqu'il a organisé la Conférence Sylva, de faire face à ce défi dans les quinze prochaines années.

Nous avons décidé, pour notre part, de mettre en place un fonds fiduciaire au titre du plan d'action forestier tropical en attendant la prise en compte de ce plan dans le cadre du programme régulier de la FAO.

Pourtant, si les besoins sont grands, les capacités locales de mise en oeuvre le sont beaucoup moins, comme le soulignent, à juste titre, les paragraphes 30 et 31 du document. A cet égard, nous appuyons fermement les priorités en faveur de la recherche et de la formation. Ces activités sont en effet celles qui peuvent le mieux permettre à moyen et à long terme un accroissement de la capacité d'absorption financière des pays dans le secteur forestier.

D'une façon plus générale, nous pensons qu'il faut accorder la priorité aux investissements forestiers destinés à satisfaire les besoins locaux et permettant de conquérir ou reconquérir les marches intérieurs, avant de se tourner vers les investissements plus lourds visant les marchés extérieurs. Plusieurs expériences malheureuses dans ce domaine doivent en effet inciter à la prudence.

Ma délégation pense que le plan d'action forestier tropical constitute un mécanisme efficace pour la mise en oeuvre de l'action internationale dans le secteur forestier. Comme nous l'avons déjà dit lors de réunions précédentes, nous ne pensons pas qu'il soit utile d'envisager un nouveau mécanisme sous la forme d'un fonds forestier mondial. Nous estimons en effet qu'il est préférable de mobiliser au maximum les sources de financement international existantes qui ont déjà vocation à intervenir dans le secteur forestier.

Sra. G. SOTO CARRERO (Cuba) La delegación de Cuba agradece el informe que se nos presenta a los miembros del Consejo sobre las necesidades de financiamiento para una acción encaminada a proteger y conservar los bosques en el mundo, y en especial al Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos.

Agradece, asimismo, al Sr. Flores Rodas por la completa presentación de este documento CL 91/16.


Como ya lo hemos expresado, apoyamos la prioridad dada a la actividad forestal en el proyecto del Programa de Labores y Presupuesto en el bienio 1988-89 presentado por la Secretaría.

Mi gobierno dedica cuantiosos recursos a la protección e incremento de los bosques en realidad; si bien la conservación de la flora y la fauna son una actividad priorizada en mi país tenemos grandes e importantes necesidades que cubrir.

La ordenación forestal en la Sierra Maestra, principal zona montañosa de nuestro país, así como el desarrollo de un gran parque nacional en esa misma zona es una tarea que necesitamos acometer y que la falta de recursos financieros nos lo ha impedido. Este es solamente un ejemplo entre tantos.

Conocemos que otros países subdesarrollados están en situación similar y hasta más necesitados aún que los otros. Estamos concientes que todas las delegaciones aquí presentes están convencidas de la necesidad de incrementar el flujo de fondos para el incremento de la actividad forestal. Esta actividad necesita cada vez más inversiones y asistencia técnica para cumplir su cometido.

Apoyamos los cinco aspectos contenidos en el Plan de Acción Forestal de los Trópicos y recalcado en este documento.

El Plan de Acción es una gran estrategia para movilizar más fondos internacionales para el desarrollo forestal y mejorar su eficacia y efectividad. Sin una verdadera movilización de recursos ese Plan de Acción no puede llevarse a cabo. Sin embargo, la movilización de recursos no puede hacerse si no existen los recursos.

Repetimos que los esfuerzos que mi gobierno hace para proteger nuestros bosques son grandes, como asimismo muy modestamente prestamos asistencia técnica gratuita a otros países en desarrollo. Este es nuestro aporte a este plan de acción; sin nuevos aportes, sin nuevos recursos no es posible la creación de ese fondo tan necesario que se plantea en el párrafo 57. El delegado de Italia ha sido muy elocuente en este sentido, y también pensamos que la Secretaría debería ampliar más los detalles de la función de ese fondo y de manera concreta los beneficios que aportaría a los países necesitados.

También consideramos que pueden hacerse aportes a través de los mecanismos ya existentes.

Agradecemos los aportes echos y también los hoy anunciados poralgunnos países, y apoyamos. el contenido del documento CL 91/16.

Almir F. de Sá BARBUDA (Brazil) Document CL 91/16 from our point of view is disappointing and does not comply with the request of the Committee on Forestry. Taking into account that the request came after a long discussion on the establishment of a world forest fund as proposed by Austria, my delegation expected greater attention to questions such as the resources needed and the structure of a world fund, not an excessively generic report concerned primarily with positions advocated by the donor community, with the already recognized relevance of the Tropical Forest Action Plan, and with further prospects of establishing the world forest fund. As we will all remember, since the World Forestry Congress held in Mexico many countries have reserved their positions in relation to the fund because of the fact that there is no information on its structure and financial requirements. This afternoon one delegate from a donor country repeated the same observation. Therefore, the document presented does not add much to our discussion.

Apart from estimates on global needs, no discussion of requirements by region or by sector is provided.

In relation to paragraph 36 of the document, my delegation wishes to reiterate the position of Brazil. The identification of priorities and solutions for the forestry sector are for the exclusive competence of national governments. As we have underlined in previous meetings, the eventual participation of Brazil in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan must exclude undue evaluation of our policies or outside identification of priorities.

On the other hand, my delegation wishes to make special reference to the valuable assistance being provided by FAO in the forest development project for the northeast region of Brazil, an area where cooperation could eventually be intensified.


My delegation believes that mention should have been made in this document under review to the International Timber Organization, a body that can mobilize financial resources for the preservation, conservation and rational utilization of tropical forests.

As already stated by many previous speakers and by the Brazilian Government as well in many meetings, my delegation reiterates its belief that FAO must continue to play a central role in the coordination activities related to the conservation and development of forests.

Finally, we agree that it is highly desirable to increase funds for the world forestry sector, but we would prefer that this increase be made through multilateral programmes.

Adel Helmi El Sarky (Egypt) (original language Arabic): My Government recently gave its support to forestry because of its importance in the fight against desertification, protection of the environment, and in several economic and social activities. The Academy of Agronomic Sciences has therefore been set up in order to study the tropical products. In the same way we have also set up a special mechanism in order to safeguard the environment because we are well aware of the ever growing interest shown by many countries in forestry development, as can be seen from paragraphs 14 to 18.

Document CL 91/16 in paragraphs 19 to 21 deals with the sources of financing for forestry development and has noted the tendency to increase resources and to find new sources of financing. We wholeheartedly support all measures intended to increase such resources.

We hope that the FAO will increase its technical assistance to national institutions interested in this sector in order to strengthen and increase the training of competent staff who would run these institutions.

The international community as well as certain FAO bodies, for example, the Committee on World Food Security at its April 1985 meeting, have emphasized the importance of the forestry sector in food security. It is important in establishing ecological balance, apart from the benefit to be drawn from timber and fuelwood and the production of energy. That is why we give our total support to the information campaign in rural areas in order to make the important role of forestry clearer, especially as a solution to certain problems, for example, unemployment, development and increasing of job opportunities. Certainly it is important in increasing people's income as well as their well-being.

For all these reasons we support the contents of paragraph 25 concerning the vital role of farmers in mobilizing important resources effectively. This would reduce any contrary effect of dependency on external financing for forestry development projects.

Turning to paragraph 30 concerning the low absorptive capacity of many recipient countries and loans and their terms, we would like to say that we welcome the efforts made by the Forestry Department in FAO to help recipient countries. We feel that the Forestry Department plays an important role in strengthening cooperation and extending cooperation between donor countries and the funding agencies, and finding excellent coordination among the various forestry programmes in order to avoid duplication. Furthermore, referring to paragraph 44 dealing with the cooperation between non-governmental organizations, their cooperation with and various funding sources was found to be satisfactory, which clearly shows the role that NGOs play in forestry development. We welcome the tendency to open offices or "windows" in NGOs in order to promote cooperation in the preparation of projects.

Turning to paragraphs 46 to 48 concerning the choice to be made for funding, whether project or sector financing, we are inclined towards loans for specific projects because of the advantages listed in paragraph 47.

In conclusion, we feel that careful study must be undertaken to prepare the way for a world forestry fund in order to avoid any obstacles.

We should like to mention that in October 1987 we shall be hosting the World Conference on Forestry Legislation. We are very interested in widespread participation at the conference to contribute to its success.

I should like to conclude by thanking Mr Flores Rodas for his excellent introduction to the subject.


Ibrahim OUMAROU (Niger) Ma delegation a pris connaissance avec beaucoup d'intérêt du document CL 91/16 et félicite le Secrétariat pour la clarté de ce document.

Mon pays se trouve dans une zone sahélo-saharienne et vous comprendrez que ma délégation n'attache d'importance qu'à trois points parmi les cinq que contient le plan d'action forestier tropical: il s'agit de la foresterie dans l'utilisation des terres et dans le système agricole, bois de feu et énergie, conservation des systèmes forestiers tropicaux.

Les types d'action qui requièrent l'aide internationale et nationale en matière de développement forestier, tels que développés au paragraphe 6, méritent l'attention du Conseil et le soutien des organismes financiers. Dans mon pays,les actions prioritaires sont la lutte contre la désertification et la dégradation de l'environnement, et également les plans d'action pour l'aménagement intégré des bassins versants et la conservation des écosystèmes forestiers, actions entreprises à grande échelle. Mais l'étendue du pays, 1 286 000 km2,limite l'impact de ces actions. Nous avons donc besoin de l'assistance accrue des donateurs aussi bien sur le plan financier que sur le plan de l'assistance technique. A ce titre, nous appuyons l'analyse faite au paragraphe 21 du document.

En bref, Monsieur le Président, nous approuvons l'analyse du document et appelons les donateurs à s'intéresser à ce secteur combien vital pour l'humanité tout entière. Chez nous un adage dit: là où il y a de la forêt, il y a à manger. C'est pourquoi la mobilisation des financements pour le développement forestier mondial, quels que soient les mécanismes envisagés, doit retenir l'attention de notre Conseil. Le Département des forets doit être renforcé pour fournir l'assistance et la compétence voulues aux Etats.

Pour terminer, mon pays a mis en place un plan de lutte contre la désertification axé sur la foresterie de masse, à l'exécution duquel nous attachons une grande importance, et nous faisons appel aux bonnes volontés pour nous assister sur le plan financier et technique. Plus que tout autre domaine, c'est sur le plan de la lutte contre la désertification et la sécheresse que nous attendons la manifestation de la solidarité internationale.

E.P. ALLEYNE (Trinidad and Tobago) The delegation of Trinidad and Tobago commends the Secretariat on document CL 91/16 which relates to the mobilization of funds for world forestry development. Inevitably there must be real concern about, as the paper emphasizes, the gap between what is required for worldwide investment and technical assistance, needs for forestry and forest industrial development and what is actually available. Our delegation is supportive of the five areas identified in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. The areas of particular relevance to Trinidad and Tobago are forestry in land use and agricultural systems, especially as with changing economic circumstances there is a real struggle to keep in check the wanton and illegal encroachment on forest lands by squatters. There are constant pressures for dereservation of forest areas, and this year we experienced one of the worst dry seasons that many people could remember. There was extensive damage to our forests. On a forest-based industrial development, conservation of forest eco-systems. may we point out that in respect of this item that we must inevitably focus on wildlife, conservation of fauna and, of course, international genetic pools in valuable forest species, and finally institutions.

Our delegation is quite pleased with the information conveyed in the document with respect to rates of return comparable with other kinds of bankable investment projects. We are of the opinion that FAO has a considerable challenge in providing assistance in the design and implementation of effective programmes for educating the general public, perhaps more so in the developing countries, and more particularly in the political directorate and top bureaucrats, on this matter of investment in forestry. When we consider, however, both the direct and the numerous spin-off benefits to successful forestry programmes, our delegation considers that this particular area of activity will yield considerable benefits if the economists can truly quantify the benefits over relevant time periods.

Besides general statements we urge that the FAO should provide some convincing details. Paragraphs 6 and 21 refer to the matter of human capital that is the shortage and of course the relationship with absorptive capacity of target countries. Our delegation supports proposals intended to improve the situation, but at the same time also suggests the need to keep under review the need to assist countries in evaluating the extent to which they are utilizing effectively whatever manpower they may have from both internal and external sources.


On the matter of attracting investments of the sector from internal and external resources, in this regard we refer to incentive mechanisms which may be used by various governments, and we include in this category the development of special loan packages which would facilitate investment in private forestry. There seems to be a special difficulty in getting economists and bankers in the agricultural sector to understand, design and implement loan packages which truly accommodate the special characteristics of forest development, in particular-as the document indicates-cash flow patterns, meaningful grace and payback periods. In this regard, within the context of specific countries or representative geographical areas, we feel that greater progress will be made as research and development activity provides us with profitable agroforestry systems in the early years of establishment programmes. Of course, on the wider front we support whatever initiatives are taken to expand the sources and flows of funds for technical assistance from external sources.

Finally, our delegation wishes to place on record our appreciation, or rather the appreciation of Trinidad and Tobago, for the sustained programme of assistance which FAO has maintained in particular on our forestry development programme. The effectiveness of this technical assistance effort is illustrated by the fact that Trinidad and Tobago has been selected as a focal point for the regional network on watershed development and training.

Μ·Α. QADIR (Pakistan): In response to your request for brevity in presentation I will be extremely brief.

The ecological system in Pakistan is in complete disarray. We have only five percent of our land area as forest,as against the need to have 25 percent. Every year we do organize tree planting functions but these cannot be on a scale compatible with our needs because we do not have the resources.

It is against this background that I would like to say how pleased I was to see the good work that the FAO is doing in this particular area, and I would like to commend Mr. Flores Rodas for the excellent introduction he has given to the document. As I have mentioned, domestically we cannot really raise the resources required to undertake a massive reafforestation programme, and therefore we are looking for assistance from the outside. I have noted from this document that the bilateral and multilateral allocations of finds for forestry development have been increased,but I think they are still not compatible with the enormity of requirements for some countries.

Therefore, I would like to suggest that FAO or the member countries should give some consideration to the possibility of raising additional funds. I do not know how this can be done, what should be the mechanism, and so on and so forth, so that the funds that we have are in keeping with our requirements.

I mentioned to you he tree plantation programme that we organize every year. The rate of mortality remains quite high. That underscores the need for us to seek technical assistance. We hope we shall be able to receive the required technical assistance in this particular area from FAO, as well as funding for various afforestation and reafforestation projects.

Sra. M. FERMIN GOMEZ (Venezuela) La delegación de Venezuela va a apoyar en todas sus partes el documento que estamos estudiando. Hemos estudiado detenidamente este documento CL 91/16 que contempla la movilización de fondos para el desarrollo forestal mundial, y nos satisface que dicho estudio preste atención a un amplio espectro de los problemas que contemplan especialmente los países subdesarrollados y los países en vías de desarrollo con todos sus recursos forestales específicos y con problemas tan diversos como la ordenación y conservación de cuencas hidrográficas, la ayuda técnica, la capacitación para el desarrollo forestal mediante proyectos específicos, que, sin la educación y la capacitación de los hombres y mujeres de esas comunidades atrasadas, no podrían garantizar el éxito de los proyectos.

Un aspecto interesante del análisis presentado por el Dr. Flores Rodas es la amplitud de la capacidad para enfrentar la tarea del desarrollo forestal. Según su criterio, la expansión del volumen de fondos requeridos debe provenir de numerosas fuentes, y las clasifica así: fuentes internas y externas, bilaterales y multilaterales, industriales y comerciales, individuales y cooperativas, públicas y privadas, es decir, no deja al azar ningún elemento constitutivo de la comunidad mundial que pueda estar interesado en esta tarea.


Por eso, apoyamos muy sinceramente la idea del Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos, con el propósito de coordinar tales actividades. Sólo mediante una acción coordinada a todos los niveles puede hacerse efectiva la acción que esperamos que sea realizada por este Departamento Forestal de la FAO.

Finalmente, deseamos dejar constancia de nuestro apoyo a la idea presentada en el documento acerca del establecimiento de un Fondo Forestal Mundial, con el propósito de concretar la acción multilateral de las inversiones en el sector forestal, Fondo que debería, desde luego, quedar al cuidado de la FAO para que su efectividad sea garantizada, dada la magnitud del proyecto y considerando el impacto de gran alcance en la Comunidad Internacional.

Y es lógico que así sea, porque la cubierta forestal de nuestro planeta no es propiedad exclusiva de nadie ni tampoco puede ser al cuidado exclusivo de ninguno de los miembros de la comunidad. Todos reciben de ella un servicio de protección porque todos sabemos, a estas alturas, que no podemos vivir sin oxígeno, que la cubierta forestal es indispensable, que las ciudades por más grandes que sean necesitan pulmones que se los dan sus parques y que en todas partes será necesario tener una cubierta vegetal, sea ella un bosque, sea un parque, sea un jardín, para que los seres humanos puedan sobrevivir.

Esta es la importancia de este documento que nos trae el Sr. Flores Rodas a nuestra consideración y que, en medio de su aparente simplicidad, enfoca uno de los problemas vitales con que la FAO, o la Organización Mundial de las Naciones Unidas, tiene que enfrentarse y tiene que responder para la supervivencia de la humanidad. Sólo de esa manera puede asegurarse el éxito de una tarea de tanta importancia como que ella envuelve ciertamente la supervivencia del hombre en este planeta.

Si no fuese posible enrolar todas las voluntades y todos los recursos en una acción local, regional, nacional e internacional, estaríamos enfrentados a las amenazas de la erosión de los suelos, de la desert ificación, de la extinción de las especies útiles y necesarias, arbóreas y alimenticias, de la degradación del medio ambiente con todas sus terribles consecuencias entre las cuales no podemos olvidar la inseguridad alimentaria sea por las sequías prolongadas, por falta de lluvia o por el agotamiento de las fuentes de origen.

Geng-ou MA (China) (original language Chinese) Document CL 91/16 is succinctly and clearly drafted. We would like to express our satisfaction to the Secretariat for the quality of the document before us. The Tropical Forestry Action Plan constitutes a forestry programme of a global nature. If we were to find the funds necessary to implement it, this plan could play a positive role in the development of world silviculture. At the 13th Session of the Forestry Commission for the region of Asia and Pacific which concluded its work in April in Beijing, China explained what it was doing and took part in the plan. We subscribe to the five sectors of the above mentioned plan which appear in paragraph 4 of the document, forestry in land use, development of the forestry industry, fuelwoods, energy, conservation of tropical forestry ecosystems and the strengthening of forestry institutions. We feel that the availability of financial resources is a preliminary condition for the application of the plan. Thus, the FAO should make every effort to obtain the support of international organizations and countries in a position and likely to supply financial resources.

In paragraph 17 the document mentions 10 institutions that have given aid to forestry development. We hope that these institutions will be able to make a financial contribution in order to allow the plan to be implemented. The Technical Cooperation Programme of the FAO can also play a specific role in rapidly solving problems in emergencies. In 1985 China was able to improve the planning of its forestry system in order to provide protection for the western part of the province of Liaoning by having recourse to the TCP of the FAO. In 1986 we benefited from the assistance within the framework of the same programme in order to implement a project to grow more eucalyptus trees. This provided alternatives and helped solve a number of key problems in the development of a plantation of that species and gave good results. I would like to take this opportunity to express my thanks to the FAO.

G. BULA HOYOS (Colombia) Sr. Presidente, usted sabe cuánto complace a los delegados de Colombia intervenir bajo su Presidencia. Compartimos plenamente la importancia que la reciente declaración de la distinguida Embajadora Fermín, de Venezuela, ha atribuido a la labor que lleva a cabo


el Departamento Forestal de la FAO, uno de los departamentos que trabaja con mayor eficacia bajo la competente dirección del Subdirector General, Mr Flores Rodas, cuya presentación fue excelente.

Coherentes con esta opinión, apoyamos lo que ha dicho el colega del Japón sobre la necesidad de que el Departamento Forestal cuente con más recursos en el Programa de Labores y Presupuesto para el bienio 1988-89.

Nuestra declaración se va a facilitar, al menos lo esperamos, porque apoyamos plenamente lo que han dicho muchos colegas, sobre todo nuestra amiga vecina de la derecha, la representante de Cuba, la Sra. Grafila Soto Carrero, el colega El-Gazzar, de Egipto y el colega E.P. Alleyne, de Trinidad y Tabago, quienes describieron muy bien la situación de los países en desarollo en el campo forestal y la necesidad de inversiones y asistencia técnica.

Pensamos que el Director General ha acogido de manera muy adecuada la solicitud que le hizo el Comité de Montes al presentarnos est documento, que nos ofrece la ocasión de expresar que el Gobierno Colombiano apoya toda acción encaminada a proteger y conservar los bosques, y apoyamos particularmente el Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos.

El párrafo, 2 nos habla de las grandes necesidades, las evalúa en cifras para los países desarrollados y para los países en desarrollo. Si quisiéramos pasar directamente a las cuestiones para debate, en el párrafo 53, cuando se nos pide la evaluación de esas características, tal vez pensemos que un organismo como éste no podría estar en condiciones de evaluar en cifras, cuantitativamente esas necesidades, pero sí de presentar algunas ideas sobre mecanismos, procedimientos y posibles vías del reforzamiento de esas actividades, y eso es lo que vamos a tratar de hacer en esta breve intervención.

En primer lugar, quisiéramos preguntarle a la Secretaría por qué ha sido tan afirmativa, tan certera, tan escueta en la afirmación que hace en la primera frase del párrafo 13, donde dice que la mayor parte de los recursos necesarios para actividades forestales, no comerciales, sobre todo deben venir de fuentes de los propios países en desarrollo.

Realmente, no entendemos muy bien este concepto. Hemos leído los párrafos anteriores y podríamos compatir un poco, con cierta flexibilidad, la última frase del párrafo 12, pero esa primera frase del párrafo 13 realmente creemos que debe ser un poco modificada por lo menos, Sr. Presidente.

Pasamos enseguida al párrafo 31. Tampoco nos satisface la redacción del párrafo 31, donde se afirma de manera demasiado categórica que un grave obstáculo a la expansión de esas inversiones es la poca capacidad de los países en desarrollo para absorber recursos adicionales de manera productiva.

Si aceptásemos esta afirmación en esos términos tan latos, estaríamos de antemano condenando a los países en desarrollo a que no se les suministre mayor asistencia.

Pensamos que todo eso debe relacionarse con lo que ya se dice en el párrafo 55, al cual se refirieron particularmente España y Francia, en el sentido de que será necesario capacitar al personal de los países en desarrollo y, en general, facilitar a los países en desarrollo el desarrollo cade vez más progresivo de sus industrias forestales y de sus actividades de bosques, en general, para que hagan el mejor uso de esa asistencia externa.

Pensamos con mucho respeto, pero con gran convicción, que ese concepto que se expresa en el párrafo 31 está superado, no es actualizado.

El debate de esta tarde indica por ejemplo cómo países como Malasia a través del Banco Mundial, están potenciando sus actividades forestales; Zambia nos habla de actividades importantes en su país; Trinidad y Tabago, Egipto y China, de manera que creo que conviene ya prescindir de ese concepto que pensamos, repetimos, está superado y que hay necesidad de actualizarlo, de ponerlo al dia con las nuevas circunstancias de los países en desarrollo.

En relación con el párrafo 51, pensamos que ésta debe ser la recomendación esencial que haga el Consejo; decir que el Consejo reconoce la importancia de intensificar las medidas encaminadas a satisfacer la necesidad de conservación y desarrollo de los recursos forestales del mundo en desarrollo; pensamos que ésto es lo esencial.


Pensamos, volviendo de nuevo al párrafo 55, que también es esencial que se insista en que se debe capacitar al personal de los países en desarrollo, para que estas actividades puedan tener un seguimiento adecuado y así nuestros países puedan participar adecuadamente en este proceso.

Quisiéramos preguntar a la Secretaría si la FAO, a través de la cooperación financiera con el PNUD o con otro organismo, está ya llevando a cabo o, por lo menos, estimulando esas actividades de capacitación del personal de los países en desarrollo.

Finalmente, llegamos al punto más importante, tal vez el más controvertido: el párrafo 57.

En principio, cuando nos disponíamos a participar sobre la discusión de este tema, habíamos pensado que es muy lógica y muy adecuada la frase final del párrafo 57 que dice claramente que un estudio sólo se justificaría si hubiera indicios de que los principales donantes pontenciales estaban dispuestos a contribuir.

Por eso, cuando oímos las primeras declaraciones de los grandes países donantes, pensamos que no nos queda otra alternativa que rogar con una piadosa oración de paz, para que reposara tranquilamente la idea de crear ese Fondo Forestal Mundial.

Sin embargo, nos alentó luego la declaración del distinguido representante de Italia, quien parece, al menos a nosotros nos ha dado la impresión, de que, salvo en extremis, la posibilidad de que en nuestro informe podamos incluir algo positivo no es todo negativo en relación con esta iniciativa.

El Dr. Winkel, de la República Federal de Alemania, nos animó con su declaración pues no fue completamente negativa. El dijo algo, con lo cual coincidió con el colega Barbuda,de Brasil.

Se trata de que la idea del Fondo está apenas en embrión, se ha presentado en términos muy generales y yo creo que en nuestro informe podríamos apoyar la iniciativa de Italia. Pedir a la Secretaría que inicie la elaboración de un estudio de viabilidad y estoy seguro de que con la competencia de la FAO, particularmente en el sector forestal, se va a lograr presentar esa posibilidad, de manera que calme las inquietudes existentes, o sea, que no habrá duplicación de servicios, que no se va a incurrir en costos que debiliten la eficiencia de los recursos disponibles. El párrafo 19 habla ya de que hay numerosas fuentes de recursos. Entonces uno de los objetivos del Fondo debería ser canalizar debidamente y de la manera más eficaz posible todos esos recursos que ya existen.

Pensamos que si la Secretaría, como lo esperamos, presentara esta idea de manera objetiva, de manera viable y adecuada, podríamos lograr que, por lo menos, en esta reunión del Consejo, no perezca todavía la creación del Fondo Forestal Mundial.

Ngoy Toka MUEMA (Zaïre) Monsieur le Président, comme c'est la première fois que ma délégation prend la parole sous votre,présidence, permettez-moi de vous féliciter de cet honneur.

Comme d'autres délégués l'ont fait avant nous, je voudrais féliciter le Secrétariat pour la qualité du document qui nous est présenté au sujet de la mobilisation de fonds pour le développement forestier mondial.

En effet, toutes les questions examinées ici rentrent bien dans le cadre des préoccupations de la République du Zaïre où les forêts couvrent presque la moitié de la superficie, qui est de 2 345 000 km2.

Nos massifs forestiers gigantesques ne devraient pas jouer seulement le rôle de mère nourricière, de pourvoyeuse, erronément supposée intarissable, en faune et flore des plus diversifiées, mais doivent être perçus comme un important facteur de développement industriel, socio-économique et même-pourquoi pas-socioculturel.

La délégation du Zaïre est d'accord avec le paragraphe 2 à propos du volume important d'investissements et d'assistance technique nécessaires au développement des forêts et des industries forestières. C'est sans doute dans ce contexte que nous renouvelons notre appui pour la promotion et l'utilisation rationnelle de nos ressources forestières.

Avant de poursuivre ces brefs commentaires sur le document, ma délégation voudrait présenter rapidement certains problèmes préoccupants dans le secteur de l'exploitation du bois au Zaïre. Il s'agit d'informations très brèves, compte tenu du temps qui nous est imparti.


Premièrement, il s'agit de la technologie appropriée à inculquer à tous les niveaux pour réaliser le plus d'économies possibles et éviter ainsi le gaspillage. Prenons, par exemple, la mise au point de foyers plus économiques et leur utilisation par le plus grand nombre de ménages. Cela nous permettrait de réaliser d'importantes économies sur l'utilisation du bois et du charbon. Il y a également la bonne technique de la construction de fours de carbonisation à plus grande rentabilité. Les fours traditionnels ont une rentabilité très faible. Avec les techniques appropriées, on peut arriver à augmenter cette production d'environ 25 pour cent.

Il y a également l'utilisation des déchets de coupes ou de sciage qui constituent un véritable scandale dans certaines exploitations forestières quand on voit d'un côté la ville qui souffre de pénurie de bois de feu et de charbon et de l'autre côté les exploitations forestières qui n'utilisent que le bois d'oeuvre et qui négligent une grande quantité de bois pouvant être exploitée.

C'est dans le même contexte qu'il est demandé aux exploitants forestiers de ne pas procéder à un écrémage de la forêt, écrémage qui consiste à n'exploiter que les essences exportables en négligeant les essences qui pourraient être utilisées sur le. plan local.

Autre problème. J'ai évoqué ici l'utilisation des déchets de coupe; il y a une expérience qui a été faite dans notre pays depuis quelques années qui consiste à recourir à l'usage du gazogène qui utilise les déchets de bois et les résidus de sciure de bois soit pour la production d'énergie, soit pour le transport. Certains véhicules fonctionnent maintenant avec des gazogènes et nous espérons que cette expérience pourra apporter un certain soulagement au besoin en bois de feu dont la pression se fait sentir sur l'environnement forestier, principalement autour des villes.

Pour vous donner un exemple, nous avons estimé que la consommation de nos grandes villes telles que Kinshasa et Lumumbashi, bon an mal an, demanderait environ 500 000 tonnes de bois et on peut estimer que cette utilisation de bois déboucherait sur une dèforestation d'environ 80 000 hectares. Vous voyez à cette allure quelles dispositions seraient nécessaires pour éviter une telle situation. Nous devrions plutôt faire en sorte d'utiliser le maximum de bois possible avec la meilleure efficacité et de réaliser les économies, ce qui nous ramènerait vers une utilisation plus rationnelle de notre forêt.

Je vais passer rapidement sur un autre problème qui concerne notre pays, c'est celui qui est lié à la protection de l'environnement et à la conservation de la nature ainsi qu'à la protection des communautés biotiques et des réserves de la biosphère. Vous comprenez l'importance qu'on peut attacher à ces réserves de biosphère dans un pays comme le nôtre où nous avons le couvert forestier avec l'importance que j'ai évoquée tout à l'heure. C'est ainsi par exemple que, sur les 7 parcs nationaux qui existent au Zaïre, 3 sont presque exclusivement constitués de forêt dense et humide et que l'un d'entre eux est constitué partiellement de forêt de montagne; je peux vous signaler en passant qu'un de ces 7 parcs nationaux est essentiellement forestier et représente une superficie de 3 600 000 hectares de forêt à lui seul.

Il faut mentionner enfin les problèmes liés à l'inventaire forestier et à l'assistance technique. Depuis quelque temps, notre pays bénéficie de l'assistance canadienne pour l'inventaire forestier et l'évolution de cet inventaire a conduit à la création d'un service qu'on appelle le SPIAF, service permanent d'inventaire et d'aménagement forestier. Dans la réalisation de toutes ces actions, le Zaïre a bénéficié, et continue encore à bénéficier, de l'assistance technique et du financement de la part d'organismes comme la FAO et le PNUD ainsi que de la part de pays amis tels que le Canada et la Belgique. Il y a également certains pays qui exportent directement au travers de sociétés privées comme l'Allemagne ou d'autres pays.

Nous voulons souligner l'importance qu'il faut attacher au rôle de la population dans l'utilisation de la forêt et je ne m'étendrai pas sur cet élément qui a largement été évoqué par d'autres intervenant s.

Nous sommes conscients que l'étendue de nos forêts constitue une grande richesse qu'il faut mettre en valeur. Mais cette mise en valeur ne doit pas se faire n'importe comment. Nos forêts sont très fragiles et les exploiter sans discernement risque de nous conduire à la désertification.

En effet, à première vue, cela paraît impensable, compte tenu de l'étendue actuelle de ces forêts, mais comme nous le savons tous, les déserts d'aujourd'hui n'étaient-ils pas jadis des forêts verdoyantes ?


Si vous le permettez, je vais passer rapidement à quelques commentaires sur certains paragraphes du document.

Tout en souscrivant à l'analyse qui est faite dans le document CL 91/16, ma délégation pense que l'on n'a pas assez souligné l'importance qu'il convient d'accorder aux actions visant la conservation des forêts en tant qu'écosystèmes qui constituent le fondement de beaucoup de microclimats nécessaires au développement tant de l'homme que de la flore et de la faune. Ainsi, nous remarquons que sur le tableau numéro 1 où sont données les estimations des besoins annuels d'investissements dans le secteur forestier des pays en développement, jusqu'à l'an 2000, la rubrique "Conservation des écosystèmes forestiers tropicaux" ne bénéficie que de 0,7 à 0,9 pour cent du total des investissements estimés pour couvrir les besoins.

Nous pensons aussi que tout en aidant les pays en développement qui luttent contre le désert, la communauté internationale devrait aussi assister ceux des pays en développement couverts encore de forêts, pour qu'ils exploitent rationnellement ces ressources.

Ma délégation estime que les organisations non gouvernementales peuvent jouer un rôle important en matière de développement forestier. C'est pourquoi nous appuyons la solution proposée au paragraphe 45 où il est suggéré d'ouvrir des guichets dans les organisations existantes pour étudier les propositions de projets émanant des ONG.

Nous appuyons l'analyse faite dans le document au sujet du choix de financement: par projet ou par secteur.

En ce qui concerne l'évaluation de l'ampleur des besoins futurs d'aide au développement forestier et à la conservation des ressources, ma délégation estime que les besoins sont illimités et qu'il faudra les circonscrire au fur et à mesure que l'on aura des indications sur les investissements disponibles.

A cet effet, nous pensons qu'il est nécessaire de faire appel à toutes les sources de financement dont la FAO peut réussir à mobiliser les fonds.

Pour ce qui est de la capacité d'absorption et du niveau des ressources humaines nécessaires dans les pays en développement, nous estimons que pareille contrainte, si elle existe, est facile à lever car il suffit d'aider les pays concernés à augmenter leur capacité d'absorption et à élever le niveau des ressources humaines par la formation, l'entraînement et d'autres moyens pratiques.

Nous apportons notre appui au contenu du paragraphe 57 en ce qui concerne la nécessité d'un fonds forestier mondial et d'une étude de faisabilité à cet effet.

R. RABE (Madagascar) Notre délégation félicite le Secrétariat pour la clarté et la qualité du document CL 91/16.

Lors des examens successifs du Programme d'action forestier tropical par le Comité des forêts, le Conseil et la Conférence, les délégations ont toujours insisté sur le soutien effectif, permanent et efficace que la FAO doit assurer aux pays en voie de développement pour leur permettre d'aller de l'avant dans la mise en oeuvre des programmes prioritaires contenus dans le plan d'action. Le document CL 91/16 répond à cet appel dans la mesure où il étudie les voies et moyens pour mobiliser des fonds pour le développement forestier mondial. C'est un élément fondamental pour la dynamisat ion de la foresterie mondiale en général et pour la préservation, l'exploitation rationnelle et la valorisation de la foresterie tropicale.

Le paragraphe 2 du document indique un montant considérable des investissements et de l'assistance requis: 13 à 17 milliards de dollars par an, pour les seuls pays en développement, dont 8 à 11 milliards pour le développement des industries forestières et environ 1 milliard par an pour l'amélioration des moyens physiques. Sans une volonté politique de la communauté internationale, sans un engagement ferme des Etats Membres et des institutions spécialisées du système des Nations Unies, et sans l'appui des organisations non gouvernementales, il serait vain d'espérer que l'on puisse mobiliser de tels moyens financiers.

Dans cet esprit, nous appuyons fermement les idées contenues dans les paragraphes 56 et 57 du document. En effet, chaque fois que l'occasion s'était présentée, notre délégation a toujours soutenu


le projet de création d'un mécanisme chargé d'acheminer les investissements multilatéraux vers le secteur forestier. Nous avons toujours manifesté notre conviction de l'utilité, de la nécessité et de l'opportunité de créer un fonds forestier mondial. Bien entendu, il est indispensable que sa nature et sa structure soient précisées par une étude de faisabilité qui aurait d'ailleurs déjà dû démarrer si des positions négatives de principe ne s'étaient manifestées.

Notre délégation est fortement convaincue de la nécessité de telle étude et souhaite que le Conseil prescrive au Secrétariat sa réalisation. Ce faisant, nous voulons assurer le minimum de cohérence entre les déclarations quasi unanimes des délégations quant à leur ferme volonté d'aller de l'avant dans le développement forestier mondial, et la création opportune d'un mécanisme financier approprié pour y parvenir.

Nous pensons que les résultats de telle étude pourrait justement permettre de convaincre et de motiver les principaux donateurs évoqués à la dernière phrase du paragraphe 57 et de leur faire partager la position justifiée des pays en voie de développement et fort heureusement de quelques pays développés dont l'Italie, que nous voulons vivement remercier.

T. YANGA (Cameroun) La délégation camerounaise félicite le Secrétariat pour l'excellent document CL 91/16 qui décrit de façon claire et précise la nécessité de mobiliser des fonds pour le développement forestier mondial.

Le secteur des Forêts, notamment dans les pays en voie de développement, renferme un potentiel scientifique, économique et social énorme, qui, dans la plupart des cas, est exploité soit de façon inadéquate, soit insuffisamment pour plusieurs raisons dont la raison financière est une des plus importantes.

Au Cameroun, la forêt couvre 20 millions d'hectares. Elle apporte une contribution importante au développement économique et social du pays. Cependant, le gouvernement est fermement décidé à accroître cette contribution en lui donnant la place qu'elle mérite véritablement.

C'est ainsi qu'il entend, au cours du 6ème plan quinquennal de développement 1986-91, mettre l'accent sur l'utilisation rationnelle de la forêt, en se basant sur une connaissance profonde des potentialités en place.

Dans le domaine de la production, l'accent sera mis non seulement sur la production du bois d'oeuvre, mais aussi sur la production des autres produits forestiers sur la base d'une exploitation et d'une gestion rationnelle des ressources qui devraient également permettre d'avoir des bénéfices induits, notamment en ce qui concerne l'industrialisation, la création d'emplois en milieu rural, l'amélioration du niveau de vie des masses paysannes, l'amélioration de conditions nutritionnelles,. etc.

Enfin, la protection de l'environnement, la promotion du meilleur équilibre écologique seront des objectifs á atteindre, grâce à une meilleure gestion et à une protection de ce qui existe, au reboisement, à la protection des sols et des eaux, à la lutte contre la sécheresse, à l'amélioration de la qualité de vie en milieu rural et urbain.

A côté de ce programme, des mesures d'accompagnement sont prévues et concernent le renforcement des institutions existantes. Un accent particulier est mis sur la formation de cadres à tous les niveaux, la vulgarisation sylvicole et la recherche.

Tous les projets identifiés dans cette optique ont été estimés à 124,4 milliards de FCFA dont seulement 49,9 milliards proviendront de fonds privés. Ces chiffres vous donnent une idée de l'ampleur des besoins de financement du Cameroun pour le développement de son secteur forestier, en dépit des efforts que nous-mêmes sommes prêts à consentir.

Cela dit, après l'adoption du plan d'action forestier tropical que mon pays appuie fermement et dont l'un des rôles fondamentaux est exprimé au paragraphe 51, les pays en développement ont besoin d'un accroissement d'investissement et d'assistance technique des pays développés et des organismes multilatéraux.

C'est pourquoi nous approuvons les conclusions globales du document qui nous a été brillamment présenté par M. Flores Rodas. Nous pensons que cette aide additionnelle devrait couvrir les secteurs énumérés au chapitre 4 du document avec un accent tout particulier sur l'amélioration des institutions forestières, la conservation des écosystèmes et bois de feu et énergie.


De même, cette aide doit porter sur la formation et l'éducation, comme le souligne le paragraphe 6.

Ma délégation pense qu'il est indispensable d'accroître l'efficience des mécanismes de financement et l'efficacité des organismes d'aide internationale. De même, nous pensons que les organisations non gouvernementales, compte tenu de leur zone d'activités, peuvent jouer un rôle important, notamment en tant qu'intermédiaires entre les organismes de prêts et les collectivités locales pour les programmes de foresterie sociale et de conservation. Ceci est souligné au paragraphe 42. A ce sujet, nous appuyons la proposition qui est faite au paragraphe 45.

Nous pensons également que les conditions de prêts doivent tenir compte des caractéristiques de projets de développement forestier, comme il ressort du paragraphe 32.

Pour terminer, Monsieur le Président, je voudrais renouveler ici la profonde gratitude de mon gouvernement a tous les pays amis et aux organisations internationales qui apportent leur aide ou qui se sont déclarés prêts à apporter leur assistance financière et technique pour la mise en oeuvre des activités du plan d'action forestier tropical prévu dans mon pays et tout particulièrement la FAO pour son rôle de coordination et de mobilisation. Nous l'encourageons. à ne pas relâcher ses efforts.

S. Gblorzno TOWEH (Liberia) Please allow me to thank you, Mr Chairman, and the FAO staff for preparing document CL 91/16. My delegation is pleased to note the effort being made by FAO to mobilize funds for forestry development. Liberia possesses vast forest resources, but the low level of technology in agriculture and other related areas is posing a serious threat to the forests. Shifting cultivation processes by the vast majority of rural farmers is destructive of the forest, as well as to the farmers themselves. We know the vast benefits that forests can offer, apart from their direct benefit. Forests protect the soil and water which are essential to the existence of man. Tropical soil is so fragile that it cannot support secondary agriculture; therefore the farmer must move from one area to another every year or two in order to get good yields. This system of farming is harmful to the forests.

My delegation believes that an important way of protecting tropical forests is to improve the agricultural system in Africa, a system that will encourage the use of one area year after year, along with the provision of improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs.

Earlier, we referred to the importance of the forests of Liberia. The forestry industry now stands as the first industry of our country after iron ore and rubber. It has attracted large investment in the industry, but as stated in document CL 91/16, investors are interested only in extracting the logs. The rest of the area referred to for obvious reasons is not attractive to private investors.

Since one of the interesting characteristics of forests is their ability to combat desertification, and with the expansion of desert in Africa, my delegation welcomes every effort by FAO and the international community to encourage and mobilize funding for forest development.

Once again, we want to show our appreciation to you, Mr Chairman, and the FAO staff for the wonderful document here under discussion.

P.R. BRYDEN (Australia) I have had occasion to refer to the importance of forestry at an earlier stage of our debate on the report of COAG. I now propose to focus my brief remarks on the issue of the establishment of a world forest fund which is raised in document CL 91/16. We did not support the proposal put at the Eighth Session of COFI for the establishment of a world forest fund, and there does not appear to be any additional or new factors or proposals incorporated in that report which would influence our original decision. Of course, we will reflect carefully on our debate on this item.

The work of FAO has coincided with an Australian initiative to promote awareness within the governments of developing countries of the potential of the Australian forestry sector to contribute to their development. At this stage, it appears that the most positive action we can take to implement the Tropical Forest Action Plan proposal would be the continuation of assistance to tropical developing countries through, for example, the provision of seed, the attendance of technical advisers at seminars and where possible making available advisers on special projects. The "Seeds of Australian Trees for Developing Countries" Project has provided genetic material to bilateral donors as well as to locally funded forestry activities in developing countries. A current review of this project


indicates that the financial benefit of these genetic materials amount to hundreds, and possibly even thousands, of millions of dollars. It is our view that the FAO Department of Forestry should immediately undertake a review of its own forestry priorities within the FAO Tropical Forest Action Plan to achieve a level of funding commensurate with the importance of the Plan.

FAO has rightly identified the marked emphasis away from funding large-scale, industry-oriented projects to social forestry, watershed management and conservation forestry. We believe that with closer examination of current institutional arrangements and priorities there would be much more scope for self-help in developing countries if it was at least partly-funded by the developing countries themselves. Australia also believes that greater information exchange and collaboration on a regional basis could contribute significantly to cost effectiveness as well as to many common technical problems.

Sra. M. LIZARRAGA (México) Seremos muy breves. Nuestra delegación le da gran importancia al sector forestal y felicita a la Secretaría por la preparación de este documento, cuya introducción excelente del Dr. Flores Rodas nos da un panorama muy completo de la situación.

Con particular énfasis en el Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos, aprobamos los cinco sectores contenidos en él.

Es evidente la necesidad de incrementar los fondos para el desarrollo y financiamiento y nos unimos al llamamiento de incrementar los fondos internacionales para este fin.

Asimismo, coincidimos plenamente con la necesidad de incrementar la capacidad de absorción de los países en desarrollo para proyectos de inversión en materia forestal, para lo cual la capacitación es un elemento clave. El papel del Departamento de Montes de la FAO en esta materia es un factor esencial y coincidimos con aquellas delegaciones que han expresado todo su apoyo para reforzar su importante labor y la propuesta contenida en el proyecto del Programa de Presupuesto.

Finalmente, Señor Presidente, coincidimos plenamente con las delegaciones de Nicaragua, Cuba, Colombia y otras, en sus referencias a la constructiva posición expresada por la honorable delegación de Italia a la cual felicitamos y apoyamos, a fin de que se mantenga vigente la posibilidad del establecimiento del Fondo.

V.K. SIBAL (India) We would like to thank the Director-General for the report that he submitted on the financing requirements for action to protect and conserve the world's forests. We note that the requirement for funds for the developing countries is of great magnitude and that it is estimated to be between $13 to $17 billion a year. We also note that in any serious attempt to pursue the Tropical Forestry Action Plan account will have to be taken both of investment proiects for actual development of forests and for technical assistance to increase the absorptive capacity of developing countries to make effective use of the assistance available.

While pursuing the implementation of the act ion plan the increased use of local resources, as mentioned in paragraph 25 of the document, and of food aid, as mentioned in paragraph 25, is of great importance and needs to be kept in view at all times. It is true that when plans of such magnitude are to be considered huge additional financial resources would be required and the effectiveness of the assistance mechanism and approaches would have to be ensured. For that, the indications in this paper of cooperation and coordination of assistance programmes of various multilateral and bilateral agencies and the imaginative use of programmes, as well as project funding, the effective use of co-financing to increase the funds that may be available and the involvement of NGOs on the basis of experience in this area are ideas that will have to be pursued much further.

In the same manner, in order to increase the absorptive capacity of developing countries an appropriate balance between technical assistance and investment would have to be struck training and research would have to be expanded, and the design of assistance projects improved. If the expanded funding is to be mobilized, institutional innovations will have to be explored.

I would like to take this opportunity to place before this meeting the situation as it obtains in India today in relation to the focus of this subject. The average annual deforestation rate works out to about 1.3 million hectares in India. The removal of firewood along with increased grazing pressure has contributed considerably towards depletion and degradation of forest cover, particularly in the vicinity of urban cities and large villages. As any other developing country,


India also needs to promote a massive reforestation programme to reverse the trend of deforestation. The Government has been aware of this need and has set up a national Wastelands Development Board to bring 5 million hectares of land under fuel and fodder plantation every year.

The Government is also promoting wood substitution through the development of alternate sources of energy, the popularizing of smokeless and more efficient wood-burning stoves, replacement of wooden packing boxes with corrugated fibreboard cartons, improved crematoria, substitution of wooden railway sleepers by concrete and steel sleepers, etcetera.

To eliminate the practice of the removal of firewood in headloads, townships having a population in excess of 5 000 and situated in the vicinity of forests are being identified and special emphasis is being given to provide them with alternate fuels such as coal, kerosene and LPG, to reduce the requirement for firewood.

Appreciation of local and national problems in respect of shortages of forest products has become an integral part of national planning and has also been built into the externally-aided social forestry projects. Appropriate solutions are being found to mitigate the shortages and simultaneously to augment shrinking forest resources.

With regard to the investment and technical assistance requirements of future forestry development, we recognize that substantial inputs are needed. Additional resources have to be mobilized and FAO may take the lead in convincing the donor agencies and nations to be liberal in their assistance so that forestry programmes are appropriately funded. We also recognize that there is an urgent need to improve efficiency and effectiveness by innovative cost-effective techniques for meaningful utilization of such funds.

Amadou Moustapha KAMARA (Sènègal) c'est avec un grand intérêt que la délégation sénégalaise a pris acte du contenu du document CL 91/16 intitulé: Mobiliser des fonds pour le développement forestier mondial, dont le Directeur général adjoint de la FAO chargé des questions forestières vient de nous faire l'exposé avec compétence et clarté. Ma délégation lui adresse ses félicitations.

Le document, qui nous a été présenté à la demande du Comité des forêts réuni dans sa 8ème session à Rome en avril dernier, brille par la rigueur et l'exactitude avec lesquelles il aborde les problèmes liés au financement des activités forestières.

Si l'ampleur des ressources financières requises pour la protection, le développement et l'exploitation du capital forestier des pays en développement-entre 13 et 17 milliards de dollars par an-n'a d'égal que l'ambition des objectifs du Plan d'action forestier tropical, il ne doit en aucun cas occulter le fait qu'à terme, les ressources locales devront progressivement constituer l'essentiel des efforts pour mettre en oeuvre ce plan. Ma délégation estime que, dans ce domaine, la FAO doit nous apporter son assistance la plus substantielle.

La délégation sénégalaise saisit l'occasion qui lui est offerte pour rendre hommage à tous les pays donateurs pour le soutien croissant observé depuis le milieu des années soixante-dix au secteur forestier, même si ce secteur mobilise encore moins d'un pour cent de l'aide officielle totale au développement. C'est que la protection et le dévelopement des forêts restent, du fait de leur incidence sur la désertification, des activités vitales pour tout le Sahel.

Au moment où la plupart des Etats d'Afrique se sont engagés dans un processus difficile d'ajustement de leurs économies et où les ressources financières internes de ces Etats se font de plus en plus rares, ma délégation juge à sa juste valeur et approuve la nécessité reconnue dans le document d'accroître à la fois le volume et l'efficience des mécanismes de financement, l'efficacité des mécanismes d'aide internationale de même que la capacité interne de nos Etats d'absorber utilement les flux financiers conséquents.

Ma délégation prend note de la proposition faite dans le document de créer un Fonds forestier mondial et se réserve, du fait de la complexité de cette question, de prendre une position circonstanciée sur ce problème. Elle sollicite d'ores et déjà que plus de détails sur le statut, les mécanismes et la procédure devant régir ce Fonds puissent lui être fournis.


G. CARRASCO (Observador de Chile) Seré lo más breve posible.

Antes que nada, mi delegación estima de toda justicia felicitar a la Secretaría por el excelente documento producido en este tema.

Sin entrar en el fondo general del documento, mi delegación estima que la mayor parte de sus opiniones y sugerencias merecen ser cuidadosamente estudiadas. En suma, mi delegación endosa este documento.

Debo también hacer llegar las felicitaciones de la delegación de Chile al Sr. Flores Rodas por la excelente introducción de este tema en su documento.

Mi delegación también comparte, en gran parte, las postulaciones del Sr. Flores Rodas en su exposición introductoria.

Hemos visto que hay una concordancia general sobre la necesidad de incrementar las inversiones en el sector forestal, no podría ser de otra manera; a nadie escapa la importancia a este sector en sus aspectos ecológicos, sociales y económicos a nivel mundial.

Se debe estimular el incremento de los niveles de inversión en el sector forestal, sean que estos provengan de niveles oficiales o privados.

Al mismo tiempo, la delegación de Chile cree que se deben vitalizar los procedimientos de asistencia técnica que permitan un adecuado uso de los recursos forestales existentes, así como un mejor aprovechamiento de las inversiones que allí se hagan. La necesidad de inversiones son generales para todos los países en desarrollo.

El documento CL 91/16 expone claramente esta situación. En lo que toca al caso de Chile, nosotros necesitamos en el período que va de 1986 al ano 2003 inversiones que superan los 1 400 millones de dólares, inversiones que tienen que estar orientadas básicamente para instalaciones de nuevas plantas de procesamiento industrial, ampliación y modernización de la infraestructura industrial, portuaria y ferroviaria, y, en general, inversiones en maquinaria y equipo.

Esta situación de Chile se repite en mayor o menor grado en casi todos los países en vías de desarollo.

Una mayor inversión se puede canalizar por los mecanismos existentes tanto a nivel oficial internacional como privado, pero la importancia que reviste para la humanidad en general la conservación y protección de los bosques en el mundo no hacen del todo desechable la idea de un Fondo Forestal Mundial.

Mi delegación cree que con un adecuado realismo y pragmatismo se debería orientar las ideas a este respecto para encontrar la conjunción política financiera que permita en un futuro examinar la viabilidad de la creación del Fondo Forestal Mundial.

CHAIRMAN For your information, I have received written statements from the Philippines delegation and from the Observer for Kenya which will be inserted in the verbatim report.

Humberto U. AMORANTO (Philippines) In our forests live one of the poorest of our poor people-the shifting cultivators and marginal farmers in our forest area.

Yet in the forest can be found one of the highest potentials for increasing agricultural production and increasing rural incomes.

After our lowland areas, the development of cultivable upland areas in our forests occupy a very high priority in our country's national development plan and programme.

The problem is how to reconcile forest conservation with the requirement to provide livelihood to shifting cultivators. Successful experience on how to address these problems would be valuable to our policy makers.

The Philippine delegation, therefore, supports fully the strategies in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan and the concepts identified and recommended in the report on funds mobilization for forest development (Document CL 91/16).


We especially welcome the interests expressed by some of our friends in FAO in pursuing further the findings in the report or in carrying out project type technical cooperation projects, notably Italy and Japan.

At the same time, we recognize the value and necessity of local resources mobilization for complementing external development assistance (Para. 25) in the implementation of upland area development projects.

It is in this respect that we fully subscribe to the report's recommendation for expanded use of co-financing schemes (Paras. 49-50).

Based on this project financing scheme, the Philippines is prepared to support a cooperation project that combines in a package external assistance inputs from FAO for the multilateral assistance component, investment project assistance from a cooperating country and private sector investments where justified from the cooperating country. Local resources, mostly in local labor and materials, to complement the external assistance complete the project financing package.

The Philippine delegation in stating its full support to the strategy of and financing plan for implementing the Tropical Forestry Action Plan, also looks forward to discussions with cooperating donor governments or organizations for translating intentions to assist developing countries develop their forests into programmes of action. 1/

S.M. GUANTAI (Observer for Kenya) We beg your indulgence if we as observers show this desire to speak up too often and for this matter on forestry programmes. There is a very good reason for this: my country is threatened by the southward encroaching Sahara desert which threatens our very core of existence: good agricultural lands.

We have in many fora portrayed the importance with which we uphold afforestation and conservation programmes. Afforestation efforts are now a national preoccupation in my country. These efforts enjoy the biggest political support and will.

The national awareness has gone as far as to involve school children, party organizations and the Non-Governmental Organizations, including Women's Movements.

For children and women, trees are very important as a source of renewable fuel. The need to have trees as near to their homes as possible is in the forefront of intentions to ease the problems and agonies of seeking fuelwood. In this regard agroforestry is crucial and needs to be given that prominence by this Council. This is because such approaches are very relevant to many of our agricultural-based countries where human populations and the urge to provide the people with land for agricultural development may override the desire for conventional forests.

The conventional forests are also threatened by greed and fast profit-making individuals who want quick riches only to destroy the forests.

We also have the political pressure giving in to the human needs for agricultural lands leading to alienation of parts of existing forests and to natural disasters such as forest fires, droughts, and phyto-pathogenic problems.

During the last COFO we urged for mass education to create awareness of the importance of forests and trees in particular.

The long-term investments for tree-afforestation programmes and the public status of many of the conventional forests dictates that institutional support is much needed by the developing countries whose priorities may, in the short term not appear to put forests ahead of more urgent needs. This is why my delegation welcomes the Tropical Forest Action Plan.

1/ Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.


Not much is known of our indigenous trees yet many of these have for generations been exploited for medicinal and other economic purposes by the traditionalists. Increased silvicultural studies could set out and identify such species, their economic uses and how best they can be produced and exploited. This also requires financial resources.

During the last COFO we did share our national experience with the Committee on the establishment and the use of the National Tree Fund. We were very appreciative of the similar move and proposals to establish an International Forestry Fund. We urge that this proposal be taken seriously and with urgency if we have to be of assistance to the many countries faced with serious fuelwood shortages and those that are threatened with desertification. 1/

M.A. FLORES RODAS (Subdirector General, Departamento de Montes) En primer lugar, yo quisiera, en nombre de la Secretaría, agradecer a los señores representantes del Consejo por el apoyo tan decidido en la participación de 34 países en la discusión del tema que nos ocupa en la tarde de hoy.

Independientemente de opiniones que aparentemente son contrarias, veo yo un gran denominador común. En primer lugar, hay una aceptación total y un apoyo total y efectivo a los esfuerzos del Sr Director General, a través del Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos, en todas sus cinco partes principales y en su filosofía y estrategia, que incluye un gran elemento de inversión ya identificado dentro del Plan mencionado.

En segundo lugar, veo también una aceptación total de la necesidad de mantener e incrementar la inversión en el sector forestal, con la única limitación de "siempre y cuando-y lo he interpretado así, Sr Presidente-el sector forestal se identifique con las necesidades de la sociedad en que está representado".

Esto me indica a mí que el hacer un estudio profundo, detallado y pragmático de las necesidades de inversión en cada país no es rápido de hacer, porque la decisión de invertir en mayor o menor cantidad en el sector forestal es función, primero de cada país y su derecho soberano de hacerlo; en segundo lugar, dentro del país, en función de la inversión en los otros sectores de la economía que tienen que tener un balance total en las inversiones totales del país.

Por lo tanto, depende del país cómo considera que el sector forestal puede o debe participar en los esfuerzos propios del desarrollo. Es una cuestión que no se puede hacer un estudio de un día para otro. Por lo tanto, yo he interpretado la discusión de los colegas suyos aquí en el Consejo, como le decía, un apoyo total al esfuerzo del Director General en este ramo, en este sector, y, en segundo lugar, de que debemos mantener en una forma permanente un control de lo que sucede y el comportamiento de las inversiones en el sector forestal dentro del marco del Plan de Acción Forestal en el Trópico, ya que es un plan aceptado no sólo por los países representados, sino también por todas las agencias multilaterales y bilaterales que están siendo armonizadas a través de la acción de la FAO.

Por lo tanto, yo interpreto que la necesidad de inversión existe y tiene el apoyo total de todos ustedes. Lo que probablemente hay es una cierta diferencia en el método, en la metodología a seguir para que esta inversión tenga efectos sobre los países.

Por lo tanto, como yo lo interpreto, es que debemos seguir pendientes del comportamiento y de las necesidades de inversión en cada país a un futuro cercano y volver a presentar algún tipo de estudio aquí en la FAO.

Preguntas específicas: tuve una de parte del distinguido representante de Suiza en la que menciona específicamente a un fondo de inversión, International Tropical Timber Organization, que es un organismo esencialmente creado a través de los acuerdos por la UNCTAD para proceder a la venta y el mercadeo internacional, al comercio internacional de la madera tropical. Por lo tanto, esto es una institución característicamente dedicada al mercado de estas maderas tropicales.

Desde el momento de la idea inicial y a través de todo el proceso de gestación de esta institución, la FAO, a través de tanto de la Dirección de Productos Básicos y Comercio del

1/ Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.


Departamento de Economía Social y del Departamento de Montes, ha estado permanentemente involucrada en las labores de esta institución. Por lo tanto, tenemos una relación muy íntima y ha sido ya reconocida oficiosamente por la FAO como un organismo correspondiente con la FAO.

Hemos ya recibido la visita del Sr, Secretario General de Malasia y tenemos ya los programa conjuntos financiados por la institución o financiados por el programa regular dentro del Departamento de Montes de la FAO.

Quería mencionar esto por una pregunta del distinguido representante de Suiza sobre la relación del ITTO con la FAO.

En general, creo que preguntas específicas no ha habido ninguna más y lo único que yo podría decir para terminar esta intervención más rápida sería que el sector forestal es función importante en todos los países. La forma de interpretarlo, la forma de cómo este sector puede participar o debe participar es función soberana de cada país.

En seguendo lugar, también el Plan de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos, adoptado por todos ustedes, es un elemento importante y una vez más ha recibido el apoyo total de parte de ustedes.

CHAIRMAN Thank you very much, Mr Flores Rodas. You have made my work very easy indeed because in addition to replying to the questions you have also given a fine summing-up of the debate in Council this afternoon.

That brings us to the end of the agenda item on forestry. I wish to thank you very much indeed for having cooperated with the Chair in such an excellent way.

The meeting rose at 18.30 hours
La séance est levée à 18 h 30
Se levanta la sesión a las 18.30 horas

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