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5. Report of the Fourteenth Session of the Committee on World Food Security (Rome, 3-7 April 1989) (continued)
5. Rapport de la quatorzième session du Comité de la sécurité alimentaire (Rome, 3-7 avril 1989) (suite)
5. Informe del 14 periodo de sesiones del Comité de Seguridad Alimentaria Mundial (Roma, 3-7 de abril de 1989) (continuación)

LE PRESIDENT: Nous reprenons la suite de nos travaux. Nous avons déjà pris du retard sur le calendrier. Hier, les discussions ont été très intéressantes et, malgré la prolongation de la séance, nous n'avons pas épuisé le problème comme prévu. Nous souhaiterions pouvoir donner à M. Dutia l'opportunité de répondre â vos questions.

Vanrob ISARANKURA (Thailand): At the outset, I wish to join the other delegates in expressing our happiness in seeing you again in the Chair of this august meeting, and would like to congratulate the three Vice-Chairmen for their election. My delegation also wishes to extend its warm welcome to our new Members.

My delegation has carefully studied the Report of the Fourteenth Session of the Committee on World Food Security and wishes to offer some comments as follows:

Firstly, we fully support the view of the Committee as indicated in para 27 of the Report and would like to join this Committee to express our concern about the experience with adjustment programmes in that, in the short term, they often resulted in a sharp fall in the real purchasing power of the poor and limited their ability to purchase food and other essential commodities.

Secondly, we concur with all the views as contained in paragraph 31. Especially we should emphasize that external resources be channelled specifically to productive investment in research and extension, input delivery systems and infrastructure development.

Thirdly, we also agree that there was a need for greater collaboration between the World Bank, the IMF and the FAO in order to safeguard food security concerns in the context of structural adjustment as mentioned in paragraph 32.

Finally Mr Chairman, we support the view that this Committee should continue to hold annual meetings. We also agree that, in view of the present precarious situation and uncertain prospects of the world food security situation, the issue of the frequency of the Committee's session should be deferred to a later date. Thank you for your attention.

R. MULELE (Observer for Zambia): Allow me on behalf of my delegation to express our happiness at seeing you in the Chair. By the same token we wish to extend our congratulations to the newly elected three Vice-Chairmen.

We also wish to commend the Director-General, Dr Saouma, for his succinct and revealing opening statement yesterday.

Turning to the subject under discussion we would first like to compliment the Assistant Director-General Mr Dutia, for his lucid introduction of this subject.

In view of the time factor Mr Chairman, and since we are speaking on borrowed time, we would like to make only a very few observations. With regard to paragraph 18, we regret to note that the contributions to the International Emergency Food Reserve for 1988 fell below the agreed minimum of 500,000 tons of cereals. It is our sincere hope that this situation will be reversed in the foreseeable future in order to guarantee food security at higher levels.

We are pleased to note efforts of cooperation amongst developing countries as stated in paragraph 21. We wish only to underline the call made in this paragraph for FAO to continue to support regional and sub-regional cooperative activities.

We note with regret that the effects of stabilization and structural adjustment programmes on food security have had little if any positive impact, especially in the developing countries. The reasons for this situation are clearly indicated in paragraph 26. In our view, we think that part of the solution lies as stated in the last sentence of paragraph 26, that is to say that there is more need for a more favourable international and economic trade environment as a necessary framework for the implementation of structural adjustment programmes. In this connection we wish to support fully the Committee's recommendation in paragraph 32 concerning the major role that FAO can play in the stabilization and structural adjustment processes in some developing countries.

Lastly, but certainly not least, we wish to join hands with those delegates who have recognized and appreciated we have benefited from its services in Zambia.

LE PRESIDENT:Je remercie tous les délégués qui ont bien voulu enrichir ce débat sur une question très importante.

Permetttez-moi de donner la parole à M. Dutia pour apporter les réponses et les éclaircissements consécutifs aux observations de nos délégués.

B.P. DUTIA (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): On behalf of the Secretariat I would like to thank the Members and Observers of the Council who have reacted to the Report of the Committee on Food Security. There have been a few questions and some points on which clarification is needed, and with your permission Mr Chairman, I will take this opportunity to respond·

In the first place, the delegate of Pakistan suggested that it would be useful if the Secretariat were to report on any further developments or new information that might have come to the attention of the Secretariat on certain conclusions and recommendations that were made by the Committee. The same point was reiterated by India. In that context I would like to report on a number of points to which the Pakistan delegate referred specifically.

Be wanted to know about the action taken by the FAO concerning the emergency situation in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. I would like to respond that the FAO sent a mission under the TCP to investigate the damage that had been caused by the floods and to make project proposals for rehabilitation. As soon as the mission's report is received, the FAO will consider taking further action within the resources that are available.

Secondly, regarding the support to Namibia, I am pleased to inform the Council that the FAO, as the members are aware, has been an active partner in the United Nations Nationhood Programme for Namibia. Under that programme, with funding from the United Nations Trust Fund for Namibia UNDP and our TCP, the FAO has implemented a series of projects for a survey of Namibia's resources and analysis of policy options that are likely to be open to an independent government of the territory in the fields of agriculture and fisheries. Recently the UNDP has funded a data collection and reconnaisance mission to Namibia to identify the financial, economic and social areas in which there are gaps in information about the territory in order to prepare development programmes. We had the benefit of discussions with the mission's leader on his return from Namibia, and the mission's findings leave us with little doubt that urgent action is required to support the rural and agricultural sectors with economic action programmes.

The FAO contributions will focus on two lines of action. Firstly, the organization will provide emergency relief from within its own resources in the form of seeds, tools and expertise to complement the ongoing resettlement efforts.

Secondly, with the collaboration of the UNDP, the FAO will be executing a short-term programme for food production and resettlement during the transition in the period immediately after independence. The FAO also proposes to station an officer in Namibia to ensure effective liaison between FAO and all other parties concerned with the implementation of the United Nations plan for the independence of Namibia.

Recently we have also received a programme of work prepared by the United Nations Council for Namibia and our reaction to that will be sent during the course of this week.

There were also questions raised as to what action has been taken concerning the collaboration between the World Bank, IMF and the FAO as recommended by the Committee on World Food Security. During the two months that have elapsed since the holding of the meeting there have been a few developments that may be of interest to the members of the Council.

Firstly, there was a meeting held at the FAO headquarters with Mr Edward V.R. Jaycox, Vice President of the World Bank for Africa Regional Office, and later that was followed by a meeting with the Chief of the Agricultural Operations Division for the Occidental and Central Africa Department. Following those meetings and another meeting in the field with the Senior Economist for the Sahelian Department, the FAO is at work in Senegal and Guinea in collaboration with the World Bank and other financial institutions in conducting the analysis that is needed to provide the basis for the negotiation of the agreements concerning measures to be included in the structural adjustment loans.

Similar requests have also been received from some other countries and we will be looking into those requests and try to respond to them as best we can. In addition, I might also say that the World Bank has been invited to participate in the FAO projects of assistance to Jordan in agricultural policy analysis.

We are pleased to inform the Council that the World Bank has provided a Deputy Team Leader for the ongoing FAO/UNDP mission to Vietnam to conduct an agricultural and food production review.

These developments do indicate, I hope, that action is being taken along the lines proposed by the Committee in this field.

There were also comments made by several delegates about the impact of the structural adjustment programmes, and a number of references were made to data and methodological constraints. We are fully aware of the difficulties in drawing conclusions on the impact of the structural adjustment because of these difficulties.

In this connection some references were also made to the recent World Bank/UNDP Study. To illustrate the difficulties of assessment I would like to refer to the subsequent study that was undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, ECA. This study drew very different conclusions from the same information base that was used by the World Bank and UNDP in their study. We understand that there was also a meeting on this matter convened by the World Bank and the other parties concerned, which was attended by the Director of the ECA/FAO Joint Division.

As a follow-up to this the FAO is assisting the ECA in the development of methodology for structural adjustment analyses, which we hope will include also an assessment of the links between agriculture and the rest of the economy. This illustrates very clearly the difficulties in drawing firm conclusions and also taking one study as against the other.

The delegate of Switzerland referred to the follow-up and the activities of the Food Security
Assistance Scheme. I am pleased to inform the members of the Council that, following the report of
the Expert Evaluation Team on the future orientation of the Food Security Assistance Scheme, which
was considered by the Conference last year, and the decisions that have been taken thereon and in
the light of the comments provided by the Director-General on that report, FAO has expanded the
mandate of the Food Security Assistance Scheme to cover the wider issues involved in implementing
the broader concept of food security. We are now developing a programme for assistance to
Interested countries in drawing up national comprehensive food security programmes with the help of
interested donors.

I am also glad to inform the Council that in the initial period four countries in Africa that have expressed interest in receiving this assistance have been selected for the FAO action programme in this field. These four countries are Niger, Chad, Tanzania and Zambia.

I am happy to inform the members of the Council that in this programme as it is being evolved we are in close touch with the donors, including Switzerland, on the future orientation for this programme. We do hope that we will be in a position to prepare adequate documentation for a forthcoming meeting with the donors that will help us in putting this programme into action.

Lastly, I would like to make a brief reference and response to the observations made by the delegate of Venezuela concerning the FAO's activities in the area of wheatless bread. We understand the spirit in which those comments were made, and I would like to make it very clear that the FAO has not advocated the displacement of traditional foods by wheatless bread. On the contrary, FAO has a strong programme of utilization and upgrading of traditional food products. Wheatless bread has been recommended only for those countries in which bread consumption is already an established fact and the importation of wheat has negatively affected the market for traditional crops. In those countries we are simply promoting the use of traditional, locally available crops to replace the imported wheat in breadmaking. That is the goal of the FAO's work in that area.

I hope this more or less satisfies the questions that were raised and the information requested.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie Monsieur Dutia, au nom du Conseil, pour la réponse claire et précise qu'il vient de donner aux questions qui ont été posées par les différents délégués et qui montre à l'évidence le dynamisme de la FAO et les différentes implications de ce programme sur la sécurité alimentaire. Je me permettrai d'intervenir à mon tour à la fin de ce débat très important pour essayer de synthétiser notre discussion et je crois être l'interprète du Conseil pour dire que celui-ci s'inquiète de la situation précaire et préoccupante de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale résultant d'une diminution pour la seconde année consécutive de la production mondiale de céréales qui a conduit, d'une part, à une baisse des stocks alimentaires mondiaux au-dessous du volume jugé nécessaire pour assurer l'aide alimentaire mondiale et, d'autre part à une prévision d'augmentation des coûts d'importation des céréales de l'ordre de 37 pour cent, soit 5 milliards de dollars environ pour des pays en développement qui souffrent déjà du poids considérable de la dette et enfin, ce qui n'est pas le moins important, à une prévision de diminution du volume de l'aide alimentaire de près de 25 pour cent, ce qui la ramènerait à un niveau sans précédent depuis six ans, de l'ordre de 9 700 000 tonnes.

Le Conseil a lancé un appel pressant pour que les pays développés fassent un effort particulier pour tenter de maintenir le volume de l'aide alimentaire pour que des mesures utiles de toute nature puissent être prises pour reconstituer la Réserve alimentaire internationale d'urgence à un niveau qui tienne compte d'ailleurs des cas d'urgence et selon une répartition appropriée de stocks de céréales dans les pays développés. Je crois que le Conseil considère dans sa conjoncture particulière qu'il est nécessaire de renforcer le système d'information d'alerte rapide qui a fait ses preuves.

Enfin, je pense qu'on peut noter que le Conseil a lancé un appel pour que tous les pays qui ne l'ont pas encore fait adhèrent au pacte international d'aide alimentaire.

Je crois comprendre également que le Conseil a souligné la nécessité d'accorder une attention particulière à la production vivrière dans les pays à déficit vivrier et à faible revenu ainsi qu'à une coopération régionale accrue en matière de sécurité alimentaire. Pour ce qui est des programmes d'ajustement structurel et leurs effets sur la sécurité alimentaire, d'un manière générale bien sûr, plusieurs opinions ont été émises; le Conseil a noté qu'à court terme et bien que la période soit relativement courte, des plans d'ajustement structurel entraînent des effets négatifs en ce qui concerne l'accès des pauvres à la nourriture et, par là-même, à la sécurité alimentaire. Il serait éminemment souhaitable que les programmes d'ajustement structurel prennent en considération les composantes sociales nécessaires. En particulier prévoir des mesures urgentes d'aide alimentaire aux couches sociales affectées par ces programmes, couches sociales qu'il convient de cibler soigneusement.

Enfin le Conseil a noté que la FAO, vu son expérience et l'avantage comparatif dont elle bénéficie dans ce domaine, devrait être associée avec les autres organisations internationales financières pour l'élaboration de ces programmes, lorsqu'il s'agit d'aider les gouvernements à mettre au point des programmes pour l'ajustement agricole. Cet ajustement agricole pourrait, entre autre, privilégier les éléments des programmes destinés à stimuler la production agricole parallèlement aux mesures de stabilisation financière à court terme qu'il implique.

Enfin je crois que nous pouvons considérer que le Conseil a approuvé le rapport de la 14ème session du Comité de la sécurité alimentaire.

Voilà ce que je me permettrais de dire en guise de contribution aux travaux de notre Conseil. Y a-t-il d'autres observations?

Baahir EL MABROUK SAID (Libya) (original language Arablc): I apologize for taking the floor so late in the day. Nevertheless, I would like to make a comment that I think is rather important.

Mr Dutia gave a number of replies to the questions asked and the additional information requested by the Members of the Council.

With respect to structural adjustment in developing countries, I would like to mention the economic and social distortions that result. There is one that I would like to emphasize as a result, and I am not the only one who has mentioned it.

The IMF and the World Bank impose upon developing countries very severe conditions that do not take account of social factors. This has obviously shaken and upset the societies and even the economies of developing countries.

That is why I feel that when we discuss the matter in our report we should mention that the Council feels that the conditions required by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund should take into consideration not just the financial aspects, but the economic and social factors also.

LE PRESIDENT: Merci, le délégué de la Libye. Il a confirmé qu'une partie de ma synthèse dans laquelle j'ai signalé que les programmes d'ajustement structurel prennent en considération les composantes sociales. Donc, 11 faut des mesures d'urgence d'aide alimentaire pour éviter de diminuer l'accès des pauvres à la nourriture et par conséquent d'aggraver la sécurité alimentaire. Nous sommes d'accord avec ce qu'il a dit. Ceci étant et s'il n'y a pas d'autres observations, je vais passer au point suivant de l'ordre du jour qui concerne l'examen sur le point 6 du rapport de la lOème session.


6. Report of the Tenth Session of the Committee on Agriculture (Rome, 26 April-5 May 1989)
6. Rapport de la dixième session du Comité de l'agriculture (Rome, 26 avril-5 mai 1989)
6. Informe del décimo periodo de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura (Roma, 26 de abril-5 de mayo de 1989)

7. Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides: Introduction of the "Prior Informed Consent" (PIC) Clause
7. Code de conduite pour la distribution et l'utilisation des pesticides-Introduction de la clause de l'information et du consentement préalables
7. CódigoInternacional de Conducta para la Distribución y Utilización de Plaguicidas: Introducción de la clausula relativa al "principio de información y consentimiento previos" (PICP)

Muhammad Saleem KHAN (Pakistan) I have a procedural suggestion on the order of the day. I thought it better to make it before we proceed with this item. Looking at the agenda, we have three items today. The last two items have to be discussed in connection with the respective portions of the COAG Report. My delegation feels that it may be worth considering all three items together, which would help in our responses and discussions on the issue and also probably help us in optimising on the available time.

However, I was talking about the one on PIC and the subsequent one on Plant and Genetic Resources, which was also considered by the COAG and is part of the COAG Report.

This is only a suggestion; I would not insist. I thought it might be that the Council might like to consider this suggestion.

LE PRESIDENT: Monsieur Bonte-Friedheim a-t-il une observation à formuler?

C.H. BONTE-FRIEDHKIM (Assistant Director-General, Agriculture Department): It is, of course, up to the Council to agree on its Agenda. I believe that is possible for the Council to consider the COAG Report and the PIC together because the PIC is part of the COAG Report. But I would like to suggest that since the Plant Genetic Resources item was not really discussed within COAG, that that be handled separately. While I agree that items 6 and 7 could be taken together, I would plead that item 8 be handled separately.

Eduardo PESQUEIRA OLEA (México): Simplemente, para apoyar la moción del Sr. representante de Pakistán sobre los comentarios que ha formulado el Sr. Director General Asistente, de tal suerte que podamos analizar los temas 6 y 7 conjuntamente y el tema 8 por separado, así ahorraremos tiempo para nuestras discusiones.

LE PRESIDENT: Merci, Monsieur le délégué du Mexique. Je crois qu'il s'agit d'une remarque utile et efficace. Si le Conseil convient du fait qu'il y a une unité entre ces deux points 6 et 7, (nous souhaitons laisser du temps pour faire face à l'Ordre du jour chargé) nous pourrions les grouper, les commenter et probablement l’après-midi faire une session spéciale pour le point 8. Si vous en convenez nous pouvons adopter cette démarche.

C.H. BONTE FRIEDHEIM (Assistant Director-General, Agriculture Department): Mr Chairman, the Council has now decided that there will be two short introductions, one by myself on the Report of the 10th session of the Committee on Agriculture, and one by Mr. Brader for which you have a separate paper regarding the introduction of PIC into the Code of Conduct.

Mr Chairman, distinguished Delegates and Observers, it gives me great pleasure to introduce Agenda item 6, the Report of the Tenth Session of the Committee on Agriculture, document CL/95/9. The Committee on Agriculture met in Rome from 26 April to 5 May under the Chairmanship of Mr Hamdi of Egypt. The Session was attended by 83 of the 93 COAG members, by four other FAO Member Nations that did not indicate membership in COAG, and observers from the USSR, from UN bodies, the EEC, and Non-Governmental Organizations.

The subjects traditionally handled by COAG fall into three categories. There were three selected development issues dealing with different aspects of agriculture. There was also a standing item on nutrition, and then there were two items regarding the organization's programme of work, the first dealing with the implementation of the Major Programme "Agriculture" in the past and the present biennium, and then a review of relevant parts of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for the next biennium.

The report of COAG-I refer to document CL 95/9 in front of you-provides the highlights of the work of the Committee. May I draw your particular attention to the introductory pages (ii) to (ix) where matters requiring the attention of the Council are summarised.

The COAG started its work by reviewing the Report on the implementation of the Major Programme of Agriculture for the period 1986 to 1988.

The Committee commended the improvements in the presentation and scope of the document. The debate highlighted the adverse effects of the financial crisis on programme implementation. It was stressed by many delegates that notwithstanding the financial crisis, the Organization has responded in an efficient way to the constraints. At the same time, the decline in FAO involvement in training activities was regretted. It was emphasized that training should remain an overall priority.

The need for all members to pay their full contributions was again highlighted so as to bring to an end the financial constraints of the Organization. Full comments on each subprogramme are reflected in the report before Council. However, it might be useful to highlight just a few of them.

When examining the natural resources programme the Committee urged increased attention be paid to integrated plant nutrition systems and at the same time called for action to increase the use of mineral fertilizers. The improvement in interdisciplinary activities with respect to crop production was highlighted. Plant protection was singled out by many participants and the work of the Organization in the introduction of wheatless bread was supported.

In the livestock programmes, the initiatives on biotechnology were praised and the Committee was informed-as did the Director-General yesterday to Council-of the appearance of the American screwworm fly in North Africa. The Committee requested the Secretariat to prepare an action programme.

On research and technology development the Committee requested further expansion of cooperation with other international organizations and institutions. The Committee requested that environmental subjects also continue to receive priority in future years.

In relation to the rural development programme, the Committee especially regretted the impact of the overall resource constraint on activities related to women in development. In the field of nutrition, the Committee expressed the importance of food quality and standards of work, and of cooperation with the CODEX Alimentarius Commission.

As regards food and agricultural Information and analysis, the initiative to develop a World Agricultural Information Centre was fully supported. The Committee further expressed appreciation for the food and agricultural policy work and urged it be given higher priority.

The second agenda item dealt with by COAG was an important section of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for the next biennium 1990-91. This dealt with the major programme on agriculture. The Committee welcomed the improvements in the format and presentation of the document and fully supported the policy of allocation of additional financial resources to the technical and economic programmes of FAO. The Committee endorsed the seven priority areas affecting Major Programme 2.1-Agriculture. The net increase foreseen in the document of 1.3 percent was considered to be below expected demands by member countries. In general, the Committee agreed, and I quote from the report:

"that the proposals under the Major Programme 2.1-Agriculture represented a feasible and satisfactory mix of activities in consonance with the request of Member Nations, as expressed in the Conference, the Council, the Regional Conferences and other inter-governmental fora. It considered they provided an acceptable basis for the preparation of the full Programme of Work and Budget for consideration by the 25th Session of the FAO Conference."

The views of the Committee on Agriculture on the Summary Programme of Work and Budget will be carefully taken into consideration in the formulation of the full Programme of Work and Budget, in the light of Council's reaction to them. In general, it will be found that the Committee on Agriculture has not recommended any additional shift in programme activities or resources. Individual members, however, have made a number of constructive and valuable suggestions which will be taken into account in the implementation of the Programme of Work of the next biennium. While COAG dealt mainly with Major Programme 2.1-Agriculture, Council will deal, under Agenda Item 14, with the total Summary Programme of Work and Budget in the next biennium.

As at every session of COAG, an item on nutrition was discussed. At this 10th Session, the topic was Urbanization, Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrition. The Committee examined the nature and range of implications of changing food consumption patterns associated with the rapid progress of urbanization;it reviewed urban malnutrition in developing countries, and considered possible lines of remedial action. As concerns FAO activities in this context, it supported work on short-term intervention programmes in the areas of food quality and safety, nutrition education and nutrition surveillance. It stressed the need for preparation of suitable training materials for food vendors in the informal sector; it urged assistance to member countries in the development of appropriate technologies for processing, preservation, better marketing and distribution of traditional, nutritious local staple foods. The Committee confirmed the role of FAO in monitoring the nutritional impact of development policies at large and in connection with the structural adjustment process in particular. The Committee recommended further that the dimension of urban malnutrition be included in the Sixth World Food Survey.

The first of the selected development issues was Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. As shown in the COAG report before Council, the quality and timeliness of this paper were commended. There was unanimous support for immediate action at all levels-national, regional and international-in order to preserve animal genetic resources. The debates and discussions highlighted the complexity and the size of the problem to be tackled. FAO was urged to continue, in cooperation with others, its ongoing activities and to embark on new ones such as developing a World Watch List of endangered breeds and a related Early Warning System. FAO was also requested to develop strategies and to establish live animal reserves where appropriate.

In paragraph 140 of the report, the Committee:

"approved the proposal that, in addition to the continued development and enlargement of the existing programme, FAO should consider further the many technical, legal, financial and institutional aspects of a global programme for animal genetic resources. The proposal for an Expert Consultation to examine these topics was supported. Furthermore, approval was given for the Working Group of the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, based on its experience to study the possibility for FAO to establish a global system of genetic resources, including animal genetic resources. Confidence was expressed that FAO will be able to attract extra-budgetary resources for these important tasks."

This work, which was endorsed by COAG, cannot be done in the present biennium. In spite of the appeal by COAG, extra-budgetary resources have not yet been offered. It is planned to hold a Technical Consultation in September of this year and to have a meeting of the Working Group on Plant Genetic Resources in the first half of next year, 1990. The next Council and Conference will be informed about the progress made by the Technical Consultation. The Secretariat is fully aware of the importance of this topic and, resources permitting, we hope to make meaningful proposals to next year's session of Council.

COAG had another important agenda item entitled People's Participation on Agricultural and Rural Deve.lopment. There was a full and thorough debate. In conclusion the Committee supported the role of FAO in promoting people's participation through its various activities and programmes within the framework of the WCARRD Programme of Action. The Committee stressed the significance of traditional informal groups for development, and saw the need for increased data collection and the constitution and operation of these groups. It encouraged FAO to widen its collaboration with NGO's, and stressed the contribution that reorientation of extension of training and education as well as the appropriate use of credit and marketing are called upon to make in promoting people's participation. The Committee recommended that a plan of action be developed for discussion by Council and Conference in due course. In this connection, the Committee took note with satisfaction of the offer of one member government to contribute extra-budgetary funds for this purpose.

The fourth technical agenda item dealt with the Introduction of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Clause into the Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, which will be introduced by Mr Brader in a minute.

As regards the next meeting of COAG in 1991, the agenda is likely to include an item on sustainability, as requested by Council in its last session, and an item concerning the integration of women in agriculture and rural development, as requested by COAG. COAG has also suggested a long list of other suitable and interesting topics.

The third technical topic for the agenda, in addition to the nutrition item and the timing of the next meeting, will be decided by the Director-General in consultation with the Chairman of COAG, taking into due account Organization-wide priorities and possible suggestions of Council. I hope my brief introduction will help Council to begin its deliberations on this agenda item.

L. BRADER (Director, Plant Production and Protection Division): The last session of the FAO Conference in 1987 decided to include the principle of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) in the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. Resolution 5/87 states that "In the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides the principle of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) should be incorporated within the next biennium", that is, 1988/89. Pursuant to this resolution, the Director-General took a number of initiatives to determine how best to give effect to the PIC principle, including the convening of an Expert Consultation in March 1988 and a Government Consultation in January 1989. On this occasion I would like to express our gratitude for the financial support of the Government of the Netherlands for the organization of these activities.

Based on technical inputs from these two Consultations, as well as a series of discussions with various other parties, including repeated contacts with the UNEP International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals Secretariat, a proposal to include PIC in the Code and also guidelines for the operation of PIC were submitted to the 10th Session of COAG. Following detailed review and deliberation, COAG was able to reach consensus on the main aspects which constitute PIC, namely:

a) The revision of Article 2 (definitions) and Article 9 (information exchange). New definitions have been introduced for "Prior Informed Consent" and "Prior Informed Consent Procedure" and the text of Article 9 has been amended to reflect the agreed amendments.

b) Consensus was also reached on the preparation of guidelines for the operation of PIC which include the following main elements:

(i) Notification to FAO by participating member countries on the banning or severe restriction of
individual pesticides.

(ii) Establishment of a joint FAO/UNEP data base.

(iii) Notification of relevant information by FAO to importing countries, including reasons for the control action, in order to facilitate a decision on whether or not to allow imports. A comprehensive "PIC Decision Guidance Document", prepared by the Secretariat, will accompany such notification.

(iv) Notification by FAO to pesticide exporting countries of decisions by importing countries.

(v) Exporting countries will inform exporters (mainly chemical firms) of notifications received.

(vi) The main element of the guideline is that importing countries will notify interested parties, such as customs authorities, of the decisions taken so that importation restrictions can be enforced·

The proposal as agreed by COAG is described in document CL 95/15 before Council and the changes compared to the original text of the Code have been underlined.

FAO will, in cooperation with UNEP, manage and implement the PIC scheme. A joint FAO/UNEP programme for this is currently being discussed. UNEP's interest in the subject relates to its mandate on the so-called London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade. PIC was included in these guidelines by decision of the Governing Council of UNEP in May 1989. FAO is at present consulting with UNEP in elaborating a scheme which can be undertaken efficiently and without any duplication of effort. It is envisaged that the modalities of cooperation will be reflected in a Memorandum of Understanding between UNEP and FAO, spelling out the respective obligations and responsibilities of each party. The joint programme should start with a one-year pilot phase in order to assess better the amount of work involved and to incorporate refinements based on experience.

It may be appropriate at this stage to recall that the Expert Consultation on PIC held in March 1988 considered that PIC should promote or comply with the following principles:

i) It should reduce the adverse effects of pesticides, especially those that have been banned or
severely restricted and/or which pose a specially severe hazard in an importing country.

ii) It should not inadvertently steer a country to more hazardous alternatives.

iii) It should stimulate the decision-making capability and development of regulatory mechanisms in
Importing countries.

lv) It should motivate effective and appropriate information exchange.

v) It should be neutral with respect to trade and be applied without discrimination as to the origin of the pesticide.

vi) The PIC scheme should be timely so as not to impact adversely on an importing country's crop production and public health programmes.

vii) It should reinforce an importing country's right and responsibility to decide if it wants to use the pesticide, after making its own risk/benefit analysis and decision.

viii) It should make decisions transparent and open to public scrutiny.

Bearing these principles in mind, COAG recognized that the practical application of PIC is a rather complex issue and that many developing countries may require appropriate technical assistance and training of staff to be able to apply PIC procedures and, even more so, to implement many of the other relevant provisions of the Code of Conduct.

FAO continues to place high priority on such technical assistance work. In this respect, we would like to acknowledge the financial contribution of the Government of Japan for a regional project on the implementation of the Code in Asia and the Pacific. It is hoped that UNDP will finance a regional project to benefit African countries and other donore are again invited to support developing countries in their attempts to implement the Code of Conduct.

In technical assistance, priority is given to cases where there is a need to establish or strengthen national pesticide registration and control schemes, so that they can operate effectively. Evidence has already been obtained of the clearly beneficial results in highlighting this need, by increasing the awareness in developing countries that are lacking such schemes. In this connection it should be recogtime as effective pesticide registration and control procedures have been established.

The successful operation of PIC is completely dependent on the free exchange and rapid processing of Information provided by countries. The PIC procedure is in addition to, and does not replace, any system of Information exchange between countries. Also it does not replace the right of any country to seek additional Information on the reasons for any control action that a country may take on a particular pesticide.

I would like to reiterate that the 10th Session of COAG recognized the considerable amount of work that had been done to implement Conference Resolution 5/87, requiring PIC to be included in the Code, and that it noted with satisfaction that FAO had worked closely with UNEP in the development of procedures for PIC and in subsequent handling of an International PIC scheme.

Please allow me to point out the matters that require the Council's special attention, in addition to the confirmation that PIC procedures should be implemented as soon as possible. This special attention should be addressed to three additional changes in Articles 2, 9.8.1 and 9.8.4 of the Code which are presented in paragraph 11 of document CL 95/15. The changes proposed in this paragraph were made to bring the text of the Code in line with the endorsed guidelines. The guidelines were already endorsed for this. COAG, however, had no opportunity to deal with these changes in sufficient detail as they were made at the end of the COAG session, but accepted them in general and referred them to the Council for adoption.

I would like to make a plea for the Council's cooperation and understanding in considering the proposals before you, and hope that a consensus can be maintained. A large amount of effort has gone into the proposals submitted to you, and the consensus was achieved on the basis of intensive and lengthy discussions with all parties concerned. It was understood that the earliest introduction of PIC in the Code was of the greatest importance and that in the overall process of reaching consensus, each party had to show considerable flexibility to meet the sometimes quite diverse intereste and opinions of others. It was consistently felt that every effort should be made to meet the 1987 Conference deadline for incorporating PIC in the Code at the end of the 1988/89

biennium. Experience has shown that when introducing a complex scheme such as that proposed for PIC, it is necessary to review procedures from time to time. FAO, in cooperation with member countries and UNEP and other international agencies, will do this and thus try to improve the scheme in the future, based on actual experience gained from its widespread use. The results of your deliberations will be presented to the next meeting of the Conference for consideration and decision.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie M. Brader pour ses explications concernant ce point important de l'Ordre du jour et nous ouvrons le débat.

Yousef All Mahmoud HAMDI (Egypt) (Original language Arabic): I should like to thank Mr Bonte-Friedheim and Mr. Brader for their introduction and very good presentation of the two reports. I have had the honour of presiding over the Tenth Session of COAG. Once again, I should like to put on record my sincere gratitude for COAG members for the trust they placed in my person. I cannot in such a short time review all the points that had been covered by our report. However, these points had been approved by all delegates after a prior study of these points. However, allow me to stress once again some of the points which are of particular significance. As regards the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for 1990-91, we have welcomed and endorsed the efforts made in elaborating the Programme of Work and Budget for 1990-91 and the priorities defined in that Programme. We also endorse and welcome the efforts made by the Organization, and we should like to thank donor countries for their generous contributions in order to combat the invasion of desert locusts which still menace many countries. This, in fact, should be a matter of concern for the Organization and preparations to stand up to this challenge. We thank the Director-General and his collaborators for their quick response to combat the American screwworm which was observed in a sister country. We endorsed the immediate Plan of Action prepared and being executed by the FAO in order to combat this fly which threatens African countries and Mediterranean countries in the short term and also southern Europe in the long run, unless measures are taken to combat that pest.

Regarding urbanization, food consumption patterns and nutrition, we should like to thank the Organization for preparing that study, and we should like to emphasize the need to intervene in the fields relating to the quality and safety of food, food awareness and also nutritional intervention and nutritional control and training of street vendors of food in the informer sector. Appropriate technology should also be developed to process staple foods and to improve systems for their marketing and distribution.

Regarding the preservation of animal genetic resources, we should like to emphasize the need to accelerate efforts in expanding the programme for the conservation of such animal genetic resources and their use. We should also like to explore new avenues in biotechnology in order to make use of such resources. The Organization should also study the possibility of establishing a worldwide system for the study of such resources, including animal genetic resources.

As regards participation in agricultural and rural development, we should like to stress the importance for FAO to develop a practical methodology to encourage popular participation and integration of that participation in large-scale rural development. Member countries should also give every possible support and promote awareness in rural and urban areas in order to encourage popular participation. A Plan of Action should also be elaborated for discussion by the Council and the general Conference in due time, and we welcome extra-budgetary support being proposed for the elaboration of such a Plan.

Regarding the principle of Prior Informed Consent and introduction in the Code of Conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides, we should like to point out that we have participated in the government consultation relating to that principle. We have also taken part in the working group which revised that principle and we endorsed it in the Committee on Agriculture. In this connection, we should like to reaffirm our approval of the proposed amendments which have been summarized in document 15, and we recommend that such recommendations be submitted to the Conference·

Amador VELASQUEZ (Per): Antes de comenzar la intervención, deseo expresar ante todo este foro rector de la FAO, que solicitamos la mayor comprensión porque nuestra intervención será desusadamente larga, por razones que se comprenderán de la misma exposición.

Nuestra delegación, al hacer uso de la palabra por primera vez en este 95° Consejo de la FAO, con un retraso del todo involuntario, expresa la inmensa satisfacción de verlo a usted nuevamente presidiendo este importante encuentro, asi como por la elección de los señoree Vicepresidentes, Presidente y miembros del Comité de Redacción, a quienes hace llegar los mejores deseos de proficua y positiva labor conjunta.

A lo largo de esta intervención el Consejo conocerá la razón de nuestro silencio, obligado, en el tratamiento del tema precedente, que como podrán apreciar era y es de suma importancia para mi país, sobre todo en las actuales circunstancias. Con respecto al tema que nos ocupa, mi delegación desea manifestar su agradecimiento a las dos presentaciones y su conformidad con la síntesis preparada por la Secretaría, que se refiere a aquellos asuntos que,emanados del décimo COAG y de la Consulta Intergubernamental,requieren de la atención de este Consejo. Pero, con respecto a algunos puntos, considera asimismo importante precisar consideraciones que sobre tales aspectos este Consejo debe rescatar en su informe a la Conferencia.

Ahora me referiré al tema 6. En lo que respecta al párrafo 7, debemos resaltar dos hechos fundamentales; el primero referido al abono en la fecha prevista de las cuotas de los Estados Miembros, y el segundo a la situación estable que en materia de recursos reclaman tanto el Programa Ordinario como los Programas de Campo.

Sobre el primer punto, el Peru no pretende ocultar la grave situación por la que atraviesa. Ya no se trata, señores, de la situación ahora casi generalizada en el mundo en desarrollo con respecto a la crisis económico financiera, determinada por el peso de la deuda externa, sino de una muy grave, repito, muy grave y sui generis, situación de inflación con recesión, explicable solamente por las consecuencias imprevisibles del paranoico accionar del terrorismo, cuya alianza con el narcotráfico amenaza con llevamos a una situación aun más grave con el triste balance que podemos sintetizar en pocas, pero muy significativas líneas, y que son: la destrucción de infraestructura cercana a los 15 mil millonee de dólares, monto similar a nuestro Producto Interno Bruto de un año, y equivalente al total de nuestra deuda externa, acarreando además 18 000 muertes. Todo ello está llevando a mi pais a perder la categoría de pais de ingreso medio, con un real ingreso per cápita promedio por debajo de los 600 dólares. A la par del preservamiento del sistema democrático, el Gobierno del Peru está abocado a su preocupación básica,y que es la de evitar el hambre y la malnutrición generalizada, como triste corolario de esta coyuntura.

El Perú aprobó hace pocos días el pago de la cuota mínima indispensable para mantenerse en este foro. Esos, quizás para muchos, insignificantes 158 400 dólares han representado toneladas de alimentos para los 7 millones de peruanos pobres que reclaman pan. El Programa de Ajuste ejecutado como tantos otros que hemos reconocido en esta misma FAO son perjudiciales para los más pobres, ha requerido de un mínimo Programa de Compensación Social, así llamado para evitar la ya casi inevitable pauperización de tales personas. Es para dicho Programa que el Peru necesita urgentemente de 160 000 toneladas de alimentos para cubrir solamente las necesidades alimentarias correspondientes al segundo semestre de este año, que está por comenzar, y que aun no consigue concertar. Sin embargo, señores delegados, nuestro Gobierno ha efectuado un esfuerzo realmente increíble para cumplir con el pago de esa cuota a la FAO. Creemos que nuestra situación no tiene parangón con ninguna otra razón, causa o circunstancia, y así como reclama una mayor responsabilidad para con el Organismo y consecuentemente para con el mundo pobre, de parte de los principales aportantes, también solicita la mayor comprensión que situaciones difíciles, como las que ahora le toca vivir al Peru, exigen; y, por tanto reclama de los responsables una postura más flexible y de la mínima consideración y respeto a los Estados Miembros de esta Organización con igualdad política, jurídica y soberana. Consideramos un exceso que esta Organización, habiendo sido informada oportunamente de la firma de una Resolución Suprema; es decir, firmada por el Presidente de la República, el Jefe de Gobierno de un Estado Miembro, disponiendo el pago de la cuota mínima necesaria, no haya merecido la mínima consideración y se haya postergado nuestra participación en este foro hasta que se confirme el recibo del importe anunciado. Debido a esta triste experiencia, mi país examinará la posibilidad de adherirse a aquellos países que, con aprobación de la Conferencia, han optado por un pago dilacionado de sus obligaciones pendientes, gestión en la que no dudamos, repito, no dudamos señores, de la solidaridad y comprensión que recibiremos de Ustedes dada nuestra situación, de la que además esperamos informe este Consejo para recibir la mayor ayuda alimentaria que se nos pueda dispensar.

Retomando el tema concreto, debemos comentar rápidamente un común denominador que mi delegación encuentra en aquello denominado "desarrollo sostenible" y que lo encontramos, tanto en los párrafos 27 como en el 49, 59, 64 y 83 del informe del 10° COAG. Queremos hacer una pequeña reflexión sobre esto para que el Consejo estime si es o no conveniente así resaltarlo en el informe a la Conferencia. El despertar de la comunidad internacional, fundamentalmente de parte de las potencias industrializadas de libre mercado, sobre el acuciante problema de la conservación de los ecosistemas

constituye el nuevo frente que en el campo Internacional se ha abierto, principalmente contra los países en vías de desarrollo. Plantear dicho problema y exigir salvaguardas que unilateralmente tendrían que adoptar los países en vías de desarrollo, no sólo resulta irresponsable, sino además impracticable. Los países del Tercer Mundo, frente a la crisis económico-financiera que les envuelve, están en situación de desventaja para proteger, conservar, evaluar y utilizar sus recursos en aras de la preservación de los ecosistemas.

No se trata, pues señores, de recibir solamente fondos para tales acciones, sino sobre todo de exigir una alternativa de desarrollo que apunte hacia el objetivo común de la preservación del medio ambiente.

La urgente necesidad de encontrar un equilibrio entre el desarrollo socioeconómico y la protección y conservación del medio ambiente a través de una explotación adecuada de los recursos naturales y un control de los impactos ambientales en beneficio de las generaciones presentes y futuras, debe considerar el principio de que cada Estado tiene el derecho soberano de administrar libremente sus recursos naturales.

Todo ello, señores delegados, no significa que el Peru crea en un modelo que agreda el ambiente o que explote indiscriminadamente los recursos, y menos que pongamos en discusión el futuro del planeta. Es más creemos que la lucha por el ambiente no puede ser una moda, por ello tampoco queremos pensar que se trate de una nueva ilusión que dirigida contra lo último que nos queda, nuestros recursos naturales, termine por desilusionarnos en un grado que a estas alturas y circunstancias sería fatal.

No creemos, por tanto, en el "puro conservadurismo"; creemos sí en el "conservadurismo con desarrollo", que aporten nuevos flujos de capitales y recursos que nos demuestre con hechos que la corresponsabilidad es la solución al manejo de la deuda externa ha sido efectiva y no líricamente entendida y que, consecuentemente, actuar correeponsablemente en la preservación de los ecosistemas no significará ignorar el derecho soberano antes aludido.

Es en dicho contexto que entendemos la prioridad a la que reiteradamente se hace alusión en los párrafos antes mencionados. De ninguna manera podría, entonces, inferirse que el desarrollo sostenible condicione el programa principal 2.1: Agricultura, ni cualquier otro de la FAO. Es más, reiteramos que las prioridades deben regirse siempre por las recomendaciones de nuestros órganos rectores, Conferencias Regionales y otros foros intergubernamentales donde las peticiones de los Estados Miembros son las determinantes. En tal sentido reiteramos que la creación del nuevo subprograma: "Mantenimiento del potencial de recursos" no debe ir en detrimento de las actividades de todos los subprogramas y que su funcionamiento nacerá sólo de partidas extrapresupuestarias.

Con respecto al párrafo 99, lamento, Señores Delegados tener que distraerlos nuevamente al referirme a la crítica situación de mi país. En el décimo Comité de Agricultura hice mención a solo los unicos dos censos nacionales agropecuarios que se habían realizado en el Perú desde 1821, en un lapso de 168 años. Indiqué, asimismo, las gestiones infructuosas que hasta hoy inclusive seguimos planteando ante la FAO para alcanzar fondos en fideicomiso o de otra naturaleza a efectos del que sería nuestro tercer censo nacional agropecuario. Muchos países se sumaron a esta necesidad que haría factible el censo del año 2000; la inclusión de este llamado en este párrafo 99, dirigido a nuestros hermanos del Africa, podría tener una interpretación restringida; y, por lo que pedimos que este Consejo haga propio el instar a la FAO, y países cooperantes, para que se preste ayuda a todos los países en desarrollo que tienen problemas financieras para ejecutar sus censos nacionales agropecuarios.

Con relación al asesoramiento a los Estados Miembros en materia de políticas, y refiriéndome a los procesos de ajuste estructural, sólo deseo dejar sentado que volveremos a estos puntos al tratar el tema 10 en tanto y en cuanto el Perú desea plantear en este Consejo alternativas de asistencia técnica, o ayuda, de emergencia para llegar a un quizás plan alimentario de emergencia que hace escasas dos semanas ha sido expuesto, en una audiencia especial al Sr. Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas por el Secretarlo General de la Conferencia Episcopal peruana, las graves dimensiones que está alcanzando el problema del hambre y la malnutrición en el Perú.

Por último, Sr. Presidente, y reitero mis disculpas por la extensión en esta intervención, debo necesariamente referirme al párrafo 140 de nuestro documento sobre el 10° COAG cuyo texto, también con dadas ocasión del 10° Comité de Agricultura no ha merecido, estimamos, una redacción acorde con lo aprobado en dicho evento; pero antes, permítaseme recordar algunas líneas del discurso del Sr. Director General ante el lOΩ COAG, cuando al referirse a los recursos zoogenéticos, dijo que tales se encontraban amenazados y que tal problema no se limitaba a los animales domésticos, ya que la diferencia entre éstos y la fauna silvestre era cada vez menos pertinente desde el punto de vista de los recursos genéticos, ya que determinados animales salvajes se están domesticando cada vez más y los nuevos medios biotécnlcos nos están acercando cada vez más a la introducción de transferencias genéticas y específicas.

Para terminar diciendo que era urgente tomar medidas correctivas para conservar tales recursos. Pues bien, entre los párrafos 121 y 139 encontramos el avance consecuente respecto de lo planteado, y es en el 140 donde debería entrar la parte operativa que, lamentablemente, ha quedado poco clara y que inclusive podría llevar a confusion o eventual aplicación contradictoria, mas aun si tenemos en cuenta la crítica situación económica financiera de nuestra Organización y de las prioridades por las que se ha tenido que optar. Es pues todo ello, Sr. Presidente, es decir tanto lo acordado en el 10° COAG, como lo dicho en esa oportunidad, por el Sr. Director General lo que me lleva a pedir que la redacción del actual párrafo 140, se corrija por la redacción subsiguiente a fin de ser mas exactos y precisos con el resumen que en el debate se concordó con la Secretaría. El texto, que ha sido proporcionado a los interpretes y que por la misma razón lo puede tener la Secretaría, no lo leeré a velocidad de dictado pues no creo que haya problema.

Diría "140: El Comité aprobó la propuesta de que ademas del continuo desarrollo y la ampliación del programa existente, la FAO estudiara ulteriormente los muchos aspectos técnicos, jurídicos, financieros e institucionales de un programa Mundial de recursos genéticos animales. Se apoyó la propuesta de establecer una consulta de expertos encargada de examinar esos temas. Se expresó la esperanza de que la FAO pudiera conseguir recursos extrapresupuestarios para esa importante labor. Ademas se aprobó que el Grupo de Trabajo de la Comisión de recursos fitogenéticos de la FAO, en su próxima reunión, basándose en su experiencia, estudiara la posibilidad de ampliar el sistema global de la FAO para recursos fitogenéticos, para que incluyera los recursos zoogenéticos."

En síntesis, las modificaciones al actual párrafo 140 son tres: 1· Sacar la última frase actual y pasarla al final de la segunda frase actual. El argumento de las delegaciones que manifestamos esto, en el 10° COAG, fue claro: los recursos extrapresupuestarios serían para la consulta de expertos que, si bien consideramos innecesaria, fue aceptada como fórmula de compromiso para coincidir con la Secretaría que consideró que el trabajo de esta consulta de expertos sería complementarlo al estudio del Grupo de Trabajo de la Comisión de Recursos Fitogenéticos; 2. Después de la palabra "posibilidad" de la actual penúltima frase, se debe sacar "de que la FAO estableciera un sistema global de recuros genéticos, incluidos los recursos zoogenéticos" y poner en ese lugar siempre después de la palabra "posibilidad": "de ampliar el sistema global de la FAO para recursos fitogenéticos para que incluyera los recursos zoogenéticos"· Esto, Sr. Presidente, fue lo acordado y lo que entendimos resumiría la Secretaría, ya que nuestro argumento, y el de las delegaciones que nos apoyaron, fue que con ello evitaríamos duplicidad en gastos y aumento en la eficiencia de las estructuras existentes permitiendo un ahorro de recursos que el momento exige, alcanzando una oportunidad que inclusive supera la simple posibilidad que ahora el actual pérrafo 140 deja como espectativa acerca del sistema global de recursos genéticos. 3. Por ultimo, un agregado que debe ir después de las palabras "recursos fitogenéticos de la FAO", de la actual penúltima frase, y que debe decir: "en su próxima reunión" para luego seguir tal como está; es decir, con las palabras: "basándose, etc., etc". Esto se debe, Sr. Presidente, a que fue la propia Secretaría, según recordamos, la que mencionó que teniendo en cuenta que la próxima reunión del Grupo de Trabajo de la Comisión de Recursos Fitogenéticos tendría lugar, posiblemente, durante la primera semana de octubre próximo, entonces, las partes consultadas por el Sr. Director General encontrarían la forma de llevar las conclusiones de dicho Grupo al Consejo de noviembre, a fin de no perder tiempo en un asunto tan urgente. Lamentablemente, Sr. Presidente, encontramos que, en el actual pérrafo 140, la falta de esas cuatro palabras "en su próxima reunión" dejarían al Grupo de Trabajo de la Comisión de Recursos Fitogenéticos sin capacidad ni oportunidad para opinar respecto de tan importante asunto; sin embargo, y aún cuando no tenemos confirmación al respecto, pero que sería buena oportunidad para conocerlo, ya se habrían dispuesto avances importantes para la consulta de expertos aludida en este mismo párrafo. No nos oponemos a ello pero, por lo menos, que se brinde igual capacidad y tiempo al Grupo de Trabajo en mención.

Sólo con lo postulado seremos efectivamente congruentes con el interés de que el actual sistema global de la FAO para los recursos fitogenéticos; es decir el Compromiso Internacional, como marco legal; la Comisión, como foro intergubernamental; y el Fondo Internacional, como mecanismo financiero, evolucione de tal manera que gradualmente llegue a incluir los recursos genéticos animales hasta transformarse, como creo todos deseamos, en un sistema global para la conservación y el uso de la diversidad biológica en general; sistema global, que es fundamental, para mantener unidos los conceptos de conservación de la biodiversidad y el del desarrollo agrícola sostenible en el mundo y, para el cual, si queremos ser realistas, nuestros esfuerzos no serán inútiles en un Grupo de Trabajo que funciona y que puede brindarnos avances concretos.

Por ello, Sr. Presidente y Señores Miembros de este Consejo, al margen de lo argumentado y solicitado con respecto al pérrafo 140 del 10° COAG; es decir, que no deseando crear problemas en este Consejo con el cambio de informes previos al Consejo, bastaría con que en este Consejo decidamos dejar claramente establecido en este foro rector que es urgente que el Grupo de Trabajo de la Comisión de Recursos Fitogenéticos se reúna para que en el próximo período de sesiones del Consejo se cuente con la opinión que ha merecido a dicho Grupo la posibildiad de incluir en el

sistema global de la FAO para recursos fltogeneticos, vale decir, repito, tanto en el Compromiso como la Comisión, como en el Fondo, la problemática de los recursos zoogenéticos, como un primer paso conducente al establecimiento de un sistema global de diversidad biológica.

Ahora sí, voy a terminar porque esta parte no la tenía prevista. No sabía que se iban a tratar los dos temas conjuntamente, quiero señalar que mi Delegación con respecto a la introducción de la clausula relativa al "Principio de información y consentimiento previos", está de acuerdo con las modificaciones al Código Internacional de Conducta para la Distribución y utilización de Plaguicidas, ratificados por el Comité de Agricultura, así como con los artículos modificados que han sido en general aceptados por el Comité, según se reproduce en el párrafo once del Doc. CL 95/15 y también, como lo dije, estamos de acuerdo con que el Consejo ratifique tales modificaciones con vistas a su presentación ante la 25a Conferencia y que ratifique las directrices para la aplicación del principio de Información y consentimiento previos.

Agradezco y reitero mis disculpas por la extensión.

Svatopluk CHALUPA (Czechoslovakia): (Original Language Czech) Mr Chairman, as this is the first time that the Czechoslovak delegation has taken the floor in the present period of its membership in the Council, I would like to assure you that we will seek a constructive approach to all the issues discussed by the Council, following with the traditional close cooperation of my Government. It is also a privilege to serve under your Chairmanship.

We listened with great interest to the statement of the Director-General yesterday, and share his opinion on the current world food situation, which also corresponds to the general evaluation of the developments affecting world food and agriculture as contained in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91. The present trend cannot be expected to change before the FAO Conference is opened·

Let me turn now to the report on the Session of the Committee on Agriculture. We appreciate the factual and stimulating contents of the document under consideration, which makes a very good contribution to the evaluation of the activity of the Organization for the past period, as well as to the elaboration of the Programme of Work and Budget of the next two-year period.

Let me present only some limited comments and suggestions.

First of all, I would like to stress that we fully support the Committee's view concerning the subprogramme for natural resources for its relevance to sustainable agricultural development and environmental protection. We believe that generally FAO has much wider possibilities of contributing to the solution of the present ecological problems in the world, especially in preventing the errors made in industrially advanced countries. If the 0.8 to one million US dollars of UNEP contribution through the FAO were to represent the measure of FAO's involvement in environmental protection efforts, the sum would be too low. As the budgetary situation does not allow FAO to develop its own environmental programme on any large scale, we would support closer cooperation with the UNEP and regional commissions of the United Nations in solving these problems.

Of course, when we emphasize this problem in the Council, we do so because of the difficulties now occurring in Europe and because of our Government's initiative aimed at the level of Prime Ministers in Central Europe taking due measures without delay to reduce the damage caused to the air, water and food. Naturally, to a large extent, this concerns the stands of cultivated crops, forests, water courses and reservoirs.

What we have in mind is that environmental aspects should be taken into consideration with all seriousness not only in subprogramme 2.1.1 but in all agricultural, fishery and forestry programmes. For example, the agro-ecological zones, crop/weather monitoring, and especially the WATTS are most closely associated with the environment and therefore FAO results should be emphasized during the discussions within the UNEP and in the multilateral and bilateral measures taken by governments, provided that such documentation and technical data are available in a suitable form to the governments.

The Committee also registers a decline in FAO's activities in the broad area of training. In this connection I would like to draw attention to the fact that a great amount of work has been done in the European cooperative research networks over a period of more than ten years of their existence, and in many countries, including Czechoslovakia, good conditions exist not only for international training in various fields, but also for the in-service training of lower-level technical cadres directly in developing countries.

For example, Czechoslovakia, in cooperation with the FAO, organized some undertakings associated with the problem of growing soybeans in the temperate zones, and workshops on embryo transfer and

the use of remote sensing for the solution of some selected problems of management of agricultural production. These are all activities that can be arranged on the spot, and Czechoslovak institutions are willing to take part in them.

We cannot understand why the accumulated voluntary contribution of our Government to the UNDP cannot be used for this purpose. We cannot understand why those means that we are willing to contribute to the organization of training programmes are being left unused.

In recent weeks in Czechoslovakia we had a widely attended conference, with the participation of a senior representative of FAO, at which we discussed our 40-year experience in the organization and the effectiveness of agricultural cooperative work. The conference confirmed a high level and effectiveness of the Czechoslovak large-scale agricultural enterprises. Of course, a farm working on several thousand hectares of land has to implement other methods of organization and management than does a traditional family farm. Those factors have to be taken into account; otherwise they could have a negative influence on economic results. Our experience in this field is based on 40 years of activity of large-scale farms.

In this connection we would like to suggest that we organize in cooperation with FAO an international training course with study tour for managers of large-scale agricultural enterprises. When submitting this proposal we are of the opinion that it is better to see the result on the spot than to hear something over 10 years.

Now let me turn to the report· I would be glad if the work on the complex programme for main crops was accelerated. In my opinion, enough scientific achievements are available to be used for further intensification of the production of staple and perishable food products in developing countries or for helping governments to orientate their policies on these issues.

The involvement of biotechnologies in the scientific revolution at the end of this century is Increasing, and we believe that the FAO, which already Includes biotechnologies among its priorities for the next two-year period, will together with UNIDO contribute to international cooperation in the application of these new technologies.

Sra. Olga CLEMENCIA FERNANDEZ (Colombia): Seremos muy breves en nuestra intervención. Hemos agradecido mucho la declaración del Sr. Bonte Friedheim, quien hizo una magnífica presentación de este documento 9. Los representantes de Colombia participamos activamente en el 10° periodo de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura, que fue presidido, con mucha competencia, por nuestro colega y amigo Sr. Hamdi, de Egipto. Apreciamos mucho también la valiosa colaboración que nos ofrecieron los dos Vicepresidentes, el profesor Thomsen, de Dinamarca: y el amigo Munip, de Malasia.

Deseamos apoyar plenamente las principales conclusiones del COAG, sobre todo relativas a la ejecución del Programa de Labores 1986-88, para insistir una vez mas en la profunda preocupación que nos han causado las reducciones que debieron aplicarse a la ejecución del Programa en los últimos 3 afios, debido a la crisis financiera de la Organizaion, causada principalmente por la falta de pago de las cuotas del primer contribuyente. Todas estas reducciones afectan los intereses y las aspiraciones de los paíees en desarrollo y son contrarias al espíritu de la cooperación internacional, porque se redujo un programa que había sido aprobado por la Conferencia, nuestro máximo órgano rector. Desgraciadamente, estamos frente a hechos cumplidos, y sólo nos queda apoyar lo que dice el párrafo 7: "La situación que ha exigido que se hagan recortes en el Programa es muy lamentable y espera que no persistirá".

Los Representantes de Colombia lamentamos principalmente la reducción considerable que debió aplicarse a la capacitación en los funcionarios de la FAO y en el personal nacional de los países beneficiarios. La capacitación es uno de los aspectos fundamentales del Programa, y la adecuada preparación de los nacionales encargados de la contrapartida es base de un buen éxito de las actividades de nuestra Organización.

Como lo expresó la Delegación de Colombia en el COAG, la reactivación de todas las importantes actividades reducidas tomará mucho tiempo, exigirá grandes recursos y afectará notoriamente a los países del Tercer Mundo. Por ello apoyamos lo que dice el párrafo 7, sobre la necesidad del pago oportuno de las cuotas para "garantizar a la FAO una situación estable en materia de recursos."

Finalmente, queremos apoyar plenamente las enmiendas del párrafo 140, como lo expresó el colega del Perú.

Assefa YILALA (Ethiopia): The Report of the Tenth Session of the Committee on Agriculture is very vell outlined and most of the issues that were raised were very well reflected. Therefore, I would like to thank the Secretariat for their contribution and thank Mr Bonte-Friedheim for introducing the item.

The Committee on Agriculture met under the Chairmanship of Mr Hamdi of Egypt.He exhaustedly discussed the matters of interest in great depth and deserves our tribute.

While endorsing the report I would like to mention two points that are of significant importance deserving immediate attention. These two points are the introduction of PIC into the Code and the preservation of animal genetic resources. Because of the wellbeing of mankind in general, including environmental considerations, we would hope that they are given immediate implementation.

We feel that these two areas are significant both from the point of view of present and future food production and therefore deserve immediate attention.

While endorsing the report, I would like to say that the correction and amendment proposed by the delegate of Peru to paragraph 140 is acceptable to my delegation.

The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides is a very important decision that was made during the Conference and has a bearing on the wellbeing of mankind. At the time the Code was approved many member countries felt that it was incomplete without the Prior Informed Consent. With the introduction of the PIC to the Code, we feel that will partially fulfill some of the wishes of the member countries regarding the content of the Code.

Therefore, our delegation would like to express our support for the proposed changes in Articles 2, 9.8.1 and 9.8.4 as contained in document CL 95/15. We also endorse the proposed modifications and their presentation to the 25th Session of the Conference. This endorsement also includes the guidelines on the operation of Prior Informed Consent.

In this connection I would also like to thank all of those who contributed toward proposing the acceptable modification and Mr Brader for the introduction of the item to the Council.

Antti NIKKOLA (Finland): My delegation would like to make some comments both on the COAG Report and on the PIC Clause.

We wish to take this opportunity of thanking the FAO Secretariat for producing excellent documents for the 10th Session of the Committee on Agriculture. We feel that the work of the Committee took place in a very constructive spirit.

Concerning the Summary Programme of Work and Budget presented to COAG, we welcome the approach adopted by the Secretariat in formulating first the specific priorities, thereafter the consequent programme changes and proposals, and finally the much needed budgetary proposals. This approach as such, gives us a good opportunity to discuss the objectives, means and strategies of our Organization.

However, on the basis of our experience in COAG as well as in meetings of the Committee on Fisheries this year, we feel that the biennial budget does not offer the best possibility for this kind of discussion. We maintain that the plans for the next biennium should be judged in the light of plans for the long term. This would enable member countries to react and comment on the various specific proposals on the basis of an agreed framework of priorities and strategies with a longer perspective. Therefore, we hope that in future more time will be reserved for discussion of medium-term planning of FAO already in the technical committees. Finland and the other Nordic countries have underlined this principle before.

Plant and animal genetic resources are an important concern for FAO. The recommendations given by COAG on animal genetic resources are well founded. The recommendations are necessary for the conservation of a biological diversity of farmed animals on a global scale. My delegation hopes that FAO can find organizational structures and means so that the work on animal genetic resource preservation can be developed and supported in the framework of FAO.

The Finnish delegation welcomes the fact that the Tropical Forestry Action Plan was brought to the attention of COAG. For administrative reasons, agriculture and forestry are often promoted through separate channels. Closer cooperation between FAO subsectors at all levels of administration would be fruitful. To continue this cooperation at committee level, the Nordic countries proposed to COAG that agro-forestry should be a special topic for discussion at the next session of COAG.

Food consumption patterns and nutritional problems in urban regions do not belong to the core topics of FAO activities. We agree, however, with the conclusion of COAG that FAO can play a useful role in certain areas such as food quality and safety, nutrition education and nutrition surveillance activities. The importance of training was repeatedly underlined during the COAG session. Training is one of the cheapest and most efficient elements in developing projects. Not only should the local people be trained, but also those connected with them-managers, members of NGO's, national civil servants, and other officials. It is also essential to organize in-service training for all FAO staff involved. During recent years, FAO training activities have suffered too much, considering their vital importance for the Organization.

Now I turn to the question of PIC. Finland strongly supports the incorporation of the Prior Informed Consent Clause in the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. The proposal by COAG on the PIC Clause satisfies in general our delegation and is a good basis for final negotiations before and during the next FAO Conference. However, the Finnish delegation would like to draw attention to the closer cooperation needed between UNEP and FAO. This cooperation is needed because the PIC Clause comprises a data base containing relevant information on banned and severely restricted pesticides. UNEP has already got a data base called the "International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals". Therefore, we are not convinced of the need to establish a new data base for the needs of the PIC Clause as proposed in document CL 95/15. We suggest that the Secretariat considers the possibility of using UNEP's data base instead of having two complementary and interactive data bases. Using two data bases may lead to extra technical and administrative problems and a duplication of work.

Michel MOMBOULI (Congo): Pour commencer permettez-nous de remercier nos deux présentateurs, M. Bonte-Friedheim et M. Brader, pour la clarté de leurs exposés respectifs sur les points 6 et 7 soumis à notre examen.

Ayant nous-mêmes participé à la dixième session du Comité de l’agriculture, nous nous déclarons logiquement solidaires de ses recommandations et conclusions. Nous n'avons pas l'Intention d'être à la fois juge et partie dans l'examen des rapports et c'est pourquoi nous serons assez brefs dans notre propos pour laisser le temps à ceux qui n'auraient pas participé au Xème COAG de se prononcer.

Quelques mots concernant la présentation du rapport. Nous remercions le Secrétariat pour le résumé en encadré de ce rapport du Xème COAG, résumé qui, en montant en épingle les questions appelant l'attention du Conseil, facilite notre lecture et notre compréhension des sujets.

Je voudrais également dire quelques mots concernant certaines questions débattues par le COAG à sa Xème Session; en effet, nous n'avons pas l'intention de passer en revue toutes les questions.

Concernant l'exécution du programme de travail 1986-88, nous aimerions nous associer à l'appel lancé à tous les Etats Membres pour qu'ils s'acquittent de leur contribution, même si nous sommes tous à l'heure des vaches maigres eu égard à la crise financière et économique mondiale, ceci dans le souci de permettre à la FAO de s'acquitter de son mandat de lutte contre la faim et la malnutrition.

Nous appuyons les différentes recommandations faites par le COAG concernant l'exécution du programme de travail 1986-88, et en particulier celles relatives à la formation et au renforcement des services de vulgarisation, au rôle du Centre d'Intervention anti-acridienne d'urgence, à la lutte contre la mouche américaine du ver taraudeur en Afrique du Nord à propos duquel la FAO propose un plan; nous appuyons également les recommandations relatives aux problèmes d'environnement, au développement durable de l'agriculture, à l'accès au marché pour les produits exportés par les pays en voie de développement.

Concernant le Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget 1990-91, nous nous résumerons en disant: premièrement, que nous approuvons la politique visant l'affectation de ressources financières complémentaires aux programmes techniques de l'Organisation; deuxièmement, que nous appuyons les principaux domaines prioritaires du programme d'agriculture pour lesquels des augmentations de crédit sont envisagées. Nous appuyons avec force toutes les recommandations concernant la préservation des ressources génétiques animales qui ne doivent pas rester en marge des autres sources génétiques en raison de l'importance qu'elles représentent, et nous insistons pour la prise en compte, dans les différents programmes de l'Organisation, de la participation de la population dans le développement agricole rural.

Quelques mots à propos du code de conduite pour la distribution et l'utilisation des pesticides et l'introduction de la clause d'information et de consentement préalable.

Nous félicitons le Secrétariat de la FAO pour avoir organisé avec succès les différentes rencontres qui ont permis l'adoption par consensus de propositions qui nous sont présentées dans le document CL 95/15. En effet, après un démarrage assez difficile, c'est avec grande satisfaction que nous

accueillons les résultats obtenus dans ce domaine, qui représentent à nos yeux un acquis précieux et une amélioration notable des articles 2 et 9 du Code.

Nous n'avons pas l'intention de chausser des lunettes d'expert pour passer au peigne fin ces propositions. Celles-ci nous paraissent relever du bon sens et du respect mutuel que nous avons longtemps souhaités et voulu instaurer entre les partenaires impliqués dans le commerce des pesticides. Aussi les approuvons-nous avec enthousiasme pour leur mise en oeuvre graduelle en partant d'une phase expérimentale.

Sra. Grafila SOTO CARRERO (Cuba): Quisiera agradecer por su amable conducto las presentaciones de los temas que nos ocupan, hechas por dos distinguidos miembros de la Secretarla: el Sr. Bonte Friedheim y el Sr. Brader.

La delegación cubana, participó muy activamente en el 10° período de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura, participando por consiguiente en la aprobación del informe que hoy nos ocupa y al cual damos nuevamente nuestro apoyo. En términos generales, la delegación cubana quisiera destacar el importante papel que la FAO desempeña ayudando a los países necesitados a realizar análisis agrícolas, fórmulas de estrategias y políticas y planes agrarios, así como su puesta en marcha. Sin embargo, nos permitiremos hacer referencia a algunos aspectos que nos parecen de vital importancia. En lo que se refiere a la ejecución del Programa de Labores y Presupuesto, la delegación de Cuba quisiera insistir en la importancia de que se continué la colaboración existente con otras organizaciones del sistemas de las Naciones Unidas, así como la cooperación con los centros internacionales de investigación y que se intensifique la orientación multidisciplinaria en las actividades de la FAO, como una vía para conseguir una labor de mayor calidad y un uso eficaz de los recursos con que cuenta nuestra Organización. También quisiéramos insistir en la necesidad de dar una prioridad continua a la capacitación. Este aspecto es de vital importancia para el adelanto de los métodos modernos en la agricultura de los países subdesarrollados. Asimismo, y para no repetir todos los aspectos importantes de la ejecución del Programa de Labores, quisiéramos plantear la importancia que mi delegación atribuye a la adopción de las medidas preventivas previstas en los distintos planes regionales e internacionales sobre el manejo de plagas.

Sr. Presidente, respecto a las propuestas del Programa de Laboree y Presupuesto para 1990/91, mi delegación entiende que son muy equilibradas las consideraciones que han dado lugar a la formulación de las propuestas presupuestarias para el bienio 90-91, referentes al Programa Principal 2.1 Agricultura. En especial damos nuestro apoyo a la asignación de recursos financieros adicionales a los programas técnicos y económicos. Asimismo, consideramos de vital importancia la asistencia técnica para la formulación de políticas nacionales en materias de alimentación y nutrición, teniendo en cuenta la alta prioridad que se atribuye a la seguridad alimentaria y a la necesidad de tomar medidas a corto plazo en los sectores relacionados con la calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos, la enseñanza y las intervenciones en materia de nutrición y vigilancia nutrícional.

Consideramos importante, que en la sexta Encuesta Alimentaria Mundial se incluya el tema de la malnutrlción urbana.

En lo referente a la preservación de los recursos zoogenéticos, la delegación cubana considera importante que la FAO amplíe el Programa de Conservación de Recursos Zoogenéticos y el mejor aprovechamiento de los mismos, e insistimos en la necesidad de que la FAO continue estudiando la utilización de nuevos métodos de biotecnología aplicables a los recursos zoogenéticos, así como que estudie la posibilidad de establecer un sistema global de recursos genéticos, incluidos los recursos zoogenéticos. En tal sentido, apoyamos el pérrafo 140 con las enmiendas propuestas por la distinguida delegación de Peru.

Sobre la introducción de la clausula relativa al Principio de Información y Consentimiento Previos, la delegación cubana apoya nuevamente las deliberaciones y conclusiones del COAG, así como de la Consulta Intergubernamental celebrada en enero de 1989.

LE PRESIDENT: Monsieur le Ministre de l'agrlcultre du Lesotho qui avait un engagement avec le Directeur général vient de nous rejoindre. Je lui donne volontiers la parole pour sa communication.

Daniel E. PHORORO (Lesotho): Mr Chairman, I am sorry I am late, but you have already given the reason


My delegation would like to endorse the Report of the 10th Session of the Committee on Agriculture, in particular the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for 1990-91.We compliment Mr Bonte-Friedheim on his concise and clear presentation of the activities of FAO's important Department of Agriculture.

Paragraph 51 emphasizes the importance of ensuring the adequate allocation of resources to the Technical Cooperation Programme, TCP. Our discussions on food security with reference to special adjustment programmes really confirm this view. In this regard, we concur with the delegate of the United States of America that structural adjustment is inherently a beneficial exercise provided that sufficient preparation has been made for its introduction by making available to those carrying out the programme analyses on which governments may make decisions. Through TCP, FAO can be rendered more swiftly responsive to member countries' needs in providing the required expertise for this undertaking. The initiative of the Italian Government in financially supporting the TCP is commendable, and is something which we trust will be emulated by other donors, particularly the United States, notwithstanding the commendable contributions by the United States to this exercise through bilateral programmes, for instance, such as those in my own country.

Similarly, the containment of training assistance which is very essential and necessary is deplored in paragraph 52 of the document. We believe this can be overcome by resuscitated, increased TCP resources. Paragraph 151 stresses the need for training local-level planners in programming and allocating resources and services in favour of the disadvantaged and to the organizations such as cooperatives, small informal groups and NGOs in which women always play a predominant role. We fully support this training assistance, and we feel that through TCP such resources could be of great benefit because this is the only best way in which people's participation can be promoted and encouraged. Furthermore, yesterday's discussions underlined and highlighted the fragility of the poor majority who are usually represented by small farmers, and particularly women. Their fragility is expressed in economic terms when they become victims of unrealistic structural adjustment programmes and are expected to increase production in a hostile economic environment of low commodity prices, preferential trade and high input costs. The fragility is worsened by their farming activities in a similarly fragile environment of depleted soils, overgrazed pastures and deforested woodlands. Under these circumstances, those observations were made by the Committee in paragraph 56, which refers to the important role of farm management and production economics in the analyses and development of stable farming systems. Paragraph 57 emphasizes the importance of fertilizer activities under the auspices of the International Fertilizer Scheme, IFS. Paragraph 71 underscores the importance of better utilization of feed resources for animal production.

In Lesotho, one could mention that we have adopted a theme for the next three years: conservation farming with increased production. The Minister of Education's strategy is similar, and that is education with production. These two things are interlinked to achieve the goals of Lesotho's environmental action plan. We would feel at this stage that the observations which the Committee has made on the three issues of feed resources and also of management systems and production economics and fertilizer, we feel that this should really assume the status of recommendations, and these programmes must be on a priority list of activities for FAO.We make this suggestion in the light of intimate interrelationships between production economics, costly fertilizer inputs, and available animal manure use, resulting from adequate feed resources. In view of the unfavourable economic situation in which the poor farmer operates, we must convince ourselves that the packages that are recommended for adoption will yield the highest returns possible. There is no use, for example, in encouraging the use of fertilizer when the nature of the soil is such that the optimum fertilizer use by the crop is inhibited by other soil deficiencies, for example, low acidity. The cost of the fertilizer will not compensate the farmers' limited resources. Instead, more benefit may accrue from the use of combined fertilizer and cheap manure. The latter will be available in abundant suppliés when feed resources prevail and the range is made more productive by stall feeding.

Finally, regarding technology assessment and transfer in paragraph 79, we urge FAO and the other donors to reorient their thinking on the transfer of technology. Hitherto, this term has implied the adoption of foreign innovations by foreign experts for local use. But we know, for example, that Nigerians and Zambians are bringing into the market technological innovations that are appropriate for their situations in terms of costs, applicability and durability, Including agricultural equipment. This development has been the outcome of structural adjustment programmes that made local currencies less competitive in importing or transferring foreign innovations, thus triggering rapid inflation. We submit, therefore, that efforts must be made to promote and assist indigenous entrepreneurs who are using local material to service agriculture in developing countries·

Zhenhuan LI (China) (Original language Chinese): From document CL 95/9, it could be seen that the COAG, at the Tenth Session, has carried out a comprehensive discussion on issues relating to world agricultural development. Recommendations have been proposed. Please allow me to reiterate the viewpoints of the Chinese Delegation on some of the issues.

First of all, I would like to refer to a recommendation of a study on the strategy and perspective of agricultural development in the Asia and Pacific Region. In the past few years, the Asian region has achieved certain results in agricultural development, but owing to the large population, and scarcity of land resources, in the long run there will be many potential problems that will eventually emerge. In order to formulate the future strategy, I believe that it would be necessary to carry out a systematic study of the problems, based on the available data. We hope that this proposal will be well taken by FAO and that due consideration will be given in formulating the next programme of work. Secondly, we have taken note that because of the financial difficulties, the implementation of the programme of work has been affected. It has also similarly affected programmes in the agricultural sector. Now we are about to begin formulating the next programme of work for the next biennium. We are in agreement with the priorities determined by the COAG interim report that has been adopted by consensus. The priorities include sustainable development, crop surveillance, biotechnology, crop protection, the development of agricultural data, policy consultation, as well as women's participation. We are happy to note that in the Summary proposed by the Director-General, there is a 1.3 percent increase in the agricultural sectors, which is the highest.I think that is indispensable.

Thirdly, questions relating to urbanization and nutrition. At present, there is an influx of rural population into the urban centres in many developing countries, bringing with it a host of problems affecting urban infrastructure, food supply, nutrition, as well as environmental hygiene. In this connection, FAO has had many useful activities in food quality control, in nutrition propaganda and surveillance. We would like to express our appreciation. But we believe that in the long run the only way out of this issue is to undertake an all-round development of rural economy so as to lessen rural poverty.

Fourthly, on the principle of the PIC, we have taken note that since the 24th General Conference in 1987, FAO has been carrying out a large number of useful activities so that the principle of the PIC would be included in the Code of Conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides. Guidelines have been proposed earlier this year in April-that is, during the Tenth Session of COAG. Our delegation has already stated that the implementation of PIC would promote the safe use of pesticides and would lessen the hazardous effects on human health and on the environment. We support the inclusion of the PIC in the Code of Conduct. As for the implementation of the PIC, we believe that the guidelines revised by the experts consulted at the meeting earlier on this year is a sound document which could be accepted by countries over the world. We hope that the PIC will be included as soon as possible in the Code of Conduct and that it will be implemented at the earliest time.

I would also like to point out that owing to the fact that at present many developing countries do not yet possess a sound system of management of pesticides, there is a lack of equipment and technology for surveillance, a lack of qualified personnel. We would propose that FAO further collect and disseminate agricultural data so as to help developing countries to establish such a system and to conduct more training facilities so that we would better implement the principle of the PIC.

Lastly, the Chinese Delegation would like to propose that the present session of the Council adopt the Tenth Report of COAG.

Christos IACOVOU (Grèce): Très brièvement pour ce qui concerne l'accord auquel le Comité de l'agriculture est parvenu sur l'inclusion de la clause dite "de l'information et du consentement préalable", dans le Code pour la distribution et l'utilisation des pesticides, je voudrais clarifier notre position, a savoir que nous sommes d'accord en principe avec les amendements aux articles 2 et 9 du Code. Toutefois, du fait que cela implique quelques charges budgétaires additionnelles, les autorités auraient besoin d'un peu de temps pour confirmer leur approbation.

Noboru SAITO (Japan): My delegation reviewed the document CL 95/9, the report of the Tenth Session of the Committee on Agriculture, and would like to make a few comments on that matter. First of all, I would like to touch upon the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91. Although the Japanese position on this item is pending the result of the FAO Review which will be submitted before us in the coming Conference, my delegation believes it is very important that FAO should exert the maximum use of flexibility through the following measures: first, allocating its resources from low priority areas to those of higher priority. Second, cutting down the less

necessary and less urgent projects. Third, avoiding duplication on the implementation of similar projects and programmes. Fourthly, fixing appropriate implementation periods for new projects and programmes, for example, three or five years, and review the necessity of whether they should be continued at the end of the fixed duration.

As for the point concerning priority areas, we have the following views: firstly, my delegation fully recognized the importance of Agricultural Information Development which involves the effective utilization of accumulated agricultural information in FAO, with a view to strengthening FAO's important role as the information centre on world food and agriculture. Secondly, Japan also understands that policy advice is one of FAO's most important activities, as it assists self-supporting efforts by developing countries to promote food and agricultural development. My delegation therefore believes that policy advice should have high priority in the proposed budget plan in 1990-91. Thirdly, with regard to sustainable development and women in development, my country fully supports these two as high priority areas. At the same time, we have also pointed out that FAO should exert its best efforts to avoid duplication and overlapping with other international organizations in the above fields so as to ensure efficient and successful implementation of programmes in these fields. Fourthly, my delegation highly appreciates the proposed programmes on crop weather monitoring by the effective use of the remote sensing technology which contributes to enhancing the capacity of the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS). Finally, with regard to the proposed budget increase for TCP, as the decision making on this programme depends on the FAO Secretariat and is not transparent for the governments of member countries, my delegation trusts FAO should therefore provide the opportunity for discussions by member countries on the context of TCP implementation.

My delegation would like to touch upon the preservation of animal genetic resources. Japan has significant interests in this issue of the preservation of animal genetics. In this regard, Japan concurs with the approval of the Committee on Agriculture for holding the expert consultation to examine these topics and the study to be conducted by the working group of the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources. However, such expert consultation and the working group should be carried out taking reasonable amounts of time with the view that the matter of animal genetic resources is in its nature of a different character from that of plant genetic resources.

Finally, I would like to touch upon the matter of the Code of Conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides, the introduction of the Prior Informed Consent Clause (PIC). Although we believe the current version of the Code of Conduct is workable to ensure the proper distribution and the appropriate and safe use of pesticides, my delegation supports principally the introduction of the PIC for supplementing the Code of Conduct as a result of careful consideration at former sessions such as government consultations and COAG.

At the last point I would like to mention our efforts for this matter. Japan has contributed to FAO for the implementation of this Code of Conduct with the Trust Fund project which is now operating since last year in the Asian and Pacific regions to support and promote the application of the International Code of Conduct. Thank you Mr Chairman.

Ray ALLEN (United Kingdom): I would first like to compliment the Secretariat on the documents we have before us. We continue to find the section "Matters requiring the attention of the Council" particularly useful·

We made all the technical points we had at COAG and I will not repeat all of these here today. Most of the points we made have been picked up and highlighted in the Report, while some others have not, and it is some of these latter points I would like to highlight in my intervention today.

We will have the opportunity to discuss the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 under Agenda Item 14, but there are one or two points relating to the debate which took place in COAG that I would like to repeat.

The first of these points relates to priorities, and we support the points made by the Japanese delegation on this. We are pleased at the attempt to classify priorities through an intensive internal review process followed by the rationalization of a number of the work programmes. These moves are very welcome, but, as we said at COAG, we consider that they really do not go far enough. There has been reallocation of resources within and between programmes as a result of the rationalization exercise. However most programme elements have in fact been retained in one form or another, and any savings have been reabsorbed.

We remain concerned that actual priorities within the work programme will continue to be dictated to some extent by the availability or otherwise of funds to employ the professional staff to do the work as has been the case in the past. A strategic overview and the formulation of well defined priorities is necessary to overcome this problem and to ensure that some of the more valuable programmes are protected and do not continue to be adversely affected by lack of staff and funds.

While supporting the priority areas listed, the increased allocations do not appear to be confined to these areas alone. Increases are proposed for nearly all the programmes under the Major Agricultural Programme. Significant additional costs will therefore be involved in planning for new initiatives since any savings or reductions achieved within subprogrammes have largely been reabsorbed. Given the overall financial constraints and the problems this has caused in the recent past in effective programme implementation, we think caution should be exercised against planning for any new initiatives unless full provision for these can be assured.This again points to the need for further rationalization of the programmes and the establishment of clearly defined priorities.

The second point I have to make relates to Women in Development. The increased emphasis on the role of women is especially welcome. We are, however, disappointed that although accorded a high priority in the past, this area has been notably constrained through inadequate staff resources during the last biennium.We hope that the staffing constraints will not have a similar effect on the 1990-91 programme.

My third point refers to the Livestock Programme. A number of new technologies, particularly involving genetic manipulation, raise the prospects of developing improved vaccines, modifying animal breeds, cloning genes and so on. While it is right to be aware of the important developments there is a danger that the new technologies will come to be regarded as a panacea to solve many livestock diseases and production problems. The use and application of these technolgies needs to be approached with caution, particularly where infrastructure and commitment are lacking and where simple and currently available measures are not being adopted.

My next point Mr Chairman, relates to the section on People's Participation in Agriculture and Rural Development on pages 16 to 19 of the document. We made the point at COAG, and we would like to make it again, that whilst we agree that an Important role is played by small informal groups of rural people, the proposal to establish a data base of such groups needs careful consideration. Given the large numbers and diversity of such organizations we consider that this may not necessarily provide the type of Information required to strengthen efforts to promote the establishment of viable people's institutions generally. We would like to repeat our suggestion that a case study approach covering a cross-section of selected institutions, aimed at pinpointing and clarifying the main factors determining success or failure, might represent a more appropriate and practical use of the funds·

On Prior Informed Consent, the Director-General in his statement on Monday referred to this issue, and the fact that the issue involved so many divergent interests that it could have turned into a real apple of discord. Instead in the Committee on Agriculture consensus was reached and common sense, as the Director-General referred to it, did prevail, and we hope that the Council will endorse the proposed modifications for forwarding to Conference.We do however support the comments made by the Finnish delegation regarding cooperation with UNEP and the need for a single data base.

The Committee on Agriculture, Mr Chairman, is the main forum for discussion of technical problems and Members will recall that four topics are selected for detailed discussion at each meeting. My delegation has noticed that the number of professional personnel attending from capitale has declined over the last two meetings of COAG. We feel that efforts should be made by both the membership and the Secretariat to reverse this decline, and we would like to suggest that the Secretariat might put forward proposals to achieve better professional representation.

In conclusion, Mr Chairman, we are pleased to note the remarks on page 35 of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget that due account will be taken of the recommendations of bodies such as the Committee on Agriculture in preparing the full Programme of Work and Budget.Thank you Mr Chairman.

Igor MARINCEK (Suisse): Je vais concentrer mon intervention concernant le rapport du COAG sur trois points: surtout l'examen du programme de travail dans le secteur de l'alimentation et de l'agriculture; ensuite, la question de la participation de la population au développement agricole et rural et, finalement, la question de l'inclusion du ICP dans le code de conduite pour les pesticides.

La mission principale de la FAO reste sans doute d'aider les pays à éliminer la faim et la pauvreté et à realiser la sécurité alimentaire tant au niveau des pays qu'à celui des individus. Pour réaliser cet objectif, la FAO doit en premier lieu aider les pays à mobiliser leurs propres ressources. A cette fin, comme premier pas et avant même de considérer tel ou tel projet, la FAO doit à notre avis se poser la question fondamentale, et cela en commun avec le pays concerné, de savoir si la politique agricole de ce dernier constitue un cadre favorable à la poursuite de l'objectif de la sécurité alimentaire. Trop souvent, hélas, les politiques agricoles ont été un

frein plutôt qu'une incitation à un développement rural harmonieux. On a trop longtemps considéré l'agriculture comme un secteur sans avenir avec pour seule mission de nourrir les citadins à bon prix. L'absence de politique agricole attrayante pour les paysans a ainsi accéléré l'exode rural et contribué à l'explosion des villes et surtout des bidonvilles, fait qui a été relevé lors du débat du COAG sur l'urbanisation et les modes de consommation alimentaire.

A notre avis, 11 est donc urgent que la FAO aide les pays concernés à mieux connaître les causes de leurs problèmes et à trouver des solutions spécifiques à leur situation et leurs besoins. C'est pourquoi ma délégation est en faveur d'un renforcement du rôle de la FAO dans l'analyse et les conseils en matière de politique agricole. Ma délégation soutient donc le paragraphe 102 du rapport du COAG et, avec le Comité, nous sommes préoccupés de la réduction proposée des ressources dans ce domaine si crucial. Nous pensons, au contraire, qu'une augmentation est souhaitable. Ma délégation a d'autre part remarqué que le Secrétariat nous propose une augmentation du nombre d'éléments de programme dans le Grand Programme Agriculture, de 213 actuellement à 218. C'est dire qu'on nous propose une dispersion des ressources. Ce n'est pas comme cela que nous aurons une FAO plus efficace, mieux orientée vers des priorités.

Nous devons faire de notre Organisation un instrument plus fort dans la lutte contre la faim et la pauvreté-la rendre plus forte, c'est d'abord la rendre plus efficace-ensuite, lui donner une orientation plus claire, plus concentrée. C'est ce genre de réforme dont a besoin la FAO. De telles réformes ne doivent pas coûter cher, contrairement à ce qu'on essaie parfois de nous suggérer. Bien au contraire, rendre la FAO plus efficace, c'est dire qu'avec une quantité donnée de ressources, elle pourra faire plus. Si l'on nous dit, par exemple, que la FAO a besoin d'ordinateurs pour mieux faire son travail, cela ne peut être justifié que si l'ordinateur contribue à baisser les coûts. De telles réformes permettent donc des économies qui libèrent des ressources pour des tâches prioritaires.

Il semble aussi que la FAO n'ait pas de plan à moyen terme de ses besoins en personnel. C'est étonnant car le personnel constitue le capital le plus précieux de la FAO, comme l'a souligné à plusieurs reprises le Directeur Général-et je lui donne parfaitement raison. Si nous définissons un programme à moyen terme de l'Organisation, il est évident qu'il faut tout de suite se poser la question: quel genre de spécialistes seront nécessaires pour mettre en oeuvre ce programme? Pour l'analyse et les conseils en matière de politique agricole, par exemple, 11 faudra d'autres spécialistes que dans un domaine technique. Je reviendrai plus en détail sur cette question lors du débat sur le Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget.

Qu'il me soit permis de parler brièvement du sujet de la participation populaire. La participation populaire est un facteur tout à fait central pour mobiliser l'intérêt et le sens des responsabilités des populations concernées et constitue ainsi l'une des clés pour le succès des programmes de développement. J'aimerais donner un exemple qui montre bien le rôle crucial de la participation populaire. Dans un pays sahélien qui souffre beaucoup sous la progression de la désertification, on a adopté un programme de mise en défens de périmètres. A l'abri du bétail et de l'exploitation par l'homme, notamment en ce qui concerne les besoins en bois de feu, ces périmetres montrent aujourd'hui une reprise étonnante du couvert végétal. Ce développement très encourageant a été rendu possible par une modification des lois du pays. L'ancienne loi donnait la responsabilité et les droits d'exploitation de ces zones au gouvernement central. La nouvelle loi donne le droit d'exploitation aux villages, sous condition justement de prendre également des responsabilités, notamment en ce qui concerne la protection des périmètres mis en défens. La décentralisation de la responsabilité à ceux qui sont directement intéressés s'avère donc être une clé de succès et c'est un enseignement qui mérite d'être retenu. C'est cela la participation populaire et, comme on le voit, cela ne doit pas coûter cher.

Le rapport du COAG sur cette question tel que présenté dit, au paragraphe (viii) du résumé et au paragraphe 157, qu'un plan d'action devrait être élaboré pour être examiné en temps utile par le Conseil et la Conférence de la FAO. Ma délégation aimerait connaître l'interprétation des termes "en temps utile" par le Secrétariat. Il nous semble, par ailleurs, que le Comité avait adopté les termes "le plus rapidement possible"· Ma délégation est de celles qui avaient insisté sur le besoin pressant d'une action de la FAO dans ce domaine et elle a offert un appui financier pour aider le démarrage de ces activités par l'exécution d'une étude. Nous souhaiterions savoir du Secrétariat quelles mesures ont été prises jusqu'ici dans ce domaine.

Finalement, vous nous avez invités à nous prononcer également au sujet du COAG sur le PIC.

Ma délégation a fait savoir à cet égard sa position lors des débats du COAG. Nous sommes d'accord avec l'inclusion du PIC dans le Code de conduite sur les pesticides, à condition que l'on réalise un système administrativement simple. Il est essentiel, à notre avis, que l'on évite un double emploi dans ce domaine entre l'UNEP et notamment le RISCPT d'une part et la FAO d'autre part.

Le document CL 95/15, que nous venons de recevoir hier seulement, nous semble cependant proposer un double emploi dans ce domaine. Dans le Code en vigueur, la responsabilité du système de notification est confiée au RISCPT. Nous ne voyons pas pourquoi la modification du Code par l'inclusion du PIC devrait changer cette division du travail. Le rôle de la FAO dans ce domaine réside à notre avis plutôt dans l'assistance technique, dans la mise en place de systèmes d'homologation dans les pays qui n'en ont pas encore ainsi que dans le domaine de la formation.

Comme les pesticides font partie des produits chimiques, il serait, d'après la proposition qui nous est soumise, nécessaire d'envoyer des notifications à la fois à la FAO et au RISCPT. Ceci créerait une confusion et une bureaucratie regrettables.

Ma délégation suggère qu'on cherche une solution plus rationnelle, c'est-à-dire que l'on crée un système unique faisant appel aux institutions existantes dans le sytème des Nations Unies.

Par ailleurs, comme le document CL 95/15 n'a pas encore pu être étudié par les services compétents de l’administration de mon pays, ma délégation n'est pas en mesure de donner une appréciation définitive quant aux modalités d'inclusion du PIC dans le Code, et doit donc réserver sa position à ce sujet.

Angel BARBERO MARTIN (España): Podemos calificar de fundamental, sin duda alguna, el 10°· período de sesiones del Comité de Agricultura. Nosotros estimamos que la importancia y el alcance de loe temas tratados, que lograron un acuerdo en esta sesión y que, si son de tal índole que si este Consejo los adopta, apoya y eleva las propuestas a la Confere<ncia, esté poniendo en manos de la FAO la posibilidad de colocar a la Organización en una posición de liderazgo respecto al camino, a la marcha hacia una nueva agricultura que sabrá conjugar por fin el desarrollo con la conservación de los recursos naturales, que es esa propuesta que todos apoyan y que todos citan continuamente, pero que muy pocos saben poner en practica, muy pocos la saben hacer realidad. La desaparición de los bosques o la desaparición del suelo fértil, la contaminación de aguas, suelos y alimentos a veces se achacan a la propia agricultura, a veces son también tenidos como efecto del subdesarrollo, pero, en definitiva, son causa a su vez de mas subdesarrollo, son causa de pobreza y de inseguridad alimentaria y son un reto. Su lucha se plantea en todas las organizaciones internacionales. Por eso, el camino que se ha emprendido después de esta sesión creemos que se debe apoyar, sin miedos, sin recortes presupuestarios·

A nosotros Sr. Presidente, nos han preocupado sobre todo los recortes presupuestarios que se han realizado en el campo de la capacitación, porque entendemos que en esta estrategia de lucha, el papel del propio campesino sabiendo gestionar sus propios recursos, sabiendo lo que hace y hacia dónde va, es fundamental e insustituible. Τ para eso esta la capacitación y la extensión, para eso esta también la participación popular a la que se han referido ya otras delegaciones, y nosotros, ya en su momento, apoyamos también la mejora de las estructuras agrarias de estos propios campesinos y noβ agradó especialmente la idea de las cooperativas, que sería una vía, entendemos, de lograr un mayor valor añadido a los productos agrarios, eliminando intermediarlos y también facilitando esta gestión que nosotros preconizamos. En este sentido, la formación, además de técnica, la formación cooperativa para jóvenes y adultos debe ser apoyada. A los jóvenes porque son la garantía del futuro, y a los adultos porque deben de poder mantener un mínimo nivel de producción que garantice su desarrollo. Esta formación se debe dar mediante servicios de divulgación y extensión.

También apoyamos en su momento, Sr. Presidente, el acceso a los créditos y, dentro de este sistema cooperativo, el acceso al crédito cooperativo creando secciones de crédito que permiten mejorar y aumentar el acceso a la financiación de los propios cooperantes.

La formación empresarial de los jóvenes, apoyada con un crédito, también empresarial, hará de ellos los futuros gestores de sus propias explotaciones, y también, cómo no, y no nos cansamos de citar el papel de la mujer en el desarrollo, crear unas vías de crédito para la mujer, darle acceso a este desarrollo que estamos preconizando por vía de las cooperativas.

Por otro lado, Sr. Presidente, apoyamos durante este período de sesiones todas aquellas propuestas que se referían a la mejora de los medios que permiten una agricultura mas racional y más protectora de los recursos, como son la teledetección empleada tanto para conocer las variaciones climatológicas como para saber en el momento adecuado el estado, la cantidad y la calidad de los recursos naturales. Aquí enlazamos con la lucha contra la erosión y contra la desertización. Dentro de este sistema, los avances de la investigación, los aportes a la tecnología que realizan los centros de investigación son fundamentales también, y, en este sentido, los países ricos que disponen de una infraestructura ya creada o que permite estos avances en la investigación, deberían colaborar a que esta infraestructura pudiera también establecerse en países mas pobres y colaborar a que las conclusiones obtenidas en los centros de investigación sean difundidas adecuadamente entre los países pobres.

El Programa de Acción Forestal en los Trópicos tiene unos aspectos que en este campo del que estamos ahora tratando, la agricultura, son fundamentales. Creemos que permite la utilización adecuada de cada tierra, de cada terreno. La aplicación de este plan en este sentido cooperará a mantener el suelo, evitando que cultivos Inadecuados causen su degradación, al mismo tiempo que permite que se conserven los bosques allá donde deben estar, en los euelos donde deben estar y no sean talados para permitir el acceso a estos cultivos.

En muchas estrategias para la conservación de la naturaleza que se han desarrollado en muchas organizaciones, tanto gubernamentales como no gubernamentales, se habla de la diversidad genética como uno de los puntos fundamentales a mantener dentro de esta estrategia de la conservación. Sin embargo, muy pocas han logrado que el principio de la diversidad genética se aplique adecuadamente. No basta la creación de parques nacionales. Aunque son totalmente necesarios, son como islas dentro de territorios y a lo mejor no son en absoluto conservados, como los parques. Hace falta, Sr. Presidente, una estrategia y un programa bien estructurados y unos medios adecuados, y nos encontramos con que la FAO dispone y empieza a desarrollar esos medios. Entendemos entonces que, ampliar el sistema global de la diversidad biológica, que hasta ahora está contemplando la FAO, ampliarlo con el reino animal y utilizar los medios y la experiencia técnica que ya posee la FAO, es la garantía, primero, de que se seguirá en el camino adecuado de la diversidad genética, pero también de que se emplearán los medios con la economía y la intensidad adecuadas. Por eso, apoyamos laβ enmiendas que propuso en su momento la delegación de Perú al punto 140 del informe.

Y por ultimo, querríamos recordar también que nosotros establecimos algunas prioridades en los futuros programas, que nos gustaría se vieran desarrolladas por la FAO: la agrosilvlcultura y los sistemas agroforestales y también el estudio de las posibilidades de las explotaciones conjuntas ganaderas y agrícolas en las zonas áridas y semiáridas, cuyos desequilibrios causan muchas veces el fenómeno de la desertlzación.

En resumen, yo pediría a los delegados aquí presentes y también al Secretariado de la FAO que no teman en absoluto continuar por este camino, que entendemos que es el adecuado, para lograr una FAO digna de la confianza de los que reciben sus beneficios, que somos en definitiva todos, y también de los que estamos llamados a aportar los medios necesarios, tanto técnicos como materiales para que su marcha continue.

The meeting rose at 12.45 hours
La séance est levée à 12 h 45.
Se levanta la sesión a las 12.45 horas.

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