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10. Fourteenth Annual Report of the WFP Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes
10. Quatorzième rapport annuel du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire du PAM
10. 14° Informe Anual del Comité de Políticas y Programas de Ayuda Alimentaria del PMA

James INGRAM (WFP): You have before you the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes, which deals with the activities of the World Food Programme during 1988 (Document CL 95/13).

I believe that there is much about the WFP's activities of which we, the Secretariat, the donors who support us, and the countries in which we work, can be proud. In 1988 WFP was the largest donor of food to over two-thirds of the countries receiving food aid. We gave one quarter of development grants to developing countries from the entire UN system. Every year, WFP's assistance to over 100 countries helps tens of millions of people both to survive emergencies and to make lasting improvements in their lives.

The most comprehensive measure of the scale of our work is our annual turnover-that is to say, the sum of the totality of resources managed by the Programme. It is a figure which is not included in the document as such before you, although the components of the figure are all there. In 1988 our turnover was almost $ 1.25 billion. This was the highest on record and represented a 39 percent increase over 1986 and a 24 percent increase over 1987. Our administrative and programme support costs as a proportion of turnover have fallen to just over 5 percent in the same period.

Let me put these figures in another way. The total staff costs of the Programme in 1988 were just $ 39 million. That is only 3.2 percent of our total turnover-in other words, for every dollar expended through the WFP, 97 cents reaches the developing countries. Only 3 percent is absorbed in staff costs.

That there is a very considerable increase in our turnover is evidence that the Programme is increasingly being asked to do still more, but with proportionately fewer staff resources available to assist.

Also contained in this turnover expenditure are purchases of more than $ 136 million worth of food including an all-time high of more than $ 118 million from developing countries. We spent over $ 200 million on transport alone, of which a quarter was to the account of developing countries. Thus, WFP assistance not only feeds the hunger and promotes economic and social development, but provides substantial funding for the purchase of goods and services from developing countries expenditure which has been increasing rapidly in recent years, thanks to the enlightenment of donors·

Paradoxically, however, when the need for food aid is greater than ever, if only because of the increase in world cereal prices, all the major food aid donors indicated they will be providing less food aid in the coming period. The currently available data suggest that for the first time for over five years cereal food aid in 1988/89 may not reach the annual target of $ 60 million set by the World Food Conference in 1974. Latest figures also indicate the proportion of food aid provided multilaterally may be declining. Thus, two years ago Council approved the $ 1.4 billion target established for development resources for the WFP for the current biennium 1989/90. But at this point we have received only some $ 936 million towards this.

On the basis of past experience and on non-donor intentions, we currently expect to receive just over $ 1.1 billion in development resources for the current biennium. This represents 80 percent of the pledged target as compared to the 99 percent achieved in the previous biennium. At the same time, because most pledges are made in terms of value, increasing food prices result in lower quantities of commodities available to the Programme. Over the past 18 months, the cost of the WFP food basket increased by almost 20 percent, thus our development projects are in a double squeeze. Some donors are reducing the value of their pledges at the very time those pledges are procuring less food for the developing countries.

If we are to continue to maintain the level of WFP development assistance, we foresee we will need a modest increase in the pledging target for 1991/92 from $ 1.4 billion to $ 1.5 billion. Both the

Secretary-General of the United Nations end the Director-General of FAO support this target level which has been approved by the CFA. Council has before it a draft resolution in Annex 3 of the document transmitted to you by the CFA, which I commend for your approval.

You may wonder why we ask even more for the 1991/92 biennium when it looks as though we may fail to reach the target for the current one. The reasons are rather simple. First of all, as I have indicated there has been no reduction in the need for food aid. On the contrary, the challenge of hunger in the developing world remains formidable, made worse by the fact that the cost of commercial food imports is rising. The impact is especially serious for the food-deficit countries burdened by debt. Food aid attacks hunger directly and our emergency assistance is used exclusively to this end. But as we all know, food aid can be even more effective when used to create assistance which leads to longer-term improvements in the economy and well-being of the poor. Food aid used to help irrigate fields, to build farm-to-market roads, diversify crops and carry out other activities that increase food production or provide alternative sources of income is of far more benefit to the poor than any sort of temporary handout. As Council may know, WFP is skilled in the use of food aid to promote rural development. Over the years, working closely with our United Nations partners, especially FAO, much has been learned.

Secondly, there is no lack of food available despite poor harvests in North America, and the reduction of agricultural production in many of the main donor countries. The fact is that in 1987/88 cereal food aid shipments represented less than 1 percent of world cereal production and only 5 percent of the stocks held in the developed countries. There is no absolute lack of resources. Rather, the question is one of how those resources will be used.

The other important aspect of the target proposed for the 1991/92 biennium is that the cash requirement is set at one-third of the total. This is in line with the relevant general regulation of WFP, but considerably higher than the 24 percent that the Programme has actually received over the past several biennia. Previously, we have been able to get by with relatively low cash receipts. For a number of years we benefited from substantial cash earnings during a period of high interest rates on large cash holdings. Subsequently ocean freight rates declined, with the result that transport costs were relatively modest.

However, we have now moved into a period when that sort of cushion is no longer available. While it is difficult to predict what ocean freight rates will be several years in advance, a recent and continuing upward movement of these rates suggests that the cost of ocean freight will take up a much higher proportion of our expenditure. For example, while the value of our food aid provided for emergency purposes increased by 17 percent between 1986 and 1988, expenditure on transport rose by over 80 percent. I may say it has not yet reached those levels. The costs are not as high as they were some ten years ago.

Despite the pressure on development resources that I have sketched out here, I do not foresee at this stage any decline in the value of projects going forward to the coming session of CFA for approval. From past experience we know the resource picture can change rapidly and that it will be unwise not to have a pipeline of well-chosen projects ready to implement when the situation so permits. Nevertheless, 1 feel it is my duty to warn the Council that unless donors increase the level of their pledgee for the current biennium and meet the targets set for 1991/92, and unless we receive one-third of pledges in cash, then we will have no alternative but to reduce shipments to ongoing projects, delay the implementation of new projects and slow down some of our current development projects.

I want to stress that it is not only our development activities that will suffer if these pledged levels are not met. Our ability to respond rapidly to requests for emergency assistance also will be affected. For all the Programme's overheed costs for both development end emergency activities are covered by cash produced from regular resources, that is by development resources. The infrastructure of field officers is so funded, as is the HQ infrastrueture for the mobilisation and shipping of large quantities of food aid from and to a great many countries. Assistance is provided through IEFR and includes no overhead costs. Assistance from some donors does not include the cost of internal transport which consequently must be catered for with cash from WFP development sources.

Therefore, in considering my proposed target for the next biennium and even more importantly your actual contributions both for the current biennium and the forthcoming one, I repeat what I said to CFA 27 just a few weeks ago-please remember that the development side of our work cannot be short-changed without impairing the capabilities of the Programme on the emergency aide as well.

I regret that I have had to paint a rather ominous picture here today, but I would have been less than honest had 1 not done so. However, let me emphasize that the future does not have to be a bleak one. It is in the hands of donors and I appeal to them to contribute to WFP for our development resources a higher proportion of their food aid so that our contribution to development can be sustained as well as our ability as a Secretariat to respond to crisis situations.


We are engaged in noble work. Our staff in many countries risk their lives-and that is not a rhetorical turn of phrase. In the last few weeks, several have had miraculous escapes in southern Sudan. Let us not fall them in their dedication to the work of overcoming poverty and saving lives.

B.P. DUTIA (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): On behalf of the Director-General I would like to make a few remarks on the 14th Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes which is before Council for consideration.

The World Food Programme in 1988 completed its 25th year of operations. Launched as a small experimental programme in 1963 by Member Nations of FAO and the United Nations, the Programme has grown to handle a significant share of food aid flows today. FAO as a parent organisation has been closely associated with the evaluation and growth of the World Food Programme, and is indeed proud that the Programme has emerged as one of the important institutions for channelling multilateral development assistance. Council may wish to commend the donor support, the hard work and the collaboration between the organizations which has made this achievement possible.

While 1988 was a landmark for the World Food Programme, it was also a year during which radical changes in the global food security setting took place. This has underlined the continuing need for vigilance and fresh thinking on policies and projects concerning the role of food aid. The deterioration in the world food situation may indeed have important implications for WFP. To some of these, the Executive Director of the World Food Programme has just referred. There is renewed concern about the overall adequacy of food aid resources in the present situation. The volume of food aid in cereals has declined by about one quarter. Prices of basic foods like cereals, vegetable oils and dairy products, have risen sharply in the past two years. Freight rates have increased, and the food import costs of developing countries are correspondingly less affordable. At the same time, unfortunately, food emergencies afflict more and more people. Yet, the principal resource designed to cope with their needs-and I refer to the International Emergency Food Reserve-remains inadequate and unpredictable. In these circumstances, it is indeed necessary to ensure that food aid programmes are sufficiently equipped to meet the challenges of food insecurity today. Equally important is the challenge to address the role of food aid in the rapidly changing global economic and social environment which could confront us in the 1990s and beyond.

The Director-General, in his address to the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes a few weeks ago, recalled that when the World Food Conference reviewed the role of food aid in 1974, it had perceived food aid as an interim measure. Fifteen years later, it is appropriate to ask whether food aid programmes themselves are contributing to making food aid ultimately redundant except, of course, in emergency situations. Numerous initiatives have been taken over the years for improving access to food supplies such as the establishment of the International Emergency Food Reserve and the International Monetary Fund's compensatory facility for cereal imports. But global circumstances which may affect food aid availability are changing. In the first place, while it is agreed that food aid needs to be fully integrated in overall development plans, much needs to be done to give concrete effect to these objectives. At the same time, challenges are mounting as to how food aid can best be used in structural adjustments and austerity programmes so as to enhance access to food by the poor and to stimulate economic growth.

Secondly, it has also been recognized that increased support from donors is necessary to finance triangular transactions and the purchase of local surpluses. However, it is necessary also to examine the scope for complementary measures, including the strengthening of local storage, as part of the comprehensive assessment of the best ways of assuring longer term availability of adequate food supplies and stabilization of domestic markets.

Thirdly, the Director-General had drawn attention to new visions regarding agricultural policy reforms, especially in the GATT, which could have major longer term effects on world food markets and on both food exporters and importers. In this connection, for instance, the GATT negotiations on agriculture make provision for proposals on ways to take account of the possible negative effects of the reform process on net food importing developing countries. Moreover, the thrust towards establishment of a market-oriented agricultural trading system may well have implications for food aid in the post Uruguay Round world. These emerging challenges are of a global nature, and their impact on food aid merits our full consideration.

Fourthly, there is a need to consider anew the adequacy of food aid mechanisms themselves. For instance, FAO has long advocated the need to raise the resource base of the International Emergency Food Reserve in the light of rapidly increasing needs for emergency food aid, particularly for man-made emergencies. Other issues that need to be addressed include the pre-positioning of stocks to expedite delivery of food aid in emergencies and the feasibility of strengthening the Food Aid Convention itself.

All of these developments necessitate en in-depth consideration of the role of food aid in the 1990s and beyond. The Director-General, therefore, considers it important that the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes make a comprehensive review and analysis of the implications of these and other related developments on food aid for the future. FAO, of couree, stands ready to fully collaborate with the World Food Programme in this important and challenging endeavour. The concerns highlighted above are often brought to the forefront in debates in the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes itself, as well as in other international fora which deal with food security issues. It is the Director-General's strong belief that there are important issues which the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes, as the governing body of the World Food Programme, should bring to the attention of other relevant bodies in order to receive their views and guidance.

The present Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes to the Council le indeed very informative on the activities of the Programme during the past year. However, while highlighting the collaboration with other Organizations, it is perhaps surprising that there is no reference to collaboration with FAO. Moreover, unlike the reports of recent years, the present report does not cover the CFA's deliberations on policy issues. I would recall that during its 25th Session in 1988, the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes held important debates on food aid and dairy development and on the World Food Programme's Plan of Action for Africa. At its most recent session, too, the Committee held important policy discussions, notably on protracted emergency operations for refugees and displaced persons.

Edwardo PESQUEIRA OLEA (México): El Gobierno de México concede gran importancia a la labor que realiza el Programa Mundial de Alimentos y continuamente ha dedo su mayor reconocimiento por el apoyo y eficiencia con que ha trabajado y ha contribuido al desarrollo de nuestro pais. Por lo que se refiere al papel del Comité de Políticas y Programas de Ayuda Alimentaria del Programe Mundial de Alimentaión, mi Delegeción desea hacer un análisis amplio del documento CL 95/13, el cual resume las tareas que realizó el Programa durante 1988 en los campos de ayuda de emergencia y asistencia técnica para el desarrollo.

En cuanto a los recursos del Programa, mi Delegación apoya el objetivo propuesto de contribución pare el período 1991-92, de 1 500 millones de dólares, cien millones de dólares más que loe propuestos en los bienios 1987-88 y 1989-90· Ho hay que olvidar, sin embargo, que le inflación y la eleveción de costos afecta a estos programas, así se geste parte importante de loe fondos en países industrislizados. Con este aumento apenas se compensa el deterioro inflacionario. Exhortamos a todos los palees integrantes del Programa Mundial de Alimentos e tomar en cuente esta circunstancia, asi como la del incremento en la demanda a la bora de determinar futuras aportaciones. Moa preocupe que dicho informe refleje ciertas señales de Insuficiencia sobre los recursos actualmente existentes para brindar ayuda de emergencia necesaria. Por ejemplo, el hecho de que le meta de 500 000 toneladas de cereales no se haya logrado; que loe precios de loe principales alimentos utilizados en el Programa se hayan incrementado rápidamente; que esto haya causado que el Programa realice drásticas disminuciones en el uso de leche en polvo en sus proyectos de desarrollo. Quiero dejar constancia de nuestra preocupación por el hecho de que, al sugerirse en el CPA la propuesta de contribución de 1 500 millones de dólares para el bledo 1991-92, muchos delegedos expresaran su imposibilidad de comprometerse pare incrementar contribuciones. Ello signfica que el volumen de ayuda alimenticia multilateral, en el mejor de los casos, será mínimo. Por otre perte, que ente el hecho que les necesidades de ayuda alimenticia continúen incrementándose, se puede deducir que le ayuda no será suficiente, y no quisiéramos ver en riesgo le seguridad alimentaria mundial. En este contexto, reiteremos nuestra consternación y desacuerdo por que el informe que se noe he presentado no someta e le consideración de este Consejo deliberaciones sobre estrategia e seguir d consideraciones de carácter político. En sus anteriores periodos de sesiones, el Programe Mundial de Alimentación tomó decisiones importantes sobre algunas cuestiones de carácter político, como se le ayuda alimentaria, el desarrollo lácteo, el Plan de Acción del Programa Mundial de Alimenteción pare Africa. Sin embargo, el informe recibido menciona estas circunstancias en une forms muy superficial: porcentajes, cifres, millonee de dólares, millonee de toneladas, pero muy poco de eue políticas y de sus estrategias e mediano y a largo plazo y los efectos en cuento e países, organizaciones y eus interrelaciones. Solicitamos al Programa Mundial de Alimenteción que, el igual que los demis Comités principales de la FAO, reporte e este Consejo les deliberaciones y acuerdos que se adopten en ese Programa, con objeto de que los demás pelees del Sisteme se enteren de estas nueves modalidades que afecten e loe intereses de la gran mayoría de los pelees desarrolledos y en desarrollo.

Por otra parte, noe preocupe el giro que está tomando la instrumentación de reformas en el Programe Mundial de Alimentación y el CPA. Se están imponidendo medidas experimentales y definitivas que crean confusión, y para eu adopción no se han dado los márgenes de tiempo necesarios para consultas, por más que extraoficialmente hayamos expresado no sólo dudes sino el formal y frontal rechazo a

algunas de las acciones propuestas y puestas en marcha, y se han tomado las medidas en tanto solicitamos la opinión y el acuerdo de nuestras autoridades. Ello no habla bien del celo con que los organismos internacionales deben vigilar el respeto a las opiniones diversas de sus Estados Miembros.

Algunos comentarios sobre el ultimo periodo de sesiones. Por lo que se refiere a la reforma operacional que separa la asistencia a refugiados del resto de los programas de emergencia, creo que ello no va de acuerdo ni con los intereses ni con los derechos de los países en desarrollo. Nos hemos opuesto y nos seguimos oponiendo a esa práctica, y asi lo hemos dicho enfáticamente, pero ni nuestra voz ni nuestra razón aparecen en el informe. Por ello insistimos en que el informe del CPA deberá traer a este Consejo su deliberación. Hemos procurado acudir, como refugio de legitimidad, a las reglas operativas del Organismo, sin éxito. Digo por ello que basamos, como siempre procuramos hacerlo, nuestros argumentos en la razón y en derecho.

La posición de mi Delegación en el CPA sobre el tema de la situación permanente de los refugiados fue contrarla a que se separara la ayuda que éstos recibían del Programa Ordinario, porque esto no garantiza de que en esta forma se consigan mayores aportaciones para los refugiados, y se corre el riesgo de que no se cuente con suficiente ayuda y sta quede supeditada a donaciones especificas que no pueden ser otorgadas si los donadores no están de acuerdo con los movimientos políticos que operan. Esto seria utilizar la ayuda alimentaria como arma politica, a lo que ml país se ha opuesto siempre. Por consiguiente, sugerimos que en el CPA este tema se decidiera y se mandara a este Consejo, en donde además, como ya se dijo, se cuenta con un mayor número de palees interesados. Estas modificaciones abren las puertas a un uso de privilegio politico en la ayuda alimentarla: "Quien quiera de mi pan lo deberá beber o con mi vino, o con mi coca cola, o con mi aceite, o no comer", según el interés de los donantes.

No es éste el espíritu del Programa ni de la cooperación multilateral. ¿Quién debe aprobar los cambios estructurales según las reglas de operación del PMA? Los Órganos directivos de FAO y las Naciones Unidas, está claro. ¿Con qué elementos este Consejo, que es órgano rector de primera importancia, va a calificar cuestiones trascendentes, si no se se le someten a su consideración? ¿Por qué treinta miembros del PMA deciden por los cincuenta que integran el Consejo, que, después de su Conferencia, es el órgano supremo de nuestro organismo? En suma, menciono este aspecto, ya que el no informar el CPA temas de carácter politico de tal envergadura a este Consejo es una seria omisión que priva a otros Estados Miembros de la oportunidad de considerar y manifestar sus puntos de vista en la materia.

Por consiguiente, mi Delegación insta a las autoridades del Programa a que se apeguen a las obligaciones reglamentadas en los textos básicos y a que mantengan una relación de diálogo abierto y respetuoso con las otras instituciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, sobre todo con aquellas encargadas de la agricultura y la alimentación, con sede en Roma.

Sometemos a consideración de este Consejo la adopción de un acuerdo en que se inste al PMA y al CPA para que, en lo sucesivo, cualesquiera temas en los que se consideren asuntos de politica o de estrategia, una vez aprobados en el seno del CPA, se sometan a consideración de este Consejo y, en su caso, de la Conferencia. Sólo asi se dará cumplimiento a los objetivos para los que fue creado este organismo y a las aspiraciones de los países que conforman el Sistema de las Naciones Unidas, lo que nos permitirá contar con una Organización en la que se discutan a la luz de la razón y del derecho los asuntos que nos incumben.

Por último, debido a la importancia que mi Delegación concede a la decisión tomada sobre la situación permanente de los refugiados, y en vista de que una decisión de esta naturaleza concierne a todos los Gobiernos del Sistema de las Naciones Unidas, y no sólo a los miembros del CPA, formalmente propongo que este tema sea incluido y considerado en la próxima Conferencia de la FAO, que tendrá lugar el próximo noviembre.

Dice el Sr. Presidente que las intervenciones, para ser buenas, son redondas. Para pretender la circunferencia de ésta, quisiera terminar por donde empecé. Que no se confunda nadie: el expresar puntos de vista divergentes de otras delegaciones o de la Administración del organismo, de ninguna manera supone nuestra oposición a sus actividades. Por el contrario, pretendemos expresar nuestra preocupación por su defensa. México apoya el Programa Mundial de Alimentos.

Javier TANIALEAN ARBULU (Perú): En primer lugar, quisiera saludar y felicitar las exposiciones del Sr. Ingram, Director Ejecutivo, y del Sr. Dutia, representante del Director General. Las observaciones o comentarios que voy a realizar son muy puntuales y tocan ciertos aspectos específicos del informe que hemos recibido del Programa Mundial de Alimentos. En el punto 20 de este informe se menciona que la "concentración de esfuerzos y de recursos para los campesinos pobres es una característica de la ayuda alimentaria para proyectos del PMA." Hoy dia, hay una discusión sobre la pobreza critica: si ésta es mayor en el campesinado, en las áreas rurales, o en el llamado


sector informal urbano. Yo creo que debería ampliarse, como grupo objetivo dentro de la política del PMA todo lo que es la pobreza en el sector informal urbano o semiurbano, que se esta desarrollando aceleradamente en Latinoamérica, y, dentro de ello, al binomio mujer-niño, como uno de los grupos más vulnerables.

Por otro lado, Peru recibe y agradece a los países donantes una buena parte de la ayuda alimentaria. Pero ¿qué pasa en mi país?, y es lo que sé de otros países: la parte mas crítica esta en el desaduanaje de los alimentos, el transporte interno, el almacenamiento y su distribución para el consumo. Nosotros quisiéramos el apoyo del Programa Mundial de Alimentos con proyectos específicos porque se dan casos alarmantes en que los alimentos se malogran en la propia aduana, por el complejo sistema burocrático de nuestros países.

Pienso que el trabajo que el PMA debe realizar en cada país tiene que tener una filosofía pluralista. ¿Qué entiendo por "filosofía pluralista"? Trabajar no sólo con el Gobierno, con el Estado, sino con la sociedad civil. Me refiero a las organizaciones populares de base, a las organizaciones no Gubernamentales y a la propia Iglesia Católica.

Por otro lado apoyamos que la ayuda venga en productos sobre la base de tonelaje y no sobre la base en valor, porque esto permite, en épocas de inflación, reservar y preservar lo que es el volumen y el quántum físico de los alimentos.

Ahora quiero referirme a un aspecto que para la Delegación de Peru es muy importante. Como mencioné en una intervención en el Comité de Productos Básicos, mi país, a raíz de los programas de estabilización económica, ha pasado a ser un país en emergencia alimentaria, como lo reconoce el documento de la FAO que vamos a ver en la tarde, y con un crecimiento de menos 8 por ciento en lo que es la producción de alimentos. Estamos, pues, en una situación muy difícil. Y esto ¿debido a qué? Debido a los programas de estabilización económica que han hecho bajar los ingresos sustancialmente. El consumo físico de alimentos en el Peru, luego de cuatro ajustes que se hicieron en programas de estabilización económica, ha disminuido en un 30 por ciento el quántum físico de ingestión de alimentos. Son cifras del año pasado.

Por eso, Peru está pidiendo a la comunidad internacional, en materia de ayuda para los grupos más vulnerables-campesinado pobre, sector informal urbano, binomio madre-niño, tuberculosos y otros enfermos-un total de 160 000 toneladas para poder cubrir esas emergencias. De ahí que consideremos muy importante el incremento de la Reserva Alimentaria Internacional de Emergencia.

Pero hay un aspecto más de fondo que yo quisiera mencionar, con respecto a los programas de estabilización económica y al rol de la FAO y al rol del PMA. Ha llegado el momento de preguntarse, y preguntarse conjuntamente con los gobiernos, cómo proteger los grupos más vulnerables y cómo proteger sus ingresos frente a los programas de estabilización económica, cómo definir estrategias de supervivencia de los más pobres, que en mi país alcanzan 7 millones de personas. Yo creo que la respuesta está en el diseño de macropolíticas alternativas a los programas de estabilización económica para proteger sobre todo la nutrición, la salud y la educación de los grupos vulnerables. El desafío está en el diseño de políticas que vayan a un ajuste orientado al crecimiento, protegiendo los grupos vulnerables y reestructurando el sector productivo. Yo creo que es el momento de que los organismos internacionales, más sensibles a lo que es la injusticia humana, tienen que tener una parte más activa para poder dar respuestas alternativas a los programas de estabilización económica. De otro lado, los programas del PMA tienen que jugar un rol importante en lo que es la redistribución de ingresos a favor de los más pobres. Sólo bajo una filosofía de este tipo tienen un contenido y una justificación social.

Y por ultimo, yo quisiera hacer un llamado tanto a la FAO como al PMA para que exista un trabajo estrecho y una colaboración entre las dos instituciones y una reciprocidad, porque esto es lo que redunda en favor de los países pobres, y en tal sentido, apoyamos los proyectos de resoluciones presentados en el informe en el Anexo N°-3.

Kwang-Shik WON (Korea, Republic of:) On behalf of my delegation I would like to express our thanks to Mr Ingram for his excellent presentation and Mr Dutia for his comprehesive and analytical remarks·

Firstly, with respect to the development assistance by region in paragraphs 21 and 22, my delegation presents our views with deep concern that firstly the proportion of the commitments to sub-Saharan Africa has been trending down over the last three years. Secondly, this downward trend has been mainly due to a scarcity of technical, administrative and managerial capacity.

In this regard, my delegation would like to emphasize that due consideration should be given to the specific conditions of recipient countries in order to enhance the effects of the development assistance.

My delegation with great satisfaction would like to note that the WFP has been placing much importance on promotion of environmentally substainable development. At the same time, I would like to commend the WFP for its successful performance on the International Food Aid Information System, which has shown considerable progress in only three years from its establishment in 1987·

Finally, with regard to the WFP pledging target for 1991/92, we welcome that the target pledge has increased to US$ 1.5 billion, which is US$ 100 million above that in 1988/89, and its cash proportion was also raised to one-third from 30 percent of the total pledge in order to cover increased transportation costs.

In closing, my delegation would like to associate with other delegations in supporting the report and the draft resolution in Annex III.

Mauricio CUADRA SCHULTZ (Nicaragua): Mi delegación ha estudiado detenidamente el documento que se nos presenta conteniendo el 14 Informe Anual del Comité de Políticas y Programas de Ayuda Alimentaria. Deseamos en primer término felicitar al Dr. Ingram, Director Ejecutivo del PMA por el Informe recibido, el cual nos brinda datos que necesitamos para poder, con propiedad, pronunciarnos al respecto de las actividades presentes y futuras del PMA. Asimismo, agradecemos al Sr. Dutia por su presentación en nombre del Director General.

Mi delegación, durante el recién pasado 942 período de sesiones de este Consejo presentó un pormenorizado relato de las actividades del Programa Mundial de Alimentos en Nicaragua. Entonces estábamos terminando de evaluar las desastrosas secuelas dejadas por el huracán "Juana" y fue propicia la ocasión para dejar constancia de la efectividad con que el PMA ha venido acudiendo en nuestra ayuda en ésa y en otras ocasiones, no sólo con proyectos de ayuda alimenticia de urgencia, sino también con proyectos de desarrollo rural y desarrollo de recursos humanos. La importancia que tienen los programas del PMA para Nicaragua la reiteramos hoy junto con nuestro aprecio al PMA y al Director Ejecutivo.

Al revisar el informe tomamos mayor conciencia de la importante labor que el PMA lleva a cabo en todos los países en desarrollo, sobre todo en aquellos de más bajos ingresos, donde ya no se habla sólo de problemas de malnutrición sino donde día a día, ante los ojos del mundo entero, mueren miles de personas a causa del hambre. Aquí, en estos países, los programas de ayuda alimentaria son destinados a salvar vidas humanas. De nuevo encontramos en el Informe el denominador común que todos conocemos; que la situación de la agricultura y la alimentación en el mundo se ha deteriorado a niveles tan alarmantes que los programas del PMA se convierten en programas de urgencia permanente.

Hemos apreciado en el Informe que no sólo países pequeños o en desarrollo son beneficiados con estos programas, sino también países grandes de Asia y de otras regiones, y que también reciben beneficios los donantes al utilizar sus compañías, sus propios medios de transporte para transportar los alimentos. Se recoge de forma clara una situación que es común a muchos de nuestros países. Me refiero a los problemas del atraso e infraestructura inadecuada que obstaculizan los programas de desarrollo rural obligando a destinar más recursos para poder lograr que éstos surtan el efecto que persiguen. Son éstos, problemas clásicos del subdesarrollo: escasez de capacidad técnica, administrativa y de gestión. Son producto de una herencia nefasta de nuestros pueblos tras siglos de explotación de nuestros recursos, que forman cadenas difíciles de romper.

Consideramos, en consecuencia, que algunos países que regatean sus contribuciones deben de recordar esta realidad para considerar de verdad estas contribuciones como una obligación, si es que vamos a hablar aquí con seriedad de un mundo más igualitario y de deseos de erradicar el hambre y promover el desarrollo.

Saludamos por tanto que se informa en el párrafo 22 sobre los pasos que se están dando para superar este lastre que impide, incluso como se menciona en el informe, la utilización constructiva de la ayuda alimentaria en algunos países del mundo. Tal como hemos analizado en otros documentos, el Informe nos ilustra sobre los ya tristemente célebres Programas de Ajuste y el impacto negativo que tienen los mismos en las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones más necesitadas. Estamos de acuerdo, como se menciona en los párrafos 31 al 34, en que el PMA en conjunto con la FAO y otras organizaciones pueden apoyar, aportando recursos que ayuden a reducir el impacto de estos Programas de Ajuste, cuando sean necesarios. Se registra también claramente la problemática planteada por el aumento de los precios de los alimentos y como esto afecta directamente la cantidad de productos disponibles. En consecuencia, consideramos lógica la solicitud de que se aumenten las contribuciones. El Informe, nos refleja en síntesis, un incremento de las necesidades mundiales por las causas ya mencionadas, a la par de un incremento de los precios de los productos, un incremento de los precios de los costos de transporte y flete y una reducción de las contribuciones. No podemos por tanto, dejar de hacer un llamado de apoyo al objetivo de promesas de contribución hecho por el Director Ejecutivo, así como que al menos una tercera parte sea en efectivo.

No queremos abundar en más detalles, puesto que a lo largo de estos días hemos venido analizando la crítica situación que mencionamos. Por tanto, queremos reiterar nuestro apoyo al PMA y queremos dejar claro el apoyo de nuestro país a los proyectos de resolución que se nos presentan, así como hacer un llamado a aquellos países que todavía ponen alguna resistencia a que, al menos cuando se trata de programas de ayuda alimentaria, dejen de lado ingratitudes y por fin pongan mucho más de su parte para que los programas del PMA, en realidad, continúen surtiendo el efecto benéfico que hacen para el Tercer Mundo y para muchos otros países.

Juan Felipe ROY ROMERO (España): Una vez estudiado atentamente el documento CL 95/13 y escuchado la excelente exposición de él, pasamos a señalar los puntos que a nuestro juicio son de la máxima importancia.

Expresamos nuestra satisfacción por el aumento del 28% en la cantidad de alimentos enviados a los países, en desarrollo, lamentando que dicha cantidad sea todavía muy insuficiente para la necesidades de ellos. Asimismo, mi país se congratula por el incremento de las asignaciones para proyectos en desarrollo, hecho que estimamos de la máxima importancia, bien sea para el desarrollo agrícola y rural o para el desarrollo de los recursos humanos, instando al mismo tiempo a que se siga perseverando en este punto tan importante de ayuda a los países en desarrollo. Lamentamos que las asignaciones para las operaciones de urgencia hayan alcanzado un nivel tan elevado, especialmente las motivadas por catástrofes causadas por el hombre, haciendo votos para que éstas disminuyan cada vez más y sólo las alteraciones meteorológicas sean las razones que propicien estas ayudas.

En relación a una política futura de proyectos, nos permitimos indicar los siguientes, que consideramos primordiales:

Primero. Ya hemos expresado nuestro total aliento a los proyectos en desarrollo, fomentando el máximo aprovechamiento de las tierras, la mejora forestal, ayudas a madres y niños en edad preescolar y escolar, etc.

Segundo. El avance del Sistema Internacional de Información sobre Ayuda Alimentarla (INTERFAIS), lo consideramos fundamental para un mejor aprovechamiento de ésta, ya que al tener más y mejores informes de los diversos factores que inciden en determinadas ayudas alimentarias, como cuadro detallado sobre expediciones a ciertos países, información de algunos puertos o rutas de transporte, etc., permitirán que los recursos del PMA se apliquen lo más utilmente posible.

Tercero. La cooperación entre el PMA, Banco Mundial, PNUD, UNICEF, FIDA y otras organizaciones no gubernamentales, mejorarán la eficacia de las distintas ayudas a los países más necesitados.

Cuarto. Por ultimo y como es bien sabido, sin una ayuda económica considerable no es posible realizar ningún programa eficiente, por ello la delegación española vería con gran satisfacción que se alcancen los objetivos de contribuciones voluntarias para los años venideros, con la seguridad de que en algo se paliarían las necesidades de los seres más desafortunados.

Assefa YILALA (Ethiopia): The Ethiopian delegation would like to thank Mr Ingram, the Executive Director of the World Food Programme, and Mr Dutia, Assistant Director-General, for introducing the item just presented on the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes to the Economic and Social Council, the FAO Council and the World Food Council.

Our observation on this item is limited to the pledge and endorsement of the document for the concerned bodies within the UN system, and therefore very brief.

With respect to the document, we would like to thank the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes and the Secretariat of the World Food Programme for the information contained in the Fourteenth Annual Report to the ECOSOC, the FAO Council and the World Food Council.

In paragraphs 66 to 68 of the document it is indicated that the total pledge or contribution to the regular resource programme, food aid conventions and IEFR, International Emergency Food Reserve, in 1987/88 reached US$ 1.6 billion against WFP's target of US$ 1.4 billion, a target that was set for the Regular Programme. This is a difference of 200 000 tons. Yet we feel that the achievement with regard to total food availabilities for Food Aid Programmes, including the WFP, Food Aid Conventions and IEFR, was an encouragement, and would like to thank all those who contributed towards the success for overall resource availabilities.

Contributions to the Regular Programme of the WFP, however, fall considerably short of the pledged target, which we feel requires serious consideration by the donor communities. The target set for 1990-91 is US$ 1.5 billion, which is less than the total achievement in the Food Aid Programmes in 1987 and 1988. We therefore hope that the achievement in 1990-91 will be at least as much as that

of the pledge for the 1991 biennium, and we appeal to all donors for their continued support. In this connection we would like to express the desirability of the one-third cash contribution for the success of the Programme's operation, which we hope will be seriously considered and met by the donor communities, as it has been in the past.

Our delegation would also support the Draft Resolution of the Council, and endorse that of the Conference contained in Annex III of the document. We would also join with the Executive Director in his appeal for increased contributions to the Programme's resources.

Like the document concerning Recent Developments in the UN System of Interest to FAO, this particular document was also received by our delegation after the Council session had started. This being the case, adequate examination of the Report was not possible. We hope that such difficulties will be overcome in future sessions. In these circumstances, we may request the floor again, if we find it necessary to raise some point as discussion progresses.

Kiichi NARITA (Japan): First of all, I would like to join previous speakers in paying tribute to the Executive Director, Mr Ingram, for his succinct presentation of the Fourteenth Annual Report. I should also like to express our high regard for the whole staff of WFP, as only with their efforts could 1988 have marked a record-breaking year in various aspects of operational activities.

There are many areas which are commendable in the 1988 operations. Let me focus on one area which we are very pleased to note, namely that WFP has been actively promoting cooperation and coordination with international organizations such as the World Bank, UNDP, WHO and also NGOs, as mentioned in paragraph 23 of the document CL 95/13, with a view to strengthening further the implementation of WFP development projects for agricultural and rural development in the low income and food deficit countries. We welcome particularly WFP's initiatives in co-financing with the World Bank, so that WFP food aid and the World Bank's financial loans are provided in a coordinated and complementary manner.

My delegation also appreciates the WFP's elaboration for the emergency aid programme for displaced persons and refugees. WFP's support for them has increased seven-fold over the last ten years.

From a humanitarian viewpoint, my Government also has been cooperating with international organizations to assist refugees and displaced persons. For example, Japan contributed US$ 105 million to the UN Trust Fund of the Office of the Coordinator for UN Humanitarian and Economic Assistance Programmes for Afghan refugees, among which $ 20 million was earmarked for WFP projects·

My delegation would like to take this opportunity to make a few comments concerning the pledging target for 1991-92.

The proposed pledging target of US$ 1.5 billion for the period of 1991-92 is a huge amount of financial resources to be collected from the international community, and it has to be a realistic one. When we see the fact that the proposed pledging target for 1987-88 was achieved by 89 percent and that only 65 percent of the target for the current biennium was achieved by the end of 1988, it seems very difficult to say what percentage of the proposed pledging target for 1991-92 will be achieved. However, there must be no objection to saying that the donor countries, including Japan, should make every effort to achieve this goal once it is adopted.

Also, the increased pledging target would naturally lead to an increased requirement of administrative expenses which all the donors, whether small or big, have to bear. From this point of view, we have to keep in mind the importance of operating the WFP projects as effectively and efficiently as possible.

Juan NUIRY-SANCHEZ (Cuba): La delegación de Cuba agradece al Director Ejecutivo del PMA, señor James Ingram, por la presentación del documento CL 95/13, el cual ya nos era familiar desde el pasado período de sesiones del CPA celebrado en mayo pasado y en el cual nuestra delegación participó activamente. Así como también agradecemos la clara y precisa presentación del señor Dutia.

La delegación de mi país quisiera expresar su apoyo y agradecimiento a la labor desarrollada por el Programa Mundial de Alimentos en el período analizado. Consideramos que se trata de un programa ágil, activo y eficaz donde los países subdesarrollados encontramos excelente colaboración para satisfacer nuestras necesidades alimentarias, especialmente los países de bajos ingresos y países menos adelantados.

Apoyamos las asignaciones por tipos de proyectos hechas por el PMA. A saber, proyectos de desarrollo agrícola y rural y desarrollo de recursos humanos. El hecho de que en ambas categorías de proyectos de desarrollo se haga gran hincapié en el apoyo que presta a las zonas rurales, y en especial a los grupos más necesitados de la población rural, como se expresa en el Párrafo 20, nos indica el carácter amplio de su ayuda.

Teniendo en cuenta las características del Programa, nos preocupa la situación de falta de recursos que nos ha sido expuesta. Como nos indicara el señor Ingram hay muchas personas que tienen sus vidas en peligro por falta de alimentos y en realidad con las excelentes concepciones del PMA y con la buena administración no basta. Hacen falta recursos, recursos que deben ser aportados por los países donantes. Esperamos que la exhortación hecha por el señor Ingram y por las otras delegaciones, a las que unimos nuestra voz, no caigan en el vacío y puedan cumplimentarse las necesidades del Programa, ya que en términos generales están disminuyendo y, como ya hemos expresado, las necesidades de alimentos aumenta. Tal como ha sido comprobado fehacientemente en este Consejo de la FAO.

Para finalizar, Señor Presidente, reiteramos la complacencia de la delegación de Cuba a las acciones amplias del PMA, que dentro de la colaboración multilateral desempeña un papel de tanta importancia, por lo que no duda nuestra delegación en brindar su apoyo a la resolución que se nos presenta en el Anexo III del documento.

Mohammad Salees KHAN (Pakistan): I too would like to thank Mr James Ingram, the Executive Director of the WFP, for his presentation of the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes, and Mr Dutia for his additional comments on behalf of the Director-General of FAO.

Pakistan is privileged to be a member of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes and thus has had an opportunity to reflect on the issues contained in the CFA Report during the Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Sessions of the CFA. We will therefore attempt to confine our comments to only a few aspects of the Report today.

First and foremost, we are pleased to note that the twenty-fifth year of WFP has been marked by another sound year of performance. This is particularly creditable when viewed in the light of the fact that the performance was achieved in a situation where the Programme had to struggle to match scarce resources against ever-increasing demands vis-à-vis emergency operations. Yet the Programme was also able to record a 25 percent increase in commitments for development projects.

While recognizing the record level of contributions to the regular resources of the Programme, we note that these were still short of the target. Likewise, we note the shortfall in contributions to the IEFR. These, coupled with increased international cereal prices, severely affected the overall availability of food supplies to WFP, forcing it to draw in advance against pledges of 1989, with severe through-forward effects.

The Executive Director in his presentation of the agenda item extensively and justifiably expressed apprehension regarding the shortfalls in pledges to the regular resources of IEFR, as well as the inadequacy of cash resources. We fully support the proposed pledging target of US$ 1.25 billion in the biennium 1990-91 with at least one third of contributions being in cash. In pursuance of this, we endorse the annexed Resolution attached to document CL 95/13.

Mr Dutia, in his statement on behalf of the Director-General, underscored the need for strengthening the IEFR, and of the pre-positioning of food aid. Our delegation, at the Twenty-seventh CFA Session, fully supported this view, and would once again like to record its support.

We welcome the sizeable pledges so far against the 1989-90 pledging targets and hope not only that the tempo would be maintained, but that it would be supplemented with additional resources over and above the pledging target of US$ 1.5 billion. Moreover we would emphasize the sensitization of pledges to price fluctuations in order to ensure availability of food commodities to WFP at originally planned levels and to protect against shortfalls resulting from increases in prices of commodities during the course of the biennium.

We note the record level of shipments handled by WFP in 1988 and a 71 percent increase in shipments on behalf of bilateral donors. We would request from WFP some further information regarding the adjustment of costs of bilateral shipments pertaining to procurement handling, freight charges, etc., which are handled by the WFP.

In the case of purchases of food commodities in the developing countries and their share in the transportation expenditure outlay, we note with satisfaction the position indicated in paragraphs 11 and 65 respectively. However, we would call for further efforts to enhance food procurement through local purchases and triangular transactions in developing countries.

With regard to paragraph 65 we would like to ask the Secretariat to clarify what percentage-does the figure of 24 percent quoted in the paragraph constitute of the total shipping tonnage.

Turning to Section 1 on development assistance, we endorse the allocation of resources mentioned in paragraph 19 between agriculture and other development activities and human resource development commitments, as well as the rural bias of WFP projects. We also endorse the high priority given to sub-Saharan Africa and other less developed countries. We share the view expressed in paragraph 22 that their severe economic problems constrain the ability of governments in developing countries to provide necessary non-food inputs essential to achieve effective project implementation, and we hope that progressively a larger proportion of local costs of projects and internal costs relating to food handling and management will be met out of cash resources available to WFP and the monitization of food aid.

To this end we would appeal to the donors to make available a large percentage of their pledges to WFP in cash, as was requested by the Executive Director in his introduction.

Turning to emergency operations my delegation associates itself with the regret in paragraph 5 that the commitments to this end in 1988 matched the record levels 1987. While we hope that the major leaps towards peace throughout the world ever since the signing of the Geneva Accord on Afghanistan in April 1988 will obviate the need for such large-scale emergency operations in the future, we take this opportunity of congratulating WFP on its admirable response to numerous emergencies in 1988, including the situation in Pakistan.

On the subject of Afghan refugees, members will be well aware of the resolute and unstinting effort of the Government and people of Pakistan in hosting and sustaining the refugees, now 3.27 million in registered numbers alone, over the past decade. Despite our own severe economic difficulties and the tremendous economic and social pressures brought about by the presence of such a large number of refugees on our economic and social facilities and our physical environment, we are resolved to continue our support efforts until the honourable return of the refugees to their homeland. In this we remain unwavering.

WFP, UNHCR and several bilateral and multilateral donors, as well as private aid agencies, have been generously assisting us in the past in our endeavours, for which we are extremely grateful. However, as our delegation reported at the 27th Session of CFA, donor fatigue is becoming increasingly perceptible, and we are required to meet our increasingly larger percentage of refugee requirements from our own meagre stocks and financial resources. In many cases we have to meet refugee requirements with items which we have imported for our own requirements at a considerable foreign exchange cost.

In our statement we pointed out the considerable shortages of food aid supplies received from WFP and other donors vis-à-vis the actual requirements of the refugees. Our submissions in this respect are contained in the Summary Record of the 27th Session of the CFA, and I do not intend to reiterate these. However, we would like to underline the fact that the difficult economic situation in my country and the persistent crop failures over the past two years have severely constrained the ability of my Government to continue to meet the shortages in food requirements and the costs of internal logistics and refugee maintenance from our resources.

On the other hand, the refugee situation, contrary to earlier expectations, is not abating. In fact, from February to April 1989, a further influx of 66,000 refugees into Pakistan was recorded. Therefore we hope that WFP and other donors will help us in our noble goal, by covering the shortages of supplies and the cost of internal transportation and refugee maintenance as identified in our statement before the 27th Session of CFA.

My Government extends full support to WFP and other agencies in the United Nations in the setting up of the task referred to in paragraph 27 and we can assure FAO that we will continue to support this endeavour·

Finally, on the point raised by Mr Dutia and other delegations on the contents of the CFA Report, as a member of CFA Pakistan has no difficulty at the moment with the report. We fully participated in the deliberations of the CFA, and despite a difference of views have proceeded with the consensus. We fully accept the decision of the CFA. However, we understand the difficulties of the member countries who are not members of CFA even if they participate as observers during the session. Therefore, we feel it would be only fair to those people to have other aspects of the CFA sessions included in the Report when it is being presented to Council and to ECOSOC.

Amin ABDEL MALEK (Liban) (langue originale arabe): La délégation libanaise a examiné le 14ème Rapport annuel présenté par le CPA à l’ECOSOC, ainsi qu'au Conseil de la FAO et au Programme alimentaire mondial. Nous avons également examiné l'aide alimentaire fournie par ce programme aux pays en développement et nous avons également examiné les engagements pris dans le cadre de la recherche alimentaire internationale d'urgence et de l'aide fournie aux pauvres ainsi que les activités afin d'améliorer l'environnement. La délégation libanaise voudrait faire une observation sur un point important de ce rapport. Le CPA se compose de 30 membres dont la moitié sont élus par le Conseil de la FAO; quant à l'autre moitié elle est désignée par l’ECOSOC, et, partant, nous pensons qu'il est nécessaire que le Conseil de la FAO examine les travaux du CPA de manière approfondie. Le Conseil devrait examiner les questions relatives aux politiques et aux méthodes, "policy matters" dit le délégué en anglais, adoptées par le CPA.

Nous éprouvons une inquiétude à savoir que certains pays souhaitent une totale indépendance du CPA sans intervention de la FAO. Ceci est une chose que nous ne pouvons pas accepter car, comme nous l'avons déjà dit, le CPA devrait coopérer totalement avec la FAO ainsi qu'avec le Conseil dans l'intérêt des pays en développement. Nous pensons également que dans le rapport que nous examinons et dans les paragraphes 37 à 40, 11 est dit que ce programme coopère avec la Banque Mondiale.

Au paragraphe 43 du rapport, on parle de la coordination entre le PAM et les différentes organisations membres du Groupe consultatif mixte des politiques et l'on dit que le PAM va assurer la présidence de ce groupe lors d'une réunion qui va se tenir à Rome en juillet 1989. Ce sont les présidents exécutifs des organisations membres du Groupe consultatif mixte des politiques qui participeront à cette réunion.

Tout cela est très joli, mais quelle n'a pas été notre surprise lorsque nous avons appris que le PAM collabore avec la Banque Mondiale mais ne coopère pas avec la FAO! Notre surprise a été encore plus grande lorsque nous avons constaté que la FAO ne sera pas représentée au cours de cette réunion qui, comme cela ressort du rapport, sera une réunion de haut niveau.

Nous refusons cette façon de traiter et nous exigeons une plus grande coopération à l'avenir entre la FAO et le Programme alimentaire mondial.

Angus MACDONALD (Australia): My delegation has read with great interest the 14th Annual Report of the WFP and endorse it. We also note with satisfaction the remarks made in the introduction which Mr Ingram made to this item.

I will be quite short. We have observed that in the twenty-five years of its existence the Programme has grown from a small experimental agency utilising surplus food commodities for the benefit of countries to one of the United Nations most important development agencies discharging a programme of over $ 700 million per annum. That it has managed to do this with a staff structure of some 350 professional officers, fewer than half of whom are here, is a testament to the diligence and hard work of those officers. We believe the restructuring of the Organization along the lines of what were called the McKinsey proposals has clearly been a major success, as has we feel the restructuring of the project approval process through the Sub-committee on Projects. We believe the continuing evaluation of WFP's role, management autonomy and structure is also clearly warranted and necessary to maintain its efficiency and effectiveness.

There are one or two specific issues. We would commend the Programme on its development activities, some 289 active projects to a total value of $ 3.5 billion. Clearly, the Programme is now using food aid as an effective development tool and has put to bed well and truly the old argument that food aid could have been a disincentive to agricultural production. While regretting the necessity for WFP's emergency relief activities, we again commend the work done in helping to relieve human suffering because of natural and man-made disasters to the value of around $ 250 million per annum. That some two-thirds of these were directly man-made disasters and are thus potentially avoidable is doubly regrettable and a sad reflection on the present state of humanity.

We commend the recent changes to the International Emergency Food Reserve to better ensure its on-going development impact. Emergency disasters all too often create the problems mentioned my Mr Dutia in his introduction, and arise because of inadequacy and lack of predictability.

We note that decisions were made unanimously only a few weeks ago and we imagine these will be reflected in the 1989 Report before this Council next year. As such, my delegation cannot support the Mexican proposal on the issue of the protracted refugee situation, which cannot be reconsidered after that decision was unanimously taken.

Finally, we endorse the 1991/92 biennium target of $ 1.5 billion. When Australia announces its pledge we will be endeavouring to maintain our present policy of providing one-third of our pledge as cash in our future support of the Programme.

Zhenhuan LI (China) (original language Chinese): As a CFA member China participated in the discussion of the Annual Report submitted by the Executive Director, Mr Ingram, to the 27th Session of CFA. As such, we will not repeat statements that have already been made.

The work of WFP during 1988 has made remarkable achievements as explained in the document now under discussion. My present statement now will be limited to the following three points-firstly, food aid development; secondly, WFP resources; and thirdly the pledge target for the period 1991/92.

First and foremost food for development-use and practice has demonstrated the far-reaching significance of food for development in support of the efforts to overcome rural poverty, to enhance capability for development in the receiving countries, and to eradicate hunger and malnutrition.

Therefore, it is highly necessary to further this work by adopting measures in the areas of resources and policies. Firstly, food aid should be closely linked with the countries' long-term development plan and the adjustment programme. We share the view stated in paragraph 32 of the document-and I quote-"Food aid was viewed as a major and under-exploited resource for the financing of adjustment programmes"·

Secondly, a problem to be solved is the insufficient capability on the part of the recipient countries to implement projects. Countries that lack implementing capabilities are the ones that need aid the most, a fact that is mentioned in paragraphs 21 and 22 of the document CL 95/13. The emphasis placed on human resource development and personnel training will be conducive to increasing the social and economic returns of WFP projects.

Thirdly, the cooperation with other international organizations needs to be strengthened, and a general identity of view taken on the purpose of international aid, that is to say the development of production, and the reduction of poverty. Therefore, we wish that WFP will continue to strengthen its cooperation with other international agencies which will facilitate the improvement of social and economic efficiency of the projects. I think that technical assistance and financial assistance should be complementary and should be executed in conjunction so that these positive efforts will be given full play. In 1988, the WFP has strengthened work in this area and has received positive response from other international agencies. In this connection, we should like to state our appreciation.

Regarding the resources of WFP, a stable increase of resources is essential for WFP to carry out its operations and to fulfil its mandate. We are pleased to note that many countries, including developing countries, made positive contributions during the previous two biennia. However, owing to the rise of food prices, the actual contributions have registered a noticeable decline in recent years in terms of real value, and this has adversely affected the operation of WFP. It has also had a negative impact on the agricultural and food development of the developing countries. I think we should pay attention to these issues. We should also work together in finding ways and means of making it possible for WFP to cope with the fluctuation of food prices on the international market.

Finally, I would like to say a few words about the project target for 1991/92. In view of the performance of WFP in the past and the current global food and agriculture situation, the Chinese delegation fully supports the $ 1.5 billion project target for 1991/92 of which one-third should be in cash. Despite the financial difficulties confronting China, our Government will do its level best to meet its pledged target for 1991/92 in an effort to support WFP's work.

In conclusion, the delegation of China would reiterate that the Chinese Government supports the work carried out by WFP, that we are paying attention, and we are also attaching great importance to the relationship of cooperation with WFP. Our delegation would like to recommend that the Draft Resolution for a pledging target contained in Annex III of this report be adopted by the current Session of the Council.

Me Gunilla KURTEN (Finland): The Finnish delegation takes note that the amount of food shipped by WFP to developing countries reached a record high of 3.1 million tons in 1988, the World Food Programme being either the first or second donor of food aid to almost 70 percent of all food aid recipient countries.

Commitments for development projects increased by 25 percent over 1987, but regrettably also the commitments for emergency operations almost matched the 1987 record and caused the greatest emergency resource crisis in the 25 years of World Food Programme operations. More than two-thirds of the emergency food aid during 1988 was allocated to man-made disasters, with long-term assistance needed for large numbers of refugees and displaced persons. This trend appears to be continuing and requires a new approach to the allocation of assistance to emergency situations.

The year 1988, however, also brought new hope of peace in several long-term emergency situations. A special umbrella programme has already been established for the repatriation of some 6 million refugees from Iran and Pakistan to Afghanistan, and Finland has endorsed and given financial support to the planned activities of this programme.

Finland fully endorses continuing the World Food Programme policy of giving priority to,assistance to the poorest countries, and the strong emphasis on support to the rural areas and specifically to the neediest groups of the rural population, which is characteristic of the World Food Programme Project Food Aid.

The continuing policy of giving sub-Saharan Africa the highest priority is also supported. However, experience shows that it is increasingly difficult to formulate sound food-related projects in that region due to the scarcity of technical, administrative and managerial capacity, logistics problems, and severe economic constraints. We therefore note with satisfaction that the World Food Programme is taking a number of steps in order to increase the proportion of resources allocated to the region. We find the steps very appropriate, especially the efforts to increase the cooperation with the World Bank and other financing institutions, NGOs and the United Nations technical cooperation agencies.

This cooperation should not, of course, be restricted only to sub-Saharan Africa, and we are pleased to note that increased cooperation and coordination with other development assistance organizations in general is given emphasis within the activities of the World Food Programme.

Finland wishes to endorse the proposed pledging target of $ 1.5 billion for 1991/92, considering it both well justified and realistic, and especially wishes to stress the requirement for one-third of the pledges to be made in cash. Consequently Finland also endorses the adoption of the Draft Resolution proposed by the CFA to the Council.

David W. JOSLYN (United States of America): The United States is a member of the CFA, and therefore we have had ample opportunity to comment on the contents of the Annual Report for 1988. Nevertheless, we would like to make a few comments to highlight what we believe is most noteworthy in this Report.

First, the United States would like to commend the World Food Programme for its successes in 1988. WFP staff and administrators continue to exhibit exemplary dedication and exceptional achievement in saving lives and combatting hunger and malnutrition. The United States shares with the WFP the belief that food aid priorities should correspond to the needs of the poorest segments of populations, those who are unable to secure food. We welcome WFP's innovations in the use of food aid to help these populations to help themselves.

Second, we support WFP's continued emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa despite constraints to the effective use of food aid in this region. We applaude the steps to increase and improve programmes in sub-Saharan Africa in collaboration with the World Bank and other multilateral development banks, with IFAD, with FAO, with WHO, and with nongovernmental organizations. We encourage WFP to continue searching for better ways to increase development assistance through food aid to this part of the world·

Third, we note WFP's aggressive and positive contribution to programmes of economic recovery, including structural adjustment, and call on WFP to continue cooperation and coordination with other multilateral organizations, with bilateral organizations, and with nongovernmental organizations, to ensure that economic recovery and structural adjustment activities include attention to food security needs of the poor, social issues and environmental degradation.

Fourth, as regards the status of the IEFR, the United States recognizes the difficulties the World Food Programme faces with the present IEFR operation and the level of pledges to WFP for the IEFR.

We do believe sincerely however, that the two initiatives being taken by the WFP and the FAO should help strengthen WFP's ability to contribute to emergency feeding needs. The procedure just approved in CFA 27 for dealing with protracted refugee feeding programmes received our approval, and we will work closely with WFP to implement this new programme. In this regard Mr Chairman, my delegation believes that the next CFA report to FAO Council should accurately note the unanimous decision reached by CFA 27 on the arrangements for dealing with the protracted refugee programmes, a decision that is clearly within the purview and the authority of CFA.

In addition, the analysis to be done by WFP and FAO on ways to strengthen the IEFR mechanism to deal more effectively with sudden emergencies should be very helpful. We urge all member countries to contribute to this analysis and we look forward to CFA 29 for the presentation and discussion of that analysis.

Lastly, the United States delegation supported at CFA 27 the pledging target for 1991/92 of US$ 1.5 billion, and therefore endorses the resolution to this effect in Annex III of document CL 95/13. We do believe however, that this increased pledging target will be difficult to reach unless other than traditional major donors increase their pledging levels and new donors make significant pledges. While it is too early to discuss our own specific pledge we will maintain our strong support for food aid and for WFP. In the upcoming months we will carefully review both our total food aid plan and the appropriate level of our contribution to the World Food Programme. Thank you very much.

Zoltàn KALMAN (Hungary): First of all I wish to join those distinguished delegates who congratulated the Secretariat for the preparation, and Mr Ingram and Mr Dutia for their introductory statements.

Since Hungary is a member of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes our delegation, participating in the 27th session of CFA, had the possibility and the opportunity to express its views about WFP's activities in 1988. Therefore we do not wish to make a long statement on this issue, and also because this report, in our opinion, faithfully reflects and summarizes the discussions which took place during that CFA session.

There is one point, however, which-as we think-cannot be over-emphasized; namely the need for better cooperation and coordination among various international organizations and funding agencies. Considering the increasing need for both emergency and development assistance, and the limited resources available to meet these needs, coordinated efforts and actions are required and essential to provide longer-term solutions to the food shortage problems of the needy people.

In this regard our delegation wishes to express its appreciation to WFP for the fruitful cooperation with the World Bank in providing development assistance as stated in paragraphs 37 through 40 of this document. We must also complement WFP for its close and exemplary collaboration with UNHCR to better meet the needs of refugees in several countries.

Having said this, I would like to add that we would be very pleased and happy if we could see references in this Report about fruitful and close cooperation between FAO and WFP, the largest international organizations in Rome. This cooperation in our opinion would be and should be considered by both parties concerned as important and indispensable for the benefit of all, especially for the people of the developing countries.

Finally I wish to express our full support to the Draft Resolutions presented in Annex III of this document·

Joâo Augusto DE MEDICIS (Brazil): My delegation welcomes the 14th Annual Report of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes and, as a member of the Committee, we are certainly pleased to approve and commend WFP for its achievements.

My delegation's position in regard to the relationship between FAO and WFP has consistently been voiced before in this Council, and in CFA as well as in many other international fora, and I can briefly reiterate it today by saying that we consider it of great importance that WFP keeps its overall reliance on FAO's policy advice and technical expertise. We also think it is indispenable for the sake of the achievement of the goals of the programme that cooperation at all levels be strengthened between FAO and WFP. I am therefore prepared to support the proposition put to the floor by the distinguished representative of Mexico and supported by other delegations, as to the interest for this Council to receive not only a factual report of the CFA on the achievements of the programme, but also further information on the policy issues dealt with in that Committee.

In this context I would like also to support the suggestion presented by the Mexican delegation that the problems of protracted refugees should be debated by the next FAO Conference. The members of the Council might recall that our delegation expressed its reserves on the line of action approved by the CFA.

The composition of this Council being better balanced than that of the CFA, allows for a more adequate expression of views of FAO membership as a whole, which is another reason for airing here matters related to Food Aid Programmes and Policies. My delegation reserves its right to address

either in this Council or in the Conference, the need for a review in the composition of the CFA so as to give it a more balanced geographic distribution, especially now in view of the request by the European Economic Community to join FAO.

Disagreement with measures taken by the World Food Programme and with the decisions adopted by CFA has often been misinterpreted as an opposition to the Programme. My delegation cannot accept this misunderstanding, but nevertheless, in order to avoid any doubts regarding our feeling, I would like to reiterate our support to the Programme and our confidence in its administration. My delegation therefore supports the Draft Resolutions before us.

Real LALANDE (Canada): Ma déclaration sera assez brève puisque le Canada est membre du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire du PAM et que le présent rapport a déjà fait l'objet d'approbation au niveau de ce Comité. Je me limiterai dans ma déclaration à quelques commentaires généraux.

Je voudrais tout d'abord souligner que le raρport qui nous est présenté illustre bien, selon nous, les réalisations fort impressionnantes du PAM au cours de l'année 1988. Des niveaux records furent atteints au niveau des envois totaux d'aide alimentaire et au niveau des quantités destinées aux projets de développement, au niveau des achats locaux de céréales. Ces différentes réalisations représentent bien le bon travail effectué par le PAM et nous croyons que le Programme peut être fier, à juste titre, de ces différents succès.

Ma délégation note avec satisfaction le maintien, au cours de 1988, de la priorité accordée aux pays les plus pauvres et les moins développés dans le programme du PAM.

Nous désirons également apporter notre appui aux efforts effectués par le PAM afin de renverser la tendance à la baisse connue au cours des récentes années dans les projets de développement orientés vers les pays africains au sud Sahara, tel que cela est dit aux articles 21 et 22 du rapport.

Nous croyons que les efforts de collaboration du PAM avec les institutions financières internationales, telle que la Banque mondiale, le Fonds international de développement agricole, la Banque africaine de développement, de même que la collaboration avec les organisations non gouvernementales, devraient permettre une meilleure intégration de l'aide alimentaire du PAM et des différents donateurs avec les autres institutions internationales en matière d'assistance technique et financière.

Ma délégation est également fort satisfaite des efforts effectués par le PAM dans le but de clarifier le rôle de l'aide alimentaire, de même que le rôle du PAM lui-même dans le cadre des programmes d'ajustement structurel mis en oeuvre en collaboration avec la Banque mondiale.

La délégation canadienne croit en effet qu'une aide alimentaire bien ciblée peut jouer un rôle unique dans la réduction des effets négatifs entraînés par le programme d'ajustement structurel auprès des populations les plus directement touchées par ces mesures.

La vingt-septième session du Comité des politiques et programmes du PAM a également approuvé l'objectif pour la période 1991-92 de 1,5 milliard de dollars et ma délégation s'est déjà associée à cet objectif retenu par le Comité par consensus, suite à la formulation de différentes observations, tel que cela est décrit dans le rapport au paragraphe 80 du document.

Nous pouvons donc approuver la résolution soumise à l'Annexe 3 du document CL 95/13.

Finalement, ma délégation reconnaît que certaines décisions prises lors de la vingt-septième session ne sont pas reflétées dans le document CL 95/13; mais nous considérons néanmoins que ce rapport est bien documenté et reflète bien la situation de l'année 1988 pour laquelle ce rapport a été préparé.

Nous désirons souligner que certaines décisions prises lors de la vingt-septième session du Comité des politiques et programmes auquel il a été fait référence au début de ce débat, le furent sur une base de consensus, et nous acceptons les décisions prises par ce Comité.

Nous ne croyons pas que les discussions qui ont déjà eu lieu au niveau de la vingt-septième session du Comité des politiques et programmes du PAM nécessitent d'être reprises et réouvertes au niveau du Conseil et de la Conférence de la FAO.

Nous ne pouvone donc pas soutenir la proposition formulée pour qu'une telle discussion soit réouverte, compte tenu du consensus déjà obtenu lors de la discussion du Comité des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire du PAM qui dispose de l'autorité nécessaire pour adopter de telles décisions.

Gonzalo BULA-HOYOS (Colombia): Los representantes de Colombia acogemos siempre con complacencia y simpatía la presencia en esta Sala Roja del Sr. James Ingram, Director Ejecutivo del PMA. Gracias al Dr. Dutia por su presentación.

Pensamos que éste es un Informe completo. Su contenido es adecuado. En general contiene lo esencial para el conocimiento de este Consejo. No obstante, compartimos la declaración de nuestro colega Saleem Khan, de Pakistán, en el sentido de que para el futuro podría considerarse la posibilidad de que se incluyeran algunos otros aspectos de políticas discutidos en el CPA.

Los representantes de Colombia opinamos que el PMA trabaja muy bien, evoluciona satisfactoriamente, acorde con su creciente importancia y aplica reformas que han sido decididas por el CPA que es el órgano rector del Programa. Informes como éste se presentan a nuestro Consejo y al ECOSOC justamente para que, sobre todo, aquellos representantes de gobiernos que no son miembros del CPA, puedan ocuparse de estos asuntos. De manera que todas las declaraciones que se hagan son el fruto de ese proceso institucional.

A estas alturas del debate, después de que han intervenido tantos colegas y todavía existe una lista larga de oradores, todo lo cual confirma el prestigio y la solidez del Programa, no vamos a repetir cifras y hechos que destacan la importancia del PMA y su condición de válido instrumento para el desarrollo. Los representantes de Colombia sentimos gran complacencia el año pasado por que el PMA llegara a sus 25 años de operaciones y en esta oportunidad queremos rendir homenaje al Sr. A. H. Boerma, Primer Director Ejecutivo del PMA, distinguido ciudadano de los Países Bajos, estado al cual estamos gratamente vinculados. El Dr. Boerma, después de haber ejercido por los primeros cinco años el cargo de Director Ejecutivo del PMA, ocupó durante ocho años el puesto de Director General de la FAO y en todas sus actuaciones se caracterizó por su inteligencia, competencia y profundo sentido humano de comprensión y tolerancia. Hacemos propicia est oportunidad para reiterar a usted, Sr. Ingram, en nombre del Gobierno de Colombia, nuestro más pleno apoyo a las realizaciones del PMA en 1988 y reconocer una vez más la valiosa función del Programa en favor de las aspiraciones y necesidades del Tercer Mundo.

Queremos apoyar a aquellas delegaciones que han dicho que en nuestro informe debemos consignar el agradecimiento de la comunidad internacional a los donantes que con sus contribuciones han permitido estas realizaciones del PMA y paralelamente también, hacer un llamado a los donantes actuales y potenciales para que contribuyan de manera que pueda lograrse el objetivo de 1 500 millones de dólares para el bienio 1991-1992.

Hemos tomado nota respetuosa del escepticismo manifestado por los representantes de algunos grandes donantes, pero no obstante, confiamos en que la generosidad y la actitud positiva con que han actuado en el pasado permitirán que el PMA siga consolidando sus realizaciones.

Apoyamos lo que ha dicho recientemente nuestra colega Gunilla, de Finlandia, y otros en el sentido de que convendrá que se cumpla la recomendación de que un tercio de esas contribuciones se haga efectivo para facilitar el funcionamiento del Programa.

De forma positiva y eficaz ha sido considerada la labor del Programa, y ha sido descrita entre otros de manera clara y adecuada por nuestro colega y amigo el Embajador Mauricio Cuadra, representante de Nicaragua, país en el cual, como se dijo en el Consejo pasado y en esté, el PMA lleva a cabo una valiosa tarea de asistencia. El colega y amigo Mauricio Cuadra hizo además algunas referencias a ciertos aspectos políticos, sociales, económicos y humanos, que nosotros compartimos y que nos induce a expresar también algunas consideraciones breves de orden político.

Nuestra larga e intensa participación en el PMA desde sus comienzos nos permite afirmar que ese importante organismo lleva a cabo la distribución alimentaria de manera muy objetiva, sin discriminación de ninguna clase, independientemente, sin condicionamientos de los donantes. Los representantes de Colombia pensamos que el Programa debe mantener y fortalecer esa política para que dentro de ese marco universal aceptado siga gozando del respeto que hoy disfruta de los gobiernos del mundo.

Compartimos también la opinión de algunos colegas en el sentido de que convendría que en nuestro Informe expresemos reconocimiento a la devoción y abnegación con que trabajan algunos funcionarios del Programa Mundial de Alimentos en ciertos lugares del mundo arriesgando hasta sus propias vidas.

En su declaración inaugural el señor Ingram, Director Ejecutivo del Programa Mundial de Alimentos, destacó el notable beneficio que el Programa había obtenido de la experiencia y de los conocimientos de la FAO; y en su declaración el señor Dutia afirmó algo que todos reconocemos y exaltamos: la forma activa y eficaz en que la FAO durante estos 26 años ha contribuido a los logros, a las realizaciones y a los progresos del PMA. En esos términos, dentro de esos parámetros, es como el Gobierno de Colombia concibe y acepta la relación entre la FAO y el PMA, que debe ser cada vez más estrecha y en armónicas relaciones compitiendo, eso sí, en la búsqueda del logro del objetivo común de las organizaciones, que debe ser la mejor asistencia a los países del Tercer Mundo.

Joseph TCHICAYA (Congo): La délégation de mon pays a examiné avec beaucoup d'attention le document CL 95/13 relatif au 14ème Rapport des politiques et programmes d'aide alimentaire soumis à notre Conseil.

Ce rapport pourrait être un excellent document qui retrace les activités du PAM et présente les bons résultats obtenus, tout en attirant l'attention des membres du Conseil sur les zones d'ombre qui obscurcissent quelque peu l'avenir du programme.

La délégation de mon pays remercie et félicite Monsieur Ingram et Monsieur Dutia pour leurs excellentes présentations dont le caractère complémentaire est indubitable.

L'occasion est ici belle pour exprimer notre reconnaissance à l'action que mène le PAM sur le terrain grâce au dévouement et à l'abnégation des fonctionnaires du Programme qui oeuvrent parfois dans des conditions très difficiles.

A cet égard, ma délégation tient à s'associer à l'appel lancé par le Directeur exécutif pour que les donateurs accroissent leur soutien à ces objectifs de contribution. Nous partageons également son évaluation de la situation lorsqu'il dit que l'objectif de contribution est à la portée de la Communauté internationale et c'est pourquoi ma délégation souhaite, dès á présent, dire que nous apportons notre soutien au projet de soutien joint à l'Annexe 3 concernant l'objectif de contribution au PAM pour la période 1991-92.

Nous réitérons notre appui, comme nous l'avons fait au CPA, à la nécessité d'accroître la RAIU en rapport avec les besoins réels et de faire les efforts utiles pour la rendre plus prévisible afin d'en améliorer l'efficience. A cet égard, nous attendons avec intérêt l'étude que va présenter le Directeur exécutif en étroite coopération avec la FAO sur ce sujet.

Il est indéniable que le PAM a pris de plus en plus d'importance dans la vie économique et sociale de nos pays.

A cet égard, la délégation de mon pays tient à réitérer ses préoccupation sur l'évolution négative de l'aide alimentaire au développement consacrée à l'Afrique, dont chacun sait qu'elle a un très grand besoin de ressources pour son développement.

Nous attendons avec la plus grande attention les résultats que mène le Directeur exécutif pour obtenir l'appui des institutions financières nécessaires à un accroissement substantiel de cette aide pour mieux répondre aux besoins des pays de la région.

Cela dit, notre Conseil devrait prendre en considération certaines observations faites par le distingué délégué du Mexique et appuyées par d'autres pour que, dans le rapport du PAM destiné à l’ECOSOC et au Conseil de la FAO en tant qu'organes devant lesquels le CPA est responsable, celui-ci rende compte de son action de manière complète et à cet égard notre Conseil pourrait se satisfaire d'un rapport qui traite de manière séparée les aspects de politiques et ceux liés aux programmes de façon que les deux organes que je viens de rappeler aient la possibilité de débattre de ces questions étant donné leur composition.

Bien entendu ceci doit être considéré comme une directive que le Conseil adresse au CPA. Nous sommes certaine que le Secrétariat aidera à l'application de cette directive dont l'utilité pour le plus grand nombre des Etats Membres des Nations Unies et de la FAO nous apparaît évidente.

Bien entendu, ceci aurait pu s'avérer inutile si la composition du CPA avait une représentation géographique mieux équilibrée.

Nous sommes satisfaits, pour ce qui nous concerne, de la manière dont est géré le PAM qui s'efforce, ces dernières années, à réduire progressivement les inégalités dans la répartition géographique du personnel, qui prévalait au sein de ce programme.

Nous sommes certains que les efforts que nous poursuivons continueront á s'accroître ainsi que l'efficacité.

Gerhard LIEBER (Germany, Federal Republic of): My delegation associates itself with others in thanking the Executive Director of the WFP, Mr Ingram, and the representative of the Director-General of FAO, Mr Dutia, for their informative introductions. Let me say right away that we welcome and agree to the Fourteenth Annual Report on Food Aid Policies and Programmes. My delegation will therefore refrain from commenting on single aspects of the Report and will limit itself to some more general remarks.

Food aid continues to be an important instrument of development cooperation, which-unfortunately-we will probably not be able to dispense with for a long time to come. This does not only apply to emergency cases and to use in times of crisis-for instance, to support refugees-but also to project-orientated food aid. WFP's work in all these areas is much appreciated by my Government. What is in our view important, is not only to think about adjusting the volume of food aid to needs, but to improve constantly the quality of Food Aid Programmes. Undoubtedly this aspect now benéfits from the fact that recipient countries in general are more and more in a position to use food aid in ways which will limit detrimental effects on production and markets. In this connection local consumption habits are important, and also merit further consideration.

In food aid projects, the aspects of sustained agricultural growth, environmental questions, and the participation of women in development also seem important to us. In this connection, WFP should give greater attention to monitoring and evaluating food aid projects and the related policies.

In conclusion: My Government would very much welcome it if FAO and WFP could reach as expeditiously as possible, agreement on all open questions between both organizations-both of which we support-and work closely together. Considering the important tasks before us, we have nor time nor resources to waste.

Daniel D.C. DON NANJIRA (Kenya): The first thing the Kenya delegation would like to do is to express its gratitude to the Executive Director of the WFP and to Dr Dutia for their introductory statements. The documentation given to us is excellent, and I would like to make some remarks as both a member of the CFA and as a member of the Kenya delegation participating in this Council.

During the Twenty-seventh Session of the CFA, which the Kenya delegation found to be quite frank and constructive, there were lots of discussions. The importance of sovreignty was stressed. The importance of discipline and cooperation was stressed. The financial status of the WFP was recognized.

The WFP is a very interesting creation. It was started as an experiment, and last year it celebrated its silver anniversary. If my information is accurate-it may not be accurate, but it may be correct-the WFP has the second largest budget in the UN system. I do not think that there is anybody in this hall who would doubt the competence and delivery capacity of this Programme. Their reports are precise and to the point.

It is therefore surprising to my delegation that there should be some delegations who are asking for extra information, in addition to the Report which has been given. I don't think we can have it both ways. I know very well that when we have short reports some delegations say, "It is too short, you should have done more, given more meat to it". When we have long reports, "Look here-it is very expensive, we are going to spend a lot of money on documentation, reproducing documents, so we believe that the money that goes to reproducing this document could be utilized elsewhere". What do we want? I do not think there is any organization-any committee for that matter-that I know of, which can afford to give each and every thing that is sought by delegations. I therefore believe that our fate as members of this Committee-and Kenya is a member of the CFA Committee--if we want whatever we say to come up in the Report, we should give clear and specific-I repeat, clear and specific-instructions or guidelines as to how these reports, reflecting on the discussions that took place, should be submitted to higher bodies. But this must be done at the level where these committees are meeting, so that we make sure that when these reports come out they do indeed give guidelines as requested by the delegations. Otherwise, if we keep quiet at that level with a view to raising some points-and especially critical points-later, we are not being fair to the Secretariat-and I say this, not just towards the WFP, but towards any other Secretariat. So the duty, the ball if you like, is in our court to indicate.

I think that as far as the documentation of this item is concerned, it is accurate and we should endorse it. Having said that, I would now like to turn to specific views which the Kenya delegation would like to state on this document, but before I do so I wish to express the sincere gratitude of the Kenya delegation for the excellent work that Dr Ingram and his staff are doing. I have talked about the competent documentation that we have. The majority of those who have spoken before me have indicated that the information contained in the Report before us for discussion is accurate and reflects many of the views that were discussed by the CFA. We therefore, as a member of the CFA, and as a member of this Council, endorse the conclusions and recommendations in document CL 95/13, and commend the tireless efforts of the WFP to alleviate the critical food situation of the needy in the developing countries.

We reiterate the great importance we attach to use of food, not as a weapon against any nation or any group of society, but as a tool for development. Food aid should never perpetuate the dependency of recipient nations, rather, it should help to strengthen the national capacities of the recipient countries which aim at being self-reliant in food production.

Emergency food aid should of course be very welcome to relieve the immediate and short-term needs of the needy populations: for example, when these needs occur as a result of acts of God, emergencies, whether they be drought, locust menaces or other natural disasters, or other disaster situations-because disasters are not limited to natural disasters. We have other disaster situations-whether you call them man-made or not, they are disasters. There is an accident: there is a disaster. Man is only human, he does make mistakes. But when a disaster occurs, it is a disaster whether man-made or natural; and in this case it is necessary that assistance be given to alleviate the suffering which may result from this type of disaster.

The situation of refugees and displaced persons deserves careful attention, and the available resources to assist them should be allocated in such a manner as to be fairly balanced between those that go to the assistance of refugees and displaced persons on the one hand, and those to be utilized to alleviate the negative impact of natural disasters and other disaster situations. We endorse the new approach as recommended by the Executive Director in this regard, and hope that this Council will likewise endorse It.

We support the Committee's recommendation regarding the pledging target of US$ 1.5 billion for the regular resources of the Programme for the 1991-92 biennium. We also endorse the Draft Resolution which is attached to the Report now before this Council for discussion.

Kenya is only one of the beneficiaries of the WFP's assistance. Its programme has done an excellent job in project planning formulae and implementation in developing countries. I know that other countries in Africa have, like my own Kenya, benefited from WFP's Action Plan for Africa which was presented in 1988. We are urging a programme to intensify this assistance to the community countries of the developing world. To do this competently, the Programme requires the necessary financial support which we urge members of the international community to provide on an assured and regular basis.

At the same time my delegation is grateful to the donor nations which enabled the WFP to do the good work that it has been doing, especially in the field. I believe that this Council knows the importance my delegation attaches to coordination, consultation and collaboration among UN agencies. We believe that in the service of Member Nations harmonous working relationships and exchanges of Information on financial, administrative and other issues, especially where the mandates of these agencies do seem to overlap, is essential. This type of procedure will prevent unnecessary wastage of various scarce resources, and duplication of effort. It will also ensure the effectiveness of these agencies in the discharge of their respective mandates.

We should never compromise on the effectiveness of the work of the international organizations we have created to serve our peoples and nations. It should be noted that the resources to the sub-African region have been falling over the last three years. This is a dangerous trend which should be arrested.

Finally, but not least, we endorse the Report of CFA at its 27th Session and call upon this Council to approve it, together with, as I have said, the draft resolution annexed to it. Like ECOSOC, the FAO Council has a duty to discuss and agree on the activities of CFA before going to the General Assembly of the United Nations for ultimate decision. My delegation reiterates its full support for the work of WFP and promises to maintain this support.

Tawfik A.H. AL MESH-HEDANI (Iraq) (original language Arabic): I am grateful for the opportunity to speak on this subject of the Report of the CFA. I would like to thank the Executive Director of the WFP on the useful introduction he gave, and to thank Mr Dutia for his presentation on behalf of the Director-General of FAO. I have a few points which with your permission, Mr Chairman, I would like to put forward.

In this Report we have been given a lot of data which I think give cause for satisfaction with regard to the efforts being made to assist the poorest countries, but we feel that this Report should have something more in it; some more spirit, a feeling of dynamic approach, and not just a list of data. It is possible that the data there might need to have some kind of correction introduced. Some of the definitions and explanations of projects, and so on, could perhaps go into more detail. For example, paragraph 18 contains rather vague and general details, general in the sense of the wording, and paragraphs 21, 24 and 25 could benefit from greater detail.

In passing when reference is made to the activities of various regions, there is no study of the impact of the projects. In paragraph 21, reference is made to obstacles to some problems but, of course, this augurs not too well for the future because we are told there is a scarcity of technical adminsitration and managerial capacity. I would like to know what is being done to correct this state of affairs.

In paragraph 29, reference is made to the economic problems of developing countries which make it difficult for them to provide the inputs they should be providing, this at a time when there is the greatest need for development and growth. The efforts of countries, particularly African countries, are weakening. May we have guidance as to what should be done there? Should we be doing things differently, or should other things be done? All these matters should be gone into in detail. An in-depth look should have been included in this document in our view.

I wish also to refer to the draft resolution we have in this document. Certainly we need more funds, but how will CFA get to that particular target? It is a good target, but how did they define it? I would have been glad to know how this had been achieved, because I understand-and we see in the Report-that some countries expressed reservations on the target, and others were opposed to it. Other countries said they would not be able to increase their contributions for the next biennium. How are these things compatible with the resolution then being presented in this manner? What was the degree of realism that prevailed when the figure of $ 1.5 billion was arrived at? Was it realistic?

CFA has many and various staff who are working hard and doing their best to achieve the best possible results with whatever means that they are given. We recognize this, but feel that the Report should have been more complete, going more into depth. It should have been more informative because, after all, Council here is a full partner involved in these matters and has to report to the Conference. Obviously we cannot give the best advice to Conference if we are not given information on which to base our judgement. How do we know there is no wastage whatever in the Programme? Perhaps there is some wastage-we do not know. We would like more information on the manner in which projects are integrated into the development efforts of the developing countries.

In conclusion I would say that certainly we can support what was said by the delegate of Mexico. I may have sounded critical but I am saying these things with the best interests of the Programme at heart.

C. Srinivasa SASTRY (India): We would like to thank the Executive Director of the World Food Programme, Mr. Ingram, for his address dealing with the important facets of information contained in Document CL 95/13. He has given us an overview of the work done by WFP, the order of magnitude involved, the commendable work being put in by the committed staff of the Programme, particularly in the field at considerable personal risk. We compliment the WFP on the good work it is doing, particularly at the low operational cost of only 3.2 percent.

We are also grateful to Mr. Dutia for the statement made by him on behalf of the Director-General of FAO, and we will have an occasion to refer to some of these points later. India is a member of the CFA, being one of the 15 Member Nations on it from ECOSOC. We have been participating in the meetings of the CFA and its sub-committees. Thus, we are fully in the picture on the subject about the agenda items discussed in the CFA and the stand taken and also on some of the pending issues which are not particularly conducive to the harmonious functioning of CFA.

We also receive through WFP multilateral food aid for the implementation of development projects and programmes. We are aware how much work is involved in formulating programmes and projects for receipt of multilateral food aid through WFP and what is more important, how difficult and complex a task it is to implement these programmes and projects in the field. Council will be aware that the recipient country, under the WFP regulations, also has to bear some part of the expenditure in terms of the costs of unloading, internal transport, storage and handling, and technical and administrative supervision. Depending on the nature of the project and its physical location within the country, the costs to be borne by the recipient country vary widely. While taking an overall view of the cost of implementing developmental programmes and projects for food aid, these inputs may also have to be kept in view.

In this context, we are gratified that in its recent 27th Session, the CFA welcomed the steps that WFP was taking to overcome constraints on the provision of food aid for sound development projects in sub-Saharan Africa. The CFA also recommended that training of local personnel in project planning and project formulation should be an integral part of WFP development assistance. The CFA also supported the proposal of the Executive Director to increase WFP's assistance on a case-by-case basis to help the least developed countries to bear the costs of internal transport, storage and handling of food provided by WFP, while requesting a paper with the details of WFP's proposals on its behalf.

While expressing concern over the high level of losses after delivery to recipient governments, the CFA called for an analytical study on a geographical basis to facilitate better focusing on food delivery systems. These are all very helpful and positive proposals emanating from the CFA which should further strengthen and improve the useful and good work being done by WFP. Therefore, we strongly support the resolution before us in Annex 3 to the document. We strongly endorse the appeal of the Executive Director in his address on the pledging levels for 1991/92 to the donor countries.

As was pointed out in paragraph 1 of document CL 95/13, and as was highlighted by the Executive Director in his address, the World Food Programme completed its 25th year in 1988. The Silver Jubilee is an appropriate occasion for taking stock of the work of the WFP and looking into the future as to what lies ahead.

The Basic Texts of the World Food Programme envisage, as contained in the U.N. General Assembly Resolution 2095 adopted in December 1965, that WFP would continue "as long as multilateral food aid is found feasible and desirable, on the understanding that the Programme will be regularly reviewed before each Pledging Conference and that if circumstances so require it may be enlarged, curtailed or terminated at the end of any period for which resources have been pledged."

The Basic Texts of the World Food Programme also envisage that the CFA should "formulate proposals for more effective coordination of multilateral, bilateral and non-governmental food aid programmes, including emergency food aid,"

In this background, we would support the suggestion made on behalf of the Director-General of FAO that the CFA, on the occasion of the completion of the Silver Jubilee, makes a comprehensive review and analysis of the various issues and implications for food aid for the future.

We would also support the view that the report from the CFA to the FAO Council, ECOSOC, and the World Food Council should reflect the policy decisions and initiatives taken by the World Food Programme during the period under review with the approval of the CFA. In this context, the CFA may be requested to consider at its 28th or 29th meeting whether the format of the CFA's report to the FAO Council, ECOSOC and the World Food Council would require some changes.

A reference was made when we discussed the report of the Committee on World Food Security in the Council the other day about the purchase of food surpluses, particularly in the developing countries of Africa as also possible triangular transactions. This also figured into the proceedings of the recent CFA meeting when it reviewed the Netherlands experience in food aid. The World Food Programme, as the biggest purchaser or food, could play an important role in this behalf. Being in the CFA, we are aware of the difficulties and problems in such operations which have been gone into in the recent CFA meeting. I am sure the members of the FAO Council would be interested in knowing what the World Food Programme has been trying to do in this behalf, either as a part of the next report or on any other appropriate occasion.

In conclusion, I refer to the point made by some distinguished delegates about placing some of the subjects before the next Conference of the FAO. The pending issues between the WFP and FAO have been recently gone into by the CFA. The CFA urged the WFP and FAO to continue in dialogue with a view to resolving the problems and expressed its satisfaction that the ACABQ had decided to examine the matter at its next session and requested the FAO Finance Committee to also deal with the matter at its next session so that both bodies could present their reports to the 28th Session of the CFA, and decided that it would be desirable to solve the problem at its 28th Session. For this purpose, the CFA wanted also to meet for three days. We have every hope that these bodies would be able to satisfactorily resolve all the pending issues. In our view, the need for going before the highest governing bodies of the FAO and the United Nations might arise only if the ongoing efforts do not result in the successful resolution of all the pending issues.

The meeting rose at 12.30 hours
La séance est levée à 12 h 30
Se levanta la sesión a las 12.30 horas

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