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6. Long-Term Strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector, including:
6. Stratégie à long terme pour le secteur alimentaire et agricole, notamment:
6. Estrategia a largo plazo para el sector de la alimentación y la agricultura, en particular:

6.1 FAO Contribution Towards Implementation of the Declaration adopted by the 18th Special Session of the General Assembly
6.1 Contribution de la FAO à la mise en oeuvre de la Déclaration adoptée par l'Assemblée générale à sa dix-huitième session extraordinaire
6.1 Contribución de la FAO a la aplicación de la declaración aprobada por la Asamblea General en su 18 periodo extraordinario de sesiones

6.2 FAO Contribution Towards Preparation of the International Development Strategy for the Fourth UN Development Decade
6.2 Contribution de la FAO à la préparation de la Stratégie internationale de la quatrième décennie des Nations Unies pour le développement
6.2 Contribución de la FAO a la preparación de la Estrategia Internacional del Desarrollo para el Cuarto Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo

LE PRESIDENT: Nous allons commencer l'examen d'un point particulièrement dense et important: la stratégie à long terme pour le secteur alimentaire et agricole. Ce point comprend deux sous-points avec un seul et même document, le document CL 98/13. Le premier sous-point est relatif à la contribution de la FAO à la mise en oeuvre de la Déclaration adoptée par l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies à sa dix-huitième session extraordinaire. Le deuxième a trait à la contribution de la FAO à la préparation de la Stratégie internationale de la quatrième décennie des Nations Unies pour le développement. Il s'agit en fait, d'une résolution déjà adoptée par l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies. Je crois que c'est là une question importante et je ne vois aucune raison, en ce qui me concerne, pour diviser les deux points, qui sont étroitement liés. Je propose donc d'avoir une seule et même discussion sur le sous-point 6.1 et le sous-point 6.2. S'il n'y a pas d'objection, il en sera ainsi.

Je vais demander au Sous-Directeur général, M. Dutia, de bien vouloir introduire cet important sujet.

B.P. DUTIA (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): Mr Chairman, distinguished members and observers: the document Long-Term Strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector, CL 98/13, to be considered under this agenda item has been prepared in response to the recommendation of the Conference at its 25th Session in November 1989.

As you will recall, at that time the Conference had discussed a summary document of the same title and provided guidelines for the preparation of the full document, which is presented to you today.

These documents were prepared to serve as a basis for FAO's contributions to the preparation of the International Development Strategy for the Fourth UN Development Decade, the IDS for short, as relates to the preparation of the 18th Special Session of the General Assembly which, as you will recall, adopted on 1 May 1990 a Declaration on International Economic Cooperation, in particular the revitalization of economic growth and development of the developing countries.

FAO made several contributions to the work of the Committees of the whole set up by the General Assembly for both the preparation of the IDS and the Special Session.

FAO's contributions involved provision of background documentation to the Committees' Secretariats, statements at the Committees' sessions, and the formal submission of the summary, Long-Term Strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector, that was considered by the 25th Conference, together with the relevant extract of the FAO Conference Report, and this was distributed to all members of the Committees of the Whole.

The General Assembly's Committee of the Whole for the preparation of the IDS completed its work in early October 1990. It recommended to the General Assembly the adoption of a proposed text for the IDS. This text is a relatively short one, consisting of some 26 pages. It gives sufficient prominence to issues, priorities and recommended policies in the food and agriculture sector which are, I am glad to say, broadly in line with those contained in the document which is before you under this agenda item.

The proposed IDS text devotes a special chapter to agriculture under the general heading of Policies and Measures for the Reactivation of Development.

At the same time other chapters, particularly those on international trade, commodities and the eradication of poverty and hunger, also deal with policies specific to the food and agriculture sector.

In order not to take up too much time, I will not go into a presentation of the substantive contents of the strategy document. A glance at the table of contents of document CL 98/13 will indicate that the strategy covers a wide array of areas in which policies are recommended for progress to be made in the food and agriculture sector.

In this context I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the strategy covers topics of interest to, and requires action from, both the developing and the developed countries, as well as the international organizations, including FAO. It is visualized that the Long-Term Strategy will provide the necessary background for the preparation of FAO's medium-term plan which will be considered by the governing bodies next year.

Finally, I wish to refer briefly to agenda item 6.1, which is concerned with FAO's contribution towards the implementation of the declaration of the 18th Special Session.

ECOSOC recommended that this item be included in the agenda of the United Nations bodies and organizations and that reports on this subject be submitted to its 2nd Regular Session in the summer of 1991. The declaration of the 18th Special Session is reproduced in Appendix A of document CL 98/13. The Secretariat looks forward to the comments of the Council under this agenda item, which will guide us in preparing the report to the ECOSOC next year.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie très vivement M. Dutia de cette introduction brève, succincte et absolument complète. Je voudrais souligner que la Déclaration de l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies sur la coopération économique internationale et la relance de la croissance économique et du développement dans les pays en développement a été approuvée à l'unanimité par l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies et qu'elle contient un élément qui me parait important. Avant d'ouvrir le débat, je me permettrai d'en donner lecture car il s'agit d'un point important notamment pour notre Organisation: "L'Organisation des Nations Unies est la seule instance où la communauté des Nations peut traiter de toutes les questions de façon intégrée. Les nombreuses institutions spécialisées qui lui sont rattachées apportent au développement une contribution indispensable. Elles auront une responsabilité majeure dans la vaste entreprise de relance de la croissance et du développement dans les années 90".

Cet élément de la Déclaration est important et il sera peut-être de nature à éclairer d'autres points de notre ordre du jour dans les jours à venir.

R.G. PETTITT (United Kingdom): May I start by taking advantage of your suggestion that we make, as we think of them, suggestions about the validity of the method of work in CL 98/INF/4.

If paragraph 5.1 were taken literally, Dr Dutia would not have been able to help us understand exactly where this document comes in the process of the development of the National Development Strategy and the Eighteenth Special Session of the General Assembly and in relation to the medium-term plan. We would have relied upon this being set out in the document itself. Of course some things happened in October so he would have had the excuse to make a statement, I suppose. Personally I found the explanations very helpful. I wonder, if the Council does wish to have short or non-existent introductions, we might consider selectively having informal meetings or teach-ins, mainly for delegates from capitals, in the lunch hour or early in the morning so we would gain basic information about the papers from the draftsmen about the subject generally and ask questions too specialized to be sought in this formal meeting. This practice is carried out in at least one of our sister organizations, UNICEF, with some considerable success which adds to the participatory nature of the definitive meetings. Had it

existed here at this Council, I would have suggested we had them on this subject, on the nutrition conference, and on agency support costs.

Before I exhaust my goodwill with you, I will return to the subject.

The Secretariat is to be congratulated on paper CL 98/13 which is a most useful and thorough document covering a wide range of issues with considerable skill. It also follows faithfully the guidance given by the Conference at the previous session. The United Kingdom supports the four objectives underpinning the strategy though we do question the order of priorities. Without sustainable development and action in support of environmental protection, which is listed as the last of the four, the first three objectives-economic growth and equity, poverty alleviation and food security, development of human resources and institutions-are not attainable in the longer term.

A further necessary condition for achieving the strategy's objectives is reduced population growth and in our view the paper should make this explicit.

Inevitably in a paper covering such a complex range of issues it is impossible to achieve unanimity. There are areas of concern from the British perspective but these are mainly differences of emphasis.

I make these points here to emphasize that, if this paper goes forward as an FAO contribution to anything, it does so as one which the membership is not totally committed to in respect of every word. Of course, if amendments can be made in the light of my comments, we would be more than happy.

The United Kingdom fully supports the paper's stress on the vital role of macro-economic policy in stimulating agricultural development and, at an international level, of more liberal trading regimes.

In our view, however, the calls for strengthened compensation for losses of export earnings made in paragraphs 38 and 50 of the paper are misplaced. Compensation implies that the loss of earnings is temporary and that countries should not adjust for the loss of earnings. In fact, it is difficult to disentangle cyclical and permanent trends, so early adjustment to loss of export earnings is the appropriate policy response. Additional external resources may be necessary to assist adjustment but should be conditional on policy reform and not an automatic entitlement.

My delegation does accept, as we said this morning, the crucial importance of activities to enhance food security. However, we are sceptical about the need for larger public stockholdings of food under international agricultural liberalization. In most circumstances, building up foreign exchange reserves and greater use of forward contracts represent a better strategy.

We recognize the need to provide incentives for small farmers and endorse the importance, noted in paragraph 69, of access to marketing channels for small producers but we question whether equity objectives can be pursued through interference in price mechanisms without introducing price distortions to the long-term detriment of the poor.

The United Kingdom also has reservations about the emphasis placed on food aid in the strategy document. Food aid can positively work against agricultural production in the recipient country and should be considered largely as a short-term expedient. If the strategy achieves its objectives, one of the indications of success will be a reduction in the volume of food aid. Certainly the UK would not like to see a target based on the minimum amount of food aid to be made available by donors as happened in the 1970s; we should in fact be setting targets based on time-bound reductions.

My delegation welcomes the emphasis this document places on the role of the private sector in agricultural development (with the state in a supporting role) but the document does not, in our opinion, take this argument far enough. Paragraph 27 seeks a stronger political commitment to upgrade resource allocations to extension services. This exhortation is unlikely to yield results in the current economic climate in many developing countries. Indeed, it is questionable if, in the context of the conventional extension service, it would always be money well spent. Each country needs to look at its agricultural sector and determine what support should be provided by the public sector and which areas are best tackled by private enterprise or by NGOs.

We welcome the sections in the document on sustainable development and the environment, although some of the interventions proposed for the low potential areas are unproven on a large scale. There is a limited number of agronomic interventions we can make in the semi-arid areas. Although systems such as alley-cropping are promising, farmers have to date been reluctant to adopt them. There are valid social and economic reasons for this, underlining the importance of community participation in development.

In paragraphs 98-104 on Forestry the paper rightly points to the multidisciplinary approach that is necessary. The conduct of national TFAP exercises must reflect this. These exercises must enjoy the support of governments at the highest levels and must involve all relevant government and non-governmental organizations involved in land in the widest sense. Revision of the guidelines for TFAP implementation should be the starting point for this action.

The proposed long-term strategy for the fisheries sector described in paragraphs 91-97 suggests a focus on the improved management of marine fish resources in support of sustainable exploitation and efficient utilization; and on the further development of aquaculture. The UK supports these proposals. Indeed, we would go further in proposing that enhanced priority and urgency should be accorded to these elements in the immediate future. Such enhanced priority could be supported from existing budgets by a reassessment of priorities within the FAO fisheries programme. Capture fisheries development should perhaps be given a relatively lower priority because of the overall state of exploitation of marine fish resources.

In developing fisheries management policies, there is an urgent need for the sectoral strategy to encourage consideration of the relative emphasis to be placed on domestic fish supply for local consumption and on export of fish and fisheries products for generation of foreign exchange. There is evidence that the balance between these two policies is currently acting

towards a reduction in average fish consumption in less developed countries.

Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to point out that the policies recommended in document CL 98/13, as regards agricultural education and training, have in the main already been implemented in the United Kingdom.

Our Agricultural Wages Board lays down minimum rates of pay for all agricultural workers: women are not discriminated against and regular part-time workers receive the same hourly rate as whole-time workers. Enhanced rates are paid to workers in possession of a certificate of proficiency in a craft in which they are working.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie très vivement le Représentant du Royaume-Uni qui a brillamment démontré la non-nécessité d'un "briefing". M. Pettitt est un grand spécialiste des Nations Unies et je le félicite de cette excellente étude du document.

Peter R. JANUS (Netherlands): My delegation has studied with a great deal of interest document CL 98/13 on the Long-term Strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector. The document offers many ideas to which my delegation can fully subscribe. The four major development objectives, although not yet quantified in the document of the International Development Strategy coincide to a great extent with our current policy on development cooperation. As my country has recently formulated a new policy framework in this area, though still subject to parliamentary approval, I would like to take this opportunity to share with this Council some elements of the present Netherlands policy for development cooperation. In doing so, I will focus in particular on rural development and agriculture.

In our policy sustainable poverty alleviation is the chief objective of development cooperation in the years to come. Poverty remains a most serious problem. Although average life expectancy is rising globally and illiteracy is declining in percentage terms, more than one billion people in this world still live in abject poverty. Besides, the continuing growth of the world's population threatens to exacerbate the problem of poverty still further. We know that economic growth and debt relief are not sufficient to relieve poverty. Growth, after all, does not necessarily benefit the poorest sections of society. Also, the natural environment sets limits to growth; in that sense, risks have become greater. At the same time frontiers between east and west as well as north and south have become less sharply defined, not only in a geographical but also in an ideological sense.

We have to realise also that the margins for policy-making at a national level have become smaller. The world has become more and more of a global village. Economic decisions transcend national policy and ecological processes such as depletion of the ozone layer and the rising sea level pay no regard to national frontiers. This points to a stronger role for

multilateral institutions in these areas. The increasing global interdependency also requires a policy that has been given very sound consideration. Of central importance is, in our view, a focus on development of, for and by people.

Rural development has always taken a central place in our development cooperation policy. This continues to be the case. One reason is that, although the share of agriculture in production and export is declining in most developing countries, the number of people depending on the rural economy is increasing. What is needed therefore is a dynamic rural sector that generates growth, offers an existence to more people and contributes to food security. Three elements are important here: firstly, increase of productivity in small-scale labour-intensive agriculture; secondly, increase of the effective demand for food and agricultural products; and thirdly, stimulation of small-scale labour-intensive non-agricultural employment opportunities.

To ensure that agriculture can play a leading role in bringing about sustainable development and food security, many conditions in a macro policy will have to be fulfilled. I mention only a few. Market and price policies will have to be geared to agricultural development. Access to land and markets will have to be facilitated. Infrastructure needs to be improved. Research that is relevant for small-farmers will have to be stimulated. This will not be enough. We perceive that an ever-increasing number of people need additional income from other sectors than the agricultural sector in order to survive. Therefore, also the non-agricultural sector requires our attention. Very often the main constraint here is the lack of access to credit. Experiments undertaken with very small credits are encouraging.

The situation with regard to food security is worrying. In Sub-Saharan Africa per capita food production has decreased over the past decade. Imports of grains have risen to levels that are not sustainable. The core of any food security policy is, in our view, self-reliance. Instruments at the national level to reach this objective would include: increased production, price policies, strategic reserves, institutions for quality control and import and export policies.

At the household-level food security can be enhanced through increased purchasing power and knowledge and sufficient supply of qualitatively good food as well as means of production. Sustainable development requires that these instruments are being integrated into a country's food security policy. The methodology recently jointly developed by FAO, the World Bank and others in FAO's Food Security Assistance Scheme offers a good starting-point in this respect.

Experiences in the past with international assistance for rural development have often been disappointing. There are many reasons to give. One thing is clear, however: sustainable agricultural development is only possible if sufficient attention is paid to technical, socio-economic as well as cultural dimensions at different levels-households, farms, villages and regions. A systems approach offers a meaningful framework in this respect.

To sum up, in the coming year, the Netherlands intends to support long-term integrated rural development activities that focus, for instance, on:

- development of policies geared to poverty alleviation

- increase in productivity in small-scale agriculture

- research on risk-minimizing techniques, such as integrated pest control, what has become known as "low external input sustainable

- agriculture" and flexible crop patterns

- agrarian reform leading to greater access to land

- small-scale activities outside the agricultural sector

- improvement of rural infrastructure

- improvement and broadening of knowledge food security.

In this connection there are two aspects to which the Netherlands attaches great importance. Firstly, I would like to mention the role of women in agricultural and rural development, on which the Integrated Development Strategy rightly lays special emphasis. Our policy takes the autonomy of women in a physical, economical, political and socio-cultural sense, as a starting point. Implementation of this policy requires that attention is being paid to all of these four aspects. Often this implies a redistribution of power in favour of women. It also implies that "Women in Development" as a theme will have to be incorporated as an integral element in development policies. We would welcome, therefore, implementation of FAO's Plan of Action in this important area.

Another important aspect is the need for people's participation in development. It was mentioned already that at the core of our policy is the notion that development should be "of, for and by people". Everyone must have the opportunity to provide for his or her basic needs such as food, clothing and housing. According priority to the fulfilment of basic needs amounts to development for people. In addition, it is important to invest in people, that is to say, in employment, education and health care, which will in turn increase their productivity. This is what is meant by development of people. Finally, the development process can only succeed if those targeted are themselves involved in the decision-making. For this reason the issues of participation and democratization-development by people-have to receive emphasis.

On several previous occasions, lastly during the November 1989 Conference, we have discussed the preparation by FAO of a Plan of Action on People's Participation. It was said at that time that this plan would be presented to the current Council. My delegation is not aware that this presentation has actually taken place, and would like to receive clarification on this matter by the Secretariat. Suffice to say, that in case no plan has been prepared as yet, my delegation would like to reiterate the wish of its Government that such a plan be presented to FAO's Member States as soon as possible, preferably before the end of the current session.

Finally I would like to offer a few comments on specific paragraphs of the document in writing to you for inclusion in the records of this session.

LE PRESIDENT: Je vous remercie très vivement. Vous avez eu une excellente idée en décidant de nous soumettre un certain nombre de remarques par écrit.

Gonzalo BULA HOTOS (Colombia): Señor Presidente, los representantes de Colombia admiramos siempre la competencia, lucidez y claridad de las presentaciones que hace el Dr. Dutia. Opinamos que el Director General ha cumplido adecuadamente las recomendaciones del Consejo y la Conferencia, en cuanto a una activa y eficaz participación de la FAO en la preparación del 18 período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General dedicado a la cooperación económica internacional, así como en la preparación de la estrategia internacional del desarrollo para el cuarto decenio.

Sobre el tema 6.1, agradecemos a usted, señor Presidente, que con su amplia experiencia y profundos conocimientos de la cooperación internacional nos haya señalado una parte importante y significativa de la declaración que adoptó ese período extraordinario de la Asamblea General en mayo de este año. Nosotros pensamos-salvo que el Dr. Dutia difiera de nuestra opinión-que deberá existir un vínculo directo entre los objetivos relacionados con la agricultura y la alimentación que aparecen en la EID y los mismos que se encuentren en el contenido de la declaración de ese período extraordinario de la Asamblea General. Decimos esto porque no tendría mucho sentido que un período extraordinario de la Asamblea General se realice 5 ó 6 meses antes de que se vaya a adoptar la EID, y de que ese período se dedique a la cooperación económica internacional en la cual la agricultura y la alimentación son esenciales, y que luego ambos aspectos fueran a marchar como ruedas sueltas. Si existiera, como creemos, esa vinculación, nosotros pensamos que la FAO debe reorientar sus programas de labores en los próximos bienios, particularmente dentro del decenio de los 90, en orden a asistir a los países para que traten de alcanzar las metas y los objetivos contenidos en la EID y, desde luego, también como lo hemos dicho en la declaración que aprobó la Asamblea General.

Los antecedentes con que comienza este documento CL 98/13 enfatizan muy bien la importancia del sector agrícola en la reactivación del crecimiento económico y en el logro de los objetivos en cuanto a nutrición, mitigación de la pobreza, desarrollo humano y medio ambiente. Hemos leído estos cuatro objetivos en el orden en que aparecen en el documento porque creo que hemos convenido siempre que ese orden no implica jerarquía prioritaria. Además, sobre las actividades de la FAO en cuanto al medio ambiente, nos referiremos más adelante cuando se discuta el tema 10.

Nos ha complacido, señor Presidente, escuchar la interesante declaración de nuestro colega y amigo de los Países Bajos, Estado al cual estamos grata y profundamente vinculados porque el esbozo de la nueva política de los Países Bajos coincide fundamentalmente con la orientación del Gobierno colombiano en cuanto a la necesidad de que toda política de desarrollo social, económico y humano debe tener como objetivo prioritario el pueblo, la lucha contra la pobreza. Sabemos que los Países Bajos han sobresalido siempre en la cooperación internacional por la manera altruista y positiva como contribuyen siempre a estas actividades, y eso nos llena una vez más de satisfacción.

La importancia creciente de la agricultura y la alimentación en las economías de la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, convierte en factor determinante el crecimiento del sector dentro de la estructura global de la estrategia, en toda posibilidad de lograr los objetivos que se vayan a establecer.

Este marco justifica plenamente la labor activa y competente de la FAO en estas actividades. Pero hay otros aspectos que imponen a nuestra Organización no sólo el cumplimiento de esas tareas, sino la necesidad de intensificar sus esfuerzos en estos campos.

Hemos asistido con desaliento e impotencia al fracaso completo de las otras tres estrategias anteriores; y ya es generalmente aceptado, como lo recuerda el párrafo 16, que "los años ochenta han sido un decenio perdido para el desarrollo". Entonces, al elaborar la estrategia para el cuarto decenio-años 90-que siguen a los ochenta perdidos entre fracasos y desalientos, nosotros estamos seguros de que la FAO habrá podido contribuir a que este nuevo esfuerzo estratégico-el último antes de que termine este siglo veinte-no se convierta en otra frustración más para los países en desarrollo.

Con frecuencia se suele responsabilizar sólo y exclusivamente a los países del Tercer Mundo del estado de pobreza y atraso en que muchos de esos países se encuentran. Toda la culpa parece recaer en las políticas desacertadas de los Estados del Tercer Mundo y en la incapacidad de sus poblaciones para superar el subdesarrollo.

El párrafo 3 comienza afirmando que "la responsabilidad primordial de formular y ejecutar las políticas de desarrollo incumbe a los gobiernos de los distintos países". La segunda frase de ese mismo párrafo 3 matiza un poco las posibilidades del alcance de los buenos éxitos de esas políticas, al hacer referencia a las medidas complementarias que deben adoptarse para apoyar los esfuerzos nacionales.

Lo cierto es que los países en desarrollo, incesantemente, conscientes de sus propias responsabilidades, vienen haciendo esfuerzos notables por adoptar y reajustar políticas compatibles con su desarrollo; pero, desgraciadamente, casi siempre se encuentran con los obstáculos citados, por ejemplo, el párrafo 8: la falta de capital para inversiones, el estancamiento económico, la inmensa y agobiadora deuda externa, la falta de recursos externos, la reducción de los ingresos por exportaciones y el consumo de esos ingresos en el pago de los intereses y de la deuda.

Todos esos factores y muchos otros vienen vanificando las políticas nacionales de muchos países del Tercer Mundo que conceden alta prioridad a la agricultura en sus planes de desarrollo y le asignan el máximo de sus escasos recursos. Desgraciadamente, ese propio, grande, hasta sacrificado y exhaustivo esfuerzo interno no basta. Los países en desarrollo siguen necesitando de la asistencia técnica y financiera que sólo pueden ofrecer en forma, volumen y cantidades adecuadas los Estados industrializados.

A la luz de esa concepción global del desarrollo, estamos de acuerdo con la primera frase del párrafo 12 que citó el Dr. Dutia y que dice: "Los objetivos de la Estrategia son pertinentes, tanto para los países

desarrollados como para los países en desarrollo". Los representantes de Colombia esperamos que este Consejo apoye ese principio, que concibe al desarrollo como una empresa de comunes responsabilidades de todos los Estados, sin distinción, de todos los países del mundo, que deben reconocer la necesaria e inexorable interdependencia.

Quisiéramos que la contribución que la FAO ha hecho a la Estrategia para el Cuarto Decenio se hubiera orientado por el principio fundamental consignado en el párrafo 10 y que corresponde a una decisión de la Conferencia. La Estrategia deberá incluir pocos objetivos, solamente aquellos objetivos que sean realistas en cuanto a las posibilidades de alcanzarlos. Si acaso se han llegado a incluir en la Estrategia objetivos cuantitativos, con más razón debe prevalecer ese sano y realista criterio selectivo.

Estamos seguros de que la FAO no ha contribuido a que una vez más, después de treinta años de fracasos e ilusiones, la Estrategia para el Cuarto Decenio vuelva a ser un papel lleno de cifras, música celestial, metas y porcentajes que de antemano todo el mundo sabe que nunca se podrán alcanzar.

Este documento fue publicado en agosto. El texto de la Estrategia, que según ha dicho el Dr. Dutia en breve contiene apenas 26 páginas fue concluido por el Comité en octubre, desearíamos que si fuera posible, antes de terminar esta reunión del Consejo, se nos distribuyera. Ese texto podría ser conveniente para todos nosotros.

Voy a concluir, señor Presidente y distinguidos colegas, diciendo que pensamos que el incumplimiento de algunos países desarrollados en relación con sus promesas para la ayuda oficial al desarrollo; sus limitadas contribuciones a los organismos internacionales, forzados al crecimiento cero; las embestidas contra el multilatéralisme reflejadas en la reducción de los presupuestos y programas de todos los organismos; la falta de voluntad política de muchos de esos países desarrollados, todo ello ha sumado una serie de circunstancias desafortunadas que, a través de estrategias como las tres anteriores, han cifrado esperanzas vanas para los Estados del Tercer Mundo, cuyos planes nacionales de desarrollo, basados en estrategias ampulosas y promesas irreales, se vienen desplomando irremediablemente, con graves y, a veces, irreversibles males para nuestras poblaciones.

Este documento confirma muchas de las partes de esta declaración, no sólo sobre el estancamiento, sino sobre el retroceso de las economías de muchos países en desarrollo. El párrafo 6 dice textualmente que "las condiciones con que se enfrentan hoy muchos países son peores que las de hace diez o veinte años". El párrafo 4 afirma que, si continuaran las tendencias actuales, muchos países y grupos de población no estarían mejor en el año 2000 que como lo están en la actualidad, Es decir, la comunidad internacional está expuesta también a que los años 90, última tabla de salvación de este siglo, sean igualmente perdidos para el Tercer Mundo.

Recientemente, Su Santidad el Papa Juan Pablo II ha dicho: "Ahora,cuando están desapareciendo las barreras entre el Oriente y el Occidente,el Norte debe acometer una profunda revisión de sus principios, para que nosiga ensanchándose la brecha que existe entre el Norte y el Sur."

Paulo Estivallet DE MESQUITA (Brazil): I would like to start by commending the Secretariat for its excellent paper. Whilst different views could be expressed regarding emphasis or priorities, we are basically in agreement with the document. In particular, we can agree with the four major general objectives laid out in paragraph 9.

In Brazil, a basic law covering all aspects of agriculture, including the objectives and instruments of agricultural policy, priorities, planning guidelines, commercialization, internal supply and external trade, is to be approved soon by Congress. It will incorporate several features contained in the long-term strategy for the food and agriculture sector. It will certainly reflect the consensus view that agriculture should be freed from the constraints that limit its development and thereby its contribution to the overall process of economic and social development of the country.

Important steps have already been taken at the economy-wide level. Prominent among these are the freeing of the exchange rate and the liberalization of external trade, which will-the international environment allowing-remove distortions that discriminate against the agricultural sector. At the sectoral level, particular importance is attached to agrarian reform, credit, market-oriented price policies, improving research and extension services, and building and upgrading the infrastructure. A new agricultural training service has been created, based upon the successful experience of similar institutions in industrial and commercial fields.

The alleviation of poverty and the improvement of nutrition are part of wider strategies, but which necessarily comprise important components geared to the agricultural sector. Conversely, the development of agriculture is perceived as a necessary condition for the reduction of poverty and malnutrition both in rural and urban areas.

The sustainable development of agriculture is a foremost priority for Brazil. Profound changes have been introduced over the last few years at the legislative, institutional and policy levels, that aim to improve the management and the conservation of the country's unique natural resource base.

In discussing the long-term strategy for the food and agriculture sector, we cannot lose sight of the relevant external constraints and opportunities. I will briefly refer to a few of them. In the area of finance, Latin American countries have been severely affected by the debt problem. Here I would like to quote what the distinguished delegate for Australia said yesterday in his intervention on point 4. He said that it is indeed ironic that the rich, large nations of this world pamper their farmers with massive subsidies which depress world prices, while developing countries are not only denied free access to their markets but have to face export subsidies and low world prices and yet are expected to develop their agricultural economies and meet ever-increasing external debt levels. There is a clear need for a durable solution which does not sacrifice macro-economic stability to balance of payments constraints. This means inter alia rescheduling debt repayments in accordance with each country's capacity in a manner compatible with the investment requirements of the economy.

Secondly, in the area of trade, Brazil is convinced of the need for a more liberal, market-oriented agricultural trading system. In the absence of adequate opportunities, some of the premises upon which our market-oriented approach is based would be put in doubt. In particular, the developed countries should not expect us to assist passively in the disruption of our external and internal markets by unfair subsidies.

Thirdly, in the area of technology, there is need for freer access, on a favourable basis, to basic technologies, and particularly environmentally safe technologies. The developing countries should also be assured of nondiscriminatory access to high technology on a commercial basis.

Finally, with regard to the environment, we would like to express the hope that the developed countries will not shy away from their responsibilities, particularly in view of the comments contained in paragraph 132, which we hold to be self-evident.

Duane ACKER (United States of America): The United States delegation is pleased to offer several observations regarding long-term strategy. The United States agrees with paragraph 3 of the FAO document, and with the expression by the delegation from the United Kingdom that the primary responsibility for formulating and implementing development policies lies with the developing countries themselves. At the same time we agree with the delegate from Colombia that policies and practices of the developed countries must complement effectively these developing country policies. During the next two weeks all of us in the developed countries will have an opportunity to demonstrate our acceptance of that responsibility by successfully negotiating significant reductions in trade-distorting and inhibiting subsidies, policies and practices.

Paragraph 6 of the FAO document correctly points out that inappropriate government policies, both domestic and international policies of governments, have been at the root of the failure of many countries to make economic and social progress. We therefore strongly endorse the statement in paragraph 16 that development strategies must reflect that appropriate governmental policies and programmes that match resources are necessary for effective development.

The United States agrees with the emphasis of paragraph 7. Development must be geared toward producing improvement in human condition, including health, nutrition, level of education-especially among women-human rights and popular participation in the political process through democratic institutions.

In connection with improving the human condition and the routes to achieve that, I would offer a goal statement that is expressed by our United States Agency for International Development as goals of its agricultural programme. It says that the goal is to increase the income of the poor majority and expand the availability and consumption of food whilst maintaining and enhancing the natural resource base.

The observation in paragraph 24 on the need for an enhanced role for the private sector is essential to agricultural development. We believe, however, that insufficient attention is paid elsewhere in the document to the role of the private sector in agricultural development. The ongoing economic reform activities in Africa, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to enhance the role of the private enterprise in agriculture are examples and we believe are not dealt with in the document.

Paragraph 31 refers to progress in meeting the agreed official development assistance target of 0.7 percent of developed countries gross national product for developing countries and 0.15 percent for least developed countries. We are obliged to point out that the United States has not agreed to, nor accepted, those targets. We do not believe that the official development assistance as a percentage of GNP is a valid measure of the appropriate level of financial flows to the developing countries. Such arbitrary targets may bear no relation to the needs of, or the abilities to achieve development. In those cases that lack of commitment to broad-based sustainable economic growth on the part of the donor and developing countries, even an ex-financial increase in development assistance would not lead to long-term stable economic growth.

We strongly endorse the statements regarding the potential benefits of a successful Uruguay Round for the developing nations, as we have indicated before earlier in the Council meeting on that issue.

Finally, while the United States appreciates that the food aid picture may change in the years ahead and a successful Uruguay Round may have significant effects upon the food supply and demand picture worldwide we do not believe that setting up an international one-and-a-half million standby reserve is an appropriate step at this time. As we have earlier indicated the United States has already taken steps to improve the effectiveness of our food aid effort, especially in dealing with the least developed food-deficit nations undertaking difficult economic reforms.

LE PRESIDENT: Puis-je gentiment faire remarquer que la déclaration que l'on a tous intérêt à relire fixe quand même des objectifs précis et que cette déclaration a été adoptée à l'unanimité. Je vois qu'il est parfois bon pour notre Conseil de se référer à des documents officiels de l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies qui est quand même l'organisme suprême où des engagements précis sont pris, et que nous devons tous veiller à respecter.

Sra. Ana Maria NAVARRO ARRUE (Cuba): Mi Delegación desea intervenir brevemente en este importante tema, sobre todo para agradecer a la Secretaría la valiosa información que contiene el documento CL 98/13, que apoyamos y que ahora ocupa nuestra atención. Por otra parte, agradecemos de igual forma al Sr. Dutia por la breve introdución de este tema en este 98 período de sesiones del Consejo de la FAO.

En lo que respecta a la Estrategia a largo plazo para el sector de la alimentación y la agricultura, la Delegación de Cuba desea destacar la

encomiable contribución de la FAO en la ordenación y definición de prioridades. Es oportuno también reconocer el aporte realizado por la Organización al período extraordinario de sesiones de las Naciones Unidas y a los trabajos preparatorios para el Cuarto Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. Tenemos confianza de que para la aplicación de la declaración aprobada por la Asamblea General en su 18 período de sesiones, sobre la cooperación económica internacional y, en particular, la reactivación del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo de los países en desarrollo, la FAO seguirá jugando un papel preponderante. Así lo necesitaremos los países en desarrollo.

Señor Presidente, esta importante declaración, nacida del 18 período de sesiones, que fue aprobada por consenso, según todos conocemos, representa un compromiso de todos los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas, que afirmaron que estaban resueltos a promover con urgencia la cooperación económica internacional, con objeto de alcanzar el crecimiento sostenido de la economía mundial, y en particular el apoyo a la reactivación del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo de los países en desarrollo, a fin de hacer realizar el derecho básico de todos los seres humanos a una vida exenta de hambre, pobreza, ignorancia, enfermedades y miedo.

Por supuesto, Señor Presidente, que Cuba no dudó un instante en sumarse al consenso de las naciones para darle luz a esta hermosa declaración, aunque honestamente allí planteamos en aquel momento nuestra profunda preocupación acerca de que nos hubiera complacido aún más que la misma en su contenido hubiera recogido un compromiso concreto de los países desarrollados para promover el crecimiento y el desarrollo de los países menos favorecidos.

Esperamos que esta declaración sirva durante su aplicación para promover mejores y más realistas estrategias, que realicen acciones aún más eficientes para que en la marcha se eviten olvidos, como lamentablemente sucedió con el controvertido nuevo Orden Económico Internacional.

Estamos de acuerdo, Señor Presidente, con los puntos que este documento CL 98/13 escoge como esenciales en la Estrategia a largo plazo para el sector de la agricultura y la alimentación, y en especial opinamos que es importante la debida atención que el mismo le dé a la situación de las mujeres en el desarrollo y el agregado de la participación popular, como bien lo expresara el distinguido Representante de los Países Bajos, intervención que compartimos, y que, como dijera el Representante de Colombia, su prioridad por el pueblo, hecho que comparte profundamente también nuestro Gobierno, como primera prioridad.

Señor Presidente, a la luz no ya de una década perdida como lo fue la de los 80 para la mayoría de nuestros países, sino de cara a una nueva década que ya nace con dificultades, deseamos resaltar cuán importante debe ser el papel de la FAO y el multilateralismo en los años venideros.

Nuestra Delegación, finalmente, desea reconocer nuevamente el papel desempeñado por la FAO en la preparación de la Estrategia Internacional del Desarrollo para el Cuarto Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, deseando sinceramente que, como dijera también el Representante de Colombia, este advenimiento no caiga en el vacío como lo hemos sentido

en épocas anteriores ni ensanche la abismal brecha entre los países del Norte y del Sur.

John McGOWAN (Ganada): At the 25th Conference, Canada had the opportunity to provide comments on the proposed FAO contribution to the International Development Strategy for the Fourth UN Development Decade. We are pleased to have before us the completed version. We are also confident that FAO's long-term strategy will allow the UN General Assembly to benefit from this Organization's valuable experience. As it was widely recognized at the 25th Conference, FAO's contribution to the International Development Strategy is of particular importance. The food and agriculture and the rural sectors have indeed a key role to play in revitalizing economic growth and in achieving objectives in the areas of nutrition, poverty alleviation, development of human resources and the environment.

The document we have before us is mostly well-balanced and sound in its analysis. While reinforcing basic concepts which are widely known, the strategy highlights their current relevance and encompasses important lessons learned through the experience of member countries in all regions of the world. It also stresses the importance of issues common to us all, particularly in the areas of trade liberalization, structural adjustment and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, the strategy contains valuable recpmmendations on approaches and policy options dealing with agricultural problems which are either universal, or specific to socioeconomic and agro-ecological circumstances. In this manner, the strategy complements the efforts of Member Nations in national policy formulation by providing a policy framework for the global good.

However, in order to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing world, the strategy perhaps could be further enhanced. For instance, the strategy could outline specific objectives relating to the issue of women in agriculture. Also, the document raises fundamental questions with respect to the relative merits of food aid compared with direct "financial aid". In our opinion, food aid is a development resource like any other and through careful planning and implementation of programmes, food aid can help to fill the gap between a country's needs and actual food supply while simultaneously being used to enhance local agricultural production.

The case for strengthening the International Emergency Food Reserve could be made stronger and would suggest that it could be dealt with in another forum other than the Council.

We would like to draw attention to the fact that the food donor community has generally demonstrated the willingness and ability to respond to emergencies with the requisite food supplies on a timely basis.

Another point that we would like to highlight, and which could be considered in more detail in the future, is the subject of policy harmonization in key areas, to facilitate joint action at the sub-regional and the regional levels. It may also be advisable that on matters relating to quantitative targets, while we recognize the difficulty, and perhaps the irrelevance, of fixing targets, it may be useful to have quantitative

indicators in the strategy. These indicators would enable us to set clear objectives and to measure progress.

In concluding, we wholeheartedly concur with the statement made in the document regarding the need to perceive this long-term strategy as a set of guidelines on policies. Guidelines which will require frequent adaptation in response to changing global and regional circumstances.

LE PRESIDENT: Le Représentant du Canada a touché à de nombreux domaines: le rôle de la femme dans le domaine alimentaire, les réserves alimentaires d'urgence, la coordination des politiques au niveau régional, la stratégie à long terme. Je le remercie de cette intervention substantielle et constructive.

Je vais donner lecture de la liste des différents orateurs inscrits de façon à clore cette liste de manière définitive. Je me permets d'insister pour que les interventions soient précises et ne soient pas, si possible, la redite de choses déjà dites. Je dois également annoncer que la séance d'aujourd'hui sera quelque peu prolongée car il y a un certain retard dans le déroulement de nos discussions. Les orateurs inscrits sont les suivants: Grèce, Malaisie, Argentine, Mexique, Australie, Indonésie, Inde, Allemagne, Pakistan, Japon, Ghana, Kenya, Angola, Corée, Venezuela, Egypte, Togo, Nigéria, Iran et Trinité-et-Tobago. Il y a aussi un observateur: l'OCDE.

Jean A. YENNIMATAS (Greece): As a general introduction, may I reiterate our support and appreciation of FAO's active involvement in the preparation of the International Development Strategy.

I wish to underline the agreement of my authorities in the context of paragraph 9 of document CL 98/13 concerning FAO's strategy for 1990. This should focus on the food and agriculture policies for the achievement of four major but closely interrelated general objectives: economic growth with equity, poverty alleviation and food security, development of human resources and institutions, sustainable development and the environment.

Furthermore, we would like to point out that any relevant strategy to be followed has to be adapted to the specific conditions prevailing in various countries. In this context I believe that the new relationship that we experience day by day between east and west will certainly give a new dimension to what we call development cooperation. As a result I do hope that this evolution will free more resources to be diverted to the developing countries and thus will enable them to fight more effectively against hunger and poverty.

In concluding, I would like to compliment the Secretariat for the document they have prepared.

Dato Wan Jaafar ABDULLAH (Malaysia): My delegation would like to join previous speakers in commending the FAO secretariat for the preparation of the Council document CL 98/13 on the Long-Term Strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector.

We agree that the primary responsibility for formulating and implementing development policies rests with the governments of individual countries. In this respect, the Government of Malaysia has embarked on implementing programmes which are in consonance with the objectives of the International Development Strategy (IDS). In essence, our government has pursued programmes over the last two decades towards poverty alleviation, development of human resources, sustainable development of natural resources and maintenance of environmental quality. Without doubt the Malaysian Government has continued to formulate and implement policies in response to changing circumstances-be it based on environment or economic considerations.

The Government of Malaysia recognizes the importance of global interdependence in the economic sphere and has and will continue to participate and contribute to all activities aimed at achieving the objectives of the IDS. Over the last decade while providing adequate and attractive incentive to the private sector to invest and expand the manufacturing sector, the Government has concurrently encouraged the expansion of the agriculture sector, to the extent that the contribution of the agriculture sector to the national economy is still very significant.

Enhancing the economic status of the rural populace has been a long-term strategy of our government over the last three decades. Availability of educational, medical and agricultural development agencies at the grassroots level has enabled Malaysia to achieve a comparatively high standard of development among developing countries. As I mentioned this morning, the role of women in the development of the country has been given full recognition. Programmes to bring women into the mainstream of the country's development have been under way over two decades and at present Malaysian women have and will continue to play a significant role in the country's development.

Malaysia's strategy for the accelerated development of the food and agriculture sector is in consonance with the recommendations of the FAO. Our primary concern is to alleviate poverty and concurrently to provide the requisite resources and assistance to our farming populace to increase their productivity in relation to food production. We have progressed much towards this objective and we hope over the next decade, with the adoption of new food production technologies, we will progress rapidly to becoming a net exporter of food products.

Our main focus over the next decade will be on the strengthening and expansion of our food production and processing enterprises. Towards achieving this goal, the Government will implement nationwide programmes that will incorporate the active and positive participation of the rural population. Concurrently, such programmes will involve the development of human resources in the rural areas. Existing institutions and additional facilities to train rural manpower will be enhanced, so that rural

development and increase in food production will continue to progress with the adoption of new technology.

Our government will continue to improve the agricultural research and extension facilities to sustain the importance of the agriculture sector in relation to the national economy. The private sector has been provided with attractive incentives to invest in agricultural production and much progress has been made over the last few years.

Malaysia's main problem has been the somewhat low and stagnant prices for commodities such as rubber, oil palm, cocoa and pepper. While our producers have endevoured to increase their productivity and quality of their produce, the international commodity markets have not reacted realistically to the increasing cost of production and this has caused low incomes to producers who are mainly smallholders.

In respect of agricultural commodity trade and the ongoing Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, the Malaysian delegation wishes to reiterate the importance of ensuring a successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations including Agriculture and Tropical Products. In this regard, all Contracting Parties to the GATT should exercise the political will and commitment to undertake agricultural reform. The failure of the Uruguay Round would have tremendous negative impact upon national economies especially so upon the economies of the developing countries.

The inclusion of the concept of rebalancing (support) as contained in the proposal of the European Community (EC) would have far-reaching effects upon the economies of several oilseed and oilcake exporters like ASEAN and the Latin American countries namely Argentina and Brazil. Furthermore, this concept is totally against the very thrust of trade liberalization and should be completely opposed.

Similarly too, the EC's refusal to specifically address export subsidies is also an issue that needs the political will of the European Commission. Malaysia sincerely hopes that the EC will be more flexible and forthcoming in this matter.

On concessional food aid, Malaysia's stand is that such food aid should preferably be given in the form of grants or in terms of monetary handouts, to the affected less-developed countries to determine the source of obtaining their food supplies. However, if the present system of concessional sales is to be continued, then, they should be subjected to strict disciplines so as to avoid export subsidies being provided under the guise of food aid.

Alberto DI LISCIA (Argentina): Si usted nos permite, quisiéramos unirnos a las felicitaciones ya hechas a la Secretaría por la preparación de este documento. Nuestra delegación desea expresar su apoyo a los objetivos generales de desarrollo mencionados en el excelente documento CL 98/13, en párrafo 13 y reiterados en párrafo 17. Asimismo, coincidimos con la Secretaría en que la estrategia debe enfocar en primer lugar los lazos

recíprocos entre el sector de la agricultura y la alimentación y las relaciones macroeconómicas y económicas internacionales antes de dirigirse a las políticas sectoriales más concretas.

Para la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, y especialmente para nuestro país, la agricultura es uno de los principales sectores de la economía. De allí que la consecución de los objetivos de la estrategia dependa de modo decisivo de que se avance hacia una agricultura más eficiente y sostenible.

Para que ello se logre, debería mejorarse sustancialmente el entorno económico internacional. Sin intenciones de exagerar, podríamos llamar la "década de no desarrollo para los países en desarrollo" a la última transcurrida.

Grandes y graves problemas no han encontrado solución durante los años 80. Las graves distorsiones del comercio mundial de productos básicos, el peso de la deuda externa y la falta de acceso a las tecnologías indispensables por los países en desarrollo, no han sido todavía superados, y a éstos se sumarán nuevos temas que aparecen en la escena mundial, como es el caso del deterioro del medio ambiente.

Las causas del estancamiento en el desarrollo de los países en desarrollo son bien conocidas y no podrán eliminarse sin la cooperación de los países que tienen los mecanismos económicos y políticos necesarios para revertir este proceso de deterioro.

Queremos asimismo destacar que el sistema de Naciones Unidas debe tener, a nuestro juicio, un rol protagónico principal en la revitalización del crecimiento y el desarrollo. En ello cabe un papel clave a los esfuerzos de la FAO.

El estrangulamiento provocado en las economías en desarrollo por el peso de la deuda externa y la disminución de sus términos de intercambio son dos factores claves en esta difícil coyuntura, que tenderá a perpetuarse si no se modifican inmediatamente ciertas conductas de la comunidad internacional.

En el periodo 1982-89 los países en desarrollo habrían transferido un total de 123 500 millones de dólares a los países desarrollados. De acuerdo con datos recientes del Fondo Monetario Internacional, en el mismo período los términos de intercambio de los países en desarrollo decrecieron a una tasa anual promedio de-2,55 por ciento, en tanto que los precios recibidos por sus materias primas crecieron a una tasa anual promedio de apenas el 0,85 por ciento, frente a un crecimiento anual promedio del 7 y del 10 por ciento respectivamente en el período 1972-1981. Por ello, Señor Presidente, resulta bien claro que la transferencia neta de recursos limita fuertemente las posibilidades de fomento del desarrollo agrícola y del crecimiento en general. La exportación de productos básicos a precios de liquidación y la involución en las importaciones de los países que requieren insumos básicos y tecnología, no hará posible el pago de la deuda externa, ni mucho menos poner en marcha con ciertas posibilidades de éxito plan de desarrollo alguno.

Nuestro país ha encarado un agresivo programa de cambios y reajustes indispensables en lo nacional para lograr el crecimiento. Ello implica verdaderos sacrificios para el conjunto de su población, pero estos esfuerzos nacionales ya iniciados no serán suficientes si la comunidad internacional no aborda seriamente una solución para los problemas macroeconómicos internacionales.

Señor Presidente, en el documento CL 98/13, que ha servido de marco para iniciar este debate, se sostiene que la estrategia a largo plazo para el sector de la agricultura y la alimentación deberá incluir reformas sustanciales al comercio agrícola y a la eliminación de prácticas proteccionistas que lo distorsionan.

No nos referiremos a estás políticas en detalle, por haberlo hecho ya al tratarse el tema 4. Sin embargo, Señor Presidente, permítanos manifestar que a pesar de la insistencia en expresar los graves trastornos que las políticas de subsidios aplicadas en forma desmedida han provocado a los países en desarrollo, algunos de los principales países industrializados toman medidas que van en dirección contraria a la señalada por la estrategia internacional de desarrollo que obstaculiza la reactivación económica de nuestros países.

Hemos sostenido que la agricultura es uno de los sectores más importantes de nuestra economía. Ahora sostenemos que la agricultura y la industria derivada, en su conjunto, es el sector más importante de nuestro comercio exterior y el que tiene las mayores posibilidades de dar respuesta inmediata a las crecientes necesidades de divisas para hacer frente a las obligaciones de la deuda y a nuestro propio desarrollo.

Deseamos especialmente que las negociaciones en el marco de la Ronda Uruguay encuentren la solución definitiva a este problema, las cuales no podrán concluirse satisfactoriamente sin un sustancial éxito en el área de la agricultura. Favorecer el libre comercio, será la mejor manera de contribuir al desarrollo agrícola de los países en desarrollo y, con ello, a la erradicación del hambre y la malnutrición de aquellos países que no producen alimentos porque sus productores no se sienten estimulados debido a un cuadro económico internacional como el actual.

Señor Presidente, en el párrafo 70 del documento CL 98/13 se manifiesta que la estrategia reconoce que no es posible hallar una solución duradera al problema de la pobreza rural en los países en desarrollo tan sólo dentro del sector agrícola. Por ello, harían falta políticas que fomenten las actividades no agrícolas en las zonas rurales. La sola redistribución de la tierra no es un instrumento que pueda generar ocupación e ingresos sin el cumplimiento de las condiciones que atinadamente señala el párrafo 65 de este documento. Ella no asegura por sí misma la equidad ni la utilización de métodos agrícolas beneficiosos para el medio ambiente. Cabe recordar que existen otros mecanismos de políticas que posibilitan el acceso a los bienes de producción que no implican la sobreutilización de los recursos.

Las cuestiones relacionadas con la calidad y la salubridad de los alimentos deben abordarse también en el contexto de políticas internacionales a fin de promover la industria de elaboración de alimentos y su comercio internacional. Pero estas normas no deben convertirse en barreras no

arancelarias que inhíban el intercambio. Consideramos que la Comisión FAO/OMS del Codex Alimentarius es el foro principal para la armonización de las políticas internacionales en este campo.

Como bien se sostiene en el párrafo 43 del documento, con las políticas de comercio y productos básicos de la estrategia estan íntimamente relacionadas las medidas para reforzar la cooperación económica y técnica entre países en desarrollo en materia de alimentación y agricultura. A este respecto, Señor Presidente, permítame llamar la atención acerca de los esfuerzos de la Argentina hacia la integración económica con los países del Cono Sur.

En otro orden de cosas, señor Presidente, la estrategia reconoce que la principal característica de los años 90 será la continuación de la tendencia hacia una agricultura más intensiva, que utilice más insumos por unidad de tierra. Tecnologías de este tipo generalmente tienen consecuencias negativas en el medio ambiente.

En el documento CL 98/13, párrafo 113, se plantea el interrogante de si es posible que los países en desarrollo puedan adoptar sistemas de producción menos intensivos y más inocuos para el medio ambiente. Se responde que no, con ciertas reservas, las cuales básicamente están ligadas a una disminución en los rendimientos.

Efectivamente, la difícil situación económica de los países en desarrollo no toleraría una reducción de los índices de producción sin recibir otro tipo de beneficios que compensen la calda esperada por la modificación de las prácticas de producción hacia formas más en favor del medio ambiente.

Coincidimos al respecto con lo que expresa el párrafo 31 del documento CL 98/13 en el sentido de que los países en desarrollo no estarán en condiciones de llevar adelante programas de conservación del medio ambiente con medios propios; pero quienes sí deberían reducir la producción, y pueden sobradamente hacerlo, son los países industrializados, que con la práctica de subvencionar a la producción, inducen a sus productores a la aplicación masiva de agroquímicos y al consumo enorme de combustible que tanto daño provocan al ya desequilibrado medio ambiente. La reducción de subsidios tendrá entonces un doble efecto positivo: favorecerá el libre comercio posibilitando el crecimiento económico con mayor equidad, y provocará una utilización más racional de los recursos naturales.

José ROBLES AGUILAR (México): Mi Delegación desea felicitar a la Secretaría por la elaboración del documento correspondiente. Consideramos que éste contribuye de manera importante a establecer un marco de referencia a la cooperación internacional en la agricultura y la alimentación, a la vez que proporciona a los gobiernos de los países miembros una guia para sus políticas en este sector.

A pesar de los violentos reveses que, durante los últimos años, han sufrido los planes de desarrollo de la mayoría de nuestras naciones, y no obstante sus inciertas perspectivas económicas, el disponer de una orientación como la estrategia siempre será útil.

Mi país coincide con el documento, en el sentido de que el desarrollo de una nación está estrechamente vinculado con la promoción de sus sectores agrícola y alimentario.

Por otro lado, los cuatro objetivos de la estrategia también son ampliamente compartidos por mi país. Al respecto, deseo llamar la atención sobre el segundo de ellos, sobre la pobreza y la seguridad alimentaria. En este sentido, el Gobierno de mi país, a través del Programa Nacional de Solidaridad, está destinando importantes volúmenes de recursos a satisfacer las necesidades más apremiantes de los grupos más vulnerables de México.

Este programa no se agota en la acción inmediata. Contempla también acciones que contribuyen a crear y reforzar obras de infraestructura de beneficio social.

Señor Presidente, como atinadamente lo señala la estrategia en la parte relativa a Latinoamérica, hay muchos elementos de carácter macroeconómico y de tecnología, así como de otras naturalezas, que determinarán las posibilidades de satisfacer las necesidades de los países en desarrollo.

Las acciones de cooperación internacional no deben, pues, circunscribirse al ámbito agrícola y alimentario, sino que deben darse fundamentalmente en otras esferas como el comercio y el finaneciamiento internacional.

George REEVES (Australia): I might just preface my remarks by saying that I was amongst those at the Eighteenth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to press the case for a high priority for agricultural development most strongly at the session itself and in the preparatory process. I would like to join others in congratulating the task force responsible for the preparation of this strategy and, in particular, to the Director-General for his initiative in putting the task force together in mid-1989.

Whilst we may have different points of emphasis on particular areas, we certainly support the general thrust of the strategy and agree with its four principal objectives as alluded to by others.

We also note with satisfaction in paragraph 11 that duplication of effort is being minimized by existing FAO global and regional studies and activities providing the general qualitative and policy background of the strategy.

We note that the strategy indentifies rapid population growth, environmental deterioration and resource degradation as among the factors contributing to world problems. It advocates the use of natural resources in ways that ensure sustainable development which, together with economic growth and poverty alleviation, are major objectives. We wholeheartedly agree with all this.

Nusyirwan ZEN (Indonesia): Let me start my intervention by expressing the appreciation of my delegation to the Secretariat on their successful preparation of this important document, CL 98/13.

My delegation welcomes most warmly the consensus outcome of the 18th Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to International Economic Cooperation, in particular the revitalization of economic growth and development of the developing countries. Its declaration provides the international community with a coherent blueprint to overcome the crippling legacies of the past and to meet the challenges of the 1990s. However, I hope you will agree with me that if the provisions of the declaration are not translated into concrete measures the spirit, aspirations and hopes generated at the special session may prove illusory. My delegation is of the view that the urgent requirement now is to build upon this important very first step and to ensure the success of our collective endeavours in those undertakings as already set out on the international agenda. My delegation's attention also goes to a number of other important paragraphs of the declaration, among others regarding the ODA from the developed countries.

One of the faults of multilateralism in the 1980s has been the stagnation in official development at less than half of the internationally accepted targets. At a time when the developing countries are seriously engaged in effecting structural adjustment and in improving the foreign investment climate in their economies, it should be very reasonable to expect the developed countries to match these efforts by facilitating the continuity, predictability and assuredness of enhanced financial flows to the developing countries, specifically by increasing their ODA so as at least to meet the previously agreed target of 0.7 percent of GNP. As developing countries, we do acknowledge that our economic progress depends as much, if not more, on the implementation of sound domestic policies as it does on international action but in the world economic conditions in which we live today it is equally beyond question that sustained economic progress at the national level can only be made if it can be assured at the global level as well. Developing countries' demands for creation of a favourable international economic environment, therefore, should not be seen as an alternative to, but as an essential complement of, effective domestic action. At the same time, my delegation fully realizes that the restructuring of the world economy and of international economic relations cannot be attained as long as the pattern of relationships among the developing countries themselves remains unchanged. Therefore, my delegation wishes to express its hope that all parties concerned will take steps to strengthen the North-South economic and technical cooperation based on the concept of collective self-reliance which is a fundamental element toward the successful implementation of the global strategy to revitalize the world economy.

In this connection, Mr Chairman, you may wish to note that recently, together with a number of other developing countries, the Group of 15 was established, comprising the Head of State and Heads of Government of 15 countries of the South from various continents. As far as Indonesia is concerned, it is necessary and very important to develop cooperation within the framework of the Group of 15, aimed at seeking ways to promote further a comprehensive North-South cooperation. A number of cooperative forms have

been approved by the Group of 15, and they are now being worked out on detail and developed even further. Aside from cooperation in various fields, Indonesia especially offers its experience in raising food production, a rise which has led to self-sufficiency, and its experience in the implementation of an effective family planning programme that may possibly be useful for its brethren in other developing countries. The success of a number of developing countries in being self-sufficient is an extremely valuable asset for increasing food production in other countries of the South.

I wish also to welcome warmly the expression contained in other sections of the Declaration which emphasizes, among other things, the objectives of eradication of poverty and hunger; of environmentally sound and sustainable development and addressing problems of desertification and deforestation. The threat of irreversible environmental destruction has become a major global preoccupation. Indonesia, which has always been fully supportive of the pressing need for environmental protection, nevertheless feels that it needs to be viewed in its proper and balanced perspective.

As an issue affecting the well-being of humanity as a whole, it is imperative that it be addressed on the basis of an equitably shared responsibility among all nations, and that it does not become a new bone of contention between the North and the South.

Neither should it be made an added condition in the context of development assistance. It is commonly acknowledged currently that past and present patterns of development, especially in the industrialized countries have been the major cause of damage to the environment and that, therefore, measures should be taken to prevent their recurrence in the future. But as the General Assembly in its Resolutions 42/186 and 44/228 has recognized, improved economic conditions, especially of the developing countries, and the elimination of mass poverty will be essential for sustained environmental improvements. This calls for effective multilateral cooperation, including the mobilization of additional financial resources and the sharing of technology, in order to promote environmentally sound and sustained development that will ensure continued socio-economic progress for the present without sacrificing our common future.

May I also use this opportunity to congratulate the Secretariat on their productive participation in the UN preparation for the IDS. My comments on this matter will be very brief. The proposed strategy, as discussed at the recently concluded fourth session of the UN Ad-Hoc Preparatory Committee, is an ambitious yet realistic undertaking. It should promote the achievement of its principal aim, that is of accelerating the development of the developing countries. My delegation appreciates very much the emphasis being placed on the issue of food and agriculture as well as other issues of common concern such as the eradication of poverty and hunger, environmental protection, and population questions, as the priority aspects of development of the IDS. At the same time my delegation wishes to express its hopes that our preoccupation with these concerns does not obscure the urgent need to address and resolve the perennial problems confronting the developing countries, especially the interrelated issues of finance, debt, trade and commodities. We also wish to underline the views expressed in the document that policies for achieving objectives in food and agriculture are

closely interlinked with those appropriate for the other priority areas. Therefore, policies and measures in agriculture must be an integral part of overall policies, mutually reinforcing other sectors. It therefore calls for a close, productive and harmonious collaboration between member countries and all UN agencies for the successful preparation of the draft of IDS for its final consideration by the General Assembly.

S.K. MISHRA (India): We are glad to note that document CL 98/13 succinctly brings out an approach which correctly emphasizes human beings as the primary beneficiaries of development and also reflects the increasing recognition that development depends more and more on the quality of human resources and institutions. In India our agricultural policy document is being prepared and we hope it will be presented before Parliament very soon. In this major policy pronouncement, the focus will be on the farmer, his income and welfare. There will be a focus on planning. Gone are the days when the sole objective was to grow more food for the few. The approach today is to ensure that we can provide for everyone's nutritional requirements. Self-sufficiency in food production is linked to higher calorific requirements, not with low purchasing capacity as was the case in the past. As the document by and large also reflects India's development ethos we express our appreciation to FAO for having flagged such vital developmental issues for a sharp focus for discussion in this august forum.

We share the concern expressed in paragraph 4 of the document that if the past trends were to continue, many countries and population groups in the year 2000 would be in no better position than at the present. The Strategy of FAO as well as the International Development Strategy expects to focus on the need for making significant progress toward the eradication of poverty through measures to revitalize economic growth and improve distribution of income in favour of the poor.

Even though the four major objectives of the Strategy of FAO for the 1990s are not new and India has been implementing various programmes to achieve these goals for over four decades, India appreciates the enhanced sense of urgency for achieving these objectives.

Paragraph 22 of the document stresses that macroeconomic policies do not discriminate against agriculture. In this context, we are trying to take corrective measures to ensure that India's development plans centre around development of agriculture and allied sectors, as more than 70 percent of India's population depend on these vital sectors. An agricultural advisory committee consisting of farmers' representatives has been set up in order to plan and commission any new policy aim which is operated directly or indirectly, and any new policy matter has to be referred to this body before the final decision can be taken.

Agricultural growth is a crucial element in our strategy to tackle the problems of poverty and unemployment.

However, the long-term trend of agricultural growth reveals that there is a need for the policies of the developed countries to complement the efforts being made by the developing countries.

India has been fully alive to the issues which are causing concern and has been making special efforts to remedy the situation. In recent times, India has made concerted efforts, namely, to effect a breakthrough in rice output in the eastern region, to increase the productivity and reduce the instability of production in dryland areas by laying special emphasis on development of watersheds and adoption of improved practices; to intensify research and management programmes relating to production of oilseeds and pulses, and to raise the productivity of small and marginal farmers.

With reference to paragraph 26 of the document on the issue of the addition of the fifth "I", beside the four "I"s-Inputs, Incentives, Institutions, Infrastructures and then Investment, India has been in the forefront in mobilizing both the public and private sector investment for increasing agricultural production over the years. While public sector investment has been mainly directed toward infrastructure development, research, education, extension and import delivery systems, the farmers have been provided with credit mainly through the cooperative institutions. Recently, small loans up to Rupees ten thousand (Rs.10 000) have been written off to improve the farmers' inability and to encourage them to make fresh investments in the agricultural sector. A total amount of around Rupees 132 billion, equivalent to US$8 billion, were disbursed during 1989/90 as agricultural credit through cooperative institutions, commercial banks and regional rural banks. The Government of India is committed to investing 50 percent of its planned resources in the agricultural and rural sector. These efforts, complemented by the renewed emphasis on providing remunerative prices to the farmers, will give the necessary boost to capital formation and investment in the agricultural sector in the coming years. The private sector is also being encouraged to make investments in different areas of the agricultural sector such as seed development, post-harvest operations and food-processing sectors in order to accelerate the process of agricultural development.

We would like to mention with reference to paragraph 29 of the document on incentives and prices that one of the major steps taken by the Government to ensure a fair return to the farmers is fixation of support prices at remunerative level. The cost of production is one of the important factors in recommending procurement/minimum support prices. The Government has decided to revise the methodology of estimation of cost of production to make the support prices more remunerative. Further, during the current year more and more commodities like grapes, pineapples, chicory, garlic, citrus and apple have been covered under the market intervention operations to ensure that the producers of these crops do not have to resort to distress sales at low prices.

With reference to paragraphs 47 to 51 of the document we are glad to note that FAO has commended a sound buffer-stocking of foodgrains policy and advocated international emergency food reserves and international compensatory measures to help the food importing countries to meet the costs of holding stocks to enable them to meet food emergencies. One of the most outstanding and exemplary achievements of India in the course of the past 40 years has been the way it has developed the capacity to contend with large-scale emergencies. This was best demonstrated during the drought of 1987 when India was able to meet the demands for foodgrains without having to import.

This Indian experience in managing one of the worst droughts of the century evoked worldwide appreciation. An estimated 285 million were affected by the drought, over one-third of the country's total population, of whom 93 million-again almost one third-were vulnerable economic and social groups. Over one million tons each of rice and wheat were allocated to the various States for improving the availability of foodgrains in the public distribution system. A special allocation of 440 thousand tons of foodgrains was made for the drought-affected areas for relief measures. The distress due to hunger in the face of severe drought was not reported from any part of India.

In the context of alleviating hunger and improving nutrition, we would like to point out that we are fully conscious of the need to produce more as well as to improve the access of the poor to the food produced. We are operating a very comprehensive system of food management. Supply of cereals and other essential commodities to the vulnerable sections of society is assured at reasonable prices through public distribution systems. Simultaneously, ambitious employment generation and poverty amelioration programmes have also been taken up which are intended to mount a direct attack on rural poverty and thus help in reducing the extent of malnutrition in the rural areas.

The right to work is high on the agenda on the time-bound plan of action. With reference to paragraphs 54 and 55 of the document on production stability and early warning activities and emergency preparedness planning, we would like to mention that due to time-tested forecasting warning systems available in India and the existence of contingency crop planning to take care of seasonal aberrations, we are able to manage severe natural disasters like the 1987 drought and 1988 floods in certain parts of India. Due to the effective implementation of contingency crop planning, we were able to ensure on-farm, foodgrain production in the wake of the 1987 drought and substantially mitigate the impact of drought on agricultural production.

Paragraph 27 of the document rightly emphasizes the role of extension services in promoting agricultural development and bringing to the doorstep of the farmer the latest research findings. This is a predominantly public sector activity, and a large army of government officers is engaged in motivating the farmers. There is now, however, a slight shift in the approach to bringing about, in greater measure, people's participation. We are identifying progressive farmers to use them as agents for popularizing new practices. These farmers act as catalysts of change, and are constantly interacting with the research agencies. We agree with the approach outlined in paragraph 33. In addition to the area spelt out for priority research, there is the necessity to move on to new frontiers of biotechnology, tissue culture, embryonic transfer, etc The developing countries have a long way to go before they can catch up with the developed world, and this gap can only be bridged if special projects are launched to provide new avenues.

Paragraph 84 of the document lays special emphasis on an enhanced role for women in agriculture and rural development. We fully endorse the general line of thinking of FAO on the need for a special effort to integrate women into the development process. The Government of India has prepared a National Perspective Plan for Women 1988-2000 AD. The plan is more or less

similar to the one prepared by FAO in the areas of agriculture, food and rural development. A detailed study on the assessment of the existing status of women's involvement in agricultural activities, and for developing a programme for training farm women, has been initiated.

With reference to issues relating to natural resources, environment and sustainable agriculture, we are glad to state that India has decided to formulate a national agricultural policy to provide a framework for agricultural development over the next two decades, keeping in view the likely demand for food items on the one hand and the requirement for sustainable development on the other, as also the need for improving the income level of the farmers. It is hoped that the agricultural policy resolution will set the tone of what needs to be done in the agricultural sector in the coming decades.

Recognizing the important role of forests in maintaining the ecological balance, and its role as an efficient sink for carbon dioxide, the Government of India formulated a new forest policy in 1988 which states that the primary role of the forests will be the maintenance of ecological equilibrium. In 1985, the Government of India set up a National Wastelands Development Board with the objective of bringing 5 million hectares annually under afforestation. The Board has succeeded in afforesting about 9 million hectares in the five years since its establishment.

Mr Chairman, we fully agree that the long-term strategy for food and agriculture will eminently serve as a set of policy guidelines assisting Member States in evolving appropriate national policies. These policies and strategies, complemented by enhanced international cooperation, will help in achieving higher economic growth with equity in alleviating poverty and in enhancing food security flowing from sustainable development of agriculture. We are confident that the successful implementation of this strategy will also lead to better nutrition, health, education, enhanced status of women, people's participation and overall human resources and institutional development.

Gerhard LIEBER (Germany): My delegation appreciates the long-term strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector as presented by the Secretariat in document CL 98/13. We are satisfied that the policy background for this strategy is provided by the existing FAO Global and Regional Studies which include the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development Programme of Action, the Tropical Forestry Action Plan, the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, and others.

FAO's proposals widely correspond to our national guideline on development policy. This guideline is based on the principle of helping toward self-help and thus attaches first priority to all programmes and projects which contribute effectively to meet the developing countries' basic requirements-in other words, to combat hunger, malnutrition and poverty of the poorest and within the poorest sections of the population.

Consequently, food security and rural development are the sector in our development corporation receiving highest attention.

Regarding the sub-sector on rural development, special emphasis is given to programmes and projects which increase agricultural production and help small farmers by supplying equipment and agricultural inputs and building up efficient marketing systems. Moreover, we are supporting a large number of projects for international agricultural research. We appreciate FAO's concept of assisting developing countries in order to facilitate the formulation of agricultural country-specific strategies. In our view, the development of country strategies requires coordinated international action, including ECDC and TCDC.

We wish to encourage FAO to cooperate to the largest possible extent with other multilateral and bilateral organizations which are active in the field of integrated rural development like ILO, the World Bank, the UN, UNRWA, and our own agency-the Association for Technical Cooperation, GTZ.

Taking into consideration the aspects of self-reliance and sustainability, we are of the opinion that any development assistance provided for small farmers can only be successful if the key problems of landownership and conditions for long-term leases in agricultural credit schemes find appropriate solutions.

Assistance to small farmers has also to take into consideration that marketing and pricing policies are necessary which offer incentives for increased and sustained agricultural production.

As far as the extension services are concerned, we feel that efforts should be made to involve non-governmental organizations, the NGOs, in their operations as much as possible. We share the view of FAO that food aid is essentially a development resource. Adverse effects of food aid on local agricultural production in developing countries, however, should be avoided as far as possible.

We highly appreciate the fact that FAO has given special emphasis to the important impact of rural development on poverty alleviation. The rural poor need especially easy access to credit. In this connection we feel that rural credit schemes, being operated by NGOs, promoting group financing and taking into consideration the special requirements of women, should have priority.

Mr Chairman, I would like to close with a few words on cooperation amongst United Nations agencies in Europe. As you well know, we have always strongly advocated close cooperation between the different bodies of the United Nations family. We encourage the agencies concerned to show more interest and improve the quality of their work in Europe. We hope that this task will be pursued and intensified in future years, especially with regard to the countries of Eastern Europe. FAO and ECE should in particular evaluate the possible needs for expanded cooperation in order to help the Eastern European farming economies to adapt to internal and external markets.

Shahid NAJAM (Pakistan): Document CL 98/13 on Long-Term Strategy for the Food and Agriculture Sector is a commendable effort on the part of the FAO

Secretariat which addresses almost all the key issues of food and agriculture which should form part of the International Development Strategy. The document is both diagnostic and prescriptive in nature in that-keeping in view both the past trends and future projections-it identifies the problems besetting food and agriculture at national, regional and international levels, and then prescribes concrete measures to overcome the same, to be able to meet the challenges lying ahead. It is heartening to note that the entire focus of the strategy recommended in the document is unequivocally on the poor and deprived segments of society and not on abstract statistical quantificationism.

Whilst my delegation generally endorses the assessment analysis and recommendations, particularly the recognition of diversity of situations and the varigated nature and the complexion of problems which call for country-specific and problem-related policy packages, we have some specific observations to make.

(i) The four objectives of the strategy have been correctly listed in paragraph 9. However, there is a need to expand the same to give fuller coverage to the least developed countries and the role of ECDC and TCDC in the agricultural development for collective self-reliance through institutional linkages.

(ii) We fully agree with the strategy thrust under the overall policy framework in paragraphs 22 to 25 which, inter alia, advocate market-oriented policies for effective resource utilization and positive state interventionism, coupled with a rational investment in agriculture, but would recommend that welfare implications of such structural adjustment programmes on the poor and lesser-privileged people should be so addressed as to clearly articulate and integrate the role of FAO in the process.

This need is essentially felt in view of the vitiation of policy reforms initiated by some of the developing countries due to external shocks and international factors. whereas the primary responsibility to provide impetus to agricultural growth depends upon rational and well-defined policies of the individual country, we would reiterate that a viable mechanism based on the firm commitment of donor agencies should be evolved to ensure the smooth and uninterrupted flow of external assistance, both financial and technical, for sustaining the process of reform and for agricultural investment and agricultural infrastructure, as stated in paragraphs 31 and 32 of the document.

(iii) As regards the external economic environment of the food and agriculture sector, we recognize the need to diversify the structure of exports of the developing countries to increase productivity and competitiveness in the commodity sector. However, we should not forget that the structural changes in production and consumption patterns to pursue a comparative advantage paradigm, in their wake, may bring about a host of attendant socio-economic problems. It also needs to be noted that comparative advantage is not absolute in nature for the developing countries because of their inability to influence international markets and trade. The problem, therefore, is multi-faceted and multi-dimensional and calls for reformation and restructuring of the external economic

environment with active, willing and more coherent participation of the developed countries.

(iv) As regards human resource development, we would stress that programmes and plans for education, training and for people's participation normally fail to reach adequately the landless, the poor and the small landholders and particularly the women. Public and private sector agencies will have to be mobilized and activated through institutional, financial and administrative measures to ensure active involvement of the rural poor in the planning and implementation of the development programmes.

We also fully support to promote enhanced aid for women in development based on the Plan of Action for Women in Development as recommended in paragraph 25 of the document.

(v) If food self-sufficiency and security have to be achieved by the developing countries by the 1990s the agricultural growth would have to come through the development of the appropriate and cost-effective technology and transfer of technology and research findings to the developing countries. This calls for a coherent strategy based on integration of education research and extension and allocation of adequate resources, both internal and external, for developing viable research and development systems. We also acknowledge and support the recommended strategy for conservation of natural resources and sustainable development in agriculture. Desertification, resource degradation and loss of biological diversity and genetic resources, deforestation and imbalances on bio-and agro-ecological systems are a matter of great concern and need to be tackled right away. However, most of the developing countries have to make difficult choices. They have to meet with the immediate, proximate and urgent need of feeding the population and for that purpose have to have a recourse to high input technology and farming practices which may be environmentally hazardous. In this situation the environmental consideration would tend to get relegated to the periphery. There is therefore a need to incorporate environmental considerations in specific programmes and projects for implementation.

(vi) We also recognize that rural development and poverty alleviation are inextricably interwoven and therefore fully subscribe to the policy choices and measures recommended in paragraphs 64-73, particularly the promotion of non-farming activity in the rural areas for solving problems of rural un-and under-employment.

As regards the declaration on international economic cooperation it represents the consensus of the 18th special session of the General Assembly of the United Nations and therefore has our full support and concurrence.

Noboru SAITO (Japan): My country deems it significant that the FAO Secretariat has prepared a long-term strategy for the food and agriculture sector. This long-term strategy will be a very useful tool when we discuss and create plans of FAO activities for the 1990s. We also noted with satisfaction that this long-term strategy is carefully made, taking into

account the outcome of the last conference and compatible with the FAO's contribution towards the International Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade. It is considered appropriate for this strategy to focus especially on four major objectives, that is economic growth with equity; poverty alleviation and food security; development of human resources and institutions and substainable development and the environment.

When carrying out this strategy we are in a position that it is most important first to create concrete plans and activities, then to initiate possible actions from the high priority areas.

Finally, with regard to fishery: we have a somewhat different view than that expressed by the United Kingdom delegation. Capture fishery is very important to the well developed and well managed in fully taking into consideration optimum utilization of fisheries resources all over the world. Capture fishery production over the last ten years has been increasing by more than 20 million metric tonnes and is reaching 100 million metric tonnes. This shows that if capture fishery is well managed there is still the possibility to increase its production. Of course, over-exploitation should be scientifically and carefuly avoided but we should, with the full advice of FAO Fishery Department positively consider the management of capture fishery as the most important protein resource, rather than over-reactingly stick to the fear of over-exploitation. Furthermore, acquaculture, although as a means of providing opportunity to give income to developing countries because it may become a source of pollution and the management of fish cages is very delicate, the feeding of bait fishes may lead to the waste of production, we should carefully review the value and significance of acquaculture in the long term.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie le Représentant du Japon de son intervention. J'ai noté son approche à l'égard de la question importante de la pêche, qui doit contribuer à l'équilibre alimentaire dans le monde. Le Japon est grand consommateur de poisson. Il est donc bien placé pour nous faire des suggestions dans ce domaine.

Crispus MBOGOH (Kenya): My delegation wishes to congratulate the Secretariat for a well-prepared document. It has made an excellent attempt to analyse the complex milieu of factors, underlying the failure of agriculture to make any substantive gains in many countries. In our view the document maps out a well refined broad strategy that embraces the major crucial elements of the problems and should constitute a valid basis for national and international actions needed to bring change in the direction of agricultural growth.

For any broad strategy at the global level to have any serious positive and sustained impact it has to integrate effectively and in a flexible way on policies and policy-making structures at the national, regional and international levels. I point this out because many of the troubled Third

World countries, including my own, despite implementing what are considered to be viable policies, have often failed to realise the desired impacts from their development efforts because the limited gains and benefits generated from such efforts are quickly neutralized by negative external influences originating from conflicting national policies in the industralized world, for example.

FAO, in the future if not sooner, should explore how best meaningful integration could be established and achieved to promote complimentarity and reduce expensive conflicts of economic interests that work to the devastation of the poorer and younger nations of the world.

In our view, the important basic problems to be tackled are well-documented and ably debated so far in the Council; international trade; the crippling debt of the Third World; commodity price fluctuations associated with escalation; protectionism; fast population growth; sustainability of the environment. Quite obviously the thrust of an integrated international policy framework should be designed to (a) ensure trade liberation, especially between the developing and the industralized countries, and the promotion of trade between developing countries themselves; elimination or drastic reduction of the crippling debt; measures to keep down the prices of agricultural imports and stabilizing the prices of primary products and the reduction of protectionism; increasing the flow of resources into agriculture to stimulate growth in the developing countries; control of population growth and protection of the environment, especially in the vulnerable Third World.

Due to the constraints of time I shall not elaborate on these above points in my intervention. Allow me to say a little on one of them as an illustration and that is the problem of the need for investment resources in the agricultural sector in the developing world. Public investment in agriculture defined as public expenditure by government allocated to agriculture, as a percentage of the overall annual budget has progressively declined over the last few years in several developing countries. Few countries in the African region, for example, today are able to spend much more than 10 percent of their annual country's budgets even though agriculture typically accounts for about 30-40 percent of their GDP. This results in severe financial cuts and revision of development targets and even shelving of some projects. This trend is not just because of a deliberate de-emphasis on this important sector but the severe reduction of resource flows to the developing countries. Resource support to the poor countries is an important strategic measure but should receive stress through bilateral and multilateral section on concessionary lending.

I shall turn very briefly now to national strategies. As the document puts it, it is the responsibility of national governments, of course, to draw suitable strategies and policies that meet these specific needs of the countries themselves, in line with the broad issues discussed. It is important, however, to point out a few priority concerns that have to be given special attention. Most developing countries could do better, for example, with a strengthened policy development capability. In this respect we would like it noted that the FAO should explore possibilities to assist in the training of national planning personnel rather than occasional

technical assistance in the actual function of agricultural plan/strategy preparation.

Beyond this, to the extent that the economy of most developing countries will be dependent on agriculture in the foreseeable future, my delegation fully supports the intervention of the delegate from the Netherlands, that the development of agriculture is synonimous with the development of the whole rural economy. In this connection major priorities need the designing of national strategy for growth in agriculture that will include a number of factors and I will just mention this without explaining further; (i) appropriate agrarian reforms; (ii) the development of appropriate technology; (iii) agricultural incentives and marketing; (iv) development of infrastructure, including roads, even marketing depots; (v) improvement of agricultural supporting institutions like extension and research and farmer education and finally, the development of incentives and prices to farmers.

The issue of resource conservation is an emerging serious issue in developing countries that requires national effort as much as international support and cooperation. Regional cooperation is important, particularly in areas of complimentarity, and mutual benefit can be drawn. Problems like crop disease across borders and regional trade cannot be handled effectively when countries operate in isolation.

Every opportunity therefore should be taken to support regional institutions that are devoted to agriculture. That is my intervention.

LE PRESIDENT: J'avais inscrit le Représentant du Ghana qui m'a envoyé un petit mot me demandant d'insérer son discours dans le procès-verbal de cet après-midi.

Il va de soi que j'agrée à cette suggestion qui me parait excellente.

Pedro Agostinho KANGA (Angola): Monsieur le Président, dans le cadre des stratégies internationales du développement, les Nations Unies déterminent pour chaque décennie les objectifs fondamentaux du développement dans le monde et tracent les orientations de base et les moyens de leur réalisation. Donc le moment est arrivé de concevoir de nouvelles stratégies, puisque la troisième décennie touche à sa fin, mais parler de la stratégie internationale pour le développement, pour la quatrième décennie des Nations Unies, sous-entend pour ma délégation procéder d'abord à l'appréciation d'une façon globale des résultats de la décennie en cours.

Le développement qui devrait profiter non seulement aux pays riches mais aussi aux pays en développement considérés comme pauvres, n'a eu lieu que dans un seul sens. Malgré l'appel lancé au monde développé pour l'amélioration des relations économiques internationales, nous remarquons que le fossé continue à se creuser entre la richesse et la pauvreté, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement.

Compte tenu de l'importance que les pays en développement attachent à l'agriculture, à l'alimentation, à l'environnement, ma délégation estime que la FAO, en lisant ce document, a réaffirmé son rôle technique et de coordination, irremplaçable sur le plan du développement de l'alimentation et de l'agriculture surtout dans les pays en développement. A cet effet, hormis les éléments pertinents présentés par le Secrétariat dans le document CL 98/13 relatif à la stratégie à long terme pour les secteurs alimentaire et agricole-que nous appuyons-, nous pensons que la nouvelle stratégie internationale avant sa réalisation, doit prendre en compte les objectifs du système économique international comme les quatre catégories particulières de l'ordre établi. Elle aura comme tâche la mise en oeuvre sur l'ensemble des reproductions sociales, des directives, des règles, approches, mécanismes et mesures économiques auxquels se conformeront tous les pays afin que la reproduction mondiale agisse de façon stable et dans l'intérêt de tous.

Ainsi le système économique international et ses sous-systèmes, en particulier commerciaux, financiers et monétaires, vont créer des motivations supplémentaires externes pour un développement stable et dynamique dans le monde. Monsieur le Président, une grande partie des stratégies décrites figure dans notre plan de développement, mais comme nous l'avons déclaré hier, la résolution des problèmes alimentaires et agricoles, voire la mise en pratique de ces stratégies, passent obligatoirement par le programme de paix et comme il est dit au paragraphe 148, le rétablissement de la paix est toujours un préalable fondamental au développement, car sans la paix, même la meilleure politique de développement a peu de chance de réussir.

KWANG WOOK AN (Korea, Republic of): First of all my delegation wishes to express its appreciation to the FAO secretariat for its excellent work. Document CL 98/13 is really useful for us.

With regard to the agenda, I will confine my remarks to the issues on the sustainable development. With respect to the sustainable development, my delegation is of the opinion that as far as over-exploitation of natural resources in developing countries is concerned, it is necessary for the developed countries to pay more attention to their trade barriers to the labour-intensive products of developing countries. Because the developing countries are not equiped with capital and technology they can go only with labour-intensive products for the foreign exchange earnings. However, if developed countries put the trade barriers to the labour-intensive products, the developing countries are not able to produce labour-intensive products. As a result they concentrate on natural resource-intensive products and this will lead to the over-exploitation of natural resources. Therefore I would like to stress that in order to achieve the sustainable development in developing countries, ease of debt burdens and improvement of terms of trade will be urgently required, and the sustainable farming technology should also be developed in a balanced manner.

Sra. Mercedes FERMIN GOMEZ (Venezuela): Trataremos de ser breves, pero queremos dejar una expresa constancia de nuestra satisfacción por este documento estupendamente preparado por la Secretaría que, como dijo alguien antes, no es propiamente un documento para una reunión, sino que debe ser una guía para los países en desarrollo y quizás para los países desarrollados porque contiene una serie de principios, y casi pudiéramos decir una metodología de lo que habría que seguir como estrategia para el desarrollo a largo plazo.

Quisiera referirme solamente a los tres puntos que considero esenciales con relación a nuestros países en desarrollo, y que son los puntos 5, 6 y 7. No quiero decir que los otros no sean importantes, pero considero que estos son los más urgentes. Paliar el hambre y mejorar la nutrición; desarrollo rural y mitigación de la pobreza y desarrollo de los recursos humanos son, en realidad, los problemas que están en el fondo de toda la estrategia, porque dirigiéndonos precisamente a eso es como podemos encontrar la posibilidad de que los países atrasados salgan de su atraso-y sigo prefiriendo llamarlos atrasados y no en vías de desarrollo porque muchos están realmente en atraso. Están careciendo de una tecnología, les falta la educación necesaria para preparar a sus pobres agricultores y no encuentran los medios para poder desarrollar su entorno como ellos lo desearían.

Insistimos en esta expresión de "mitigación de la pobreza". Verdaderamente es muy realista pero triste, porque eso significa que no queremos erradicar la pobreza sino mitigarla; es como una especie de resignación ante ese problema inabordable, insoluble; ¡no sé cómo lo piensa la Secretaría cuando usa la expresión "mitigar la pobreza"! Creo que anteriormente éramos un poco más optimistas cuando hablábamos de erradicar la pobreza. En realidad, debería ser nuestra meta. Entendemos que, para erradicar la pobreza, realmente tenemos que resolver el problema del hambre. Ese es un binomio indisoluble y al mismo tiempo es un círculo vicioso. Los países que siguen agobiados por la pobreza no podrán resolver el problema del hambre a menos que ellos encuentren la vía para poder iniciar un proceso de recuperación. En ese sentido, nosotros tenemos tres ejemplos extraordinarios. El primero nos lo ha demostrado una vez más aquí nuestro delegado de la India; los otros dos los hemos escuchado en anteriores reuniones de la FAO, y son Bangladesh e Indonesia. Son países que lucharon contra sus dificultades frente al hambre, frente a la necesidad, y que están venciendo este problema. No podemos decir que ya están totalmente triunfantes en esto pero, como lo ha demostrado el delegado de la India, ellos han recorrido un buen estadio de superación en el problema de sus necesidades y en el problema de la tecnificación de su agricultura. Lo mismo nos había dicho aquí en otra oportunidad el Presidente de Bangladesh, cuando nos demostró cómo ellos habían logrado llegar casi a la autosuficiencia, y el mismo caso lo conocemos más o menos directamente en relación con Indonesia. Entonces habría que pensar cómo lograr que los otros países que estamos atrasados pudiéramos seguir ese ejemplo. Ya sabemos que ese ejemplo tiene en el fondo de toda esa lucha el mismo proceso que siempre consideramos: educación, capacitación, entrenamiento de los pobres agricultores-no me gusta llamarlos pobres rurales porque no es una expresión feliz-, de los pobres habitantes del medio rural, que quieren ser agricultores pero que no pueden serlo porque no saben cómo cultivar la tierra. No poseen la tierra, no tienen semillas, no tienen la capacidad para lograrlo. Esas tres

actividades serian los puntos esenciales para luchar contra el hambre, para mejorar la nutrición, para luchar contra la pobreza y como desarrollo de recursos humanos. Todo eso se resume en un gran contexto, que es la preparación de esos paises para enfrentar su problema. Por eso nosotros seguimos creyendo que la FAO tiene dos instrumentos fundamentales para este trabajo. Uno, es su Programa de Cooperación Técnica, a través del cual puede perfectamente ofrecer esa capacitación, ese entrenamiento a estos pueblos. El segundo es su trabajo, porque es mediante el trabajo de campo, in situ, como la FAO conoce la realidad de cada una de esas comunidades atrasadas y está en condiciones de proveer los medios para superar esas dificultades.

El otro aspecto está no ya tanto en manos de la FAO; está en manos de los países-vamos a llamarlos por su verdadero nombre-poderosos desde el punto de vista de los recursos, que pueden darse el lujo de ser países donantes y que en este caso debían hacerlo como el cumplimiento de una obligación moral hacia los países desheredados. Es la posibilidad de darles, yo no diría un crédito, sino una ayuda desde el punto de vista financiero, desde el punto de vista de la aportación de los elementos indispensables para poder hacer una agricultura sostenible, que no es otra cosa que la agricultura de subsistencia. Estamos vistiendo a la agricultura de asistencia con un nuevo ropaje, con un nuevo lenguaje, porque es una agricultura con un mínimo de tecnología, con un mínimo de principios tecnológicos que, aplicados racionalmente a los cultivos, pueden producir lo que todos deseamos, pueden producir un fruto valedero desde el punto de vista agrícola. Esa es la agricultura sostenible. Siempre le gusta al hombre usar nuevos términos para vestir unas viejas ideas, pero éste es el caso de la agricultura sostenible, que sigue siendo la verdadera agricultura básica sobre todo para los países que se encuentran a ese nivel primario de poder iniciar una agricultura elemental para sostenimiento de su supervivencia. A esto me limitaría yo.

Este documento nos da un arsenal de ideas, de posibilidades para que lo estudien los países, los gobiernos con sus propios técnicos y para que lo puedan aplicar de acuerdo con sus realidades, pero también para que lo estudien los países desarrollados para ver de qué manera ellos pueden cooperar con la otra mitad de la humanidad que está necesitada para ayudarles a salir de su hambre, de su necesidad y de su atraso.

Creo, pues, que este documento es valiosísimo, que ofrece muchas enseñanzas y que da la clave para la resolución del problema. Pero este documento por sí mismo no puede dar ni la voluntad a los países desarrollados ni la posibilidad a los países hambrientos de realizar lo que este documento dice, a menos que no haya una decisión por parte de unos para dar y de otros para actuar.

Adel EL SARKY (Egypt) (Original language Arabic): Allow me to thank Mr Dutia for his very brief and precise introduction to this document. I would like to express our appreciation for the constructive efforts undertaken to get to the establishment of this document. We welcome the contribution of FAO in the various development activities.

The Egyptian delegation agrees fully with the contents of paragraphs 17 to 21 of the document which refer to the importance of agriculture and its contribution to the overall strategy objectives. We also agree to the contents of paragraphs 22 to 32 and the need for recognition at the highest political level to organize the agricultural sector and increase the role of the private sector to encourage investment and to provide various services as well as to provide the farmers with incentives and appropriate pricing policies. This is all fully in accordance with our policies in Egypt in this sector.

Here we wish to reiterate what has previously been said on the question of foreign indebtedness and the importance of finding the appropriate solutions to this problem.

We also believe that economic and technical cooperation between developing countries should be increased as a means of serving agricultural commodities.

My country has sought to achieve full and comprehensive development of agriculture through the redistribution of land, the provision of credit opportunities and the application of a flexible pricing policy. We have also sought to develop human resources through training and increasing educational opportunities, as well as improving the role of women in development. We greatly welcome the reference in this document to these activities.

The Egyptian delegation also welcomes the reference to the need to achieve sustainable development through the development of fisheries and the protection of land and water resources, as well as plant genetic resources and animal resources. These are the principal goals achieved by my country.

Finally we find that this strategy represents an excellent guiding policy for us all.

Mme. Alice NIOMBELA-MAMBULA (Congo): Ma délégation remercie M. Dutia pour la présentation du document CL 98/13. En même temps, elle remercie le secrétariat pour avoir bien voulu donner suite à la recommandation de la 25ème session de la Conférence, demandant que la version intégrale du document sur la stratégie à long terme pour le secteur alimentaire et agricole de la FAO soit présentée à la session actuelle du Conseil. Ma délégation a examiné le document avec l'attention voulue, et nous l'avons trouvé intéressant. Ainsi qu'il faut le reconnaître, il s'agit d'un document assez fouillé et qui reprend dans ses grandes lignes les idées et préoccupations que tous nous avons partagées, tant aux sessions antérieures de la Conférence générale de la FAO que des conférences régionales. Pour en venir au document proprement dit, nous aimerions concentrer notre intervention sur sa note de présentation et sur son résumé. Ainsi, nous référant au paragraphe 6 du résumé, nous pouvons dire que celui-ci reprend exactement le sentiment que nous partageons, à savoir l'urgence de voir corrigées sans plus tarder les erreurs commises dans le passé dans les politiques tant nationales qu'internationales de développement. Nous nous associons à la teneur du paragraphe 7 dans la mesure où l'on se propose,

dans la stratégie suscitée, de mettre l'accent sur les conditions de vie de l’homme.

De même, le paragraphe 9 rencontre notre assentiment, et nous appuyons les grands objectifs proposés, en particulier le premier objectif qui met l'accent sur le caractère équitable de la croissance économique pour remédier aux dangers signalés à la fin du paragraphe 8 concernant le risque de baisse de l'investissement dans les pays en voie de développement, dont le taux d'épargne ne serait pas attrayant, et ce au profit de l'Europe de l'Est dont l'économie requiert des efforts de restructuration.

Nous nous empressons de préciser que notre intention n'est pas de nous opposer à l'aide des donateurs Ouest-européens à l'Europe de l'Est. Ce que nous souhaitons c'est que les donateurs Ouest-européens continuent d'aider les pays en voie de développement et trouvent les ressources additionnelles quant à l'aide à donner à l'Europe de l'Est.

Nous référant au paragraphe 11 du document, nous nous félicitons de l'esprit de suite dont a fait preuve ici la FAO en intégrant dans son projet de stratégie les résultats déjà acquis grâce à ces études mondiales et régionales.

Sur la question des chiffres à inclure dans la stratégie telle qu'évoquée au paragraphe 10, nous n'avons pas de position tranchée, mais nous pensons que quelques taux donnés à propos des grands paramètres qui reviennent couramment pourraient mieux illustrer certaines situations.

Pour en terminer, et eu égard de ce que nous venons d'avancer, nous apportons notre appui aux but et objectif de cette stratégie tels que formulés respectivement dans les paragraphes 3 et 9 du présent document.

Edward Olajide AYO (Nigeria): I congratulate the FAO on the paper on long-term strategy for the food and agricultural sector.

By and large my delegation supports the recommendations, particularly those on the macro-economic policies. However, I will still like to make a few comments.

As I said this morning, food aid should only be a short-term approach to assisting developing countries even those of them in the Sahelian Region. The long-term solution is the adoption of a comprehensive approach to drought and desertification control.

Mr Chairman, an integrated rural development approach is the long-term solution to agricultural development in the developing countries. This will increase production in the agricultural sector and improve the productivity of the farmers. An integrated rural development approach among others will involve an effective marketing system, improved rural infrastructure, better access to credit facilities, an effective extension service and input delivery system, agrarian reform resulting in better access to land and an effective agricultural training programme.

Some members have spoken about the possible adverse effects of the structural adjustment programme on agricultural development. My country has been able to put in place some long-term measures to take care of any possible defects which could affect production and the productivity of the farmers. Such measures include: an agricultural insurance scheme; "National Economic Recovery Fund" whereby small-and medium-scale entrepreneurs benefit from loans; the introduction of fiscal measures such as tax relief, tax holidays, etc.; the establishment of the National Directorate of Employment whereby graduates are given incentives to enable them go into farming and other small-scale enterprises; and a twenty-year perspective plan which enables the government to have a global view of agricultural development in the next two decades. The National Agricultural and Cooperative Bank in the country has also liberalized its lending policies whereby collateral are waived for small-scale loans.

Still commenting on the macro-economic policies, on the international front, the primary producers are subjected to fluctuations in export earnings. There is the need to evolve a long-term price stabilization scheme to enable primary producers to have more stable export earnings.

LE PRESIDENT: J'ai encore pour le moment trois orateurs inscrits, et le souhait a été émis par certaines eminentes personnalités de connaître nos intentions en ce qui concerne la poursuite de nos travaux. Nous n'avons pas encore tout à fait terminé notre travail de la matinée, et nous sommes déjà presqu'en fin d'après-midi. Nous allons donc prolonger notre séance du temps suffisant. Ce qui fait que l'après-midi risque d'être quelque peu prolongé, en tout cas du temps suffisant pour pouvoir examiner le point 7, le point 9, et peut-être entamer si possible le point 10.

Alors maintenant, vous dire exactement à quelle heure se terminera la séance… Elle sera prolongée, mais cela dépendra de vous. Il est évident que si vos interventions sont substantielles, sont brèves, nous pourrons terminer à une heure raisonnable, et une heure raisonnable me paraîtrait 19 h 30, 19 h 45, au maximum 20 heures. Et là, je vous fais confiance pour permettre à tous ceux qui ont planifié une soirée, peut-être de réjouissance, de le faire dans les meilleures conditions.

J. RASOOLOF (Iran, Islamic Republic of): I would like to extend my appreciation to the Secretariat for preparing the useful document, CL 98/13.

Regarding item 10 of the document, the Islamic Republic of Iran believes that natural resources have a most important role in sustaining agricultural development and environmental protection in general and in arid and semi-arid parts of the world in particular.

We support the long-term strategy for the food and agricultural section in connection with natural resources, the environment and sustainable agriculture as a whole.

The Islamic Republic of Iran, due to its climatic conditions, being located in an arid and semi-arid zone, has had 25 years of fruitful experience in sand dune fixation and water harvesting.

Our experience in sand dune fixation has been recognized by the authorities of ESCAP, their experts and FAO. We are in the process, with the assistance of FAO, of establishing an international training centre in sand dune fixation and water harvesting.

We believe this kind of institution is very effective in the management and conservation of natural resources. I welcome any kind of cooperation and hope to see this kind of training get the most support, because we have to have trained people to extend the idea of the conservation of the environment to whole societies.

Winston RUDDER (Trinidad and Tobago): I will be mercifully short in my intervention.

First of all, may I join my fellow delegates in congratulating the Secretariat on the excellent documentation for this Agenda item. We wish to underscore in particular the focus of a people-oriented approach to development, and the question of the sustainable development of the environment-two particular concerns which engage the attention of my government at present as we are seeking to develop our national planning approach and our agricultural development plan.

In as much as the document before us for discussion is an injunction on the international community and on the national governments to take a longer-term directional approach both to agricultural and national development, my delegation wishes to urge that FAO itself might wish to carve out particularly what its strategy is for making its contribution to the elaboration of the action and initiatives which have been herein identified. In particular we would hope that such a strategic framework would be the basis upon which the medium-term plan proposed will be developed so as to inform the further actions of the institution.

Giuseppe VASTA (Observateur de l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économique): Monsieur le Président, je vous remercie pour avoir voulu me donner la parole, malgré l'heure tardive. J'essaierai d'être bref, même si le problème est très grave et complexe. Je voudrais féliciter le secrétariat pour ce document qu'il nous a préparé, que je ne trouve pas seulement intéressant mais précieux, en considération du fait qu'il a plusieurs points en commun avec les deux autres documents, CL 98/10 et CL 98/21, que nous traiterons plus tard.

J'éviterai, comme je vous l'ai dit, dans la mesure du possible, de me répéter, mais je suis convaincu toutefois que l'aphorisme latin "repetita iuvant" est toujours valable.

Je suis d'accord sur le fait que la stratégie pour les années 90 décrite dans le document que nous sommes en train de commenter doit apparaitre comme l'expression d'un consensus sur les priorités, et comme un ensemble de lignes et d'orientations politiques inspirées de l'expérience. Nous savons tous que l'expérience est précieuse, mais qu'elle coûte cher.

Ce qui m'a touché au cours des travaux de ce Conseil a été le sérieux, la profondeur et la constance avec lesquels ont été traités les problèmes concernant l'alimentation et la nutrition. Ce matin, j'ai eu le plaisir d'entendre sur ce problème les déclarations faites par Madame l'Ambassadeur du Venezuela qui a parlé comme toujours avec son âme et son coeur. Je la remercie.

Monsieur le Président, malheureusement il est vrai que dans ce monde, il y a des personnes qui se meurent de faim tandis qu'au même instant d'autres se tuent en mangeant trop sans se préoccuper d'obéir à certaines règles dictées par la science et par le bon sens. De cela découlent l'opportunité et la nécessité d'une éducation alimentaire et nutritionnelle adéquate et que, parmi les différentes cultures, puisse une fois pour toutes, être encouragée et poussée la culture de la nutrition.

Un point très important est celui qui concerne les aspects technique, économique et social, et en particulier le respect de la biologie dans le secteur des pêches pour ralentir et éviter la destruction des espèces.

Sans doute la conservation et l'utilisation de la biodiversité, y compris la biotechnologie, sont essentielles à la durabilité de l'agriculture, de la foresterie et des pêches.

Avec plaisir et satisfaction, j'ai pu constater qu'au sein de la FAO, depuis quelque temps, l'intérêt pour les problèmes de la nutrition s'est accentué. Cela m'a été confirmé de nouveau récemment au cours de la récente session du Groupe intergouvernemental des céréales. Parmi les problèmes traités, on a touché celui de l'importance des céréales secondaires dans l'alimentation animale. On a aussi parlé du mil, espèce Tef, céréale très riche en fer. A ce propos, je me suis permis de faire une considération sur l'opportunité de mélanger la farine de mil avec du lait pour faire de ce dernier un aliment complet précieux, surtout dans l'alimentation des petits enfants. Cette solution pourrait apporter des bénéfices en particulier dans certains pays en développement où le recours aux céréales secondaires représente souvent l'unique possibilité de couvrir une partie des besoins caloriques de l'organisme humain. Je me suis permis de citer cet exemple pour démontrer que l'homme n'exploite pas toujours dans la juste mesure les dons que lui offre la nature. J'espère que cela sera tenu en juste considération pendant les travaux préparatoires de la prochaine Conférence mondiale sur la nutrition à laquelle je souhaite de tout coeur la plus ample et complète réussite.

Je renouvelle mes remerciements et mes compliments au Secrétariat pour la richesse de ce document.

LE PRESIDENT: Nous arrivons, à 18 heures, au terme de nos travaux prévus pour la matinée. Je voudrais très brièvement donner la parole à M. Dutia qui va répondre à un certain nombre de questions précises. Je lui demanderai de le faire en style plutôt télégraphique. Il s'agit évidemment d'un sujet très ample qui nécessiterait des développements très longs. Je crois que M. Dutia, qui connaît parfaitement la matière, répondra à la satisfaction de tous, compte tenu des délais qui nous sont impartis.

B.P. DUTIA (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): Mr Chairman, I shall follow your instructions as closely as I can.

First of all, in response to the comment made by the delegate of the United Kingdom, I would like to clarify the ranking of objectives in paragraph 9. These objectives have not been ranked in any order or priority. In fact, we believe that these priorities will differ from country to country depending on the specific situations in the various countries. Secondly, we believe that the achievement of the objectives in many cases is linked. It is not possible to achieve one at the expense of the other.

The delegate of Colombia asked whether there was any link between the objectives I mentioned in the Special Session and those in the IDS. I will say yes, they are linked. The delegate of Colombia also asked whether a copy of the IDS document could be made available. We have a copy of this document in the English language at present and will make it available at the Documents Desk for collection by interested delegations.

Next, the delegate of the Netherlands referred to the plan of action on people's participation. We certainly have not forgotten it. We do not give any less importance to it, but we do believe that the situation as it exists today is such that there are already broad guidelines available which start from the principles of the programme of action adopted in 1979 by WCARRD. Later on, the panel on people's participation established under the ACC Task Force on Rural Development has developed certain specific elements of participation strategy; COAG at its last session also made several recommendations, and thereafter the African Charter for Popular Participation and Development Transformation has been adopted by an international conference on popular participation, recovery and redevelopment which was held in February 1990. All these provide sufficient broad guidelines for guiding the work of FAO in this very important area. What is required now, we believe, is to refine the people's participation approach to make it more specific, to reflect the differing country conditions, problems and experiences, and we propose to do this in the context of the preparation of the third progress report from WCARRD which will contain a special chapter on the people's participation. This will be considered by Conference in November 1991.

In order to prepare this report we have invited Member Governments to share with us their experiences in this area. We hope that in the light of the analysis of the experiences gained and the guidance we hope and expect to receive from the Conference during its consideration of the third progress report as well as the review of WCARRD, we would be in a much better

position to explore the best way to respond to the suggestion for developing the plan of action for people's participation.

The delegate of Kenya referred to the need to enhance the planning capacity at country level. I would just say briefly that we are involved in about 50 planning assistance projects, most of which include a training component. I will give more information to the delegate of Kenya if he wishes, but for the moment I will stop there.

LE PRESIDENT : Je n'ai pas l'intention de faire une synthèse ni même un résumé de cet intéressant débat. La qualité de la discussion et le nombre des interventions-plus de 27-prouvent à suffisance l'intérêt du Conseil. En dehors de questions de détail, je n'ai pas entendu de critiques fondamentales concernant les grands axes de la Stratégie internationale pour le développement (la SID).

La discussion sur la mise en oeuvre de la Déclaration des Nations Unies nous oblige à faire un acte de contrition parce qu'en fait cette déclaration extrêmement riche et complète a été adoptée à l'unanimité. Cette déclaration a certains objectifs et les moyens d'atteindre ces objectifs doivent être respectés. Cela me parait important si nous voulons faire du monde de demain un monde meilleur. Il faut que les déclarations que nous faisons ici recueillent un large assentiment, qu'elles ne soient pas purement verbales mais qu'elles deviennent progressivement contraignantes pour que l'on arrive à créer la solidarité internationale indispensable.

Je crois que la description des quatre objectifs, comme l'a très bien dit M. Dutia, sans établir un ordre de préférence de ces objectifs, est fondamentale et définit très bien le cadre opérationnel de la Stratégie internationale pour le développement. On a parlé des ressources humaines, du rôle essentiel des femmes dans le développement, des problèmes d'environnement, de la sécurité alimentaire, de la libéralisation du commerce, de l'Uruguay Round: on a souligné l'importance de résoudre le problème de la dette; on a surtout souligné le fait que l'agriculture n'est pas uniquement une technique mais surtout un véritable développement rural et que le développement rural doit toucher l'ensemble du monde rural, y compris les activités non agricoles du monde rural. Ce point a été souligné par plusieurs représentants et il est extrêmement important car il s'agit de la rationalisation de l'agriculture. L'augmentation de la productivité entraine une diminution des emplois ruraux du fait de l'amélioration qualitative des techniques employées.

L'accent doit donc être mis sur les activités non agricoles dans le monde rural. Je crois que, pour un certain nombre de pays, c'est là un problème angoissant et que l'arrivée massive de paysans dans les grandes mégapoles risque à un moment donné de poser des problèmes quasi insurmontables. Le représentant des Pays-Bas l'a très bien souligné et ce problème mériterait une analyse plus poussée que nous aurons certainement l'occasion de faire dans les semaines et les mois qui viennent.

Tout le monde a dit que ce document est un document intéressant, qui mérite de ne pas être classé mais d'être étudié et régulièrement rappelé dans l'avenir.

Le délégué de l'Angola a souligné, à propos du paragraphe 148, la nécessité de lier paix et développement. C'est là un aspect important de la résolution des Nations Unies.

Je relèverai également le paragraphe 31, qui me paraît important. On envoie à la casse du matériel militaire; il serait peut-être préférable d'éviter d'avoir à le faire en prenant auparavant des dispositions mieux orientées pour arriver à un équilibre du monde vers le développement et non pas à une sorte d'équilibre contestable. Je crois que nous sommes tous conscients de la nécessité de construire un monde différent de celui d'hier.

Le Représentant des Pays-Bas a demandé la parole. La réponse que lui a donnée M. Dutia n'était peut-être pas suffisamment complète. Il s'agit d'une première approche du problème. Il est évident que celui-ci mérite une analyse plus approfondie qui pourra se faire lors de contacts ultérieurs avec le service de M. Dutia. De toute façon, je donne la parole au Représentant des Pays-Bas.

Peter R. JANUS (Netherlands): Mr Chairman, with your indulgence I would like to come back to the point raised by my delegation under Agenda item 6 concerning the Plan of Action on People's Participation. I have heard Mr Dutia's explanation, his reply to our query, and I must say that I am not fully satisfied with what he has said. It is my recollection that Mr Moreno-and I am referring now to document C 89/I/PV/13 on page 22-has promised that this Plan of Action will be presented to the current Council and would then be up for decision in the Conference in 1991.

Therefore, as I understand Mr Dutia's explanation that the FAO Secretariat feels that there are already sufficient documents that would provide guidelines to FAO to form its policies in the field of people's participation, I would also as a major donor to FAO's People's Participation Programme feel it appropriate that we still would insist on being presented with the document that was promised to us.

George Odartey LAMPTEY (Ghana): My delegation is very grateful to be able to give its views on the tabled item-Long-term Strategy for the Food and Agricultural Sector. The Secretariat must also be congratulated for the valuable and explicit document CL 98/13 prepared on the item.

My delegation underlines the Council's emphasis placed on the importance of FAO's contribution to the International Development Stategy and the Special Session as the food and agriculture and the rural sector had a vital role to play in revitalizing economic growth and in achieving the objectives in the areas of nutrition, poverty alleviation, human development and the environment.

My delegation is very much in agreement with paras 3 and 4 of the document. One cannot deny the fact that the primary responsibility for formulating and implementing development policies rests with the governments of individual countries. But their success depends in varying degrees, and sometimes crucially on complementary actions being taken at the international level. Ghana also accepts the fact that if past trends were to continue, many countries and population groups would be, in the year 2000, in no better position than at present.

It should also be recognized that the main orientation of the stategy is, therefore, our measures to revitalize economic growth in all developing countries, but particularly in those that have the lowest incomes and which have been falling further behind, particularly the least developed countries; and within countries, the focus must also be on measures to improve the distribution of income in favour of the poor.

My delegation also supports the FAO's Strategy for 1990's which focuses on the food and agriculture policies for the achievement of four major but close interrelated objectives:

- economic growth with equity

- poverty alleviation and food security

- development of human resources and institutions

- sustainable development and the environment.

Ghana also underlines the fact that increasing dependence of production increases on the adoption of improved technology and the need for continued and strengthened efforts in the area of research and development as an important component of the Strategy.

Mr Chairman, the agenda item discussed this morning gave an assessment of Ghana's policy adjustments in Ghana. I am very grateful to all delegates who commented on the issue. One advice my delegation would like to put across is that each country would need to decide on the sequencing of its structural adjustments in the light of its own situation.

Though Ghana has made a step towards the right direction we cannot live in this glory for ever. A medium/long-term agricultural development programme has therefore been inaugurated to consolidate the gains so far made in the agricultural sector under the ERP and to usher Ghana's agriculture confidently into the 21st Century. This envisages an average agricultural growth rate of at least 4 percent per annum between 1991 and the year 2000. The programme is designed to address a number of problems that continue to constrain farmers' drive toward increased productivity and to improve welfare in an integrated and well coordinated manner.

One cannot run away from the fact that all will not be rosy. There are constraints. Notably among these are:

(a) lack of funds

(b) lack of institutional credit to farmers

(c) high cost of marketing agricultural products.

Finally, Mr Chairman, agriculture continues to respond positively to the Government's policies despite the constraints enumerated. With good weather coupled with the motivations now being provided to farmers and fishermen in the form of near-adequate prices for their farm produce and the institution of the National Farmers Day on which deserving farmers are awarded prizes at national, regional and district levels, it is hoped that the momentum in agricultural growth will be sustained in 1990 and years thereafter.

LE PRESIDENT: M. Dutia a déjà répondu que des contacts sont non seulement souhaitables mais qu'ils méritent d'être poursuivis. La question de la participation des populations au développement dans tous ses aspects, y compris la participation de la femme, y compris la situation des paysans sans terre, y compris le développement des activités non agricoles dans le milieu rural, mérite une analyse approfondie. Je crois qu'il serait intéressant que le Représentant des Pays-Bas reste en contact avec M. Dutia et qu'un document soit préparé en vue du prochain Conseil. Improviser dans ce domaine et établir un document pour le plaisir d'avoir un document serait assez frustrant. Mais le problème posé par le Représentant des Pays-Bas est incontestablement un problème important qui mérite une analyse plus poussée.

Telles sont les quelques considérations que je désirais faire. Je remercie tous les membres du Conseil de leurs interventions sur ce point extrêmement important. Nous allons garder ce document et continuer à l'étudier davantage. II doit nous inspirer dans les mois et les années à venir pour établir une stratégie de développement dont certains aspects méritent d'être complétés.


7. Progress Report on the Preparations for the 1992 International Nutrition Conference
7. Rapport d'activité sur les préparatifs de la Conférence Internationale de 1992 sur la nutrition
7. Informe parcial sobre los preparativos para la Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición de 1992

LE PRESIDENT: Je demanderai aux délégations qui ont déjà eu l'occasion de se pencher sur le problème d'être brèves si elles désirent intervenir. Il est important que le Secrétariat de la FAO puisse faire le point sur l'avancement des préparatifs de cette importante conférence. La nutrition-cela a été souligné à l'occasion de toutes les discussions, y compris celle du point 4 de l'ordre du jour-est une question extrêmement importante et la préparation de cette conférence sous l'égide de la FAO et de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé doit retenir notre attention.

1 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on reques.

Β.P. DUTIA (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): I am pleased to have this opportunity to bring you up to date regarding FAO's preparations for the International Conference on Nutrition, the ICN. Following previous Council discussions, the joint sponsoring of the ICN by FAO and WHO was endorsed by the Twenty-fifth Session of the FAO Conference in November 1989 and by the World Health Assembly in May 1990.

The document before the Council, CL 98/21, gives information on the general objectives and preparations for the Conference, and in my introductory remarks I will provide additional information on more recent developments.

In keeping with previous Council and Conference discussions, preparations for the ICN are being made in concert with other UN agencies, both directly and through the mechanism of the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination, ACC, including its Sub-Committee on Nutrition. The Directors-General of the FAO and WHO have briefed the ACC at its various sessions on the progress in the preparations for the ICN, including the most recent October 1990 session of the ACC.

In recent weeks we have had a series of useful and constructive meetings with our WHO colleagues to develop detailed plans for implementing the preparatory activities discussed in the Council document. The collaboration between FAO and WHO for preparing for the ICN has been progressing well, in close cooperation with WHO and in collaboration with the ACC s SON Member Agencies, a joint FAO/WHO framework paper entitled "Meeting the Nutrition Challenge" has been prepared and distributed to the members of the ACC's SCN and to other interested persons. It elaborates a common conceptual understanding of a variety of nutritional problems, their causes and how they might be addressed, and it will serve as a point of departure for the technical preparations for the ICN.

Member Governments will be kept informed of further ICN preparations through the FAO and WHO Governing Bodies, and of a variety of other activities and meetings. The Council may wish to note that the Committee on Agriculture at its April 1991 session will consider a substantive report on the preparations for the ICN and the role of agriculture in meeting the nutrition challenge. The inclusion of nutrition agenda items will continue during the next cycle of FAO and WHO Regional Conferences and committee meetings, which will provide the necessary regional inputs in the preparations for the ICN. Country and regional inputs into the ICN will be actively sought, and a joint note verbale announcing the ICN, and containing the information and guidance necessary for preparing country-specific inputs, will be issued shortly by the Directors-General of FAO and WHO to all Member Nations.

Certain activities envisaged for the preparation for the ICN require support from extra-budgetary resources. Primarily, these include country level preparations, regional and sub-regional workshops, and support for delegations from the least developed countries to participate in the Conference itself. Extra-budgetary funds for team papers and case studies will also be helpful. FAO and WHO will continue to seek the support and involvement of bilateral donor agencies which we believe will be most useful.

We are also continuing efforts to involve actively the NGO community and industry actively in the ICN preparations and its follow-up activities. FAO has been greatly encouraged by the interest that has been generated by the ICN. We look forward to the full participation of all Member Nations, and the continued support of the UN family, donor agencies, nongovernmental organizations and industry as we continue our preparations for this important undertaking.

Ms Kirsti ESKELINEN (Finland): I have the honour of making this statement on behalf of the four Nordic countries, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.

The Nordic countries have presented their views on the International Conference on Nutrition on previous FAO contexts either in national or joint statements. This shows the interest we take in the preparations as well as the outcome of the forthcoming Conference. We have emphasized the importance of the ICN as the first intergovernmental meeting where nutrition issues related to developing as well as industrialized countries can be considered on a global basis. The initiative that was taken by the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition to convene such a Conference was motivated by a real need to coordinate the UN system approach to nutritional questions. This of course underlines the necessity to prepare the Conference as a joint effort of the UN system. An early involvement of all the partners concerned, governments and organizations alike, is therefore instrumental in securing a successful outcome for the Conference. In the view of the Nordic countries the ICN must primarily focus on the needs of the developing countries and its preparations and objectives must be finalized with this approach in mind.

The Nordic delegations have studied with interest the progress report in document CL 98/21 prepared for this session of the Council. This is the first time that the Council members have an opportunity to follow up on the preparations of the Conference after the FAO Conference endorsed the proposal to organize the ICN as a joint effort of FAO and WHO last November.

We have to admit that the progress report before us is less informative than we would have expected. The document lists carefully the sequence of events and meetings where the ICN preparations have been discussed. Yet it refrains from giving adequate information on the contents and outcome of such discussions. The most interesting of the documents that are referred to in the progress report seems to be a joint FAO/WHO framework paper entitled "Meeting the Nutrition Challenge", which has been discussed by inter-agency meetings. The document before us states that the framework paper, when revised, will provide a comprehensive framework for the preparations of the Conference and constitute a basis for a coordinated inter-agency approach to the preparations for the ICN. The Nordic countries take considerable interest in the forthcoming paper and request that it be provided without delay to all the Member Governments.

We would like to note in this context that the Nordic countries have on earlier occasions drawn attention to the fact that some of the broad

objectives of the ICN, which have been formulated without consultations with the governing bodies of the sponsoring agencies, are of such a nature that they should be dealt with during the preparatory process or be further clarified as to the results aimed at. Here I am referring to the identification of nutrition problems, mobilization of resources, awareness-raising as well as to the data collection and monitoring, which are listed among the objectives. In our view the objectives of the Conference should be focused on the major policy issues on nutrition. The Conference should draw conclusions and give recommendations on the policy orientation and action needed in this multisectorial field.

The Nordic countries are concerned about the involvement foreseen for the Member States in the preparations of the Conference. The document before us makes it clear that the preparatory process so far has been an inter-agency effort. It states that the Member Governments "will be kept informed" but it does not clarify their role any further. In our view a needs assessment and active inputs from governments in different regions are needed at the outset in order to organize the preparations and focus the objectives of the Conference so that it serves the interest of the member countries. Use should be made of all existing data and experience in this field before embarking on the preparation of new or additional studies or papers.

Paragraph 6 of the document refers to the recommendations and conclusions of the five FAO regional meetings, where nutrition has been considered as a special theme. These recommendations should be made available, since they could shed light on the kind of expectations and substantive comments the regional meetings have been giving.

The Nordic countries have over the years called for increased emphasis on nutritional questions in the UN system. We therefore welcome that this is becoming a reality with the organization of the ICN. As to the preparations of the ICN we request that the FAO Council in June 1991 be given a substantive account of the preparations so far and be consulted on the decisions needed for the preparatory process particularly keeping in mind the intergovernmental character of the Conference. The relevance of the designation of focal points, preparation of country papers and plans for sub-regional technical workshops as well as technical and country papers could be considered in that context.

We hope that the forthcoming Conference would benefit all the member countries and agencies of the UN. It should also lead to facilitating the exchange of experience and assessment of policy developments between different countries. Moreover, the capacity and programmes of the UN and aid agencies as well as the relevance of the policy advice made available to the developing countries should be strengthened as one of the results of the process that leads to the Conference and its outcome.

Amin ABDEL MALEK (Liban) (Langue originale arabe): Monsieur le Président, l'accord de la Conférence générale sur la proposition de tenir une Conférence internationale sur la nutrition a été une très sage mesure parce que cette conférence revêt une grande importance pour la clarification des problèmes de la nutrition et des maladies qui en découlent. Cette

conférence est également importante pour la définition des stratégies et recommandations pour la réalisation d'objectifs concertés en matière de nutrition, de régimes alimentaires et autres sujets présentés dans le document CL 98/21.

J'aimerais remercier l'organisation des efforts qu'elle a faits et des mesures qui ont été prises en collaboration avec l'OMS en vue d'organiser cette conférence internationale sur la nutrition en décembre 1992. Je saisis également cette occasion pour remercier aussi le gouvernement italien de bien vouloir accueillir cette conférence en Italie. La délégation libanaise appuie les mesures qui sont reliées aux étapes préparatoires de la Conférence et qui sont examinées aux paragraphes 5 à 11. De même il appuie la proposition qui a été faite d'établir un secrétariat conjoint de la FAO et de l'OMS afin de préparer le plan d'action et le budget pour la Conférence, d'autres questions administratives et techniques ainsi que l'établissement d'un groupe consultatif d'experts qui fournira des avis aux directeurs généraux de la FAO et de l'OMS.

Pour ce qui est des incidences financières, nous espérons que les gouvernements, ayant les moyens financiers de le faire, participeront aux dépenses encourues par l'organisation de cette Conférence: nous appuyons également la proposition qui prévoit l'inclusion de dispositions prévoyant les ressources nécessaires dans la proposition de budget de 1991-92.

Alberto DE CATERINA (Italy): Let me at the outset thank Mr Dutia for this exposé. The initiative undertaken by FAO and WHO to convene an International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 meets, as it is well known, with the full support of the Italian delegation.

In a world in which there are still so many serious problems of malnutrition as well as people suffering from diseases due to wrong abundant diets, a food strategy is one of the most important issues of the fourth development decade.

The strong interest of my country in this international conference has been proved by the readiness of the Italian Government, already stated during the 95th Session of the Council, to host the conference in Italy.

That gives me the opportunity to state officially the interest of my country that an Italian expert be included in the advisory group of experts to advise both Directors-General of FAO and WHO which, as indicated in document CL 98/21, is being established.

At last, I would like to inform that the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forests-International Relations Desk will serve as focal point for Italy to coordinate preparatory activities for the International Conference on Nutrition.

R. ALLEN (United Kingdom): As the Secretariat is no doubt aware the United Kingdom had a number of reservations about the convening of this International Conference on Nutrition. Some of these concerns were expressed by us, and by others, at the July meeting of the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition. We are pleased to see from the papers now before us that at least some of these concerns have been taken on board by FAO.

My delegation considers that the conference on nutrition should focus on discovering what developing countries perceive as their needs for assistance relating to nutritional aspects of development, rather than an advocacy of those measures for reducing malnutrition, especially of children, that appear to be championed by FAO and WHO. We therefore consider it particularly important that sufficient time is provided for feedback from economic and social planners within the developing countries, and not just the international nutrition profession, on if and how nutrition concerns could complement and strengthen the development process and what the implications should be for donor assistance and international action. The country and regional level preparatory process is therefore critical. It follows therefore, that we would prefer that the conference primarily provide a forum where developing country needs for assistance are presented to donor agencies and discussed, rather than agencies promoting the programmes they want. We therefore welcome the setting up of the regional and sub-regional workshops to be held next year. In this respect we are a little concerned that insufficient level of staff resources are being devoted by WHO and FAO to the preparation. We question the feasibility of preparing the large number of country and regional studies given the time and resources available. It is essential that attention is given to the kind of preparations needed to ensure a success for a high-level political conference.

Finally, we support the Nordic point relating to the objectives. We remain concerned at the vagueness of the objectives for the conference and consider that further thought is needed to giving the objectives a sharper focus. We also support the Nordic suggestion that the June Council in 1991 further consider this.

Gerhard LIEBER (Germany): As we have already stated in Commission II of the FAO Conference at its 25th Session one year ago, the Federal Government favours in principle the idea of holding an international conference on nutrition. The problems to be addressed are complex, reaching from famine to malnutrition in its different forms and the diseases related to it. A particularly careful preparation will be necessary to ensure the success of the conference. This seems to be of special importance to us, considering that the results of other "world conferences" were not always fully satisfactory.

A close and trustful cooperation of all participating organizations and institutions is in our opinion a basic requirement for a successful preparatory phase as well as a good implementation of the conference. This is true above all for the cooperation between FAO and WHO, but also for the

cooperation with other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.

We fully endorse the objectives of the conference, as defined in document CL 98/21. We also agree to the date and venue. We have taken note with satisfaction that the Director-General has established an interdepartmental Task Force for the preparation. We attach special importance to the cooperation of the technical working units and programmes within FAO in order to give discussions a technical basis and to develop possible conference results in the form of action proposals from the very outset under the aspect of their feasibility. In this connection, the results of the Regional Conferences in 1990 are undoubtedly of great interest. For the European region this is especially true for FAO's Regional Conference which took place in April in Venice and for the First European Conference on Food and Nutrition Policy of WHO which was held in Budapest from 1 to 5 October 1990.

The following issues dealt with at the First European Nutrition Conference of WHO will also be of importance for the International Nutrition Conference in 1992 under preparation:

- identification of the close relationship between health and nutrition which does not receive in many countries the attention it requires through consumer protection as well as education;

- the consequences of nutrition policy decisions in Europe for developing countries;

- the importance of coordinated international efforts in the food sector;

- the need for international cooperation in the field of nutrition policy between states and between organizations as well.

We assume that the Director-General will keep the Council and Conference of FAO informed about the preparatory work and assure him of our full cooperation.

Luis MALDONADO VENEGAS (México): México ha acogido con especial beneplácito la resolución de promover y organizar en diciembre de 1992 la Conferencia Mundial sobre Nutrición, en atención a la prioridad que merece este tema para todos nuestros países. Apreciamos los importantes avances que se han registrado con miras a la celebración de dicha Conferencia y ratificamos el interés de apoyar en el orden nacional y en los ámbitos subregionales y regional de América Latina y el Caribe los trabajos preparatorios que se propone realizar en el informe que se presenta a la consideración de este Consejo.

El enfoque previsto para la organización de la Conferencia pone de manifiesto que los problemas de malnutrición y desnutrición no pueden ser apreciados como un fenómeno aislado del bienestar social, sino que sus causas y medidas eventuales de solución requieren de un enfoque multisectorial e interdisciplinario. Lo anterior exigirá de un considerable esfuerzo por parte de las distintas instancias de organización de la

Conferencia, para lograr que interactúen y se mantenga una estrecha coordinación entre los distintos sectores involucrados. Las actividades preparatorias que se han proyectado para 1991-dentro de las cuales se considera la asistencia a los gobiernos en la preparación de documentos nacionales, los seminarios y estudios mongráficos, la organización de talleres prácticos regionales y subregionales-son, desde luego, una oportunidad para dirigir estos esfuerzos a la realización de acciones sustantivas, que deben tomar como referencia obligada los estudios, metodologías y modelos prácticos que nuestra Organización ha venido afinando y probando, sin soslayar que uno de los aspectos fundamentales para arribar con éxito tanto a los diagnósticos como a las propuestas de politica y acción implica disponer, a nivel de paises y regiones, de instrumentos efectivos de información, monitoreo y vigilancia alimentaria y nutricional.

Sobre el particular, resulta decisivo para el éxito de la Conferencia abordar desde ahora y como una tarea de primer orden la determinación de indicadores y procedimientos prácticos de información, dentro de los cuales podria considerarse el reforzamiento de las redes regionales de cooperación técnica para la vigilancia alimentaria y nutricional, la difusión de metodologías ya probadas y desarrolladas, tanto por la FAO como por la OMS, como es el caso de la integración de perfiles nutricionales a partir de la ponderación de masa corporal en adultos.

No menos relevante es la necesidad de contar con procedimientos apropiados para la identificación, selección y seguimiento de poblaciones beneficiarías de programas alimentarios y nutricionales, en los que se consideren indicadores no sólo relativos a la vulnerabilidad biológica, sino también a los núcleos en condiciones de vulnerabilidad económica y social, lo que permitiría que los limitados recursos disponibles para la atención de la asistencia y apoyo alimentario y nutricional puedan dirigirse de manera más efectiva a quienes más lo necesitan, evitando desviaciones inconvenientes.

México ha iniciado ya a nivel nacional la actualización de estudios y encuestas especiales en la materia, como es el caso de la Encuesta Nacional de Alimentación para el Medio Rural y la Encuesta Nacional de Ingreso-Gasto de los Hogares, y se desarrollan ya en el marco de la Comisión Nacional de Alimentación un conjunto de actividades orientadas a contribuir a la preparación de la Conferencia Mundial sobre Nutrición. Sobre este particular, mi país desea expresar que desde luego estaría en la mejor disposición de acoger alguno de los talleres subregionales para América Latina y el Caribe y de otorgar los apoyos logísticos indispensables.

Finalmente, mi país desea manifestar su apoyo a la iniciativa de establecer una Secretaría conjunta FAO/OMS para preparar el plan de trabajo, promoción, preparación y realización de la Conferencia. Nos manifestamos también por que en lo posible nuestra Organización realice un esfuerzo para canalizar fondos extrapresupuestarios indispensables, necesarios inclusive, para la debida atención de estos aspectos, así como para que las Oficinas Regionales mantengan un seguimiento de los trabajos nacionales y subregionales, con objeto de presentar a la 26 Conferencia y a la 99 sesión del Consejo un informe de los trabajos alcanzados en 1991.

DONG QINGSONG (China): According to your suggestion my intervention will be very brief. First of all, we consider document CL 98/21 has given us a very concise introduction to the preparatory activities carried out by FAO, and we have listened to Mr Dutia who has given us a very clear introduction. The introduction and the document have indicated that in preparing the Conference FAO has carried out very fruitful activities.

During the deliberations of Commission II of the Conference last year the Chinese delegation expressed its position that it supports the convening of this Conference. We now reiterate our support. As is known to everyone, nutrition is a very important area. Of course in a sense it is a very complex issue because it involves social, economic and development aspects. Therefore during the Regional Conference on Asia this year the Chinese delegation expressed specifically its views on this issue-that is, the convening of this International Conference on Nutrition should not only serve the purpose of convening such a conference but we should have proper follow-up after the convening of this Conference. That is why we support the objectives defined in paragraph 2 of this document.

I believe this Conference should centre around two issues, first of all to solve policy issues, second to solve the problems related to the action plan. This action plan should establish some indicative factors and elements which can be expressed in figures, and besides it should emphasize action-oriented plans, besides which it should also establish some monetary mechanism. Without these aspects I do not think the Conference will produce satisfactory results.

Finally, we hope that FAO will continue its cooperation with WHO in actively preparing for this Conference so as to achieve a good success so that the Conference will achieve envisaged results and also effective results.

Antonio MAGALHAES COELHO (Portugal): La Délégation portugaise félicite le Secrétariat de l'excellent document CL 98/21, qui est d'un très grand intérêt pour nous et dont le contenu est de la plus grande utilité.

Nous sommes conscients des préparatifs déjà entrepris en vue de la Conférence internationale de 1992 sur la nutrition et nous nous réjouissons de l'ouverture qu'elle représente vers la participation de tous ceux qui s'intéressent à ce problème, tel qu'il est référé au paragraphe 3.

Nous prenons en considération le contenu des paragraphes 22 et 24, surtout en ce qui concerne la participation des Etats Membres et les organismes de direction et nous considérons que la création d'un centre national de coordination des activités préparatoires de la Conférence deviendra une bonne méthodologie.

Nous considérons aussi que, sans égard à l'avis officiel aux gouvernements concernant des orientations établies au paragraphe 23, il sera important que les comités nationaux de la FAO connaissent la copie des documents sur ce sujet, lesquels seront envoyés aux gouvernements concernés.

La Délégation portugaise se réjouit du fait que des actions de préparation de la Conférence internationale puissent être appuyées par les programmes ordinaires des organisations, tel qu'il a été décidé pendant la Conférence de 1989 et elle cherchera à appuyer la proposition du Directeur général sur l'inclusion, dans le budget de l'exercice de 1992-93, de la somme nécessaire à la réalisation d'une conférence où beaucoup d'espoirs se déposent.

Je vous remercie Monsieur le Président.

Noboru SAITO (Japan): I would like to pay tribute to the introduction by the Secretariat on the development for the International Conference on Nutrition.

Our delegation supports the proposal endorsed by the 25th Conference last November. Without any doubt we support FAO's role to fight against world poverty, malnutrition and hunger. We earnestly welcome the joint initiative taken by FAO and WHO to strive for a solution to malnutrition. At the same time we would like to express our appreciation to the Italian Government for hosting such an important conference which will be held in December 1992.

A nutrition policy is the basis for human health and welfare. Every country should establish an appropriate national nutrition policy and also have policies which accomplish this, including food and agricultural policies.

The present Japanese food intake pattern is claimed to be the ideal pattern because it consists of a balance of various foods with carbohydrates, mainly from crops such as rice, and protein, traditionally from fish but adding recently introduced meat and milk.

This might provide a suggestion for other countries. Our government is going to examine positively how and what Japan's participation will be at the coming conference, including whether or not country nutrition seminars can be held. Accordingly, our delegation is anxious to follow further development on the preparation for the conference based on information to be furnished by the Secretariat through a national focal point and a special report to be submitted at the April 1991 session of FAO's Committee on Agriculture.

LE PRESIDENT: Je vous remercie très vivement de votre intervention. Je signale également que nous ne pouvons que marquer notre accord à la proposition du Pakistan qui nous propose de nous adresser l'intervention qu'il avait l'intention de développer, de façon à ce qu'elle soit reproduite dans le verbatim. Il va de soi qu'elle sera reproduite in extenso dans ce verbatim.

Art WRIGHT (Canada): The lateness of the hour has reinforced my intention to follow your advice and try not to repeat what other speakers have said. However, there are a couple of points which I would like to add to and re-emphasize.

We fully support the points made by the representative from the United Kingdom, particularly with regard to the identification of nutritional needs as identified by the developing countries themselves. We also fully support the Nordic request that the FAO Council of 1991 be given a substantive report on the preparatory process for this conference.

We would like to ask a few other questions not covered by previous speakers.

You will recall that last year we expressed some reservations on the timing and the allocation of resources for the International Conference on Nutrition. Today, like others, we continue to have some reservations. Representatives of bilateral agencies and others who attended the ACC/SCN meetings in Paris in February of this year urged that the conference have sharper focus than is evident in the four objectives stated in the paper before the Council. Indeed some of the other interventions this afternoon have repeated that request. We would, therefore, appreciate clarification by the Secretariat as to what modifications are being considered to the agenda and to the conference objectives.

In addition, we share with the Secretariat concern about resource constraints. Mr Dutia has indicated that he may be coming to donors looking for voluntary contributions. We, on our side, would appreciate the Secretariat advising us of what measures it will take to mobilize additional financial resources from within existing budgetary allocations. We would appreciate further clarification of human resources to be allocated within the FAO as well as the trade-offs that will inevitably have to be made in terms of other on-going FAO nutritional activities.

Finally, we note the close involvement that the ACC/SCN has in examining the substantive issues arising during the preparations for this conference. We would appreciate the Secretariat indicating whether it is the intention of the FAO and WHO Secretariats to re-submit the conceptual framework paper to the ACC/SCN for further technical input and guidance. We look forward to the Secretariat's response to the points we have raised.

George REEVES (Australia): Australia supports broadly the objectives of the conference, noting in particular the importance given to identification of the causes of nutritional problems as a basis for measures to overcome the problems.

The need for collection and dissemination of data cannot be over-stated and the emphasis on vulnerable groups is considered to be an appropriate priority.

Australia commends the Government of Italy in hosting the conference in December 1992. We plan to be represented at the conference as a Member Government.

Australia believes that cooperation between FAO and WHO is a positive step toward integrating the nutrition-related components of the world's agricultural and health sectors. Cooperation with other agencies, non-governmental organizations and industry is also important and is to be strongly encouraged.

On the question of involvement of Member States in reporting to government bodies, Australia aligns itself with the comments made by the distinguished delegate for Finland and also some of the comments made by the UK.

We think that some further thought could be given to this issue. We note, however, the intention to adopt a country-based approach complemented by the preparation of technical and theme papers. We would be pleased to contribute a country paper indicating the national situation and actions implemented or planned. We would, however, appreciate further information on proposals for the preparation of such papers in a general sense and endorse the comments by others in this particular regard.

Richard M. SEIFMAN (United States of America): Document CL 98/21 provides useful information concerning preparations taken since the 25th FAO Conference last year for the International Conference on Nutrition.

Clearly considerable effort has been made to get conference planning off the ground organizationally and in developing a conceptual framework. FAO and WHO task forces have been developing a joint framework paper.

There has apparently been recent work done in this regard, as indicated by Dr Dutia. An advisory group of experts will be organized to provide guidance on scientific and technical issues and there is an intention to involve those outside the UN system in the preparatory process.

There is recognition that networks exist of universities and NGOs which can do, if you will, some of the legwork for the Secretariat, having accumulated information, technology, and research, all of which can enrich the Conference end-product. The FAO Secretariat and the advisory group, once established, will be familiar with many of the networks and much of the material which exist; however, my government would be pleased to share our knowledge in this area. Further, the private sector, both indigenous and external, both agro-industry, health service, even the media, can and should be looked to for fresh ideas and contributions. In practical terms these are important actors which know what is being done, how it is being done, and what can be done perspectively to meet the objectives of the Conference as set out in paragraph 2 of the document. Engaging them early can make difference, failing to engage them would be to limit information and Conference impact. (Perhaps they can be represented on the advisory group.)

We were pleased to note that contacts with the industrial sector will be initiated through the organizations that have formal relationships with FAO and WHO, and through the Codex Alimentarius Commission, as mentioned in paragraph 19. While we assume it is the intention of the Secretariat to keep the Council regularly apprised of activities generally, we would have particular interest in learning of measures taken to involve those outside the UN system in conference preparations of the sort we have just described.

In more general terms let me join others who have voiced the desire for the June Council to have an account of the progress in the preparatory process.

We would also welcome a report on how the FAO inter-departmental process works, as well as the composition and financing of the joint secretariat. How will the responsibilities be shared both in terms of function, staffing and costs? Perhaps more importantly, when will this joint secretariat be in place? If the Conference is scheduled, as it is, for December 1992 and the work plan and budget is still to be prepared, is there sufficient time to accomplish what is required? Parenthetically, we note that the UN Conference on Environment and Development is scheduled for late 1992. While the dates do not conflict, the question of whether the principal participants in both conferences will be able to devote adequate attention to the Nutrition Conference is a matter worth reviewing. It may be there are no other reasonable options or that the nature and participants are not the same. We would appreciate any views the Secretariat might express on the subject.

In the preparatory process description we note considerable emphasis is paid to regional and sub-regional workshops to synthesize issues delineated in country papers, seminars and case studies. We hope that the objective is to step-by-step screen and highlight successful experiences in order to generate concrete proposals for action at the country level. This will mean that country papers submitted need to be frank and balanced, identifying both the pros and the cons of specific approaches taken, where difficult decisions have to be made to achieve sustainable long-term nutrition objectives, and the resultant costs. The United States is prepared to consider assisting countries in preparing country papers which would not only facilitate a more country-based approach to the Conference, but would also strengthen an individual country's capacity to assess its nutritional situation.

Jacques WARIN (France): Lors de la vingt-cinquième session de la Conférence, en novembre 1989, la délégation française a soutenu sans réserve la proposition du Directeur général d'organiser, en coopération avec l'Organisation mondiale de la santé, la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition.

Depuis un an, un important travail de préparation a déjà été réalisé, tant dans le cadre des conférences régionales de la FAO que dans celui des activités de l'OMS. Mon gouvernement se félicite de la coopération intense et fructueuse engagée à ce propos entre les deux organisations avec le

concours des autres agences multilatérales et bilatérales concernées par cette prochaine conférence.

Les conférences régionales auxquelles mon pays a participé activement tout au long du premier semestre de cette année ont fourni l'occasion d'aborder de façon approfondie les priorités, très diverses d'une région à l'autre, des politiques et programmes de lutte contre la malnutrition.

L'heure tardive à laquelle j'interviens m'invite à raccourcir un peu le texte de mon allocution-je le dis à l'intention des interprètes-et à supprimer notamment les quatre ou cinq paragraphes que j'avais prévus sur notre politique nationale en matière de nutrition. Aussi bien, toutes ces questions ont-elles été examinées en détail lors de la Conférence régionale de Venise, en avril dernier et, plus récemment lors de la Conférence technique de l'OMS-Europe à laquelle s'est référé tout à l'heure mon collègue allemand, qui s'est tenue à Budapest du 1er au 5 octobre 1990. Je ne m'y attarderai donc pas si ce n'est pour rappeler l'importance d'une étroite coopération entre pays d'une même région pour la définition et la mise en oeuvre de leurs politiques alimentaires et nutritionnelles.

Une telle coopération est tout aussi essentielle au niveau mondial et c'est bien là l'enjeu majeur de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition.

Comme mon collègue britannique, sans partager tout à fait l'approche négative qu'il a faite tout à l'heure puisqu'il dénonçait le caractère trop vague à ses yeux des objectifs de la Conférence, je dirai d'une manière plus positive que mon gouvernement est particulièrement soucieux de voir la Conférence sur la nutrition déboucher sur des objectifs précis au niveau mondial ou régional: par exemple, l'élimination à l'horizon 2000 d'une ou de plusieurs carences graves dans des régions du monde bien définies.

De même, la Conférence devrait mettre l'accent sur certains aspects essentiels des politiques de lutte contre la malnutritrion comme, par exemple, l'allaitement maternel et la maîtrise de la démographie.

Dans cette perspective, ma délégation accorde son plein appui aux initiatives prises par le Secrétariat de la Conférence et notamment à la tenue en 1991 de réunions techniques sous-régionales ainsi qu'à la création d'un groupe consultatif d'experts chargé de conseiller les directeurs généraux de la FAO et de l'OMS.

Pour conclure, Monsieur le Président, permettez-moi d'insister sur le rôle essentiel de la FAO dans le domaine de la nutrition. La FAO, comme l'OMS d'ailleurs, doit servir à promouvoir les modèles de développement agricole les mieux adaptés aux besoins des pays membres et donc, en premier lieu, les mieux adaptés aux besoins nutritionnels des populations.

Sra. Ana Maria NAVARRO ARRUE (Cuba): Nuestra Delegación apoya la convocatoria de esta Conferencia y en sentido general está de acuerdo, en principio, con los términos de referencia que se nos entregan en el documento CL 98/21.

Como otras Delegaciones, felicitamos al Gobierno de Italia por acoger este importante cónclave aqui en la ciudad de Roma y pensamos que ha sido oportuno traer a colación las primeras novedades de sus objetivos en aras de arribar a un consenso preparatorio de sus bases. Hemos observado que varias Delegaciones aún no están satisfechas con sus objetivos y han solicitado se sigan ponderando sus intereses.

Para los paises en vias de desarrollo, sin embargo, esta Conferencia tiene gran importancia, en atención a la prioridad que este tema reviste dentro del contexto de la situación actual en nuestra Región.

Dentro de las actividades preparatorias, nuestra Conferencia Regional de la FAO el pasado mes de julio en Santiago de Chile, hizo un exhaustivo análisis de los problemas de la malnutrición y sus implicaciones en el desarrollo de las nuevas generaciones de nuestros pueblos. Estamos seguros que este debate y sus conclusiones servirán de base y de estudio para esta Conferencia al tiempo que se sugerirán una serie de medidas prácticas y eficaces en relación con el costo social para mitigar la malnutrición en nuestra Región.

Mi pais, que desde el punto de vista nacional ha desarrollado una gran experiencia en este tema, y que en el marco de otros eventos de la OMS han sido destacados, ve con beneplácito la realización de necesarias coordinaciones de trabajo entre la FAO y la OMS en aras de enfocar correctamente nuestros intereses.

Señor Presidente, como dijera la distinguida representante de Venezuela esta mañana, esta Conferencia debe estar intimamente ligada con la garantía de la seguridad alimentaria en el mundo, como premisa y hecho idóneo para llevar a las grandes masas de desposeídos una correcta política educativa que de hecho mitigue la malnutrición en el mundo.

No se trata, señor Presidente, de enseñar a comer a los pueblos un día, sino garantizarles que ese ejercicio puedan practicarlo diariamente y en condiciones favorables y humanizadas.

Por último, acogemos con beneplácito la celebración de seminarios subregionales técnicos, como hizo referencia el distinguido delegado de México, si esto no lesiona el ya lesionado presupuesto de la Organización, ya que será una nueva oportunidad para recoger experiencias concretas que enriquecerán esta Conferencia mundial.

C.B. HOÜTMAN (Netherlands): We wish to thank the Secretariat for the information before us and for Mr Dutia's introduction. As the information is mainly on the important logistics as to how to obtain contributions and inputs from all concerned through cost-effective strategies in order to tackle the main nutrition issues which the Conference will discuss, we would restrict ourselves to some remarks and suggestions.

We welcome the composition of the task force in FAO. As described in the Director-General's bulletin as annexed to CL 98/17, this force is composed

of the many substantive units within FAO. We consider such an approach to be efficient.

We also consider the establishment of an Advisory Group of Experts important for the dual purpose of providing the scientific and technical substance, and the involvement at an early stage of the nutrition community from outside the UN System. We would appreciate being informed of the composition of the Group at an early stage.

We look forward to the special paper on the Conference to be presented for the session of COAG. We would like to receive that well in advance of that Session. We assume that the results of the COAG discussion are to be reported to the Council thereafter which I think will meet some of the requests made by certain Council members here.

We welcome very much the involvement of NGOs, of which it is rightly stated that they have much experience in nutrition-related projects. We hope that the Secretariat has thought of including here the many NGOs particularly engaged in promoting an acceptable status for women in the various communities. And, as we understand that household food security is an important item on the agenda of the Conference, we can imagine that the input from women's organizations to this subject is of major importance.

We want to stress that the nutritional issues in developing countries should have first priority in this Conference, if necessary at the expense of discussion on the situation in more prosperous countries.

Finally, and in connection with what the Canadian delegation said, we would ask how the Secretariat can cope with the many vacancies particularly in the Food Policy and Nutrition Division. We know that hiring consultants is of use for such a Conference, but to keep continuity in the subject matter requires a sufficient level of permanent staff.

Nusyirwan ZEN (Indonesia) : My delegation has given its full attention to the report of the Secretariat on the preparation of this important International Conference on Nutrition. At the last 25th Session of FAO Conference as well as at the 20th FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Beijing in April 1990, and the 16th Ministerial Session of the World Food Council held in Bangkok in May 1990, we expressed our support for the convening of the ICN in 1992. I wish to take this opportunity to express the appreciation of my delegation to the Government of Italy for their readiness to host this important Conference.

We all agreed at the 25th FAO Conference that this International Conference on Nutrition, the first international meeting on a global basis, should be oriented toward developing realistic and cost-effective strategies and action programmes for the mobilization of adequate resources to achieve nutrition objectives. Therefore, my delegation welcomes the close cooperation between FAO and WHO in the preparations for this Conference on Nutrition in December 1992.

We note with satisfaction all the preparatory activities that have been done so far as reported by the Secretariat at this Session. This Conference will be an important step in initiating the vigorous and sustained efforts required to bring about a major improvement in the world nutrition situation. Being the first inter-governmental meeting on nutrition on a global level I do hope that the Conference will be able to devise successful strategies, policies and action programmes to tackle the main nutrition problems and to mobilize the requisite political will and resources for this task.

We agree with the views as stated in paragraph 13 of Document CL 98/21, that the Conference be prepared on the basis of recommendations from country representatives at regional and sub-regional workshops which can be held in 1991. We believe that by so doing, FAO will gain more complete inputs of information and wider participation from institutions, NGOs and countries on matters concerning nutrition objectives. Furthermore, we support the views expressed in paragraph 28 of Document CL 98/21 on the possible assistance to governments in the preparation of country papers, seminars and case studies and the organization of regional and sub-regional workshops.

Efforts should be taken to ensure the participation of delegations from all developing countries to the ICN.

Sra. Mónica DEREGIBUS (Argentina): Mi Delegación ha leido con atención el documento CL 98/21, presentado por la Secretaria, y debemos confesar que el mismo nos provoca más preguntas que respuestas. Coincidimos con la intervención de los Países Nórdicos en cuanto a que el documento es más formal que sustantivo, y es por eso que nos provoca más preguntas que respuestas.

Estimamos que, a esta altura de los preparativos de la Conferencia, no es mucho lo que de sustancia se puede incluir en un informe preliminar de este tipo. Sin embargo, llama poderosamente la atención el hecho de que la delineación de las actividades gubernamentales que llevarán a la Conferencia es más bien descentralizada. Se habla de actividades nacionales, subregionales y regionales. No se dice, por ejemplo, cómo se pensará escribir la agenda de la Conferencia, ni se dice tampoco cómo se prepararán los países para delinear la estrategia globalmente. La estrategia, a nuestro juicio, no se puede delinear ni en el orden subregional ni en el regional; de manera que deberá existir un proceso preparatorio de la Conferencia que incluya a todos los países globalmente y esto no se menciona en el documento.

Por otra parte, tampoco se menciona en el documento la participación de los gobiernos en el nombramiento de los expertos que compondrán el grupo que se va a establecer. Nosotros creemos que si lo que vamos a tener es una Conferencia intergubernamental, lo que debemos tener es un grupo intergubernamental de expertos que la preparen. Nos llama además la atención el hecho de que se intente informar al COAG acerca de los preparativos de esta Conferencia más detalladamente el año próximo. Tal vez estemos muy equivocados, pero nosotros hubiéramos creído que probablemente

el comité de la FAO más adecuado para el seguimiento de esta cuestión sería el Comité de Seguridad Alimentaria Mundial y no el COAG. Nos gustaría saber por qué la Secretaría ha pensado en el COAG para esto.

Por otra parte, se habla aquí de participación privada, de participación de universidades, de participación de organizaciones no gubernamentales, de participación de todo el mundo desde el principio. Insistimos, a nosotros nos parece que si ésta va a ser una Conferencia intergubernamental-que seguramente tendrá un plano científico y un plano político-los gobiernos deben estar involucrados en su preparación desde el inicio, mucho más que las organizaciones no gubernamentales y que la industria privada; y que hasta los medios de prensa-mencionados hace un momento en esta sala.

Nos parece que no podemos empezar a pensar en todas estas cosas, cuando realmente aquí no hay un solo gobierno que haya dicho que él quiera analizar exactamente tal o cual cosa. Todo es muy vago, y nosotros creemos que primero deben comprometerse los gobiernos, y después todos los representantes que sean necesarios de la actividad privada, pero con anuencia de éstos.

Por el momento, no quisiera yo abundar en estas cuestiones, pero si me gustaría recibir más información de la Secretaría acerca de las preguntas que hemos formulado.

R.C.A. JAIN (India): The Twenty-fifth Session of the FAO Conference held in November 1989 decided that the International Conference on Nutrition should be convened in Rome during 1992 under the joint sponsorship of FAO and WHO. The Conference agreed that the International Conference on Nutrition would need to be prepared carefully and thoroughly with the involvement of all interested UN agencies, other international organizations, regional bodies and interested non-governmental organizations. It was also agreed that the preparatory work should be undertaken utilizing the Administrative Committee on Coordination's Sub-Committee on Nutrition, with the assistance of experts and of interested member countries.

The importance of nutrition for human well-being and the need for holding the International Conference on Nutrition has been well established. It will indeed be a step forward in creating greater concern for nutrition at a global as well as at a country level. It will also help to initiate vigorous and sustained efforts which are needed to impart a nutrition focus to the development strategy. Such a conference would provide a unique opportunity to bring together various government organizations of the UN financial institutions' experts, NGOs and research workers to undertake a thorough review of the problem and to suggest remedial actions.

Although the FAO and the WHO have collaborated in the past on various issues concerning nutrition, this is the first time that such a close collaboration between the FAO and the WHO has been conceived covering all issues concerning nutrition in the form of an international conference. The linkage between agriculture, food and health has been recommended by various national and international bodies for achieving the objective of nutritional adequacy.

Such a conference, co-sponsored by FAO and WHO, will bring together agriculture, food and health in a comprehensive manner. The conference will also provide an opportunity to streamline governmental efforts to alleviate malnutrition.

The Government of India strongly supports the concept of holding an International Conference on Nutrition by FAO and WHO, and compliments the FAO Secretariat on having initiated preparations for the Conference in earnest, as detailed in the Council document CL 98/21.

Srta. Mery HURTADO (Colombia): Seré muy breve. El Gobierno de Colombia atribuye gran importancia a la próxima Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición, que deberá celebrarse a finales de 1992. Este primer informe parcial contenido en el documento CL 98/21 describe muy bien las actividades conjuntas adelantadas por la FAO y la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en favor de una adecuada organización de la citada Conferencia, así como también el marco dentro del cual se espera la colaboración de todos los Organismos interesados de las Naciones Unidas, de las organizaciones no gubernamentales y de organizaciones regionales en general.

Los representantes de Colombia consideramos que, en términos generales, los objetivos de esa Conferencia están bien definidos en el párrafo 2 del documento. Esperamos que esa Conferencia podrá contribuir a lograr la identificación de algunos problemas de la nutrición y su magnitud y distribución geográfica, sus causas y efectos, a elaborar y adoptar estrategias y propuestas de acción, a movilizar recursos financieros y a tomar mayor conciencia de la magnitud y de las causas y consecuencias de la malnutrición, y, luego, seguir con toda atención la aplicación de esas medidas y sus resultados, mediante un sistema de acopio y difusión de datos.

Sobre el lugar de la Conferencia, la delegación de Colombia apoya y recibe con agrado el ofrecimiento y la acogida que el Gobierno de Italia ha dado a esta iniciativa, porque brindará la oportunidad de discutir a fondo el problema de la alimentación, que no sólo toca a la escasez y a la pobreza en los países en desarrollo, sino que éstas también amenazan a otras regiones.

Los representantes de Colombia deseamos destacar la importancia justificada que se da en este documento a la participación de los Gobiernos, particularmente a través de las conferencias regionales, tal como lo expresan los párrafos 6, 10, 22 y 26 del documento.

Nos parece muy acertado que se tengan en cuenta las conclusiones y recomendaciones de las conferencias regionales, porque a ese nivel se identifican más directamente los problemas y pueden ser mejor atendidos. Esto está de acuerdo con los debates amplios a que alude el párrafo 15, debates que también consideramos de mucha utilidad.

Apoyamos también la colaboración de las organizaciones no gubernamentales, de las industrias a que hacen referencia los párrafos 18 y 19. Esperamos

que la Secretaría conjunta entre la FAO y la OMS cumplirá una tarea eficaz y que en la nota conjunta, según el párrafo 23, ofrecerán directrices adecuadas para las actividades nacionales en los países que son fundamentales para el éxito de la Conferencia.

Tomamos nota que la FAO y la OMS, como organismos copatrocinadores, compartirán los costos de la preparación de esa Conferencia. A ese respecto, a la delegación de Colombia le preocupa la limitación de recursos de que se habla en el párrafo 28, pues sería una lástima que no se dispusiera de recursos suficientes para permitir buenas publicaciones de documentos nacionales, celebrar seminarios subregionales y organizar cursillos prácticos regionales y subregionales, y la asistencia a la Conferencia de delegaciones procedentes de aquellos países en desarrollo con menos recursos y, sobre todo, los menos adelantados. Esto deberá constituir la base insustituible de una Conferencia representativa, y, por ello, los representantes de Colombia pedimos a este Consejo que en el informe se haga un llamado para que los ofrecimientos de suficientes y oportunos recursos extrapresupuestarios permitan la realización de las actividades citadas. Finalmente, apoyamos lo expresado por las delegaciones de México y Cuba porque ello contiene muchas de las inquietudes que son fundamentales para nuestra región.

Shahid NAJAM (Pakistan): Mr Chairman, my delegation will like to thank FAO Secretariat for document CL 98/21 which updates our knowledge on the progress made so far for holding an International Conference on Nutrition in December, 1992.

It is indeed a matter of great satisfaction that necessary and preparatory steps are being taken effectively to organize the conference befittingly. The joint sponsorship of the conference by FAO and WHO is also indicative of the cooperative and integrated pursuit of common goals by the UN system to facilitate wider and broader discussions on the key issues of nutrition. The establishment of an interdepartmental task force by the Director-General of FAO, comprising inter alia, major FAO technical personnel is indeed a commendable step in the right direction. FAO and WHO task forces and Regional Offices and Committees are already doing the preparatory work in conjunction with all interested UN agencies and non-governmental organizations.

My delegation also supports the measures indicated in paras 17 to 19 of the document to elicit active participation and involvement of the relevant organization, NGOs and industrial sector in making the ICN a success and meaningful exercise.

The proposal to establish a joint FAO/WHO Secretariat for the ICN is a good initiative to ensure that the preparatory work is carried out smoothly. Similarly, establishment of an advisory group of experts to advise the DGs of FAO and WHO could be a meaningful source of input on scientific and technical issues related to the conference.

We also support the methodology and approach embodied in paras 22 to 24 of the document for keeping the Member Nations abreast of the developments and

progress towards holding an ICN, as also the holding of the subregional workshops in 1991 for synthesizing the issues delineated in country papers, seminars and case studies. This would constitute a good input to the ICN.

As regards resource constraints faced by FAO and WHO, we will like to whole-heartedly join FAO in appealing to the affluent countries to come up with generous donations so that the ICN can be held successfully, and through it problems of malnutrition and related factors can be identified, followed by a comprehensive strategy for accomplishing nutrition and dietary goals.

We in Pakistan are fully aware of the magnitude and enormity of the problem of malnutrition. The National Nutritional Survey conducted in 1985-87 showed that 48% of children under five suffer from mild to severe malnutrition, 65% are anaemic, 45% of lactating and pregnant women are anaemic and 34% are underweight, 50-70% of the population of endemic areas suffer from goitre and other related IDDs. There are also regional differences in the prevalence of malnutrition which is indicative of the fact that in spite of adequate food availability at national level, its distribution and consumption is uneven because of socio-economic differences, intra and inter family disparities, ignorance and lack of knowledge. It was precisely in view of these maladies, that during the Regional Conference of the Asia and Pacific Region in Beijing, China, during April 1990, Pakistan actively participated in the deliberation on nutritional deficiencies, and apart from informing the regional conference of the specific nutrient deficiencies in Pakistan, highlighted the short-term, mid-term and long-term programmes in conjunction with the international agencies, to overcome the incidence of malnutrition.

The countries which have evolved correct admixture of short-term and long-term measures have been successful in bringing about significant reductions in the prevalence of specific nutritional deficiencies which cause a host of disorders connected with morbidity and mortality. We would, however, like to propose that the following considerations should figure prominently in the actions and strategy for effectively combating the menace of malnutrition:

(a) shift of focus of food production from mere self-reliance to nutritional adequacy;

(b) concentration on further increase of food availability, diversification of food crops and increase in livestock and dairy products;

(c) improved access to food by the low-income population;

(d) orientation of agricultural and food policy planning to a nutritionally desirable dietary pattern.

In order to mitigate and eradicate the incidence of malnutrition, cost-effective, supplementation, fortification and dietary modification programmes will have to be devised and implemented. In this connection, action-oriented, country-based strategy approach to malnutrition problems could be of tremendous value and the assistance of UN organization,

bilateral programmes and NGOs as indicated in para. 25 of the document CL 98/21 could be of significant help to developing countries.

Before concluding, my delegation would like to place on record our deep appreciation to the Government of Italy in hosting the International Conference on Nutrition and for the reaffirmation of their offer to this Council Session.2

LE PRESIDENT: Avant de donner la parole à M. Dutia, je voudrais faire remarquer que le document CL 98/21 doit être pris en considération avec les différents procès-verbaux des conférences régionales, que ce soit à Venise, que ce soit à Tunis, que ce soit à Marrakech, que soit à Beijing, que ce soit à Santiago du Chili, le problème a fait l'objet de très larges et très intéressants débats. J'ajoute que les procès-verbaux ne sont pas des documents confidentiels et peuvent être communiqués à tous les Etats Membres.

Avant de faire la synthèse de ce point de l'ordre du jour, je demanderai à Monsieur Dutia de répondre aux questions précises qui viennent d'être posées.

B.P. DUTIA (Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department): I would like first of all to express a great appreciation and gratitude to the representative from Italy for the support that he has reaffirmed for this conference and the offer to host the conference in 1992. We greatly appreciate this. We are also encouraged by the readiness which has been expressed by members from several countries to support the preparatory activities, especially at the country and the regional levels, for this conference.

Some comments have been made about some specific aspects of the preparations. First of all, a number of delegates have expressed the desire to have the objectives of the conference more sharply defined and elaborated. In this connection I would like to point out that the objectives of the conference emanated first from the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition and then later on, with some amendments, they were endorsed by the FAO Conference in November 1989. However, we should not take these objectives as the agenda of the conference. The agenda of the conference is yet to be developed and during that process naturally the contents and the means of achieving these objectives will have to be elaborated and we certainly would like to get the inputs from the governments in this process also as we proceed.

Several members have expressed the desire to get a substantive report on the ICN at the next session of the Council in 1991. We certainly intend to do so. As the member from the Netherlands already observed the report on the Committee on Agriculture will be available at the Council and the COAG would have considered a substantive report on the preparations of the conference and this will in itself help the Council to consider this step further.

2 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

In addition to this it should not be ruled out that another document on the International Conference on Nutrition be also prepared for consideration by the Council at its next session. We also would like to make available at that session in one form or another the recommendations that are emanating from the regional conferences so far, so that the Council would have the total picture.

Some delegations have expressed the desire about the framework paper being more widely distributed. In this connection I would like to clarify that the joint framework paper that has been prepared is not a document which would be presented to the conference. In fact it is the first step in the preparatory process for the conference and as it is so we have at the moment no plans or provisions to translate it into all languages and therefore I regret to say that it will not be possible to distribute this generally to all the governments. However, if some particular person is interested in obtaining a copy of this document we will be very happy to share it with him or her.

So far as the government involvement and collaboration in the proceedings of the conference is concerned, this we recognize as very important and we will take all opportunities to do so. Already the regional conferences have considered this subject; you have considered, of course, a preparatory report now; COAG will consider a substantive document; the Council will consider it in June; the Conference will have another subject, and as I mentioned in my introduction, the regional conferences will have another opportunity to look at this subject in 1992 as well. Also please remember that the Member Governments of WHO have also an opportunity to consider this subject in their respective meetings. But of greatest importance is the country level and the regional activities in order to involve the governments and to build up the conference from the bottom and of course this will require extra budgetary funds and we do hope that we will be able to enlist the necessary support from the donor agencies.

The member from Canada raised the question of the resources that are available to the Secretariat in pooling the manpower resources and the member for the Netherlands referred to the vacancies that exist. Now here I would like to say that as far as the 1991 resources are concerned, well we will be able to accommodate the preparatory activities from within the allotments of the Food Policy and Nutrition Division and this means both in terms of human resources, as well as the funds and this does not necessarily involve a big trade-off because the approved Programme of Work and Budget of the Food Policy and Nutrition Division contains those activities which are closely related to the ICN objectives and in fact by having these activities focused on the nutrition conference objectives we believe all these activities will get more strength. So insofar as 1992 and 1993 are concerned, as it is already mentioned in the document in paragraph 27, the Director-General intends to make proposals for provision in the budget in the 1992-93 biennium and we hope that it will be possible for the Member Governments to support it.

As regards the observations by the member from the United States, we are happy with the offer he has made to share the experiences in this field in his country and we will certainly be very much encouraged by that offer. He also raised certain questions regarding the joint secretariat, when it will

be established and so on, and in this context I would like to say that the joint secretariat we hope will be established in the next couple of weeks, I think. We are actively engaged in discussions with our colleagues in WHO to finalize all the arrangements and we do not see much difficulty in this respect. It is proposed to be headed by an FAO staff member and WHO will also provide staff members to work on the joint Secretariat.

The member from the United States also referred to the timing of the conference, December 1992, and he raised some questions about the possibility of completing the preparatory process and also the possible conflict with the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. We do hope it will be possible to proceed with the preparatory activities and to complete them in time to meet with the current date of December 1992. However, this whole subject is something that we would certainly continue to consider, together with our colleagues from WHO, and although we plan to stick to the December 1992 date as of now and we hope we will succeed in doing so, some possibility of some adjustment cannot be ruled out, if it is out of our control.

The representative of Argentina emphasized that the participation of governments is important and we recognize this and I would like to clarify that. So far as the advisory group of experts is concerned the main intention is to get the scientific and the technical inputs, the latest available knowledge on nutrition in the preparatory activities. So far as the involvement of governments is concerned, as I mentioned earlier, this is a process that will continue at the inter-governmental level meetings and so on. She also raised the question as to why the report on the nutrition to be submitted to the Committe on Agriculture and not to the Committee on World Food Security. In this context I would like to mention that the subject of nutrition is a standing item on the agenda of the Committee on Agriculture and we think, therefore, that COAG is the most appropriate body to consider this subject, particularly from the point of view of identifying the role and the contribution of the agricultural sector in meeting the nutrition challenge.

I believe I have answered all the questions but if there are any left I would certainly be happy to respond.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie très vivement M. Dutia. Je crois que vous avez de fait répondu à toutes les questions, je ne tenterai pas de faire un résumé global d'une discussion qui a été intéressante, où plus de 19 membres ont participé à la discussion. J'ai entendu des réserves dans le chef de quatre membres, mais ces réserves portaient non pas sur des points essentiels, et certainement pas sur le principe et la nécessité d'organisation d'une grande conférence sur la nutrition. Je crois que Monsieur Dutia a pu rencontrer un certain nombre de questions qui ont été soulevées. J'ai eu l'occasion de dire que les conférences régionales s'étaient largement penchées sur le problème, et qu'elles avaient quand même exprimé un large désir de toutes les régions qui étaient représentées dans ces conférences régionales d'avoir une participation extrêmement active, non seulement des pays en voie de développement, mais également des pays développés qui possèdent de bons nutritionnistes et qui ont également un certain nombre de

problèmes, qui ne sont peut-être pas des problèmes de sous-nutrition, mais des problèmes de malnutrition. Et je crois qu'un certain nombre de milliers de personnes meurent chaque année de faim de ces problèmes de malnutrition.

Je crois qu'en ce qui concerne les coordinations et les centres nationaux de coordination, c'est incontestablement de la responsabilité de chacun des Etats de veiller à rassembler les meilleures études, les meilleurs experts, les meilleurs nutritionnistes, avec la participation et des secteurs publics dans le cadre de la santé publique, et des organisations gouvernementales, et des universités, et du secteur privé, et que l'expérience d'un certain nombre de pays sera une expérience qui, incontestablement, pourra être utile à d'autres pays.

Madame la Déléguée de l'Argentine a posé la question précise: "Pourquoi le COAG?". D'abord parce que le COAG se réunit avant notre prochain Conseil, et qu'ensuite l’inter-relation entre la nutrition et l'agriculture est quand même un élément extrêmement important. Nous avons, il n'y a pas tellement longtemps, dans le cadre d'un autre Conseil-je me trouvais là, tout au bout-soulevé le problème notamment de la cécité dans le monde qui provient d'une carence de vitamine A. Il existe des dizaines de milliers de personnes aveugles dans le monde uniquement pas carence de vitamine A. Il existe tout un programme qui devrait être développé par la FAO. Et là, je crois que les moyens de communication ont aussi un rôle à jouer. Et si une conférence internationale permet de réduire de quelque milliers le nombre d'aveugles dans le monde, nous n'aurons pas perdu notre temps, et je crois que c'est important.

Alors je crois qu'un large consensus s'est dégagé, que nous devons continuer nos travaux, que nouS devons continuer d'aller de l'avant, en contact étroit avec les organisateurs de la Conférence, et en exprimant un voeu très pressant de trouver les ressources suffisantes pour que cette conférence puisse se réaliser dans les meilleures conditions.

Je regarde le Conseil. Je demande si vous avez l'une ou l'autre question complémentaire à poser en ce qui concerne ce point qui nous a été soumis pour examen et pour décision. Je crois que la large majorité s'est exprimée, et que la décision de continuer et d'aller de l'avant peut être prise avec l'approbation de la toute grande majorité de ce Conseil, et avec quelques réserves qui, je crois, ont été levées grâce aux explications fournies par Monsieur Dutia. Comme je ne vois aucune demande d'intervention, je déclare clos le point 7, Rapport d'activité sur les préparations de la Conférence internationale de 1992 sur la nutrition.

9. Technical Assistance to the Palestinian People
9. Assistance technique au peuple palestinien
9. Asistencia técnica al pueblo palestino

LE PRESIDENT: Nous avons un document qui est le document CL 98/15, Rapport du Directeur général sur l'application de la Résolution 1/89, assistance technique aux peuples palestiniens. Vous vous souviendrez que lors de la dernière Conférence, nous avons eu une commission et, en séance publique,

un large débat sur cette question. Nous sommes maintenant saisis du premier rapport pour information, et je passe immédiatement la parole au Conseiller juridique.

LEGAL COUNSEL: The document before you is CL 98/15, the Report of the Director-General on the Implementation of Resolution 1/89 entitled "Provision of Technical Assistance to the Palestinian People". The document describes the actions that the Director-General has taken, first of all to arrange for a mission to be sent to study and evaluate the situation of the agricultural sector in the occupied territories. In this connection the document has annexed to it an exchange of letters between the Director-General and the Permanent Representative of Israel relating to the fielding of such a mission. The progress report and the exchange of correspondence are presented for the information of the Council. The Director-General would also appreciate confirmation by the Council that the mission should proceed on the basis of this exchange of correspondence,

The document makes reference to a letter to be sent by the Representative of Israel to the Legal Counsel. I can confirm that no such letter has been received. The entire correspondence relating to this matter consists thus of those letters set out as appendices to the document before you.

On the other matters referred to in the Resolution, no further action has as yet been taken by the Director-General as these, and in particular the holding of a symposium, will be dependent on the successful outcome and the report of the mission.

Amin ABDEL MALEK (Liban) (Langue originale arabe): Nous nous souvenons qu'il y a un an déjà la Conférence générale avait adopté lors de sa 25ème session la Résolution 1/89 portant sur l'assistance technique au peuple palestinien. Le soutien exprimé alors par les pays amis à cette résolution, et que nous saluons aujourd'hui, a laissé en nous une excellente impression.

Ayant pris connaissance des informations contenues dans le document CL 98/15, nous voulons noter l'expression de nos remerciements et de notre gratitude à Monsieur le Directeur général pour les premiers pas qu'il a entrepris dans l'application de cette résolution.

Nous le prions également de persévérer dans les contacts qu'il juge adéquats pour aboutir à l’exécution de la résolution de la Conférence générale, vu la grande importance que nous y attachons.

Quant à l'assistance que l'on peut accorder au peuple palestinien, nous souhaitons que le secrétariat prenne l'initiative de fournir toute assistance technique possible. Nous souhaitons également que l'on oeuvre pour mettre en application le paragraphe 2 du dispositif de la Résolution 1/89 concernant l'envoi d'une mission dont la nature et la tâche ont été définies par ladite résolution.

Il serait souhaitable que les conclusions de cette mission constituent une contribution aux délibérations du colloque prévu par le paragraphe 3 du dispositif.

Cependant, en raison de votre longue expérience, du peu de cas que les autorités d'occupation font des résolutions des Nations Unies et afin d'éviter que les mesures dilatoires de ces autorités n'empêchent l'organisation du colloque, nous formulons le voeu qu'aucun lien ne soit établi entre l'envoi de la mission et l'organisation de ce colloque. Nous pensons également que ce dernier peut bien se tenir à Rome, loin de toute interférence extérieure, et le plus tôt possible.

Confiants que le Directeur général n'épargnera aucun effort afin de mettre en application la Résolution 1/89, nous nous abstiendrons de transformer ces remarques en projet de résolution. Ce qui, nous le souhaitons, sera pris en considération par différentes parties.

Il est évident que l'assistance à apporter le sera conformément à la résolution mentionnée.

Mustapha SINACEUR (Maroc): Je voudrais apporter le soutien de ma Délégation à la déclaration de l'honorable Délégué du Liban. Je vous remercie.

Muhammad Saleem KHAN (Pakistan): We would like to associate ourselves with the statement made by the delegate of Lebanon on this issue.

Sra. Mercedes FERMIN GOMEZ (Venezuela): Tal como hicimos en la pasada oportunidad en la Conferencia, señor Presidente, nosotros vamos a apoyar esta decisión y lo expresamos apoyando las palabras del delegado del Libano.

Waleed A. ELKHEREIJI (Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of): We would like only to express our support to what has been said by the delegate of Lebanon.

Pedro Agostinho KANGA (Angola): Nous voudrions tout simplement appuyer ce que vient de dire le Représentant du Liban.

Joseph TCHICAYA (Congo): Le Congo, on le sait, s'était associé à l'adoption de cette résolution par la Conférence. Nous estimons qu'elle devrait être appliquée dans son intégralité. C'est pour cette raison que je m'associe entièrement à la teneur de la déclaration faite par le Représentant du Liban.

Natigor SIAGIAN (Indonesia): We wish to say that my delegation fully supports the initiative taken by the FAO secretariat to implement Resolution 1/89 of the 25th FAO Conference and we support the statement of the Lebanon delegation.

Sra. Ana Maria NAVARRO ARRUE (Cuba): Si, señor Presidente, solamente para reiterar la posición de nuestro Gobierno de dar apoyo a esta resolución de Asistencia Técnica al Pueblo palestino y apoyar las palabras del delegado del Libano.

Gonzalo BULA HOTOS (Colombia): Los representantes de Colombia apoyamos la declaración que ha hecho nuestro colega y amigo Abdel Malek, del Libano, particularmente sobre la posibilidad de que el Director General trate de realizar este simposio aquí en Roma, si eso fuese viable.

Mrs Tzipora RIMON (Observer for Israel): A year ago both Israel and other members of the Organization pointed out that the introduction of a political resolution into the FAO forum was a regrettable factor. FAO is not a body intended to debate political issues and advance political views.

I do not wish to waste the valuable time of the Council and therefore I shall be brief. Israel is responsible under international law for the administration of the Territories, for maintaining security and public order as well as for ensuring the welfare of its inhabitants. In that respect Israel encourages international technical assistance to the Palestinian population as long as it is carried out in cooperation with Israel and not based on political motives.

Israel has always attached great importance to the activity of the FAO and has acknowledged the constitutional mandate of the Organization to collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate information relating to nutrition, food and agriculture, as mentioned in the first Article of the FAO Constitution.

Therefore the Government of Israel will favourably consider receiving a personal delegate or a team of experts to study the situation of food and agriculture in the Territories administered by Israel, provided they are appointed by the Director-General of FAO on his own initiative.

In conclusion let me emphasize that Israel has always sought ways to cooperate with FAO and will continue doing so in the future and will deal with any request of the Director-General to send a personal envoy or a group of experts.

Mme. Amina BOUDJELTI (Observateur d'Algérie): Ce point revêt pour ma délégation, comme pour tant d'autres, une importance toute particulière. Néanmoins, en raison de l'heure tardive et de vos suggestions, Monsieur le

Président, je serai très brève. Il me suffira, en fait, de dire que j'associe ma voix à celle des orateurs qui m'ont précédée pour appuyer l'intervention du délégué du Liban et pour remercier le Directeur général.

Dans le même temps, je voudrais apporter le soutien de ma délégation au Directeur général et l'encourager à poursuivre ses efforts en vue de la mise en oeuvre de toutes les décisions contenues dans la Résolution 1/89. A ce sujet, nous partageons l'avis du délégué libanais et nous pensons, nous aussi, que l'on pourrait organiser le symposium ici, à Rome, si nécessaire.

Amor BEN ROMDHANE (Observateur de Tunisie): La Résolution 1/89 n'est pas une résolution politique. Quel est son titre? "Assistance technique au peuple palestinien". C'est dire que j'appuie ce qu'a dit le délégué du Liban.

Au nom du Gouvernement tunisien, je tiens à remercier tous les gouvernements qui ont appuyé cette résolution lors de la dernière session de la Conférence générale, résolution prévoyant l'octroi d'une assistance technique au peuple palestinien. Je remercie aussi le Directeur général de tout ce qu'il a fait pour que cette résolution soit mise en oeuvre.

Issaka SOUMAILA (Observateur du Niger): Ma délégation, à l'instar de celle de la Tunisie notamment, qui vient de prendre la parole juste avant moi, considère que la Résolution 1/89 n'est pas du tout une résolution à caractère politique. Son intitulé de même que ses considérants et les décisions qui y sont incluses démontrent pleinement qu'il s'agit d'une résolution conforme à la mission de la FAO en matière d'agriculture et d'alimentation.

C'est pourquoi ma délégation appuie pleinement la déclaration faite par le délégué du Liban et soutient le Directeur général dans ses efforts pour mettre en oeuvre cette résolution.

LE PRESIDENT: Je ne veux évidemment pas étouffer le débat-loin de moi cette idée-mais je demanderai aux membres du Conseil d'éviter d'intervenir à plusieurs reprises. Ce point nous est soumis pour information et le document est très clair.

A titre exceptionnel, je donne pour la deuxième fois la parole au Représentant du Congo.

Joseph TCHICAYA (Congo): Je m'excuse beaucoup d'intervenir pour la deuxième fois sur cette question mais il s'agit d'une question de principe. Nous, nous sommes le Conseil; et la Conférence, qui est au-dessus de nous, a adopté une résolution. Je crois que cette résolution a été approuvée à la suite de nombreuses négociations et tractations. Tout un chacun sait dans

quelles conditions cette résolution a été adoptée. Nous savons tous que cela a été clair et sans ambiguïté: nous avons adopté une résolution sur l'assistance technique au peuple palestinien. Le Congo avait perçu cette résolution comme une résolution n'ayant aucune connotation politique et s ' inscrivant dans le droit fil du mandat confié à la FAO. Nous svons de temps à autre à exprimer nos préoccupations à l'égard de telle ou telle situation. Je crois qu'il était normal que nous prenions cette décision. Que l'on ne nous dise pas qu'il s'agissait d'une décision politique. Le débat sur cette question a été épuisé et la Conférence a tranché. Tous les membres du Conseil et de la FAO devraient pouvoir se conformer à cette décision.

Pour notre part, nous demandons au Directeur général de redoubler tous ses efforts pour que les décisions contenues dans cette résolution soient appliquées.

LE PRESIDENT: Il est évident que l'application d'une résolution adoptée par la Conférence ne doit pas rouvrir un débat. Cette résolution a été adoptée et elle doit être appliquée. Le Directeur général nous fait rapport sur l'application d'une résolution adoptée par la Conférence et c'est pour cela que le point inscrit à l'ordre du jour n'est ni pour discussion ni pour décision mais pour information. Dans ce document, le Directeur général nous dit où il en est dans le cadre de l'application d'une résolution adoptée par la Conférence.

Morad All ARDESHIRI (Iran, Islamic Republic of): I shall be brief. On behalf of the delegation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, I support the technical assistance to the Palestinian people. I also support the statement that has been presented by the distinguished delegate of the Lebanon.

Mohammad ABU-KOASH (Observer for the Palestine Liberation Organization):Our delegation would like to express its thanks to all delegations for supporting Conference Resolution 1/89 as well as for the support they have just demonstrated in calling for the full implementation of that Resolution. We are also thankful to you all for your unanimous support of our delegation's participation in FAO Council sessions, something which brings FAO in line with other UN specialized agencies.

We would like to associate ourselves with the remarks made by the distinguished delegate for the Lebanon. I reiterate our call for a speedy implementation of Resolution 1/89. At the same time I would like to reiterate our confidence in the Director-General for his current and future efforts aimed at implementing the Resolution. If we have said something which was political in this brief statement we stand to be corrected, but it is strange that the victim keeps mute and the aggressor speaks and complains.

LE PRESIDENT: La situation est très claire: le texte de la résolution prévoit l'envoi d'une mission. Cet envoi a été accepté. Ce texte prévoit également l'organisation d'un colloque sur le secteur agricole palestinien. Il ne dit pas où ce colloque doit se tenir. II est de la responsabilité du Directeur général d'appliquer cette résolution et je crois que les informations qui nous ont été données sur ce point sont absolument complètes.

The meeting rose at 20.15 hours
La séance est levée à 20 h 15
Se levanta la sesión a las 20.15 horas

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