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19. Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1992-93 (continued)
19. Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget 1992-93 (suite)
19. Resumen del Programa de Labores y Presupuesto para 1992-93 (continuación)

Gerhard LIEBER (Germany): I would like first of all to thank Mr Shah for his excellent introduction to the Summary Programme of Work and Budget before us, and also the Programme and Finance Committees, represented by their Chairmen, for their analyses of document CL 99/3.

The document before us was examined very carefully by us. We have noted with satisfaction that the proposed budget takes the general financial situation into account in a realistic way and largely copes with the Organization's tasks and priorities. We were able to state that already, at the COAG Session at the end of April for the Major Programme: Agriculture.

We also note that the clear outline arid the high information value have made the document more user-friendly than its predecessors. As my delegation already stated at the COAG Session, we are also satisfied that the results of the Review, as formulated by the Twenty-fifth Session of the FAO Conference in 1989 in Resolution 10/89, were taken into adequate consideration. As you know, it has always been the view of my Government that the process of review is of great importance for the future work of FAO.

My Government will for the first time make a substantially higher contribution to the FAO Budget 1992-93. It is therefore especially important to us to be sure that FAO will use the funds entrusted to it in a most effective way.

On the whole, we agree to the priorities set in the Programme of Work and Budget - that means the areas of increased resources. This especially applies to the areas of work dealing with future-oriented issues. In this respect, environmental policy and sustainable agricultural development as integral parts and decisively important components of a global food security policy have utmost priority for us. As we all have to realize to an increasing extent, these are challenges facing individual countries as well as the international community. FAO has a great co-responsibility in that sector. This also applies to the national, regional and international endeavours to preserve the natural resources.

To fulfil this responsibility, the Organization must strengthen its function as a policy adviser for the development of adequate agricultural policies. In this connection we note with satisfaction the intention to intensify the cooperation with other international organizations and also non-governmental organizations.

We also welcome the further development of the agricultural data system, World Agricultural Information Centre. In view of the pressing world food security problems, the importance of a solid database cannot be rated highly enough. We also welcome the integration of women in rural development and the efforts undertaken by FAO in this field. We also support the implementation of an International Conference on Nutrition and welcome that the proposed budget takes this item into due consideration.

World forestry will be faced in the near future with enormous tasks. We believe that FAO has to play in this respect an important role at the global level. Important initiatives are taken within and outside the UN system in this field. Due to the technical capacities accumulated in the Organization, we regard FAO as one of the most valuable partners of governments and international organizations alike. As my delegation has already pointed out at the COAG Session, we have, however, doubts as to whether the funds allocated for the Forestry Department will be sufficient to take full account of the additional demands of the Organization which will undoubtedly become noticeable in the next biennium. Without underestimating the importance of extra-budgetary resources, we are convinced of the need to create first a framework on the basis of the Regular Programme which as a precondition allows the effective and timely implementation of the other resources. We believe the present budget still offers possibilities to gain through shifts additional funds for this field of work which is of such a vital importance.

As we pointed out in the discussion on former budgets, my delegation would also like to point out on this occasion that the Technical Cooperation Programme is in our view not among the programme components for which the budget should provide high growth rates. We have convinced ourselves of the positive development of the TCP and of the appreciation it receives from potential recipient countries, but we feel nevertheless obliged to point out quite clearly that this type of development programme should not be financed from the regular budgets of international organizations. We do not mean FAO alone. The proportionally high growth rate is a matter of concern to us in connection with these considerations of principle.

With one exception the areas of reduced resources are identical with the areas of work, where we have often already seen in the past possibilities for savings.

The exception is the fishery sector. The Fisheries Department will have less funds available than in the current biennium. In view of the great importance world fisheries have to supply large sections of the population with high-quality protein - in some regions it is the main source of supply - and in view of the very valuable role FAO has in our opinion to play in that sector because of its technical capacities, we are concerned about this reduction.

This important sector of FAO's work together with world forestry deserve in our view a renewed review before drawing up the final proposal for the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93. We do see possibilities, as I have already mentioned, for shifts in favour of these important technical programmes, above all in an increase of the lapse factor. Staff costs continue to play the greatest role in the FAO budget as a single cost

element. The increase of the lapse factor from 3 percent to its old level before the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference would release funds which could be used elsewhere in a more productive way without, we are convinced, affecting the Organization's recruitment work. Re-calculations might be useful also with regard to the TCP growth and the allocations for the regional and country offices. The funds released could be used for priority technical programmes.

We are very grateful to the Secretariat and above all to the Programme and Finance Committees for the analyses of cost increases. In this connection, again the staff sector is of special importance. We have taken note of the fact that there will be only a marginal change in the number of staff in 1992-93 compared to the current biennium. But important net shifts have taken place between the General Service and the Professional Service. While 18 posts less are shown in the General Service, the number of Professional posts is increased by 16. This could lead, for career reasons mainly, to a structural strain on subsequent budgets, even though we had to realize from former experiences with FAO budgets and the current budget that the General Service in the upper grades in monetary terms is largely identical with the structure of salaries in the Professional Service up to P-4.

In conclusion, we think that the presentation of the Outline of the Programme of Work and Budget early in conference years, and its revision by the Programme and Finance Committees, constitutes a very valuable tool for the realistic planning of a Programme of Work and Budget. We would like to see this exercise continued, and we shall ask the Conference to endorse this view. We think that the resources involved are well spent, as was the money for the review of the Organization in 1988-89. This kind of exercise constitutes, I would venture to say, around the world a most useful management tool in modern societies. That goes for state administration as well as industrial and trade enterprises. The assumed disadvantages of the much discussed principle of zero growth were frequently mentioned in our debates today as well. Our own experiences do not correspond with the concerns voiced. Zero growth, which is a normal planning tool for us, must be seen as an incentive for managements to constantly scrutinize priorities and keep on streamlining programmes in the interest of all partners - and I stress of all partners concerned.

A lot could still be said about this informative and interesting proposed budget, the document before us. In view of the limited time available for discussion of this agenda item, I woulk like to conclude now and thank you for your attention.

Vishnu BHAGWAN (India): The Indian delegation would like to thank the FAO Secretariat for a lucid and comprehensive document containing the Summary Programme of Work and Budget. We can well understand that the proposals are a result of vigorous exercise and strenuous efforts and very much appreciate its presentation with tables and graphs which have added clarity to the information contained therein.

We are considering these proposals at a time when the problems of poverty, malnutrition and hunger continue to be faced by over one billion people in the Third World, and the world food security situation still continues to

be fragile as agricultural production in most developing countries is not able to keep pace with the demands of increasing populations. The problems of environment degradation pose a serious threat to the very existence of our planet. There is a further confounding effect of inequitable development among regions of the world and different areas in the same regions as well as among groups of people. The social and economic inequalities pose serious problems of inadequate access to food for the disadvantaged and vulnerable sections all over. The challenges are so many and so large in size that enormous resources are required to meet them which, unfortunately, are limited. However, the recent hopeful development in the international policy and the resultant end to the cold war open up possibilities of favourable concerted international action in this regard.

Multilateral and bilateral assistance for building up national capacities for increasing agricultural production have to be increased, and organizations like FAO must be strengthened further. Looking at the proposed Programme of Work and Budget in this background, my delegation feels that it falls much short of the needs as well as the aspirations of most of the Member Nations. We are concerned and regret that the budget and work programme have been presented without any increase of budgetary allocations for 1992-93, which is at the same level as that of 1990-91. By applying the concept of zero growth, we can hardly hope to see FAO as a dynamic and vibrant organization expected to meet the growing demands placed on it.

My delegation shares the view of the distinguished ambassador of Colombia who so eloquently projected the sentiments of developing countries in this regard. However, my delegation sincerely believes that this is a temporary phase, and the consensus which is the stated objective presently for proposing a budget with no real increase will soon move in favour of a more positive opinion which will be in keeping with the needs and aspirations in this important sector of economic life. We also hope that it will not become a precedent to be followed in future and abandoned as soon as possible. Within this constraint, we fully support the budget proposals as indicated in paragraph 77, as we are of the view that the proposals for higher allocations are in accordance with the objectives and mandate of the FAO and based on the recommendations of the Conference, the Council, the Regional Conferences, the Programme and Finance Committees and the technical inter-governmental bodies of the FAO. I would not go into the details of the programme, but I would mention that our delegation is particularly appreciative of the higher allocations for agricultural data development and technical cooperation programmes for fulfilling the objectives of FAO as a library of information on agricultural matters, and providing technical assistance. I should like to restrict, however, my comments to two specific points. Number one, we have some reservations regarding the distribution of TCP allocations as mentioned in paragraph 433 and feel that for the Asia and Pacific Region, which has 56 percent of the world's population and 70 percent of the world's poor, an allocation of 23 or 24 percent is inadequate and needs to be increased. The Asian countries also mentioned in the recently held COAG meeting and requested a resumption of the regional study for the Asia and Pacific Region on the same lines as has been carried out for the other geographical regions. We would once again emphasize its resumption so that an updated assessment of food and agricultural prospects for this region may become

available. In conclusion, my delegation endorses the Director-General's proposal for a consensus approval of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93.

Jaques WARIN (France): En abordant ce point, qui est l'un des plus importants de notre ordre du jour - avec la situation financière - je voudrais tout d'abord constater qu'aussi bien la structure que le contenu du document de 150 pages qui nous a été remis en avril dernier me paraissent avoir été améliorés par rapport à ce à quoi nous étions accoutumés les années précédentes. Des développements concis, des tableaux clairs, des annexes nombreuses et très explicites: autant d'éléments qui vont dans le sens d'une meilleure présentation et d'une plus grande transparence des activités futures de l’Organisation.

Le Comité du Programme et le Comité financier se sont réunis pour en discuter au mois de mai et ils ont estimé, dans l’ensemble, que les propositions faites par le Directeur général étaient conformes à la recommendation formulée dès le mois de Janvier par ces mêmes comités, à l'époque où ils examinaient le schéma du Programme de travail et budget 1992-93. Je rappelle que ces orientations étaient d'une triple nature:

Première orientation: veiller à contenir la progression du budget en valeur réelle. C'est ce que l'on appelle improprement la "croissance zéro”. A cet égard, l'annonce faite par le Directeur général, dans sa déclaration de lundi dernier, que le budget était désormais non plus à croissance de 0, 3 mais à décroissance de 0, 4 doit donner satisfaction aux plus intransigeants - je veux dire ceux qui soutiennent la rigueur financière maximum.

Deuxième orientation: limiter au maximum les accroissements de coûts. A cet égard, les 87 millions de dollars qui sont affichés en tant qu'accroissement des coûts rendus nécessaires par l’inflation et la biennalisation sont encore considérés, je le sais, par certains, comme étant trop élevés; mais l’expérience nous enseigne que, quels que soient les accroissements de coûts prévus lors des exercices précédents - et c'est le cas, notamment, pour les accroissements de coûts prévus pour l'exercice en cours 1990-91 - ils ont toujours été dépassés. Voilà pourquoi je cautionne, pour ma part, les accroissements de coûts de 15 pour cent qui sont retenus par le Sommaire de Programme de travail et budget.

Enfin, troisième orientation: il s'agit de prévoir les ressources nécessaires pour assurer l’execution du programme de travail tel qu'il sera approuvé par la Conférence; et dans cet esprit, je ne soutiendrai pas la thèse de ceux qui estiment - je les ai entendus le répéter dans cette salle - qu'il faut adapter le niveau des activités de la FAO au niveau effectif des rentrées budgétaires car, en cautionnant une telle thèse, nous baisserions les bras par avance et nous accepterions tout de suite de réduire nos programmes de 20 à 25 pour cent.

Nous sommés, à l'heure actuelle, dans une phase très délicate qui est celle de la non-croissance. Cela est certainement préjudiciable à la solution rapide des problèmes de l’alimentation dans le monde. Mais nous ne pouvons guère, sans mettre en peril l’Organisation, aller plus loin.

Cela étant, il est évident que l'objectif "croissance zéro" - ou "non croissance" - rend difficile l’émergence de priorités nouvelles et importantes si l'on ne procède pas à de sérieux redéploiements. A cet égard, les ajustements opérés par rapport aux précédents exercices ne traduisent peut-être pas encore une volonté suffisante de sélectivité. Ma délégation n'en apprécie pas moins l’effort accompli dans un certain nombre de domaines. Pour résumer, j'en relèverai sept:

Le premier domaine auquel nous attachons une priorité absolue, comme beaucoup d'entre nous dans cette salle, est celui de l’environnement et du développement durable, pour lequel il existe, à la suite de la Conférence d'Hertogenbosch, un programme d'action ou programme-cadre, dont nous approuvons le principe sans bien en connaitre, au stade actuel, toutes les implications; mais l’existence de ce programme-cadre nous parait d'autant plus nécessaire que ce domaine ne bénéficie pas encore de ressources extra-budgétaires spécifiques, qu'il n'y a pas de projets de terrain "environnement" à proprement parler et que la FAO s'est vu par ailleurs conférer un rôle important dans la préparation de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l’environnement et le développement.

Le deuxième domaine auquel on attache une priorité dans le Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget, c'est l’information agricole ou plutôt le perfectionnement des données concernant l’agriculture. C'est un domaine où la FAO justifie d'un avantage comparatif certain et nourrit l’ambitieux projet de création d'un centre d'information agricole sur lequel j'ai demandé, lors de la précédente réunion du Comité de l’agriculture, qu'on nous fournisse une série d'informations complémentaires.

Troisième domaine: les avis en matière de politique, qui correspondent éminemment, à mon sens, à l'une des activités d'excellence de la FAO, ou du moins à l'une des activités qu'elle devrait développer puisque celle-ci rentre directement dans ses compétences et qu'elle peut prendre appui, pour la développer, sur le vivier d'un capital humain d'experts et de consultants disponibles dans le monde entier.

Quatrième domaine: le Programme de coopération technique. J'ai entendu de nombreux délégués en parler avant moi, et particulièrement ceux du Groupe des 77. Je veux répéter ici que nous sommes favorables à sa croissance modérée, qui est la croissance qui a été retenue dans le Programme de travail et budget - 4 millions de dollars - car ce Programme nous parait apporter une souplesse opérationnelle indispensable à une institution comme la nôtre qui est souvent un peu trop rigide.

Cinquième domaine: la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition, à laquelle ma délégation attache une très grande importance. Nous l'avons signalé sous un autre point de l'ordre du jour. Je voudrais y revenir en déplorant qu'il soit envisagé dès à présent d'en différer la date pour des raisons qui s'expliquent sans doute par des difficultés de préparation, mais aussi et surtout, je le crains, par une mauvaise coordination entre la mauvaise organisation qui existe à l'heure actuelle entre l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et la FAO.

Sixième domaine: le secteur des forêts, secteur très important. Je rejoins à cet égard ce qu'a dit ce matin le délégué du Canada: nous estimons que

l'effort d'augmentation des ressources affichées (110 000 dollars) est beaucoup trop faible par rapport à l’importance croissante prise par ce secteur. Je veux citer, pour mémoire, les efforts pour développer le Programme d'action forestier tropical et, d'un autre côté, la preparation d'un nouvel instrument juridique international sur la forêt.

Enfin, dernier domaine sur lequel je voulais insister: les opérations de décentralisation, qui correspondent à des conclusions entérinées par la Résolution 10/99 et qui devraient se traduire par un meilleur emploi des ressources humaines de l’Organisation.

Je terminerai cette intervention par une observation d'ordre plus général sur les interférences nécessaires entre programme ordinaire et programme de terrain, je rappellerai, à cet égard, que le budget ordinaire doit prendre la relève des fonds extrabudgétaires dans les domaines dont la pertinence est confirmée afin de permettre les redéploiements nécessaires sur d'autres créneaux.

A ce propos, j'avais évoqué, lors de la dernière réunion du Comité de l’agriculture, la participation française au projet PROSYS qui est, vous le savez, un système informatisé de gestion des opérations de terrain. J'avais indiqué que, pour avoir assuré le démarrage de cette opération, nous n'avions pas pour autant l’intention de le financer ad vitam aeternam. Ce qui est vrai pour PROSYS est évidemment vrai aussi pour d'autres opérations que nous finançons actuellement et que nous cesserons peut-être de financer un jour: télédétection, nutrition intégrée des plantes, etc. A défaut, notre programme de coopération avec la FAO serait figé. Ce n'est pas notre politique. Nous voulons faire preuve du même dynamisme que l’Organisation en cherchant sans cesse des buts nouveaux et en prenant des engagements nouveaux. Je voudrais done que vous compreniez que je termine sur une note constructive, et ceci ne retire rien à l’appreciation globalement positive que formule ma délégation envers l’ensemble du Programme de travail et budget qui, je l'espère, sera approuvé par la Conférence en novembre prochain.

J.B. SHARPE (Australia): Australia, as a member of the Finance Committee has been closely involved in the discussions to date on the Programme of Work and Budget for the forthcoming biennium. May I state from the outset how useful we have found having an Outline of the Programme of Work and Budget for consideration early in the year of its preparation. We strongly advocate the continuation of this step in deliberations on the PWB. It enables the Committees and, through them, member countries to have an early input as regards the direction of the programme, priorities and the level of the budget.

Australia was pleased to see that in the preparation of the Summary Programme some effort has been made to do so on the basis of the consensus recommendation of the January meeting of the Programme and Finance Committees, that is, maintaining the current level of the budget in real terms and containing cost increases to the maximum extent possible.

It is noted favourably by Australia that efforts have been made in the Summary to emphasize priorities, including some which we strongly support, such as environment and sustainable development, policy advice, and women in development.

We note that a component within the no real increase level of the proposed Work Programme is an estimate for cost increases of US$87 million, a percentage increase over the current biennium of over 15 percent. This could be considered to be high, particularly at a time when cost increases in the budgets of international organizations are under close scrutiny by major contributors, who are applying the same close scrutiny to their own domestic budgets. Understandably, reservations are held concerning the size of this increase.

We note that it is not a final estimate and is to be the subject of review. In order to justify whatever level is finally arrived at, it is important that as much detail as possible on the methodology is used in its determination.

There is a natural inclination at a time when financial restraint is required to look at the largest increase in a proposed budget. When the outline of the Programme of Work and Budget was discussed at the Joint Meeting of the Programme and Finance Committees, Australia was among those countries who, while acknowledging technical cooperation programme's validity, held reservations about the US$4 million increase for this item.

Australia's concern with the reduction in the lapse factor for the current biennium to 3 percent is well known and well documented. Paragraph 92 of the Summary proposes that the level of the lapse factor on staff costs for the 1992-93 biennium remains at 3 percent, although no justification for doing so is given.

Both sides in this debate in the lead up to this Council, have been required to compromise on principles for which they feel very deeply. This has been in order to enable a consensus to be reached and to hold.

Australia, having taken into account the reservations it holds regarding the elements of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget mentioned above, re-affirms its commitment to the consensus approach adopted by the Finance and Programme Committees in January, that is, maintaining the current level of the budget in real terms and containing cost increases to the maximum extent possible.

Mr Chairman, for reasons of brevity I propose submitting to the Secretariat my delegation's intervention as regards document CL 99/3, Supplement 1, Revision 1, for inclusion in the verbatim report. This is the outline of an international cooperative programme framework for sustainable agriculture. Our intervention comments on each of the components of the Programme Framework, advises on Australia's domestic and international policies in similar areas, and registers general agreement with the FAO approach outlined.

As we are discussing the Programme of Work and Budget, this is the appropriate agenda item under which to raise another matter of interest to my delegation.

My delegation strongly supports FAO's initiatives on removal of unjustified phytosanitary-barriers to trade through the upgrading of the International Plant Protection Convention. The Canadian delegation in its intervention expressed similar support. Australia wishes to see the recommendations of the Third Technical Consultation among regional plant protection organizations on the status of the Convention Secretariat, the establishment of an International Approval Process and support for the regional plant protection organizations put to and accepted by the Conference.

Australia supports the general strategy and goals discussed at the FAO Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, concerning food security, employment and income generation and natural resource conservation.

The major operational objectives of the Strategy for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) are: to intensify agriculture to relieve pressure on marginal lands and avoid encroachment on fragile environments; to improve efficiency in the whole agricultural production process; to increase resilience and minimize risks in use of resources and inputs; to promote diversity and diversification of production and use of resources and inputs.

These are in accord with the factors to be considered as Australia develops its ecologically sustainable development strategy:

- increased efficiency of resource use and reduced waste production aíid pollution;

- management and utilization practices which improve the resilience of natural resource systems;

- dealing cautiously with risk and irreversibilit;y;

- integration of environmental and social considerations into economic decision-making, including ensuring that environmental assets are appropriately valued.

The FAO Programme Framework includes a range of specific requirements for national programmes to implement the above strategy, in the following areas:

(a) Sector Policy Assistance

Australia recognizes the need for assistance in policy review, in order for countries to develop appropriate policies to encourage sustainability of the natural resource base. Australia has instigated reviews of land degradation, taxation and drought policies and is examining its other landcare policies and programmes in the context of developing a Decade of Landcare Plan.

The Australian Government is taking action through institutional, economic, financial, regulatory and policy measures and through specific programmes (particularly involving local community action).

The Australian Government is committed to the achievement of ecologically sustainable development, and has a major initiative under way formulating strategies for implementing ecologically sustainable development in a number of resource and industry sectors. Within this context the question of sustainable agriculture is being addressed.

Australia encourages the support by FAO of integration of environment and sustainable development in mainstream policy and planning. Many of the requirements for SARD will extend beyond the agricultural sector. Therefore, an integrated approach will be required, taking into account social, economic and environmental considerations, including population, economics, trade and other factors which affect resource management as well as more specific rural and environmental policies.

(b) Local Community Development (People's Participation and Human Resources Development)

Australia considers that the role of education, training and extension is of fundamental iщportance for local communities to manage their environments sustainably. FAO's activities in this area are supported, particularly local group action, which has been demonstrated to be very effective in Australia. Australia also supports action on the role of women in development.

It is particularly important that local communities are provided with the knowledge, resources and opportunity to take decisions on management of natural resources in their local area. Local participative decision-making allows a recognition of the contribution of traditional knowledge and social systems to achieving sustainable development, and consideration of low-cost and less mechanized alternatives.

(c) Integrated Production Systems and Diversification

Australia believes that greater emphasis on integrated production and farming systems is vital for more sustainable agriculture. The use of whole farm planning should also be promoted. Australia agrees that there is value in diversification of rural production, including traditional crops and livestock, non-agriculture activities such as fishing, forestry and agroforestry and rural product processing. In addition to increasing resilience and improving employment and incomes, diversification can assist in maintaining a more stable and productive natural resource base. However diversification will only be one of a number of strategies for promoting sustainable agriculture.

(d) Sustainable Resource Management

FAO supports projects relating to land resources, water and conservation of biological diversity (genetic resources). Australia specifically encourages the improved management and development of resources through such activities as assessing land capability, establishing and protecting

vegetation (particularly remnant native vegetation), developing whole farm and catchment plans, implementing practices suited to local conditions, maintaining the productive potential of soil, water management, integrated nutrient and pest control, responsible use of biotechnology.

Australian overseas aid activities are co-ordinated by AIDAB which operates on the basis of integrating ecologically sustainable development in all aspects of Australia's official development assistance programme. It does not support activities which are likely to reduce significantly the long-term productivity of land by affecting factors such as soil structure and fertility or by depositing persistent toxic chemical residues. Activities which restrict future land-use options are not supported. Appropriate assessments of soil salinity and water-logging risks are conducted, and where such assessments indicate unacceptable levels of degradation, proposed activities will not be supported.

(e) Appropriate Use of Agricultural Inputs

The increased use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers can lead to soil, water and food contamination, loss or contamination of native species (particularly fish and birds) and hazards to human health.

Australia supports activities relating to Integrated Pest Management, Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems and rural energy development, to minimize and make the most efficient use of pesticides, fertilizers and energy inputs.

There is an increasing concern over chemical contamination of foods, and markets may be developing for residue-free food. This is an area which needs further consideration.

The proposed approach emphasizes integration and cross-linkages between existing FAO Policies and Programmes, and the development of new programmes and projects.

Australia agrees that it will be important to develop concrete plans and programmes for national action and international co-operation, in line with the broad priorities to be defined by the UNCED process. It agrees that the FAO approach outlined in this paper is generally an appropriate framework which should be elaborated in line with those outcomes, to contribute to a plan of action in the agricultural sector and related areas.

The systems to be developed will have to meet the economic and social requirements of the local people and be appropriate to the local environment. It will be important for FAO to identify a range of issues, strategies and solutions which will enable countries, individually and in co-operation with others, to implement appropriate measures. Issues will need to be addressed at the local, national and regional levels.

Factors to be considered include priority and timing of activities and how they are be implemented via policy, institutional or economic means.

At this stage, Australia sees the priorities for developing and implementing sustainable agriculture, both within Australia and overseas, to be:

- research, information, education and training;

- availability of appropriate technical solutions, with a management framework in which to implement them;

- policy, legislative and institutional mechanisms for integrating economic and environmental considerations (e.g. market pricing of resources);

- a systems approach, including whole farm planning and catchment/regional based activities;

- community participation, with a local group-based approach to addressing issues.

Nedilson Ricardo JORGE (Brazil): First of all allow me to congratulate the FAO Secretariat for an excellent job in preparing document CL 99/3, which reinforces our belief in their capacity to manage the affairs of the Organization in the proper manner.

The Brazilian delegation supports the priorities set out in the proposed Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93, and hopes there will be no need to readjust or adapt programme execution to financial constraints. Anyway, we believe the FAO Secretariat will take into account the need to maintain the priorities in the following order: environment and self-sustainable development; agricultural data development, including the WAICENT forests, women in development, policy advice, decentralization and the International Conference on Nutrition.

The Brazilian delegation recognizes that the proposed budget assumes no real increase in the programmes of the Organization, but is worried about the impact of the 15.34 percent increase in the proposed budget level on the contributions of developing member countries, because they are facing economic and financial difficulties, mostly due to the burden of the external debt.

It is well known that the international economic crisis continues to affect negatively the developing countries through the fall of export prices and monetary problems derived from the transfer of resources for the service of the external debt. Therefore, we think international organizations should make every effort to adjust their budgets to the real possibilities of their Member States in the same way many member countries have had to introduce measures of economic adjustment with painful social costs to their populations.

Our worries come, then, from the fact that we have seen in the last few years that more and more countries are having economic and financial problems and are not managing to face their already existing contributions, as well as other international obligations. This fact can be easily

verified by looking at document CL 99/LIM/1, page 4, and we soon realize that the number of countries in arrears is an ever-growing one. From 55 in 1987, it has increased to 82 in 1991, more than half of the members of the Organization. And FAO is not an exception, the same applies to other UN agencies.

It is difficult, therefore, to accept passively such an increase in contributions, even if it comes from cost increases. As a consequence, the Brazilian delegation thinks that an even larger effort has to be made by the FAO Secretariat to reduce, as much as possible, the level of the proposed budget, and thereby reduce this nominal but substantial increase of 15.34 percent to more acceptable levels.

Let me stress, however, that Brazil does not intend to see reduction in effective programmes of the Organization. We would rather favour the reduction of administrative and personal costs and forecast inflation, together with the procedure of the no-real increase policy adopted by the Director-General: the reallocation of resources through the different programmes instead of net increases.

The Brazilian delegation wonders whether the inflation forecast to 1992-93 of about US$48 million is an appropriate amount and really could not be reduced. Biennialization of costs, of course, is a concrete fact that must be taken into account, but future inflation is an uncertainty that could be more optimistically considered. Past experience of underestimating inflation in the forthcoming biennium should not lead us to overestimate it this time.

Regarding personnel, Mr Chairman, we are not suggesting that salaries should be reduced nor experts be summarily dismissed; we are just asking whether it would be possible to re-evaluate the need for the current staff member and thus reach a reduction and an adjustment of posts in order to save a bit more. This can be particularly important as, according to the statement made by the Director-General to this Council, 70 percent of the Regular Budget is to pay salaries.

Besides, the Brazilian Government also wonders whether some aspects of the proposed Work and Budget could not be reviewed and their allocated resources reduced. For instance, we would mention all Field Programme Support and Programme Management in general. We would also like to ask the Secretariat whether Programme 1.1 concerning Governing Bodies; Conference and Council could not be reduced even more. This might be achieved, for instance, by reducing the time of interventions in the General debate in Plenary, with a consequent reduction in sessions of the Conference; and by a careful review and rationalization of translation services; and by reducing the number of languages of some documents provided, and so on. In many programmes, such as, regarding the International Conference on Nutrition, which we fully support, wouldn't it be possible to try to obtain more external resources to finance it? The Brazilian delegation would also mention Programme 3.4 concerning FAO Representatives. It is correct that the strengthening of FAO country representations was recommended by the last Conference. We think, however, that FAO should pursue a decentralization policy not necessarily through strengthening the country office network, in terms of manpower and equipment, but mainly through

"autonomy of decision", for instance, to approve programmes and requests and to act promptly when necessary. In the same way, we also think it would be possible to reduce the allocated resources to Programmes 1.4 -concerning Liaison and 5.2 - concerning Administration.

The Brazilian delegation would also like to ask the Secretariat to study the possibility of reducing the number of technical meetings and to re-evaluate the current calendar of sessions of all Conferences, Committees and Inter-governmental Groups, reducing where possible the frequency or the length of these meetings. For instance, would it not be possible to join the meetings of Inter-governmental Groups on Commodities in a single and larger meeting, discussing all similar agenda items of these different Groups together?

Finally, we would like to make it clear that we are not against increases in the operational programmes nor the role of FAO in the struggle against hunger and agricultural under-development. Our suggestions were presented with the aim of improving the situation of FAO today, taking into account the financial difficulties, the Organization and its member countries have been facing.

We hope, Mr Chairman, these comments will be viewed as a serious contribution to the debate on this item and to improve even more the relation between costs incurred and benefits obtained in FAO. We will be pleased to hear the FAO Secretariat later on answering our questions and clearing our doubts.

Youssef Ali M. HAMDI (Egypt) (Original language Arabic): I would like to thank the Director-General and his staff for the efforts they have made in preparing the Summary Programme of Work and Budget and I would like also to thank him for having taken into account the priorities set by the Committee and the Governing Bodies. These priorities are: the environment, the sustainable development, biological diversity, the agricultural data development, women in development and policy advice and technical cooperation, International Conference on Nutrition and forestry.

We support the proposed Programme of Work and we thank the Director-General and his staff for the efforts they made in order to prepare a realistic programme budget taking into account the difficult situations faced by many countries. No increase in real terms is seen for the funds allocated to implementing the proposed programmes. Therefore, the level of the programme budget is similar to the previous one. We are satisfied with that and we welcome the proposed level. We also welcome the increase in the level of the Technical Cooperation Programme despite the fact that it is far lower than the level set by the General Conference.

Mr Chairman, we agree with the Director-General that the financial framework of the proposed budget is determined by three main factors, namely firstly the contributions of the member countries. Here we are sorry because contributions are not being paid and this has adversely affected the activities of the Organization in the past and I hope that the situation will improve in the near future. Secondly, the support cost paid by the United Nations Development Programme. We hope that its level will

not go down further reaching a point that will negatively affect the implementation of the programmes, and thirdly the cost increase. This is a factor which lies beyond the control of FAO because it is a result of (a) possible changes in the salaries of the staff members, and (b) the increase in the cost of supplies and services. The Director-General has made valuable efforts in order to control this major element, but in spite of that its figure is still at the US$7 million compared to the previous budget for the previous biennium. We understand that this increase is something which lies beyond the control of the Organization but this increase will be an additional burden on the contributions paid by my country - my country which is going through a difficult period. It will be difficult for us to fulfil our obligations. My country has always been among those countries which pay their contributions early, and will not accept to be part of those countries that pay their contributions late.

For this reason it is difficult for us now to give a final view on the proposed increase. We ask the Secretariat to start working on this matter in order to bring this figure down as far as possible. We are convinced that, thanks to the assistance of both the Finance and Programme Committees, a figure will be reached that will enable us to take a final stand on this issue during the General Conference, which will make it easy for us to accept the final draft Programme of Work and Budget by consensus, and this is a matter we would like to achieve. Thank you.

An KWANG WOOK (Korea, Republic of): Let me first express my compliments to Mr Shah and the Chairmen of the Programme and Finance Committees for the clarity of their presentation, which will facilitate consideration of the 1992-93 Programme of Work and Budget. Taking this opportunity my delegation would also like to associate itself with previous speakers in appreciating the Secretariat for the well prepared budget document.

Now, with your permission Mr Chairman, I would like to make a few comments on this important agenda as a contribution to the debate.

First, in relation to the budget level, we find that the Director-General has endeavoured to find a compromise between the wishes of a great majority of Member Nations to see an increase of resources commensurate with their requirements, and the need to limit the request for assessments on member countries. However, regarding the financial difficulties which are prevailing in most countries and are expected to continue at least during the next biennium, I believe that the approach adopted by the Director-General is quite acceptable.

Secondly, we are of the opinion that the increased share of development support programme by 0.3 percent over the previous biennium deserves high remarks in the efforts of the Organization to help the developing countries tackle the chronic problems of rural poverty.

Thirdly, we feel that it is appropriate to continue to allocate more Technical Cooperation Programme resources to the African region in the light of the food crisis which has been more aggravated relatively in that region by not only the natural disaster itself but also by the lack of South-North cooperation. However, it is somewhat regrettable that the total level of TCP support, as an actual proportion of the budget, has been reduced.

In this connection, I would like to reiterate the Resolution 9/89 which reaffirmed that TCP is an essential operational tool of the Organization to provide appropriate and rapid technical assistance to member countries.

At the same time, I hope that adequate extra-budgetary resources will be forthcoming to permit continued expansion of field activities and therefore request the Director-General to contact potential donor countries and other sources for this purpose.

Finally, with this basic understanding and recognition in mind, I would like to express our support for the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93. I sincerely hope that the present budgetary request of zero growth can be regarded as only a very temporary situation. The realities of the world situation in food production and availability, nutrition, rural development and the increasing crisis in environmental matters do not allow for any continued trend in this direction.

My delegation, therefore, hopes to have somewhat more concerted efforts by FAO and all member countries to make changes in these undesirable trends.

Abdesselem ARIFI (Maroc): Ma délégation souhaite se prononcer au sujet du point sounds à notre examen et qui constitue à nos yeux l'un des points les plus importants de l'ordre du jour, à bien des égards.

Ma délégation qui a examiné avec beaucoup d'intérêt le rapport du Comité financier et du Comité du Programme lors de leur session conjointe en mai dernier, ainsi que les explications qui ont été fournies ce matin par les présidents des deux comités, pense que le Programme de travail et budget proposé pour le biennium 1992-1993 semble répondre le mieux possible aux préoccupations suivantes, à savoir:

- difficultés financières actuelles de la FAO;

- soucis de présenter un document qui a le plus de chance d'être adopté par consensus.

Ma délégation a beaucoup de peine à admettre qu'à un moment où la communauté internationale, à travers la famille des Nations Unies, semble plus que jamais déterminée à résoudre les problèmes mondiaux, à un moment où la FAO doit aller de l'avant pour aider beaucoup de ses Etats Membres à augmenter leur production vivrière et à améliorer la nutrition de leur population sans cesse croissante, à un moment où les pays en développement sont en proie à des problèmes insolubles tels que la dette extérieure, l'on arrive à un stade où le concept de croissance zéro soit applique au budget de notre Organisation. C'est là une situation que ma délégation admet à contrecoeur et avec beaucoup de regret, dans le souci, comme je le disais, de parvenir à un consensus. Cependant, ma délégation s'oppose à toute absorption par le budget des coûts non discrétionnaires.

Ma délégation approuve de façon générale les grands domaines qui ont été spécifiquement choisis pour une augmentation des credits et se félicite que, lors de l’élaboration du programme de travail, le lien étroit qui unit le programme de terrain au programme ordinaire a été pris en compte, voire renforcé.

Cependant, nous regrettons que la part du PCT, qui devrait bénéficier de la plus forte augmentation nette, en raison des accroissements de taux de change et en dépit des 4 millions de dollars qui lui sont alloués, diminuera dans le prochain Programme de travail et budget.

S'agissant du Programme 2.3 au sujet des forêts, ma délégation a toujours privilégié ce secteur et estime que l’augmentation nette de 110 000 dollars qui lui est allouée ne peut en aucune manière permettre au Département des forêts de faire face aux différentes activités prioritaires qui lui sont confiées en matière notamment de protection des forêts, d'analyse du secteur forestier, de la mise au point d'un instrument juridique approprié couvrant les divers aspects de la foresterie, etc.

Pour ce qui est de la décentralisation et des bureaux régionaux, il est aussi regrettable de constater que les réductions nettes de crédits alloués aux bureaux régionaux soient proposées car cela réduirait considérablement leurs activités menées traditionnellement.

Enfin, ma délégation est convaincue qu'en dépit des restrictions imposées aux activités de la FAO, notre Organisation mettra toute son ardeur pour l’exécution du programme qui nous est soumis.

Ms. Melinda KIMBLE (United States of America): The United States delegation would like to express its appreciation to the Secretariat for preparing the 1992-93 Summary Programme of Work and Budget (SPWB) before us. We recognize the amount of effort involved and the extremely difficult task of responding to urgent needs in an era of diminishing resources. In this regard we must also recognize the excellent work of the Programme and Finance Committees as part of this challenging task.

May I assure you that the United States has a deep and abiding concern for addressing the debilitating effects of poverty and hunger. Understandably, we and all contributors seek to ensure that funds going to the UN system agencies are utilized effectively and efficiently. To this end, we hope to continue to work actively and cooperatively with the Council and the FAO Secretariat, as we have done throughout the UN system, to strengthen the programme budget planning process which is an indispensable management tool in our mutual effort to set priorities and contain costs.

We are particularly pleased with the improved format of the 1992-93 Summary Programme of Work and Budget, which is much clearer and readable. We welcome these improvements.

The United States has actively participated in the FAO committees developing programme priorities for the upcoming biennium, and agreed to the priorities proposed by the Director-General in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget. On several occasions in recent months the United States has accorded high priority to programmes involving pest diseases, policy advice, global forestry, nutrition and women in development.

We wish to highlight the particular importance we attach to FAO's movement into environmentally sustainable agriculture, including its technical support to the UNCED process, and the increased emphasis on Codex

Alimentarius and the IPPC which we strongly support. We note the proposed TCP increase is higher than we would have preferred, necessitating reductions in other programme areas that we believe are more important.

The budget outline process has proven invaluable in FAO's effort to set programme priorities and the 1992-93 SPWB reflects these. We see merit in reaching consensus at an early stage on a realistic budget level and programme priorities that meet the needs of the membership as well as recognizing economic constraints facing Member States. This should become a permanent feature of FAO's budget process.

The Programme and Finance Committees recommended unanimously in January 1991 that the SPWB be prepared on the basis of no programme growth. The 1992-93 SPWB has been prepared on this basis. My Government considers this a major step and a positive illustration of FAO's ability to prioritize Its programme of work. This is extremely important as it is necessary for all international organizations to respond to high priority needs, eliminate activities that have not achieved positive and measurable results; and shift resources among, as well as within, individual programmes. In this regard we would support the suggestions of other delegates who have advocated concentrating FAO resources in areas where FAO's comparative advantage and expertise are widely recognized.

My delegation recalls also that the Committees reached a consensus in recommending that the Director-General prepare the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93 containing cost increases to the maximum extent possible. We were encouraged that FAO made considerable progress in accomplishing this task in the two previous biennia. However, the budget before us, in nominal terms, represents no change from the outline prepared last January. Cost increases remain at the initial projection of 15.3 percent over the current 1990-91 budget. This departs from past budgetary restraint and limits the ability of countries at this stage to join in a consensus recommendation with respect to the preparation of the full Programme of Work and Budget (PWB) for 1992-93. If the PWB remains at this level, the impact on Member States' assessments will be substantial, particularly when exchange rate adjustments are factored into the equation this November.

Taking into consideration that more than two-thirds of the membership have not paid their 1991 assessment and more than half of the membership is in arrears, a biennial budget of US$656 million is, in our judgement, unrealistically high.

The United States has consistently called for zero growth and maximum absorption of non-discretionary cost increases in FAO. Similarly, the United States and others have called on UN agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labor Organisation (ILO) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to exercise budgetary restraint and maximum absorption of cost increases. During the two previous biennia, those organizations and many others within the UN system have faced the challenge of prioritization and the need to eliminate outmoded activites. These organizations continue to seek further efficiencies.

We would like to suggest possible areas where FAO might achieve savings through absorption of cost increases. Let me note in this regard that my delegation found the comments and ideas put forward by the Brazilian delegate particularly constructive. I would also wish to emphasize that these are suggestions. The Secretariat may find other or alternative areas where it believes savings can be achieved.

First, we believe further savings may be bound in the following three categories: (a) education grants, (b) travel on appointment, repatriation, etc. and (c) other human resources. These anticipated cost increases were absorbed in the 1990-91 SPWB and FAO should continue to exercise similar budgetary restraint in the coming biennium.

Second, efforts could be made to absorb inflationary cost increases proposed for furniture, equipment and vehicles.

Third, in our view, FAO could absorb the biennialization of costs for other human resources and general operating expenses, as was accomplished in the 1990-91 biennium.

Fourth, an increase in the lapse factor from 3 percent to 5.5 percent would achieve further reductions in the nominal level of the budget. We continue to express reservations on the lapse factor in the 1992-93 SPWB as this change was not unanimously agreed to by the Finance Committee in the fall 1989 session. Indeed, 18 members did not support the reduction of the lapse factor at the November 1989 FAO Conference.

While there is no uniform UN system-wide standard for applying a lapse factor rate, FAO's own practice of using a 5.5 percent lapse factor served the Organization well for two decades. Moreover, system-wide experience suggests a significantly higher lapse factor is warranted in new posts -some agencies, in fact, are applying a lapse factor of fifty percent to new professional posts.

Finding operational savings and streamlining activities is not easy. In this time of profound challenges to the UN system we inevitably face a situation where growth in one area necessarily means offsets elsewhere. If all of us, as members, want to strengthen FAO and enhance its relevance, effective cooperation on developing priorities and containing costs is essential. We believe that FAO can meet this challenge.

The SPWB is a preliminary estimate. Yet, without a call for maximum absorption of non-discretionary cost increases at this stage in the budget process, Member States could be looking at significantly higher figures this fall.

With regard to financing the budget, we would insist that miscellaneous income continue to be used to reduce Member States' assessments. We question whether Member States will be assessed additional amounts to replenish the working capital fund and special reserve account. We would not be inclined to favour such further assessments.

Let there be no misunderstanding about the goal and objective of the United Nations at this Council session. We would welcome a consensus recommendation regarding the preparation of the 1992-93 full Programme of Work and Budget. We are ready and willing to work with FAO and members of this Council to achieve this end.

Oscar MAS HKRRKRA (Costa Rica): Nuestra delegación no considera de su competencia hacer un análisis de los aspectos técnicos presupuestarios del Programa de Labores de la FAO que tenemos entre manos; dejamos para los expertos en materias financieras y estadisticas el pronunciarse sobre el detalle de ellos. Sin embargo, no quisiéramos dejar pasar la oportunidad de hacer ciertas apreciaciones de un orden diferente sobre un programa que tiene el indiscutible mérito de esforzarse por atender las necesidades de un mundo lleno de demandas y de expectativas, para conjugarlas con las posibilidades reales de la FAO.

La delegación de Costa Rica no puede menos que dar su aprobación en términos generales a este documento, especialmente en sus aspectos programáticos, considerando que el señor Director General, en las circunstancias actuales, no puede proceder de manera diversa de como lo propone, habida cuenta de los recursos que tiene en su mano. Por mucho que nos duela, también estamos de acuerdo con los préstamos externos, puesto que no parece que hay a, por el momento, otras posibilidades viables, si es que no se quiere declarar esta empresa - me refiero a la FAO -definitivamente atascada.

Lamentamos, naturalmente, las reduceiones que se proponen en diversos campos en los que la FAO ha sido durante años una agencia internacional de primera línea, la más importante e incluso, en algunos casos, la única, como lo son los de la pesca, la agricultura y las agendas regionales. Pienso en el excelente trabajo que realiza en Costa Rica la Agencia de la FAO, dirigida en estos momentos por el Sr. Babini, y a estos campos en que ha habido recortes añdo las actividades relativas al PCT. Todo esto es bien lamentable.

El gran problema lo conocemos todos. La FAO se convierte en una institución con la mano permanentemente tendida en dirección a alguno de los grandes países donantes que ahora son sus grandes deudores. La FAO se convierte en una especie de gran mendiga. A veces nos invade un cierto desaliento y nos preguntamos hasta qué punto vale la pena estudiar documentos o pronunciarse sobre ellos cuando, como ha sido dicho, la FAO no es independiente en la ejecución de los programas acordados en su Conferencia. Nuestras vehementes solicitudes para que haya orden en el pago de las grandes deudas ¿tendrán efeeto en algún momento?

El crecimiento cero de los presupuestos y programas de nuestra Organización es, sin duda, un mal menor, porque la disyuntiva parece ser o crecimiento cero o bancarrota. Pero un mal menor es siempre un mal, porque aquí lo bueno sería un crecimiento orgánico razonable en beneficio de todos, especialmente de los más desposeídos. Y este crecimiento orgánico y racional deseable no es una Utopía: depende de que los grandes deudores cumplan con las cuotas a las que libremente se obligaron un día, sin constricciones de ninguna especie sobre ellas.

Repito: mi delegación aceptará èl crecimiento cero y los programas tal y como han sído presentados por la Secretaria; no hay alternativas. Pero ¡cuánto desearíamos, en un futuro no muy lejano, poder ayudar a aprobar con nuestro voto un programa más halagüeño! Y esto será cuando las finanzas de la FAO, se equilibren, cuando se dé respiro a la administración de la Organización, cuando nuestra Organización recupere su libertad y no se vea obligada a mendigar los dineros que sus miembros le prometieron un día.

Amin Abdel MALEK (Liban) (langue originale arabe): Je voudrais tout d'abord remercier M. Shah de son excellente et brève présentation du document relatif au Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget 1992-93. Je voudrais également remercier M. Mazoyer, Président du Comité du Programme, et M. di Mottola Balestra, Président du Comité financier, pour leurs exposés respectifs au sujet des travaux de leur comité.

La délégation du Liban ne comptait pas donner son accord sur le Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget pour l'exercice de 1992-93 dans sa mouture actuelle si ce n'était la volonté sincère dont a fait preuve le Directeur général lors de la session conjointe du Comité financier et du Comité du Programme, qui s'est tenue en Janvier 1991, pour aboutir à un consensus. Cette session était consacrée à l’élaboration des lignes directrices du PTB. De longues discussions y furent consacrées et les avis ont été partagés, ce qui a conduit le Directeur général à intervenir et à accepter de maintenir le budget à un niveau de croissance zéro, dans un effort pour que le prochain budget de l’Organisation fasse l'objet d'un consensus au sein des deux comités, ce qui lui permettait également de faire l'objet d'un consensus tant au Conseil, à sa session actuelle, que lors de la prochaine Conférence, en novembre 1991.

La maintien du budget à son niveau actuel n'est pas de nature à permettre à notre Organisation d'aller de l'avant, comme on le lui demande. Cela est vraiment regrettable. Nous avons eu l’occasion d'évoquer cette question à de nombreuses reprises sans que nos efforts ni ceux de la majorité des Etats Membres aboutissent à des résultats concrete et positifs.

Ce qui importe à la délégation du Liban, en ce moment, c'est l’adoption du Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget tel qu'il nous est soumis. Nous tenons à exprimer notre entier appui au Programme de coopération technique. Les allocations prévues pour ce Programme s'élèvent seulement à 71 767 000 dollars - je dis seulement parce que nous espérions que ces allocations fussent quatre fois supérieures au niveau proposé afin de fournir une assistance aux Etats qui en ont besoin et qui sont bien nombreux. L'intervention rapide et non programmée et la rapidité avec laquelle les projets sont adoptés font que ce Programme est devenu une nécessité absolue dans les activités de l’OAA. Si le Directeur général de notre Organisation, M. Edouard Saouma, n'avait pas créé ce Programme au début de l'année 76, en prenant ses fonctions à la tête de l’Organisation, il aurait été impératif de le créer à un moment ou à un autre. On pourrait mieux percevoir l’importance que revêt le PCT si l'on devait évaluer les actions réalisées par ce Programme depuis 1976: 4 578 projets d'un coût global d'environ 382 millions de dollars jusqu'en 1990, sans compter l’intervention de l'ΌAA par le biais du Programme dans les opérations d'urgence, dont la dernière en date est l’assistance fournie au Gouvernement du Bangladesh à la suite des graves inondations qu'il a subies.

Si nous savions tout cela, nous nous rendrions cpmpte de l’importance du Programme. C'est la raison pour laquelle ma délégation réίtère son appui à ce Programme et son accord quant à l’augmentation des ressources proposée par le Directeur général, qui est d'un montant de 4 millions de dollars pour les deux prochaines années.

Quant à la deuxième question qu'il nous importe de souligner, il s'agit de la demande faite par certains pays à l’Organisation de résorber les augmentations du coût, soit 87 millions de dollars, ce qui ne laisse vraiment pas de nous étonner. L'augmentation du coût ne dépend en rien de la volonté de l’Organisation, car il s'agit d'une augmentation qui affecte toutes les organisations internationales, les organisations nationales et même les peuples. A l'heure actuelle, il ne saurait y avoir de remède sans augmentation des allocations pertinentes. De même, il ne faudrait pas oublier qu'au cours des quatre dernières années l’Organisation a résorbé la plus grande partie des augmentations de coût sauf à vouloir la condamner à interrompre l’execution du plus grand nombre de ces projets, ce que personne d'entre nous ne saurait accepter.

Monsieur le Président, permettez-moi à cette occasion de rappeler à nouveau certaines évidences incontournables, et dont il nous incombe à tous d'assumer la responsabilité. Premièrement, on ne saurait imaginer que l’Organisation puisse continuer à assumer son role d'avant-garde tout en lui imposant la règie de la croissance zéro. Cela constitue une hérésie économique. C'est un argument inacceptable, une formule diplomatique pour signifier, en clair, la régression des activités de l'Organisation. Deuxièmement, on ne saurait imaginer l’Organisation les bras croisés face à des situations d'urgence résultant de catastrophes naturelles, de guerres ou de troubles internes. Troisièmement, on ne saurait à la fois demander à l’Organisation d'apporter son assistance technique aux pays Membres et en même temps oublier que certains pays ne paient pas les contributions financières découlant de leurs obligations d'Etat Membre.

Les membres de cet auguste Conseil ont un role global dans la définition de la politique de l’Organisation, de son évaluation et de son soutien, afin qu'elle soit à la hauteur de nos aspirations. Les Etats Membres ne peuvent fractionner leurs relations avec l’Organisation ni choisir à leur convenance la nature de ces relations ou le degré de leur implication dans ses activités.

Waleed A. ELKHEREIJI (Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of) (Original language Arabic): I have a few comments to make on this item of the agenda, but before I do so I would like to thank the Chairmen of the Programme and Finance Committees for a very obviously effective chairmanship of those two committees. My delegation has examined the document on this very important item of the agenda. We would like to begin by thanking the Director-General for the untiring efforts he has made and is still making in order to reach a consensus on the Programme of Work and Budget so as to enable the Organization to continue with its work in the service of the humanitarian objectives that it has been set in a satisfactory manner.

My delegation has noted with satisfaction what it says in paragraph 13 of document 99/8, dealing with the joint sessions of the Programme and the Finance Committees. These joint meetings were held last May. It emerges quite clearly that the committees were satisfied with the structure, content and improved presentation of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93.

Moving on down to paragraph 1.5, they expressed their concern with respect to the impact of cost increases, as these would obviously affect the countries' assessed contributions. We also have some misgivings about these cost increases because they only serve to increase the burden for member countries which may already be in arrears in paying their assessed contributions. I am thinking of those countries that are heavily in debt.

My delegation supports the priorities set by the Organization. We agree that priority should be given particularly to the Technical Cooperation Programme. This has been symbolized by the increase of the US$4 million it receives under the proposed budget. This is one of the most important programmes for developing countries, but it is also important for developed countries. We do hope that we can concentrate on the quality of projects and not really on their number.

Turning now to the environment, we have noted with satisfaction what was allocated to that, and we do hope that pre-investment projects will also be given attention because there we shall receive cooperation from other organizations. We also hope that extra-budgetary sources of financing will be found for them.

My delegation supports the steps taken by the Organization to reduce administrative costs and support costs to a minimum, but one cannot cut the costs of regional offices because of the service that they provide developing countries. I do appreciate that it is a very difficult task, because we all want a powerful and effective organization, but at mimimum cost. That is extremely difficult to achieve. However, we do have every confidence in the management of the Organization and hope that it will overcome these obstacles. Finally, we do hope that we shall achieve satisfactory results after the forthcoming Finance and Programme Committee sessions.

Oscar Sales PETINGA (Portugal): La délégation portugaise considère que l'un des points les plus importants de l'ordre du jour du Conseil est l’approbation du Programme de travail et budget présenté par le Directeur général, lequel a fait des remarques sur l’esprit et le contenu de ce document, de façon à pouvoir les intégrer dans la version définitive.

La délégation est consciente du fait que la situation économique internationale oblige à réduire les dépenses. Ce n'est qu'en ce sens que nous comprenons la croissance zéro. Le procédé correct serait d'évaluer tout d'abord les besoins, puis d'obtenir la couverture financière pour leur faire face. Ainsi, il nous resterait seulement à intégrer les projets, selon les priorités fixées, conformément au plafond établi.

Nous avons examiné le tableau qui figure au paragraphe 74 du document CL 99/3 et nous avons constaté que presque tous les chiffres présentés dans ce tableau traduisent une diminution des dépenses à l’exception des points "Nutrition", "Ressources forestières et environnement" et "Institutions et investissements forestiers".

Cette distribution des ressources est en concordance avec les priorités établies. La délégation portugaise formule l'espoir qu'il sera possible d'obtenir des ressources extrabudgétaires pour la Conférence mondiale sur la nutrition ainsi que pour la Conférence sur l’environnement.

Malgré la modestie de ses ressources, mon pays examinera la possibilité d'apporter une contribution matérielle réduite aux travaux préparatoires de la CIN. Les contacts on déjà été établis avec la FAO. Cependant, nous pensons qu'il est extrêmement urgent d'intensifier les activités forestières non seulement au niveau binaire forêt-environnement, mais aussi en ce qui concerne la valorisation économique des forêts tropicales et les études de base relatives aux pluies acides et aux incendies forestiers.

La délégation portugaise est d'avis que le budget élaboré par le Comité du Programme et le Comité financier représente un compromis possible pour que soit obtenu un consensus, comme l'ont dit leurs présidents, tout en soulignant en même temps l’impossibilité d'établir de nouvelles priorités.

Winston RUDDER (Trinidad and Tobago): Permit me to to express the gratitude of my delegation for the excellent documentation on this particular agenda item and also to the Assistant Director-General, the Chairman of the Programme Committee and the Chairman of the Finance Committee for the exposition which facilitated our understanding of these documents. May I also express my honour to take part in this rich debate which has been thus far characterized by utter frankness and conviction on the part of all delegates who have spoken before me: yet leaving open avenues for compromise that will allow us at the end of the day to achieve consensus on this summary programme of work document.

The debate on this agenda item before Council constitutes a challenge and a process for moving us along a path from rhetoric to reality, converting mission, role and objectives into concrete tasks and targets and identifying the resources for their implementation. Hopefully, at the end of this process, we will find a way to maintain and indeed intensify the momentum of this Organization which has served us and our interests so well and which has engendered expectations, rekindled and sustained hope, and has been meeting the needs of developing countries in the sphere of food and agricultural development for well-nigh five decades. Indeed, it should be a sober reflection that the relevance and validity of FAO depend on its continuing capacity and capability to deliver the increasingly needed support of requisite quality and quantity in a timely manner where it is so badly required. In a very elemental way, all of this can only take effect in accordance with what is approved in the Organization's Programme of Work and Budget, for this is a mandate for action and, in our view, constitutes both an authorization and an obligation to deliver. We deem it our responsibility as a member of Council representing not only our own national interests but also those of all 13 member CARICOM states and

indeed the wider international community of nations which constitute FAO to ensure that the Organization is enabled to fulfil its role as a development assistance agency in the area of food and agriculture in a manner consistent with meeting the needs of the many millions who would otherwise be worse off, some perhaps malnourished, others starving and yet others dying in the absence of this Organization and the goods and services it delivers.

Against this background, my delegation endorses the Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1992-93 as detailed in document CL 99/3. Understanding the practical and pragmatic considerations that have gone into the fact of the consensus-building and compromise that have been struck, we are impressed with the sensitivity and sense of responsibility exhibited in the interpretation of global priorities which have been identified for increased resource inputs, and as much as we regret the counter-balance in reduction in other areas within the Programme, we agree with the choices. The areas identified for priority are all critical. However, we would wish to emphasize in particular the area of agricultural data development, the area of policy advice, environment and sustainable development, the Technical Cooperation Programme and forestry. But permit me a few comments in this direction. We find it a little bit inconsistent with the focus of environmental and sustainable agriculture that the quantum of funds allocated for forestry, which is both needed in terms of protection and production, and indeed, in many countries, the agriculture-forestry linkage is indeed very close and really very integral, that we could not find it possible to reallocate additional funds for the area of forestry.

Moreover, in the particular case of island and coastal states, the issue of the reduction of funding for the fisheries programme does pose a considerable problem, again in the context of the environment and sustainable development. We also support proposals for implementing the strategy for an International Cooperative Framework for sustainable agriculture, as detailed in the document. In our view it makes good sense to so streamline the several programmes identified to incorporate and integrate the issues and concerns.

Mr Chairman, if this sounds like a list of priorities within priorities it is indeed meant to be so, since experience suggests that even with consensus acceptance of the Programme of Work and Budget at this Council, and indeed at the Conference, there is no guarantee of implementation given the vexed question of uncertainty of funding arrangements.

This leads me to the issue of absorption of cost increases. The inevitable nature of these increases indicates that they ought to be explicity catered for. Indeed it will be necessary for us and the Secretariat to do all in its power to ensure that these are kept to the very minimum.

We are happy to note the consensus arrived at in the meetings of the Programme Committee and the Finance Committee which led to the fuller elaboration which is before us in this Summary. However, we find great difficulty in understanding and accepting budgetary proposals which project for immediate planned reductions of the Programme of Work and Budget of FAO, as implied by the principle of cost absorption. In such a situation where we all seem agreed on the enormity and complexity of the issue

confronting the needy in the developing world, the increasing demand and challenges imposed upon this Organization in contributing to their reduction through mobilization of collective international action require adequate resources to be dedicated.

In many of the areas identified for action, FAO arguably has the greatest credibility based on its technical competence and track record. Therefore, in our view it should play an increasing not a diminished role.

My delegation in the spirit of consensus struck thus far on the Programme of Work and Budget endorses the 1992-93 Summary and looks forward to analysing the detailed proposals at the next Council and Conference.

Natigor SIAGIAN (Indonesia): Mr Chairman, my delegation would like to express its sincere appreciation to Mr Shah for introducing the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93. We take this sympathetic gesture as a reflection of his deep commitment to the sound administrative and budgetary management of the Organization.

We are also extremely grateful to the Chairman of the Programme Committee and the Finance Committee for their introductory remarks which we believe will greatly facilitate our deliberations. Increase in the management of the Organization is also a main purpose of the Organization. As we understand it, from the Programme, budget item 32, increased efficiency, should mean that with the same level or reduced budget the Organization can still perform the same programmes and deliver the same outputs. Following this simple logic, we are concerned to note that zero budget growth will have no real programme increase. The line is indeed very thin between a reduced budget in the name of efficiency and a reduced budget which would impair the function of the Organization. Therefore, while we sincerely appreciate the efforts of the Director-General to limit the budget, we do hope that he will not implicitly cross that thin line by admitting that the capacity of the Secretariat to fulfil its work is already under considerable strain, as we have seen in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget, 1992-93.

My delegation is also of the view that increased efficiency can best be reflected by a shift in the comparative share of the budget in favour of substantive programmes vis-a-vis support services. We cannot say if the comparison is the best reflection of increased efficiency that we would have wished to see for the Organization.

On the programme aspects of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget we take the point well, which we have seen in the document, that with regard to the programmes the Summary has been formulated within the framework of the objective strategy and programme structure of the Medium-Term Plan of the Organization. As to the issue of priority setting, here again we agree with the programme priority and areas of increased resources that are proposed in the Summary.

Finally, Mr Chairman, we do hope that our deliberations will arrive at a happy consensus.

Haruo ISHII (Japan): Mr Chairman, our delegation feels obliged to express our compliments to the FAO's Secretariat who worked and contributed to the formulation of Summary Programme of Work and Budget 1992-93, and to extend our appreciation to Mr Shah for his tactful introduction of this very important agenda item.

Japan can see that the circumstances and the surroundings for formulating the FAO's Programme of Work and Budget have been continuously constrained, reflecting the financial difficulties and tightness of each Member Nation's financial situation, including Japan.

I am afraid that members of this Council might have the impression that Japan is a rich country and thereby the national finance and budget of the Japanese Government is at a satisfactory level for mobilizing resources, but I must stress that this is not really the case in the Japanese budget.

The Japanese budget formulation process since the late seventies up to the present has required a so-called "zero .ceiling", the definition of which is that the budget level of the next fiscal year should be equal to that of the current budget year in its nominal base. In other words, for nearly 15 years the Japanese budget plans have been based on the principle of no real programme increase plus no cost increase, including the inflationary portion.

In this regard, we are pleased to welcome the Director-General's directive to formulate the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93 on the basis of no real programme increase.

We have been of the view that FAO when it formulates the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93 should eliminate programmes that are not needed and non-urgent, should coordinate the work of FAO with other international and UN organizations to avoid overlapping, and then reallocate the resources to the areas of high priority. Even new programmes of high priority should be severely and crucially reviewed and evaluated in three to five years to decide if such new programmes should continue. In doing so, Japan believes that FAO can be assured of the resources needed to complement and execute the programmes effectively and efficiently, and to flexibly respond to the urgent needs and tasks.

Taking a full account of the financial tightness and difficulties of member countries, we believe that the proposed cost increase of 15.3 percent is high. Japan sincerely and whole-heartedly requests a review of the cost increase to further cut whatever and whenever possible. For example, the category of Goods and Services, other human resources, Travel on Official Business and General Operating Expenses could be subject to further scrutiny by the FAO Secretariat for possible cutting. Particularly, the use and pay level of temporary assistance and consultants could be examined for reductions through effective and maximum use of the internal staff both Professsional and General Service. We would appreciate it if FAO could provide us for information some examples of contracts with temporary assistance and consultants. Japan is also pleased to see that FAO may make further scrutiny of the category of Personnel Services. FAO could examine the possiblity of reducing the frequency and the duration of meetings.

FAO could request the staff to be effective and efficient in the use of utilities and communication facilities for the saving of expenditures.

We understand that the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference approved the lapse factor of 3 percent. This lapse factor, changed from the originally proposed of 5.5 percent immediately before the last Conference, was the main reason why Japan could not endorse the Programme of Work and Budget for the current biennium, at the last Conference.

Japan continues to believe that the lapse factor should be decided upon the realistic vacancy ratio and that 3 percent must be subject to further adjustment to the realistic and reasonable figure. We would appreciate it if FAO Secretariat will definitely come up with further reduction of cost increase by the adjustment of this lapse factor.

We are pleased to support most of the Priority Areas put forward in Section IV Programme Framework of the document CL 99/3. Those are Environment and Sustainable Development, Agriculture Data Development, Women-in-Development, Policy Advice and Forestry.

Concerning Environment and Sustainable Development, Japan is pleased to see that the Director-General of FAO pursues the implementation of the Conference Resolution 3/89 with the maximum and flexible use of the existing Regular Programmes and Field Programmes.

Japan hopes that the Director-General continues to make his utmost efforts to incorporate the concrete programme elements related to sustainable development and environment both in the Regular Programme and the Field Programmes, described in Para. 3 of the document CL 99/3 Sup.l-Rev.l.

We share the Conference directive for further consolidation of FAO's countries representation (FAORs).

We appreciate the proposal put forward for strengthening the capacity of the FAORs by transferring the authority from the FAO Headquarters. Therefore we support the proposal of Major Programme 3.4 FAO Representatives in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget.

However, we are wondering how and which FAORs the proposed net increase of US$2 700 000 will be allocated into. As we know the Asian Region, with approximately 50 percent of the world population and the growing and rapid evolvement in human activities including Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, must meet such future challenges and requirements. Most of all a reduction of the activities and resources allocated for RAPA is proposed, to which we have strong reservation because RAPA has been playing important roles as a focal point of information exchanges amongst regions and as the useful discussion forum, thereby to contribute to the achievement of FAO's objectiveness and aims in Asia and Pacific.

Japan has grave concern that TCP, which is an unprogrammed Reserve, is executed only with the authority of the Director-General, while other of FAO's Regular Programmes must be formulated by the Programme Budgeting System.

Therefore, Japan is of the view that the management of TCP, which shares a major percentage amongst the total budget of FAO to which Member Nations have an obligation to make financial contribution is not conducted in a healthy way because the member country cannot have the control over the use of it.

Japan recognizes that although TCP performs important roles in responding to urgent emergencies, many of the TCP projects deal with training, Advisory Service Investment, Formulation/Programming, Support to TCDC and Support to Development.

The projects of this nature can be to a large extent implemented through FAO Trust Fund and UNDP funding field programmes, and we believe that through better coordination with those programmes, the aim and objectives of TCP projects should be rather effectively and efficiently executed.

We are of the view that Chapter 2: Technical and Economic Programmes of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget are not only mainly elements of the FAO Budget, but also the core and gravity of the FAO activity. Therefore we strongly hope that Major Programme 2.1 Agriculture and Major Programme 2.2 Fisheries, should be restored at least to the current biennium level by transferring the resources from other chapters than Chapter 2.

Perhaps this could be possible by transferring from Chapter 4 because of the reason I stated above, and at least Japan cannot find any justifiable reason for the increase of resources allocated for Chapter 4.

C.B. HOUTMAN (Netherlands): The agenda item, the Summary Programme of Work and Budget, is always one of the more interesting points of the agenda of the Council meetings. Results of various meetings have been translated into this summary. These budget proposals are of particular interest since the outcome of the Review of certain aspects of FAO's Goals and Operations could be fully integrated in this budget. And, Mr Chairman, we are of the opinion that the efforts made towards this integration are successful. At that time we often heard, and used ourselves as well, the words prioritization and posteriorization, based on needs, but also on comparative advantage. We and others often mentioned the subjects we considered of priority importance such as environment and sustainable development, policy advice, decentralization, women in development and so forth.

Seeing all these subjects back as priorities gives us much satisfaction. The worldwide increased attention given to the environment and sustainable agriculture justifies the high priority FAO gives to these subjects. Our commitment to sustainable agriculture and forestry is well known. Agenda Items 8, 15 and 16 dealt or will deal with these subjects; no need for us to elaborate here on these points, except that we welcome the increase in resources for forestry. However, we with Sweden, and I think also with Trinidad and Tobago, would have welcomed a larger increase even more. There is no need to elaborate on the Nutrition Conference here either since we have already expressed our feelings under agenda Item 14.

We welcome the better coordination with international organizations and the increased cooperation with NGOs. The Den Bosch Conference gave ample evidence of this.

On policy advice we became somewhat puzzled. Being a priority area one would expect no decreases in overall funds for this activity. When looking at programme 2.1.8 "Food and Agricultural Policy" one sees a 3 percent overall decrease. Looking at this in more detail one sees increases for support to Country Policy Analysis and Advice, and Agricultural Policy Advice, but on the other hand though you need data collection and analysis of them, to base advice upon. We would like the Secretariat to help us to understand this.

We welcome the further strenghthening of FAO's Country Representations very much. We often emphasized this, particularly since they play an important role in the fine tuning of the Regular Programme and the Field Programme. A good representation is important for identification and execution of field activities. It is also of much importance for a good division of labour between the various international organizations and executing agencies on the spot. Giving hands and feet to the idea of comparative advantage starts in the discussion in the recipient country itself between all parties involved. This means that the FAO representation should not only have knowledge of the technical capability and competence of FAO but also of that of other organizations that operate in adjacent areas. Mutual knowledge of each others' strong points will facilitate understanding for each others' position. This requires a high standard of competence of FAO representatives. The high standard in the performance of FAO I trust will be recognized by UNDP and the recipient governments resulting in a continuing involvement of FAO in agricultural development. We admit on the shorter term the future may seem somewhat uncertain, but on the longer term, and if FAO keeps its high standard of performance or even increases this, involvement in nationally executed projects and programmes will continue we are sure.

Mr Chairman, we have a tradition to ask a question on one or two minor, though for us important points. It is almost a tradition that we ask a question on the sub-programme Food Control and Consumer Protection. We saw with satisfaction that there is a budget increase for the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Activities on Contaminants. The questions is this increase for meetings or for other activities?

A few words on the level of the budget. We welcome the basis of no real programme increase since this would most probably enable the Conference to adopt the Programme of Work and Budget by consensus. We feel, however, that a нno real programme increase" should not be the starting point of a real programme decrease. We would not like to see this in future.

On the other hand we share the concerns expressed on the cost increases; we know it is difficult to exactly predict the cost increases implied on the organization. As the Finance Committee will look at it in September again we urge this Committee to examine these costs in detail again and look forward to its report on this matter.

Finally, Mr Chairman, I will deal with the outline of an International Cooperation Programme Framework.

The Den Bosch Conference, as we are all aware, dealt with a very broad and complex issue. Therefore we are satisfied that it took the FAO Secretariat only a couple of weeks to come up with a first reaction, which is laid down in document CL 99/3-Sup.l-Rev.l: named "Outline of an International Cooperative Programme Framework for Sustainable Agriculture". My delegation would like to congratulate the Secretariat with this quick response and start of a process to move on with the Den Bosch Declaration and Agenda for Action.

My delegation appreciates the efforts made by the Secretariat to tackle this complicated issue of coordinating and streamlining FAO's programmes and special action programmes. It creates the opportunity for the outcome of Den Bosch to become part and parcel of the whole FAO Programme. We endorse this general approach. The five major areas to implement the proposed strategy seem to cover the various subjects.

It encompasses most of the existing SAPs and the intention of FAO to streamline and restructure has our support.

After studying the document my delegation thinks the proposed "Strategy" (paragraph 4) seems to be somewhat selective towards the Den Bosch Declaration and Action Plan, whilst the programme framework is rather technical, ascertains the current activities but could take the opportunity for policy adaptations as well. My delegation would have been happier if the outcome of the Den Bosch Conference had been taken more into account. In particular the separation of production and sustainability should be avoided, whilst the importance of ecological effects is not sufficiently stressed in the document.

Two final points, Mr Chairman: one relates to the intended cooperation with other international organizations. We would like to hear from the Secretariat how this will be taken up and when. In our opinion further contacts on the implementation of this outline with UNEP, UNDP, IFAP, etc. before the next UNCED Prepcom meeting is essential.

The second point relates to what has been said already by my delegation about the APS approach, when we discussed item 8, FAO/Ne their lands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment. It is the intention of the Agriculture Department of FAO and the Netherlands to design an integrated programme of agricultural development in which ecological conditions are taken into account and ultimately executed in two pilot areas. In proposing this, I have the impression that a possibility will be created to test the gist of the outline in practice. My delegation would like to get the Secretariat's reaction on that.

My country wishes to be closely involved in the implementation of the framework. All FAO Member States should participate, not donor countries only. In the implementation. Finally, my delegation proposes to organize regional or sub-regional consultations for the implementation process.

Daniel Toman KONAN (Côte d'Ivoire): Notre intervention dans ce débat s'articulera autour de cinq thèmes principaux:

1) le niveau du budget

2) les accroissements de coût

3) la croissance zéro

4) les priorités du programme

5) le rôle futur de la FAO.

Le niveau du budget proposé page 23, 568 millions de dollars, nous parait insuffisant pour s'attaquer aux problèmes de la pauvreté et du développement agricole, tels qu'il·s résultent du mandat de la FAO et aussi eu égard à l'ampleur actuelle des difficultés de tous ordres en Afrique et dans le tiers monde. Toutefois, pour tenir compte de la nécessité d'un consensus entre les Etats Membres ici au Conseil et plus tard à la Conférence, nous sommes tentés, à notre corps défendant, d'accepter les propositions du Directeur général. Cependant, la délégation que j'ai l'honneur de représenter voudrait faire partager à ce Conseil l’impression d'indifference, de manque de logique, de contradictions que nous sommes en train de donner, car comment accepter tous de reconnaitre que les problèmes s'aggravent? Les appels au secours à la FAO augmentent partout, au Siège et sur le terrain.

On s'attaque à la déforestation, à la sécheresse, on veut promouvoir la femme dans le développement rural, on combat la dégradation des terres et des eaux, etc. En même temps, on diminue en termes réels le budget de la FAO. Je ne sais d'ailleurs pas ce que nous réservera, en définitive, la biennalisation et l’inflation fin 1992. Cette attitude dénoncée par plusieurs orateurs avant moi est impossible à justifier. Nous en reparlerons tout à l'heure dans nos conclusions.

Done, pour le budget, accord du bout des lèvres, même si le Directeur général, en pratiquant la croissance zéro, a voulu ainsi tenir compte des difficultés budgétaires d'un grand nombre de pays en développement. Beaucoup auraient accepté un sacrifice financier si, en retour, ils avaient eu l’assurance qu'en consentant de tels sacrifices, leur développement en subirait le contrecoup positif en termes d'autosuffisance à long terme.

Deuxièmement, les accroissements de coût: 87 millions de dollars pour l’instant. Attendons de voir ce qu'ils représenteront dans la version finale du document qui nous sera sounds à la Conférence. Mais ici également, il nous parait utile de dire que nous ne sommes pas favorables, pour le principe, à l’absorption des coûts. La croissance zéro, elle, ne doit être acceptée que pour les pays qui ont atteint un niveau élevé de développement, de bien-être et d'autosuffisance alimentaire, et peuvent done marquer une pose. La croissance zéro du budget de la FAO, si elle ne pénalise aucun d'entre nous, pénalise de nombreux pays en développement auxquels la FAO devrait consacrer une grosse part de ses actlvités pour les aider à sortir de leur état de sous-développement.

En dépit de nos difficultés économiques et financières, je suis certain que de nombreux pays en développement auraient accepté une croissance de 0, 34 pour cent, c'est-à-dire très minime, pourvu que cela leur profite réellement.

Nous soimnes d'accord sur les priorités recensées du Programme mais nous avons une inquiétude au sujet du Centre mondial d'information agricole, inquiétude qui a déjà été soulignée par mon collègue du Gameroun, M. Thomas Yanga. Autre inquiétude également pour les diminutions suivantes: santé animale, coordination des centres AGRIS et CARIS. Nous notons qu'il y a une très faible variation au Sous-programme - Les femmes dans l’agriculture et le développement rural - de 58 millions seulement; c'est étonnant. Inquiétude pour la baisse des crédits affectés au commerce des produits alimentaires. Et surtout, en ce qui concerne l’analyse des politiques agricoles, nous constations que la CEPD - la Coopération entѓe les pays en développement - dont tout le monde reconnait le caractère indispensable, voit ses crédits diminués de moltié au paragraphe 246.

Je voudrais passer sur beaucoup d'autres réductions, pour la pêche et les bureaux régionaux, notamment, que d'autres collègues ont bien su mettre en évidence par une argumentation de qualité. Mais permettez-moi, Monsieur le Président, de marquer mon étonnement de voir que presque rien n'est alloué en plus au Plan d'action forestier tropical que mon pays estime irremplaçable.

Monsieur le Président, vous n'entendrez aucun membre du Consell vous parler de l’inopportunité du Programme de coopération technique, bien au contraire. Pour répondre done à l'un des orateurs qui m'a précédé ce matin, je dirai que le PCT ne s'attaque pas seulement aux urgences mais qu'il est aussi et surtout un catalyseur des opérations de développement, comme indiqué à juste titreau paragraphe 437 - et je cite: "accroitre la production du secteur vivrier, de l’agriculture des pêches ou des forêts", etc.

Sans commentaire. Le niveau du Programme de coopération technique doit être conforme à la résolution adoptée par la Conférence et je pense que M. Shah, qui est très vigilant, tiendra compte de cette remarque car les 4 millions dont il nous fait part sont très nettement insuffisants. Cela étant, il y a beaucoup d'autres accroissements sectoriels ou sous-sectoriels qui sont positifs mais, volontairement, nous n'avons pas parlé de cela pour ne pas trop allonger cette intervention.

Je voudrais à ce stade, en terminant, poser la question au Conseil sur le role futur qu'il entend voir jouer à la FAO. Cette interrogation me parait pertinente et opportune en raison des divergences de vue qui opposent certains de nos amis contributeurs à pratiquement tous les pays en développement sur le rôle de la FAO. En effet, si la FAO doit être, dans le futur, une oganisation exclusivement chargée de l’élaboration et de l’analyse des politiques agricoles, c'est-à-dire avec un nouveau mandat revu et corrigé à la baisse, évidemment, son budget s'y adaptera à chaque biennium et connaitra done une croissance irrémédiablement négative. Il faudrait alors auparavant s'employer, au niveau de la Conférence, puis à l'Assemblée générale, à en modifier le mandat actuel valable depuis plus de 40 ans. C'est un autre débat.

Si, au contraire, les membres du Conseil veulent que la FAO n'ait pas seulement un programme ordinaire à financer et à exécuter, mais aussi une intervention directe au niveau de l’assistance sur le terrain aux pays en développement, comme c'est le cas actuellement, je crois qu'il est difficile de continuer à exiger des coupes sombres, ici et là, avec le motif de la croissance zéro et des avantages comparatifs - et j'en passe.

Sincèrement, nous pensions qu'après l'examen de la FAO et la réaffirmation de l'actualité de son mandat, nous irions de l'avant. Mais cette référence continuelle au redimensionnement de l’Organisation nous parait être une fausse querelle et, ce qui est plus grave, une tentative de réduire un jour la FAO à ne pas quitter son périmètre des Thermes de Caracalla. C'est une question de fond, croyez-le, Monsieur le Président. Ma délégation pense que, tôt ou tard, nous serons obliges d'affronter avec franchise ce débat si nous ne voulons pas continuer à discuter. Je suis ici depuis huit ans mais, depuis 1985, nous discutons - j'allais dire "à fleuret moucheté" -sur cette question vitale pour un très grand nombre de populations.

Jean YENNIMATAS (Greece): I have listened carefully to the previous speakers. Our approach is of a different nature. The issue of the Programme of Work and Budget has been proved to be very controversial and I am afraid that as things stand, even in this case magic solutions are not to be found to satisfy completely all the parties involved.

As you are aware, Mr Chairman, according to the FAO Constitution this Council is a political forum which, among others, considers and makes recommendations on policy to the Conference regarding the Summary Programme of Work and Budget of this Organization.

Therefore, let us face the present situation with realism, and particularly with political will. We appreciate and welcome the efforts of the Director-General aiming at reconciling various positions in order to permit the fulfilment of the main objective. This objective should lead to a consensus approval of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93. The general approach of the Programme activities as in document CL 99/3 is the result of a great team effort. We have heard with satisfaction the Director-General say in his address to this Council that the FAO Secretariat will pay careful attention to the comments of this forum before the submission of the final draft of the Programme of Work and Budget.

Regarding the proposed level of the budget, the symbolic increase of 0.3 percent, which represents some US$2 million, is a compromise operation based on a pragmatic approach which mainly focusses on consolidating the work of FAO in the coming biennium.

We have also noted the concern of various speakers favouring a higher growth, and understand their disappointment and frustration. However, let us take into account the efforts of the Director-General showing at the same time a spirit of solidarity which will enable the FAO Conference to give its final approval to the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93.

Sra. Hilda GABARDINI (Argentina): Quisiéramos, antes que nada, señalar que reconocemos que las propuestas del Programa de Labores y Presupuesto que nos han sido presentadas son el fruto de un trabajo intenso y realmente responsable de la Secretaría de la FAO. Para contribuir a la brevedad del debate, mi delegación se referirá solamente al nivel presupuestario de las mismas. A ese respecto, mi Delegación quiere hacer suya la preocupación puesta de manifiesto por otras delegaciones de países en desarrollo que nos precedieron en el uso de la palabra, por el impacto que significa el incremento de alrededor del 15, 34 por ciento del Presupuesto en las contribuciones de los países en desarrollo que, como en el caso de mi país, enfrentan graves dificultades económicas y financieras emanadas del peso que significa la deuda externa y que, para intentar paliar esta situación, están efectuando importantes ajustes en el sector público. Asimismo, y para terminar, creemos que se han escuchado aquí interesantes propuestas y opciones tendentes a encontrar soluciones para reducir lo más posible ese impacto, propuestas que creemos que deberían ser consideradas.

Ricardo VELAZQUEZ HUERTA (México): La delegación mexicana desea formular algunas consideraciones objetivas en relación con el Programa de Labores y Presupuesto 1992-93. Primeramente, es indispensable destacar de manera muy significativa el papel de la FAO en el contexto internacional. Es un organismo ejemplar; no imaginamos el panorama de bienestar humano sin su presencia y acción.

En segundo lugar, nos preocupa el que un organismo tan necesario no siga un impulso vigoroso continuo y haya de empezar a detenerse en virtud de la tendencia equivocada del crecimiento cero. No es congruente que a una mayor necesidad mundial corresponda una menor actividad de la FAO. En algunos renglones del Programa y Presupuesto no sólo se detiene el impulso, sino que se retrocede. Tal es el caso de los programas de pesca. Por otra parte, el Programa presentado está saturado de virtudes que tenemos que reconocer y alentar. Prioridades bien señaladas, los nueve programas de agricultura, los subprogramas que se refieren a la conservación y ordenación de los recursos fitogenéticos, la sanidad animal, el Programa de Fomento a la Investigación y la Tecnologia, etc.; concretamente en el fomento a la investigación AGRIS y CARIS, así como lo relativo al medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenido. También aquel que se refiere a la participatión de la mujer en la agricultura y desarrollo rural. Todo ello nos parece muy bien estrueturado.

Nuestro país siempre ha otorgado a la FAO, desde su fundación, un sólido apoyo, manifestado, entre otras acciones, a través del pago oportuno de sus contribuciones. Durante los últimos bienios, incluso habíamos apoyado cuotas superiores derivadas, más que de un crecimiento real de las actividades de la Organización, de factores vinculados al tipo de cambio y la inflación. El proyecto de Presupuesto para 1992-93, si bien no contempla un aumento real a los programas, tal como lo han recomendado los Comités de Finanzas y del Programa, sí implica un aumento de las contribuciones de los países miembros para este periodo. Para el caso de México, el incremento de la cuota sería de alrededor del 13, 4 por ciento.

Hemos analizado con cuidado los argumentos de la propuesta y los comprendemos, pero no estamos en condiciones de acompañar aumento alguno, nominal o real, en virtud de las disposiciones contenidas en nuestro Presupuesto de ingresos de la Federación. Estas disposiciones tienen su fundamento en las medidas de austeridad del gasto público decretadas por el Ejecutivo Federal mexicano.

FAO, en los últimos años, se ha venido enfrentando a una crisis financiera derive da, en buena medida, del atraso de varios países miembros en el pago de sus contribuciones. Ello ha conducido tanto a la cancelación de importantes programas como a que FAO tenga que hacer frente a urgencies económicas que, a su vez, incrementan sus gastos. Ojalá se reflexione con seriedad y a tiempo sobre este asunto.

Agradeceríamos que estas consideraciones se tomaran en cuenta en la elaboración del documento definitivo que habrá de presentarse a la Conferencia y se incluyeran en las minutas de esta reunión. En todo caso, en la cabal medida de nuestras posibilidades, siempre aportaremos nuestro mejor esfuerzo en apoyo de la Organización.

Muhammad Saleem KHAN (Pakistan): My delegation has disciplined itself to brief statements on past items, or to making no statement at all when it was not necessary to do so. However, we feel that this is an important item, and today's discussion will contribute to the final draft of the Programme of Work and Budget. Therefore, if you will excuse me, I shall be slightly longer than have been some of the other distinguished delegations who have taken the floor before me.

The delegation of Pakistan fully shares in the thanks and compliments addressed by preceding speaker to Mr Shah and to the Programme and Finance Committees and their two Chairmen. Their efforts and their clear and succinct scrutiny and explanation have certainly made our task much easier.

At the outset, we would like to closely associate ourselves with several of our colleagues who have rejected the concept of zero real growth. We feel that it is retrogressive and shows an indifference to the numerous needs to which FAO must respond in the performance of its mandatory task. Nevertheless, like the delegate of Cameroon and other delegates, we appreciate that the Director-General was realistic in his efforts to obtain a consensus on the budgetary proposals and therefore we are willing to accept the no growth budget proposed.

We also share the viewpoint of the delegate of Cameroon, that asking for absorption of cost increases is tantamount to asking for a negative growth budget. Given the economic situation of Pakistan, my delegation does agree with other delegates who said that 15.3 percent cost increases are a considerable burden on assessed contributions and we would join them in asking the Secretariat and the Finance Committee to look into the possibility of further reductions in this. Some suggestions were put forward in this regard by the delegation of Brazil and other delegations which could be examined.

The possibility of reducing costs in country and regional offices through employment of more professional and general staff locally in developing countries, could be one of the many options. However, having said that, we would be totally opposed to absorption of cost increases at the price of essential programmes or, as one distinguished delegate noted before us, at the price of impairing the efficiency of the FAO.

The delegation of Pakistan has listened carefully to the several pronouncements on the merits of the additional steps outlined in the budgetary process. Consistent with our position in the Twenty-fifth Conference and subsequent to that, we would welcome the institutionaliza-tion of this step if it can establish its utility in developing a consensus on the budget. We have also noted Mr Shah's comments on the ongoing cost assessment of this additional step, and we look forward to an early report on this matter.

Moving to the financial framework for the Summary Programme of Work and Budget, we have aleady spoken on this issue on Monday, and do not intend to enter into that area extensively again. However, it would not be out of place to point out that the success of any programme or budgetary proposals is closely linked with the availability of the planned resources. We therefore join the Programme and Finance Committees in their hope that the expected consensus will lead to the timely payment of contributions and clearance of arrears.

Again, reading through the background notes on the budgetary proposals before us, and those on the full programme, we would like to express our satisfaction at the performance of the FAO Investment Centre and the cooperation which FAO has maintained in the on-going biennium with the UNDP, WFP, and other UN and non-UN international agencies. We express special pleasure at the resumption o£ FAO's cooperation with the Asian Development Bank, and would like to see this developed further. We will welcome the increase of 7 percent in UNDP finances and hope that the new support costs mechanisms being finalized in the UNDP would not result in a decreased use of FAO's services in the areas of FAO's comparative advantage.

My delegation is glad to note that the present level of Trust Fund project delivery is expected to be maintained in the future as well. Another significant and welcome increase is that coming from UNFPA in population-related activities which several distinguished delegates yesterday referred to under agenda item 8 as highly important to the success of the Den Bosch agreement on SARD.

Turning now to the APO Scheme: To our mind, this raises some questions, particularly when we note in paragraph 69 the discontinuation of the professional training scheme at Headquarters for the Agricultural Development Programme. We will look forward to some clarification from the Secretariat on these questions:

Are we right in assuming that the benefits of the APO Scheme are limited to apprentices from the countries which contribute to this scheme?

Would it be correct to assume that a significant number of inductees on to the FAO establishment come from amongst these APO's?

Is there some similar possibility available to professionals from state members who are not in a position to make special contributions to the APO Scheme?

The delegation of Pakistan generally agrees with the Programme Framework contained in Part IV of CL 99/3 taking the International Cooperative Programme Framework for Sustainable Agriculture contained in document CL 99/3-Sup.l-Rev.l. With respect to paragraph 50 of CL 99/3: in the former, we endorse the Programme's Framework set out in paragraph 8, FAO's role highlighted in paragraphs 9 to 17, and FAO's contribution to the UNCED process noted at paragraph 18.

We accept the emphasis placed in the Summary on Sustainable Agriculture and Environment but, given the low resource base of FAO's Regular Programme, we recall the viewpoint of the Group of 77 at the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference that this emphasis should be mainly from extra-budgetary resources and not at the cost of other critical areas in the Regular Programme. We agree with paragraph 1 of CL 99/3 - Sup. 1-Rev. 1 that a single SAP is unlikely to address the multiple aspects of sustainable development and, also, with paragraph 16 of that document, that a large number of ongoing and future FAO field projects will need to be undertaken.

We would therefore like to reiterate the viewpoint which we expressed earlier under agenda item 8, that the Den Bosch agreement on SARD must be accompanied by a substantial and separate financial support facility outside the regular resources of FAO.

Further on the supplementary document we would like to refer to paragraph 10 and note that while future-looking conservation and sustainability measures and plans have been covered, the rehabilitation of existing degraded lands and renewable resources is missing from the list. We would request the Secretariat's comments on this point, and ask for its possible inclusion as a sixth area.

The delegation of Pakistan welcomes the emphasis on women in development, and appreciates the proposed increase of US$4 million for the TCP, which the developing countries, such as those who have spoken before me, regard as most important and most responsive to their needs.

We do, however, share the concerns expressed by Thailand, Congo, Columbia, Madagascar and several other distinguished delegates that the TCP would, in actual fact, decrease despite Conference Resolution 8/89. Paragraph 440 of document CL 99/3 well illustrates the inadequacies of the present level of the TCP, and we join these other delegates in asking for an increase in the TCP provision in line with Resolution 8/89. In the context of TCP, my delegation also joins the delegation of India and other delegations from Asia in pointing out the inadequacy of 23 to 24 percent of TCP investments in a region such as Asia which constitutes 56 percent of the world's population and over 70 percent of the world's poor. We would recommend that after setting aside the 23 or 24 percent of TCP resources for emergency-related TCPs, the remaining TCP resources be distributed in a 50-50 ratio

based on the population and backwardness of the different regions. Finally, on TCP my delegation, while welcoming the increase in TCPs in support of TCDC, feel disappointed by the decrease in TCPs in support of development and would be happy for some explanation in this context.

The delegation of Pakistan also welcomes the decentralization measures and the emphasis on country offices. But we regret that the strongly expressed views in the 25th Conference have been ignored in that the regional offices have their own important role to play and should not be adversely affected in the decentralization process. Likewise, we are disappointed by the cuts highlighted on important programmes listed at paragraph 69 of CL 99/3, particularly that of the FIAC.

In part VII, we support the appropriate post-adjustment proposal proposed by the Director-General. We also welcome the proposed moves towards the introduction of computerization and other technical improvements listed in the case of major programmes. Support and Common Services, which will certainly reduce costs in the long run and bring in further efficiency in the FAO. Under Common Services, we would like to record our particular thanks to the Government of Italy in agreeing to meet the additional rental costs of FAO and WFP premises.

I will just take a few more minutes on the technical programmes in Chapter II of the Summary Programme of Work and Budget, particularly Major Programme 2.1, Agriculture, which has been generally affected by the overall cut on this programme. In the COAG meeting on sub-programme, element 02, Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils, Drainage and Salinity Control, in the COAG and again in the Council we identified the disastrous effects of waterlogging and salinity in terms of loss of valuable agicultural land in south and southwest Asia, including Pakistan, and expressed our disappointment on the nominal increase in the allocations for these programme elements. However, in view of the assurance given by Dr de Haen in response to a similar point made by my delegation and raised under agenda item 6 earlier in our deliberations, we look forward to an increase in these elements in the final Progamme of Work and Budget. The delegation of Pakistan, consistent with the intervention of other delegates from Asia in COAG and under this item, calls for the resumption of the Regional Study for Asia and the Pacific Region. Such a comprehensive study as noted in paragraph 94 of COAG's 11th report before us has been carried out for most of the other geographical regions of the FAO ahd cannot be substituted by a revised version of Agriculture Towards 2000 mentioned by the Secretariat during COAG.

My delegation also calls for more attention to the need for illicit crop substitution under element 09 of sub-programme, given the significance of programmes to discourage cultivation of drug crops and implementation of crop substitution programmes as well as programmes for alternate employment opportunities in an effort to eradicate this menace from the face of the world. Under Major Programme 2.1, we would also like to call for an increase in allocation for migratory pest control with particular emphasis on developing an international watch system on the lines of ECL·O on trans-border migration of other pests.

Finally, under Major Programme 2.1, we would like to give special mention to the importance of agro-based industry owing to the value it adds to basic agricultural products in developing countries. We therefore are disappointed by the decrease in allocations for sub-programme, food and agriculture industries, and hope these would be suitably increased in the final draft.

We noted from Mr Shah's statement that detailed provisions at the moment were provisional and, in this context, voiced our recommendations and views so that these could be considered for accommodation in the final draft of the Programme of Work and Budget to be presented to the Council at its hundredth session. We do, however, realize that, as other distinguished delegates have expressed, this all depends on the availability of resources to the FAO. The distinguished delegate of the Ivory Coast speaking before me rightly stated that it is time we take a stock of things and a hard decision as to what we expected of the FAO. If we wish to maintain our normal expectations of the FAO, then it is imperative to provide the resources to this Organisation. And as has been noted by the Ambassador of Cameroon, this is possible with just a few minor diversions or changes in the national priorities in both developed and developing countries.

Juan NUIRY SANCHEZ (Cuba): Hemos oído, como siempre con mucha atención, cada una de las interveneiones que me han precedido y todas nos han hecho reafirmar que con razón este importante asunto lo calificamos de piedra angular y punto de partida de cualquier consideración o análisis. Razón por la cual nuestra delegación tratará de ser breve aunque directa. Entre otras consideraciones está presente el que no nos atreveríamos a hacer un análisis amplio sobre el tema luego de haberlo realizado con su competencia habitual el Embajador de Colombia, Bula Hoyos.

De la importancia de la FAO y autoridad internacional, nuestra delegación ha manifestado su criterio en todas sus anteriores intervenciones, lo que se puede resumir en reconocer como objetivo fundamental de la FAO la virtual necesidad para los países en vias de desarrollo, tanto en su ayuda, como de motor impulsor para nuestro desarrollo, dentro de un marco apropiado representativo y multilateral.

Sobre las referencias escuchadas sobre la FAO por los distintos y esclarecidos representantes aquí reunidos entre todos, repito, entre todos, no he oído a ninguno dudar de la virtual necesidad y competencia de la FAO; por lo menos no lo hemos escuchado.

De todo esto se desprende un breve y simple análisis: Primero, que la FAO atraviesa su más dificil crisis financiera. Segundo, como consecuencia de esa crisis se ve en la necesidad de hacer recortes, y todo esto es producto de un І echo: que los principales contribuyentes no pagan sus adeudos incumpliendo sus obligaciones. Si se pagara por el peso que esto representa, no seria necesario ni crecimiento cero, ni rebajas sustanciales, ni suprimir funciones indispensables, ni reducciones y ajustes. Materia en la que hemos recibido grandes lecciones en la tarde de hoy.

Esto, señor Presidente, es el problema central. Lo demás es darle vueltas y más vueltas a consideraciones que se desprenden de esta realidad. Subsanado esto no habría que hablar de empréstito, ni enmarcar en un traje de hierro a la Organización, cuando de lo que se trata es de que se salden sus obligaciones, tal como lo subrayó mi colega de la izquierda el Embajador de Costa Rica.

En la otra cara de la moneda observamos, tanto tras el pasado examen como en las informaciones presentadas hoy aquí por los Presidentes de los Comités del Programa y de Finanzas, que la FAO es çompetente y que sabe manejar sus recursos independientemente de sus cuantías. Todo lo demás es desgastarnos en búsqueda de soluciones cuando sólo existe una. Sería como tratar de tapar el sol con un dedo. De este modo, analizando reducciones para hacer frente a un ejército interminable de desposeidos y hambrientos, nos sorprende el comienzo del decenio que dará fin a este siglo.

En resumen, como no nos corresponde la misión a la exhortación, teniendo presente que más que preocuparnos nos corresponde ocuparnos, la delegación de Cuba apoya el Programa de Labores y Presupuesto propuesto por el Director General, teniendo en cuenta las consideraciones expresadas.

Milan BLASKO (Czechoslovakia): Having in mind the pre-set objective, that is to say, approval of the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93, at the 26th session of the Council in November this year by consensus, Czechoslovakia fully accepts the proposed zero programme increase in the Organization's budget. Furthermore, Czechoslovakia also accepts on the whole the suggested programme priorities and areas of increased resources as well as those of reduced resources.

Nevertheless, the Czechoslovak delegation would like to take this opportunity to draw the attention of the Council as well as the Members of the Secretariat to the following points.

The FAO European Country Regional Offices representing the two sides of the same coin as stated in paragraph 66 of document CL 99/3, the European region operation acts within FAO having only a single-sided coin at its disposal. For one thing, the Regional Office for Europe is the smallest one with a very limited and several times decreased budget during the last year. For another thing, for well understandable reasons there do not exist any FAO country representations in Europe. We are of the opinion that this fact should be taken into due account when streamlining the proposed reductions in the budgets of respective FAO Regional Offices. The abstention from further serious reduction in the budgets of the regional offices for Europe would surely contribute in a considerable manner to its further effective functioning. This is particularly important at a time when, inter alia, substantial changes are taking place in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe which are related to the transition of the national economies from centrally-planned to market-oriented ones, their agricultural sectors not being an exception. Expecting from the FAO mainly intellectual inputs, as the distinguished representative of Poland put it some time ago, FAO's contribution to this process in our view merits adequate reflection in the Programme and Budget of the Organization for the years 1992-93. This could be done, for example, through incorporation of

regional projects on the restructuring of Eastern and Central European countries' agriculture, which is at present under consideration in the FAO Programme of Work and Budget,

Having in mind also the existence of other questions of common interest to FAO Member States, we would like to reiterate once more the urgent need for maintenance of the capacity of effective action of the regional offices for Europe at an adequate level, stressing at the same time that this should by no means diminish the resources available in providing development assistance to developing countries in need.

Dato Van Jaafar ABDULLAH (Malaysia): Mr Chairman, the Malaysian delegation would like to commend the Secretariat for having prepared document CL 99/3 and its Supplement on the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for the 1992-93 biennium. My delegation would like to thank Mr Shah for this very clear and precise introduction of the item under discussion. We would also like to express our appreciation to Mr Mozoyer and Mr di Mottola for their excellent work in the Programme Committee and the Finance Committee, respectively. The Malaysian delegation endorses the Programme priorities and areas of increased resources proposed in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget. We believe that these programme priorities, namely, environment and sustainable development, the Technical Cooperation Programme, agricultural data development, the International Conference on Nutrition, Women in Development, forestry, policy advice and decentralization have been given their due emphasis by the Secretariat to meet the desires and aspirations of Member Nations, particularly the developing countries.

My delegation regrets, however, to note that the proposed implementation of these priority programmes is to be made by reducing resources for other programmes. We are of the opinion that these affected programmes have their own complementary roles to sustain the efficiency of the Organization in fulfilling its mandate to Member Nations.

In this connection my delegation regrets to note that the position of Member Nations with regard to meeting their obligations has deteriorated in 1990, which shows a decrease in the number of Member Nations who have paid in full, and an increase in Member Nations who have made no payment. Once again my delegation would like to urge and appeal to Member Nations, especially the major contributors to fulfil their obligations as soon as possible.

The Malaysian delegation welcomes the activities to be undertaken on the proposed approach and process in developing an overall international cooperative Programme framework for sustainable agriculture and rural development, as described in document CL 99/3-Supplement 1-Rev.l. With reference to the main elements for national actions, my delegation wishes to inform this Council that human resource development is one of the fundamental development thrusts for Malaysia in the future. As is reflected in our Sixth Development Plan for the period 1991 to 1995.

Human resource development in our context goes beyond the role of merely providing education and training, but is more concerned with raising the human capital stock and bringing forward a more innovative society.

In respect to the provision of specialized support services to facilitate sustainable development at the local level, my delegation wishes to inform the Council that in our country there are already legislations which require that Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) studies be conducted for projects in the development of agricultural estates. Besides EIA, pesticide use in agriculture has also been a major concern. These programmes are being implemented through the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programmes whereby biological control of pests and the use of pest resistant varieties are implemented.

With regard to the role of FAO and related Special Action Programmes, my delegation observes that in view of the limited resources and the priority given to sustainability, some prioritization in both the proposed FAO Field Programme and National Action Programme is necessary.

Turning back to the Summary of Programme of Work and Budget and the proposed budget level, my delegation believes in the importance of achieving concensus on this issue. However, we are of the opinion that the consensus to be reached should not impose more burden and reduce, the flow of assistance to Member Nations, particularly the developing countries.

Before concluding, my delegation would like to reiterate our strong support for the importance and value attached to the Technical Cooperation Programme. We share the concern expressed by previous speakers regarding the fall in the share, of TCP in the total budget. We note specifically that the allocation to the Asia and Pacific region will decline from 24 percent to 23 percent. We hope that the share of the allocation of TCP to the Asia and Pacific region will be increased to a more appropriate level in the next biennium.

Assefa YILALA (Ethiopia): Mr Chairman, at this stage of the discussion it is not easy to raise a specific point that has not already been raised. Therefore I will be very brief and limit my observations to three general areas. Before I do so, however, I would like to thank the Chairman of the Programme and Finance Committee and Mr Shah for having assisted the Council by clearly presenting the item under discussion.

The purpose of the Programme of Work and Budget, the Summary of which is placed before the Council today, is a worthy subject of discussion and has been a long one. We had a chance to air our views in those discussions on the various inter-governmental bodies. We feel that the present Summary takes care of all our concerns and also, guided by the advice of member countries in all stages of its development.

These two important committees, the Programme and Finance Committees were able to establish a consensus even though the budget level and the programme of work was below expectation when seen from the need and the attention that the area of food and agriculture deserves.

This consensus has already been the guideline in the proposal of the Programme of Work and Budget because it needs to respond to the views of Member Nations in its preparation. Because of the practicality of obtaining financial resources and the ability of member countries, particularly those

of developing countries to pay to the Organization, the prevailing economic difficulties were mostly in obtaining the additional funds that would have been desirable.

The programme priorities and areas for increased resources proposed are also in line with the quidance that was voiced in the various meetings held since January 1991. Programme areas that were able to obtain increased resources, such as sustainable development, the International Conference on Nutrition and the WAICENT are important areas whose contribution to present and future generations are similar. Therefore, we have no doubt that the deserving attention that was manifested in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget of increased resources were allocated to the programme priorities by reducing and shifting other are whose contribution is to FAO's comparative advantage. All the areas of negative interest in the immediate future. This was necessary to establish a consensus. I will have nothing to say at this stage but I am worried at the direction of the discussion that all resource requirements of the priorities should be provided from the resources that are available to FAO within the framework on zero growth. We do believe that resources requirements for programme priorities as sustainable development, the National Conference on Nutrition and the WAICENT is much beyond this and the international community believe to address the issue in a realistic way rather than fulfilling all requirements by shifting all resources from programmes that are equally critical when it comes to the immediate effect on the areas of food production and rural development.

We therefore think that the present proposal as presented in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget at this stage is a realistic one and we cannot envisage to go beyond this.

At this stage I would also like to thank the members of the Programme and Finance Committees and their respective Chairmen for having come to a stage of establishing a consensus that was developed during the meetings of the Programme and Finance Committees.

Mr Chairman, I would also continue to express my agreement with the proposed Programme of Work and Budget as is presented in document CL 99/3 between now and the time when it is finally approved. Thank you Mr Chairman.

LE PRESIDENT: La Représentation de l’Angola a eu l'obligeance de nous envoyer son intervention qui sera done reprise in extenso dans le verbatim.

Ms. María Luisa GAVINO (Phillppines): We commend the FAO for coming up with a truly comprehensive work programme which should go a long way toward addressing the more urgent and various problems affecting agriculture and the production of food. We are particularly pleased that a sum of funds has been set aside to provide technical and other support to FAO's intergovernmental commodity bodies which have recently been designated by the Common Fund for commodities as international commodity bodies. The Philippines, as a member of the Executive Board of the Common Fund, would like to extend in advance on behalf of the Board its gratitude for this

grant. This assistance is particularly important for developing countries. If you may recall, Mr Chairman, in our intervention yesterday we said that it is important for us to look at the demand in the marketing side of the equation, particularly the matter of market access and the financing of commodity trade plans. We might add, Mr Chairman, that synergistic action will be produced when this amount will be matched by amounts that will be set aside by the Common Fund this fiscal year to underwrite projects of the FAO-sponsored commodity bodies.

This is to touch on the subject matter in passing as it is related to the Summary Programme of Work and Budget. We reserve the right to possibly speak again on it during its discussion on Item 13.

Having said all this, we must also add that it is to be regretted that when countries are in need of more technical assistance, considering that poverty is still widespread and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition is still high in the priority of problems to be addressed by the international community, no programme increase and zero growth in FAO is being proposed. Furthermore, the low liquidity of the Organization exacerbates the financial situation 'with which the Organization is presently confronted. We cannot afford to let this happen, particularly as the developing countries are the ones gravely affected. We hope that the Organization will not have to borrow externally as in the past, because interest payments become an additional cost to all of us. We hope that the countries in arrears soon pay their obligations.

We would like to comment on Chapter 4, Technical Cooperation Programme. My country has greatly benefited from this Programme and is grateful for this. We have experience that the Programme was indeed an effective catalyser for development purposes. We were hoping that appropriations for TCP could have at least reached the percentage level of 14 percent of the total regular budget. Hence, we urge donors to provide more resources to the Programme. It is with some degree of disappointment that we notice in the distribution of TCP allocation by region, that our region, the Asia and Pacific, has suffered a percentage cut from 24 percent in 1976 to 1989 to 23 percent for 1990. This cut, Mr Chairman, is not easily understandable considering the burgeoning food and agricultural needs of the population explosion.

We have also failed to notice in the report the regional study to the year 2000 for our region which was promised in the past and which will be done for the others.

In regard to FAO's technical assistance activities we attach great importance to technical transfer which is well adapted to the particular needs of recipient developing countries. In this connection we would like to make special mention about the TCDC programming exercise which is scheduled in Manila, 2-6 September this year. It will be the first of such exercises in the food and agriculture sector. Thirty-four countries have already indicated their interest to participate and we invite other developing countries to also participate. We assure you that, by that time, the volcanic eruption will have terminated.

On this occasion we would like to take this opportunity to thank FAO and UNDP for their assistance in the exercise. Thank you for being patient.

Kiala Kia MATEVA (Angola): La délégation angolaise voudrait d'abord féliciter M. Shah pour la présentation très claire et satisfaisante du point soumis à notre examen.

Ma délégation se félicite de l'amélioration de la transparence dans la présentation du Sommaire du Programme et Budget, due à la présentation bien détaillée des divers éléments du Programme.

Après une analyse exhaustive, M. le Président, nous avons constaté que les propositions figurant dans le sommaire du Programme sont conformes aux orientations de la Conférence à sa 25ème session.

L'approche adoptée pour la formulation des propositions de budget pour 1992-93 ne prévoit aucun accroissement réel du Programme selon les recommandations formulées par consensus par les Comités du Programme et financier.

Nous ne pouvons qu'exprimer nos regrets pour l'absence d'une augmentation nette du Programme au moment où l'on enregistre de plus en plus de demandes; nous souhaitons que ce niveau du budget soit complété par des ressources extrabudgétaires.

En ce qui concerne la fixation des priorités, ma délégation les appuient sans réserve car nous avons noté que les directives approuvées par la Conférence ont été observées.

Au titre du Grand Programme Agriculture, ma délégation approuve les 8 principaux domaines, ainsi que l'augmentation des ressources proposées mais nous regrettons les nombreuses réductions affectant certains sous-programmes et éléments de Programme.

S'agissant du Grand Programme 2.2. Pêches, ma délégation exprime sa vive préoccupation sur la réduction d'environ 0, 8 pour cent par rapport au présent exercice. Nous souhaitons que le Directeur général, lors de l'élaboration de la version intégrale, réexamine ce point en vue de ramener le chiffre au moins au niveau de 1990-91.

Pour ce qui est des ressources et environnement marins, nous ne pouvons que manifester notre satisfaction de la priorité globale accordée au développement intégré des zones côtières comme stipulé au paragraphe 302. S'agissant des pêches continentales et aquaculture nous exprimons notre satisfaction à la proposition tendant à modifier l'approche adoptée pour la vulgarisation en matière d'aquaculture rurale qui fera appel à la participation d'autres unités comme il est dit au paragraphe 305 mais nous regrettons la réduction des crédits affectés à l'aquaculture.

Nous appuyons les activités proposées sur la production de poisson, l'utilisation et la commercialisation.

En ce qui concerne les forêts, M. le Président, nous nous félicitons de l'augmentation des crédits alloués à ce programme; ceci permettra d'assurer l'appui technique accru qu'exigent la mise en oeuvre du Programme d'action forestier tropical et des activités forestières dans d'autres domaines.

Notre objectif primordial, comme il est dit au paragraphe 385, est le renforcement des capacités nationales de recherche, d'enseignement et de formation forestiers.

Nous appuyons aussi la proposition de l'affectation des ressources supplémentaires comme stipulé au paragraphe 382.

En ce qui concerne le commerce agricole, M. le Président, nous souscrivons à ce qui est dit au paragraphe 12 et nous espérons qu'avec la reprise des négociations les participants chercheront à rendre crédible leur détermination de faire halte au protectionnisme et d'en renverser la tendance.

S'agissant de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition, l'augmentation de 1 million de dollars n'est pas suffisante et, compte tenu de toutes les activités prévues dans le paragraphe 194 du document CL 99/3, nous souhaitons que les pays donateurs fournissent des contributions extrabudgétaires comme stipulé au paragraphe cité précédemment.

Nous appuyons ce qui est dit au paragraphe 54, car la FAO joue un rôle primordial dans la fourniture d'avis et d'analyses politiques aux pays membres ainsi que dans la promotion de la collaboration entre les pays. Il faut intensifier les activités dans cet important domaine en affectant des ressources à la formation et au transfert de technologies. Tout comme nous appuyons les contenus des paragraphes 50, 51 et 52 de ce document.

Nous soutenons les efforts déployés dans le sens de l'intégration de la femme dans le développement rural, comme cité au paragraphe 53. Il faut renforcer leurs activités afin de valoriser leur rôle dans le développement en général.

S'agissant du Programme de la coopération technique, M. le Président, nous tenons à féliciter le Directeur général pour avoir pris en considération les voeux exprimés par la résolution de la Conférence, en prévoyant une augmentation de 4 millions de dollars E.-U. pour le PCT. Néanmoins, nous sommes préoccupés par ce qui est dit au paragraphe 57: que cette augmentation ne suffira pas à relever la part des crédits alloués au PCT dans le budget total, qui s'établit actuellement au niveau de 11, 9 pour cent et qui pourrait venir à baisser quand sera fait l'ajustement du budget.

A cet égard, nous souhaitons que le Directeur général puisse faire de son mieux pour éviter cette baisse.

Ainsi nous appuyons sans réserve ce qui est stipulé au paragraphe 59 en ce sens que les propositions doivent tendre à l'attribution d'une plus forte augmentation nette au PCT.

M. le Président, ma délégation partage les inquiétudes exprimées dans l'introduction du Directeur général sur la perspective d'une modification radicale éventuelle du système tripartite et d'une diminution du remboursement par le PNUD des dépenses d'appui.

Nous espérons que le PNUD ne prendra pas une telle décision qui pourrait perturber le programme ordinaire et qu'avec les nouveaux arrangements on fera tout pour préserver les intérêts des pays bénéficiaires comme des donateurs.

Ma délégation est préoccupée par les diminutions des allocations financières allouées particulièrement aux Bureaux régionaux, qui pourraient affecter l'efficacité de ces derniers et aux Programmes techniques et économiques.

Pour conclure, M. le Président, ma délégation est d'avis que ce sommaire constitue une bonne base pour l'élaboration de la version intégrale et souhaite que le Programme de travail et budget soit approuvé par consensus.1/

LE PRESIDENT: Je voudrais annoncer qu'après avoir entendu les orateurs inscrits, nous lèverons la séance vers 18 h 30 ou 18 h 45. Je vous confirme que le cocktail-vente aux enchères à l'Ambassade du Brésil commencera après 19 heures.

Je demanderai aux observateurs inscrits de bien vouloir être très brefs, de ne prendre la parole que pour trois à cinq minutes qui leur permettront de faire une synthèse de leur exposé, et ils pourront remettre éventuellement le texte complet de ces exposés pour qu'ils figurent in extenso au procès-verbal.

Rudolph de POURTALES (Observateur de la Suisse): Rassurez-vous, Monsieur le Président, il n'est pas dans nos habitudes de faire de longues déclarations. Permettez-moi tout d'abord de féliciter le Secrétariat des efforts de clarté qu'il a faits dans l'élaboration du Sommaire du Programme et budget 1992-93 par rapport aux exercices précédents.

J'aimerais toutefois faire une remarque concernant la présentation de ce document. A plusieurs reprises, ma délégation a demandé que les tableaux globaux tels que ceux figurant aux paragraphes 74, 77 et 98 ainsi que ceux montrant la subdivision du budget en grands programmes et la subdivision de ceux-ci en sous-programmes incluent deux colonnes supplémentaires montrant les dépenses réelles du dernier biennium achevé et les dépenses réelles de la première année du biennium en cours.

C'est une pratique qui est exigée de nos administrations par nos parlements. Avec l’informatique, il ne devrait pas être difficile de modifier la présentation du document et d'inclure ces données dans le Document final. Cela permettrait aux pays membres de mieux juger si les propositions présentées représentent un progrès vers une priorisation plus claire des activités, priorisation qui doit trouver son expression dans la politique du personnel, et notamment le recrutement.


1/ Texte reçu avec demande d'insertion au procès-verbal.

En ce qui concerne le niveau du budget avant les augmentations de coûts, c'est-à-dire la non-croissance du programme, ma délégation n'éprouve aucune peine à les accepter. Une pause dans la croissance peut en effet provoquer tant au niveau du Secrétariat que des pays membres une réflexion utile sur l'utilisation optimale des ressources, comme l'a-fait remarquer le délégué de l'Indonésie.

Par contre, nous aimerions poser une question concrète au Secrétariat concernant les facteurs d'inflation utilisés. Ces facteurs sont-ils des estimations propres du Secrétariat ou des projections calculées par des organismes d'analyse économique tels que l'OCDE ou la Banque mondiale?

D'autre part, nous aimerions encourager le Secrétariat à poursuivre ses efforts louables de rationalisation afin de maintenir les augmentations de coûts dans des limites supportables et d'assurer ainsi l'utilisation optimale des ressources limitées.

Ma délégation aimerait encore une fois attirer l'attention du Conseil sur l'importance du taux d'abattement pour les mouvements de personnel fixés actuellement à 3 pour cent. Le budget pour le personnel étant de plus de 400 millions de dollars, chaque pour cent du taux réel de vacances supérieur à 3 pour cent représente une somme de 4 millions de dollars, c'est-à-dire que, si le taux réel de vacances de postes est de 10 pour cent, cela représente une somme de 28 millions de dollars qui reste quelque peu flottante et dont l'usage est difficilement contrôlable par les organes directeurs. J'aimerais relever le fait, à ce sujet, qu'à fin mai le taux de vacances réel du personnel professionnel était de 19, 2 pour cent, selon les statistiques de la FAO. Nous aimerions donc encourager le Secrétariat à faire tout son possible pour ramener le taux réel de vacances de postes à une valeur plus proche du taux d'abattement de 3 pour cent, cela dans le souci d'avoir la capacité en personnel pour l'exécution la plus efficace possible du programme de travail qui sera décidé par la Conférence en novembre.

Enfin, j'aimerais rappeler la proposition de la Suisse à la Conférence de 1989 de baser le budget de l'Organisation sur un panier de devises, de préférence les droits de tirages spéciaux afin de limiter les pertes de change et de donner plus de sécurité au Secrétariat pour l'exécution de son programme.

LE PRESIDENT: Je réponds directement à la première question: Je ne vois pas très bien comment on pourrait faire figurer dans les tableaux des colonnes montrant les dépenses du biennium précédent pour la bonne raison que nous sommes dans le biennium précédent. Nous sommes au mois de juin et le biennium se terminera en décembre. Les comptes seront établis dans le courant du premier semestre de l'année prochaine. Ce souhait me parait donc difficilement réalisable dans le cadre d'un budget de deux ans.

Hermann REDL (Observer for Austria): Mr Chairman, first of all I would like to address my thanks to Dr Shah, Professor Mazoyer and Ambassador di Mottola for their excellent introduction. The document in front of us was distributed before the COAG meeting. We hope therefore that the comments of the COAG will be reflected in the final version of the Programme of Work and Budget for the next biennium.

Mr Chairman, it is not my intention to repeat what was said by previous speakers. I shall therefore concentrate myself on some specific points. Mr Chairman, in Austria we are celebrating the "Week of Forests" in the period 10-16 June 1991. The central theme this year is "Forests Provide Protection". The protection effect of forests is manifold. On the one hand the forest protects against the destroying force of water. Forests store a large part of rainfall so the high storage capacity of the soil mitigates floods. On the other hand forests act as a natural filter and supply us with clean drinking water. We regret the very modest increase of funds for the forest activities of FAO. Forest work is and will remain specialized work as the technical development proceeded faster since the human adaption capacity. We believe that the training activities in forestry and agriculture are of utmost importance and should be strengthened.

Here, once again, I would like to draw your attention to an ecosocial agriculture and forestry to pursue new ecologically responsible and socially balanced economic activities.

Agriculture and forest production must therefore be in balance with nature in order to secure sustainable yields. In summing up, we agree to the Programme of Work and Budget for the next biennium because it is a very realistic one. We fully support the proposed priorities and activities, and also the moderate growth of the Technical Cooperation Programme. Our final and detailed position will be presented during the Conference in November this year.

One short comment concerning the financial situation of this Organization. Since 1947, Austria has been a member of this very important Organization. We have always paid our contribution within the first days of the year, and will continue to do so in the future. We believe that nobody is in favour of external borrowing. We are very much against any suggestion that those who pay their contribution on time are punished. We hope such a situation will be avoided. We appeal to all Member Nations to pay their contribution as laid down in the Basic Texts of our Organization.

As a representative of a European country, I fully support what was said by the delegate of Poland concerning the reorganization of FAO activities in the European region.

LE PRESIDENT: Je vous remercie. Je souhaite que l'appel que vous avez lancé soit entendu et suivi d'effet.

Chrysanthos LOIZIDES (Observer for Cyprus): I have heard the arguments concerned with the Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93. We wish to express our deep appreciation of the great efforts made, especially by the members of the Programme and Finance Committees and the Director-General, in preparing this budget. We do realize that it was not an easy exercice to reach acceptable solutions for conflicting objectives in order to meet the urgent priorities in the activities of FAO under the known crucial financial constraints facing the Organization in recent years.

It is true that the proposed Programme of Work and Budget, being the conclusive product of laborious work and compromise arrangements, is not the ideal one. However, it is realistic, and under the circumstances well balanced. For these reasons we are fully in favour of a consensus approval.

For the sake of brevity, I shall limit my brief comments to certain programmes which we consider of vital importance. We believe that the sub-priorities as stated in paragraphs 50 to 65 of CL 99/3 are well justified. We are also in full agreement with the allocation of resources to the Programme of Research and Technology on Food and Agriculture Information Analysis, and on the Programme of Nutrition as shown in the table following paragraph 27 in the annex of the same document. The expansion of these programmes corresponds to the present needs for assisting developing countries in their efforts towards sustainable agricultural development, and for facing crucial nutritional problems. Likewise, the successful application of new technologies in developing countries, together with the improvement of information systems and training, will greatly strengthen the capabilities of those countries in the planning of the efficient management of their productive resources.

Regarding the arrangements for the Technical Cooperation Programme we appreciate and support the efforts of the Director-General in meeting the expectations defined by Conference Resolution 9/89. We have always supported this Programme as we have experienced its value and its catalytic role in the development process. The proposed net increase of US$4 million is evidence of compromise. The share of the TCP fund of the total budget before the necessary adjustment costs increase and exchange rate level is limited to 12.6 percent, while in 1986-87 it was 14.1 percent and in 1988-89 it was 12.8 percent.

In conclusion, we wish to believe that the constructive spirit of understanding and cooperation which has prevailed in preparing this Programme of Work and Budget will guide us all, not only in approving this budget by consensus, but also in assisting this Organization to overcome the present difficulties in order to perform more smoothly and efficiently its important role in the years to come.

E. MAYGOLI NEJAD (Observer for Iran, Islaaic Republic of): The delegation of the Islamic Republic of Iran has the honour to express its thanks to the Secretariat for the excellent work they have done in the Summary Programme of Work and Budget for 1992-93. We wish this Council all success.

Mr Chairman, brothers and sisters, as the delegate of the Islamic Republic of Iran it is my pleasure to mention some points regarding the fisheries programmes and budgets.

(1) Aquaculture, inland fisheries and capture fisheries have a great role in increasing fish production for the future. Unfortunately, in spite of the emphasis placed by the 19th Session of the Committee on Fisheries and the UN Conference on Environment and Development, on page A/81, Programme Elements Nos. 01 and 02 show a decrease of about US$309 000 which we believe is not profitable for developing countries.

(2) On page A/80, Programme Element No. 03, Monitoring and Assessment of World Resources has a US$259 000 increase. This could be replaced by developed country donor help through FAO, and the amount will be added to aquaculture for the benefit of developing countries.

(3) On page A/87, Programme Element No. 04, Strengthening Support to Cooperation on the Highseas Fisheries, this element increased from US$2 000 to US$307 000, which should be reduced and transferred to Programme Element No. 01, Training in Fisheries Development and Management Planning, and to No. 04, Management and Development of Small-scale Fisheries. These have been emphasized by FAO, UNDP and the UN.

(4) Because of water pollution and the increase in disease in marine resources and aquaculture, the improvement of biological data on the various resources contained in Programme Element No. 01 on page A/80 should be increased.

Mme. Fatma LARBI (Observateur de Tunisie) (langue originale arabe): D'emblée, je voudrais remercier Monsieur Shah pour son exposé très clair sur ce point de l'ordre du jour de la 99ème session du Conseil. Je voudrais également remercier Monsieur Mazoyer, Monsieur di Mottola, respectivement Présidents du Comité du Programme et du Comité financier.

Ma délégation ressent une certaine inquiétude devant la situation de l'Organisation. Nous nous demandons comment cette Organisation pourra entreprendre les programmes énoncés dans le Sommaire du Programme de travail et budget étant donné les difficultés financières dans lesquelles elle se trouve plongée. Toutefois, nous l'appuyons et nous espérons sincèrement que ce document sera adopté par consensus, afin que notre Organisation puisse continuer ses activités et que ses activités soient couronnées de succès. Ce document montre que la FAO est au service des pays en développement.

Nous appuyons les domaines de priorités tels qu'ils sont énoncés. A ce sujet nous appuyons le principe selon lequel les femmes doivent être davantage intégrées dans le Programme de développement, le PCT, le Programme des forêts, la décentralisation, le développement durable et l’environnement. Voilà autant de priorités pour les pays développés comme pour les pays en développement et nous pensons que les pays développés leur accordent relativement davantage d'importance que les pays en développement.

En ce qui concerne le PCT, nous voudrions appuyer le principe qui consiste à accroitre la part des crédits alloués à ce Programme dans le budget. Il faudrait que la part du PCT soit de 13 pour cent. Nous nous exprimons en faveur de ce pourcentage et ce faisant nous appuyons la position de la Colombie, de la Thaïlande et de Madagascar et de tous les pays qui se sont exprimés en faveur de ce principe. Nous invitons instamment tous les pays membres à appuyer cette priorité d'autant plus que ce Programme a permis de renforcer grand nombre de projets entre autres la lutte contre les acridiens, la lucilie bouchère et d'autres ravageurs qui affectent les pays en développement. Mon pays a bénéficié directement de ces programmes de coopération technique et je voudrais exprimer ma gratitude à l'organisation et aux pays donateurs pour l'aide qu'ils ont fournie à la Tunisie.

En ce qui concerne les autres programmes techniques, le Programme des pêches en particulier, ma délégation déplore que ces programmes fassent l'objet de coupures budgétaires, en espérant qu'à l'avenir il ne sera pas nécessaire de répéter ces coupures.

Nous espérons que les pays en développement, comme les pays développés, s'efforceront de faire de notre planète un endroit où il fera meilleur vivre, où nous vivrons en harmonie. Nous espérons que le document du Secrétariat sera adopté par consensus.

LE PRESIDENT: Avant de donner la parole à Monsieur Shah, je donnerai la parole aux Présidents des deux Comités et je voudrais aussi remercier tous les membres du Conseil et les observateurs, qui ont bien voulu intervenir, des apports positifs - et même des apports négatifs - qu'ils ont donnés à ce débat. Tout sera repris au verbatim et les remarques et considérations qui ont été faites pourront, dans le processus qui est appelé à se poursuivre, rencontrer tous les éclaircissements dont ils ont besoin. Je crois qu'il est important de poser des questions, de compléter une information que tout le monde souhaite vivement. Nous avons à formuler une opinion tout en sachant que le Comité financier, le Comité du Programme et les Comités conjoints seront appelés à se réunir peut-être avant la 100ème réunion du Conseil et nous aurons l'occasion dans les mois qui viennent de donner les éclairages voulus, de manière à dissiper les zones d'ombre. Il existe déjà pas mal de zones de lumière et il faut dissiper les zones d'ombre existantes.

Permettez à votre Président de vous faire part de sentiments quelque peu personnels. Je crois qu'on peut qualifier ce Programme de travail et budget de "Programme de résignation", qui ne suscite pas l'enthousiasme. Vous savez que je n'ai jamais été enthousiaste de cette contradiction permanente qui nous fait parler de croissance 0, puisque le 0 est la non-croissance.

Nous sommes dans un monde où les problèmes deviennent de jour en jour plus angoissants, où les interpellations qui se posent deviennent de plus en plus lancinantes. Face à tous les problèmes qui se posent - et vous les avez soulevés - que ce soit le problème de l'explosion démographique, de la faim, de la misère, les problèmes des distorsions et des déséquilibres qui existent entre les riches et les pauvres qui ne font que s'accroitre, il faut pouvoir se donner les moyens de répondre, au moins en partie, aux interpellations qui se posent.

Il est clair qu'avec un petit budget on ne peut répondre que modestement. La FAO a fait jusqu'à présent un effort maximum. On ne peut pas comparer un Programme de travail et budget avec l'exécution de programmes antérieurs qui n'ont pas pu être exécutés pour la simple raison qu'on ne disposait pas des moyens pour remplir ce que la communauté internationale demandait.

C'est un budget de résignation que j'ai qualifié moi-même de budget constant, sans augmentations, mais qui n'est pas nécessairement - personne ne l'a défendu - un budget de diminution, de décroissance.

Un certain nombre de membres de notre Conseil ont parlé d'absorption des coûts. Il faut être très clair. Qu'est ce qu'un coût sinon un élément objectif sur lequel on peut bien sûr discuter. On peut discuter de l'objectivité des taux d'inflation, des augmentations de salaire des personnels, des nécessités d'acheter un certain nombre d'équipements. En ce qui concerne l'examen de ce que l'on a appelé l'accroissement des coûts, on peut discuter des éléments qui constituent cet accroissement, mais demander une absorption des coûts sans avoir le courage de dire qu'on demande une diminution du budget, c'est contradictoire. On a obtenu un consensus sur un budget de résignation. C'est un budget constant. Nous devons tous faire un effort pour que l'agrément qui a été obtenu en janvier puisse être maintenu et que tous ensemble, avec un budget même modeste, on puisse reconstruire.

On a beaucoup parlé du "lapse factor". Peut-on économiser sur le personnel? Un certain nombre de personnes devraient être remplacées, cela se produit dans toutes les administrations, des mises à la retraite. Est-ce qu'il ne faut pas préparer l'avenir? Est-ce qu'on a pas besoin de gens très qualifiés? Ils sont souvent difficiles à trouver. On ne pourra pas répondre aujourd'hui à toutes ces questions. Monsieur Shah va répondre à beaucoup d'éléments évoqués, mais je ne crois pas qu'on puisse répondre à toutes les questions alors que nous n'avons pas fini le processus et que nous devons obtenir un accord sur la façon dont nous allons continuer à préparer le Programme de travail et budget dont nous ne disposons actuellement que du Sommaire. On devrait préparer un document plus complet qui sera encore discuté pour être présenté à la Conférence. Voilà les quelques modestes réflexions que je voulais faire avant de passer la parole à M. Mazoyer, puis à M. di Mottola.

M.J. MAZOYER (Président du Comité da Programme): Permettez-moi tout d'abord de remercier, en mon nom personnel et au nom de mes collègues du Comité financier et du Comité du Programme, les honorables représentants des Etats Membres qui ont bien voulu porter une appréciation positive sur nos travaux, sur nos rapports et sur la présentation que j'ai eu l'honneur de vous en faire ce matin pour la partie qui me revenait. Je voudrais faire aussi quelques commentaires personnels très courts.

Je constate avec satisfaction que la plupart des délégations apprécient, comme nous l'avions fait nous-mêmes dans les Comités, le contenu et la qualité des propositions du Sommaire de Programme de travail et budget du Directeur général pour le prochain biennium, de telle sorte qu'on peut effectivement espérer que le Programme de travail et budget sera accepté par tous les Etats Membres de l'Organisation.

Naturellement, cette acceptation ne signifie pas et ne peut pas signifier que chaque pays en particulier considère que toutes ses demandes et que tous ses espoirs, tous les espoirs qu'il met dans l'Organisation soient satisfaits. C'est une opération strictement impossible. Cette acceptation repose en fait sur un compromis ou de multiples compromis.

Je voudrais rappeler, pour en avoir été témoin et même dans une certaine mesure acteur, que d'énormes efforts ont été consentis par les Etats Membres, par les organes directeurs, par le Secrétariat, avant, pendant et après l'examen, pour en arriver là.

Dans ces conditions, je ne pense pas du tout que le consensus soit quelque chose de vague et d'inopérant. Je pense que c'est un moment particulier, c'est une procédure politique privilégiée, qui vise précisément à établir, après de longs et difficiles débats, des conditions politiques, matérielles et morales, c'est-à-dire des conditions de travail aussi favorables que possible à l'accomplissement des tâches communes de l'Organisation.

De ce point de vue permettez-moi, en tant que Président du Comité du Programme, de souhaiter ardemment que ce consensus permette à l'Organisation de disposer enfin des ressources prévues et nécessaires pour que le prochain Programme de travail et budget adopté par la Conférence soit tout simplement effectivement exécuté.

C. di MOTTOLA BALESTRA (Presidente del Comité de Finanzas): Le agradezco mucho, señor Presidente, por darme el uso de la palabra. He pedido la palabra para dar las gracias a los delegados y observadores que han intervenido por sus comentarios.

Todas las opiniones que han sido aqui manifestadas han sido extremadamente francas y expuestas de una manera muy clara, como era deseable. Muchas de estas opiniones han sido coincidentes; otras tenian otro carácter.

Puedo asegurarles que estas opiniones facilitarán la dura labor del Comité de Finanzas del mes de septiembre. Vamos a tratar de fortalecer y reiterar el consenso que se ha alcanzado en el mes de enero. Como ustedes bien saben, la palabra consenso tiene varias interpretaciones, varias explicaciones. Desde un punto de vista se puede concebir como obligatoria, se ha tratado en algún tiempo de incluirlo hasta en textos y resoluciones de la FAO. En otros significa, sin embargo, simplemente la aceptación parcial de los derechos de quien no tiene la aceptación de uno, o sea, significa aceptar una fórmula de transacción. Yo creo que el consenso que ha llegado aqui en el mes de enero, en este sentido ha tratado de resolver el problema contingente de la FAO, ha tratado de poner de acuerdo a paises que tenian puntos de vista diferentes.

Pienso que nuestra tarea es tratar de fortalecerlo durante nuestro próximo período de sesiones; tratando principalmente de eliminar las dudas que hayan surgido durante estos pocos meses, de manera que se vaya a la Conferencia con un punto de vista unánime, a la aprobación jgeneral, sin la minima duda, sin la minima reserva por parte de ningún pais.

Muchas gracias a usted, señor Presidente, y muchas gracias a todos.

EL PRESIDENTE: Muchas gracias, señor Presidente del Coraité de Finanzas por su intervención. Creo que también usted y el Comité van a tener una tarea muy importante durante el mes de septiembre.

V.J. SHAH (Assistant Dlrector-General, Office of Programme, Budget and Evaluation): It is not only for the sake of form and correctness, but out of a deep sense of gratitude, that, on behalf of the Director-General and all my colleagues, I wish to thank the Council for the debate it has had

and the guidance it has given. By the same token, and on a personal level, may I say how deeply touched I am by the personal remarks in my regard made by distinguished members. Thank you.

The task of responding to such a debate is, as you have pointed out, Mr Chairman, a difficult one, and to do justice to the debate I set myself certain principles which, if you and the Council accept, would enable me to proceed somewhat more easily.

The first principle which I would submit is that I shall try and reply to every specific question. However, where the question is more in the nature of a request for clarification - wanting to know something more about something - in view of the time I would hope that those members who asked those questions vould bear with me and come to me or to my colleagues afterwards, for the information that they want.

Secondly, suggestions: The Council has had a rich palette of suggestions in the debate which you have had. I have to be careful of two things, above all. Firstly, as my wife on the one hand and the Director-General on the other warned me, I must take care not to be pompous, and, in responding too hastily to suggestions, there is a danger that I might do that. I do not wish to.

Thirdly, that even if there are suggestions, to some of which I would have negative reactions, or others to which I would have positive reactions in terms of willingness to consider them, I do not think I can do justice to them in responding. So, on suggestions made, may I say that the Secretariat's mind is always open to suggestions; but if we are asked to respond to all of them, I can say that it is not possible to consider all suggestions favourably.

Now, the factual questions. On the issue of the outline and the meeting of the Programme and Finance Committees in January, as the Council has recognized, this will be considered by the two committees as a specific issue in September and will come back to you and go to the Conference. I do not give any personal opinions, but a question was asked about the cost. The last meeting cost US$80 450, and that was for interpreters, overtime, travel and subsistence for the 20 members of the two committees, and documents.

The second question, regional office cuts. To save time, if I may, I will not refer to the names of individual delegations. Of course, they know full well who asked the questions. The current budgetary provision for all the regional offices and the joint division with the UN Regional Economic and Social Commissions, the current budgetary provision is US$48 517 000. The reduction in the proposals before you is US$3.2 million, so the proposed provision is US$45.3 million.

Number three. A number of delegations referred to the assumptions we have made or the provisions we count on making for support costs. I can only emphasize that since the UNDP governing council is at this very moment in the process of discussing the subject, the Director-General felt that it was not prudent or feasible to take any other course but to say that we take the status quo as it is, and we shall have to see after the decisions

of the UNDP Governing Council what the implications will be for FAO, bearing in mind and hoping that there will be suitable transitional arrangements.

Question number four, implications of the proposal of staffing. Reference was made to the table of changes in post in paragraph 105, and it was asked what the budgetary implications were. The impact, of course, varies, depending on the grade, but for the proposals as a whole for the total figures indicated in that paragraph, there is a net increase in cost totalling US$418 000. This is based post-by-post, with specific costs of all the posts listed in the paragraph 105 and in the table. Of course, this does not mean a net programme increase because the divisions have to absorb the costs, in many cases from within their existing budget base. But as the Council is aware, there is indeed a serious grade overlap between the senior ranks of the general service posts and the lower ranks of the professional posts. It is perfectly possible for the costs to go down if a G-7 post is replaced by a P-2 or a P-3.

Questions were asked about programme management. I would draw attention to the Programme of Work and Budget for this biennium which gives explanations of what is meant and what is involved in programme management, which is very different from field programme support. Field programme support is for the technical backstopping of field projects, and the provision in the regular budget for field programme support represents the subsidy, so to speak, from the regular programme to the field programme. The next programme of work and budget will again give this information and will give summary recapitulatory tables. But I would like to clarify some remarks which were made about the cost of programme management going up. I would like to explain that this is not so. Firstly, the programme management under the programme 219 in budgetary Chapter 2 refers to departmental programme management. It deals with the offices of my colleagues Mr Dutia, Mr de Haen, Dr Lindquist, Mr Murray, whereas the programme management under each of the programmes - financial resources, crops, etc. - refers to the divisional programme management, my colleagues Dr Papasolomontos, Dr Cunningham, etc. The main costs are the staff, the Assistant Director-Generals, the Division Directors and the related administrative support staff. However, take a case of something like the International Conference on Nutrition. The cost is going to be spread over a lot of programme activities, and we felt it was more fitting, more transparent to show the additional million dollars which are given for the ICN - under the programme management of the Nutrition Division. As long as we all recognize that, I think there is no problem. This does not mean that the cost of FAO management has gone up. It only means that we are showing the costs in clear ways so that you can identify exactly where they are and for what purposes. If we exclude such direct attribution of programme management costs to activities such as the ICN, the total provision for programme management shows a net reduction of US$266 000.

The next point is about consultant rates and the rates and conditions for short-term personnel. My colleague, the Director of Personnel, informs me that the seven-day rate currently in place for consultants is in three categories. Depending on the seniority and experience of the consultant, there is a category A, US$100 to 180 a day; category B, US$150 to 300. I should say that this is the category in which most of the consultants will

fall. Category C, US$250 to 350 a day. As the short-term personnel rates, there is a table. It would not be very comprehensible, I think, if I read the whole table, so let me give you an example. A stenographer, a secretary at the G-4 level, hired in Rome on the daily rate costs us Lit. 110 800. This is US$83 per day at today's rate of exchange.

The next question is on food control consumer protection, sub-programme 2163, element 03. The increase of US$80 000 covers an additional session of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives from two in this biennium to three in the next biennium, all under the Regular Programme. I should indicate that in 1991, this year, an additional session was held with extra-budgetary resources, thanks to the Government of Germany. The provision also covers in part the cost of the P-5 post of the FAO/GATT Food Control Coordinator.

With regard to the inquiry from the distinguished delegate of The Netherlands about the need for consultation between FAO and other organizations on the International Cooperative Programme Framework for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development, in brief, may I just refer to the comments which have been made by Dr Mahler at the end of the debate when he confirmed that such consultations had already taken place in the framework of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development and in the Committee of International Development Institutions on Environment, CIDIE. This will, of course, be pursued.

Permit me to respond to a comment of the distinguished delegate of the United Kingdom regarding FAO's role in fisheries research. First of all, factual information. The study on international research in fisheries which he referred to as being sponsored by the World Bank and a number of donor institutions and governments, I do not know if he intentionally left out FAO, but it is co-sponsored by FAO as well. FAO has participated fully in its work, and I would not be as questioning or as negative as he is about FAO's eventual role. Bearing in mind that there is no other inter-governmental organization, with as wide a mandate regarding marine and aquatic resources and fisheries as FAO, neither is there any other organization which has the structure of collaboration with governments and institutions, most prominently through the whole network of the regional fishery bodies, both within the auspices of FAO and those few which are outside the framework of the FAO. So we in the Secretariat do not think it at all presumptuous that we see an important coordinating role for FAO. But of course, the outcome of the study on research will be available to all concerned, and we should not exclude the possibility at all that if there are any doubts at all about any role that FAO perceives for itself, that role can be re-examined.

A number of interventions were made about forestry. To those interventions which expressed regret about the fact that the increase for the Forestry Department could not be higher, yes, you well understand and you well know why they could not be higher. I would offer one point for your consideration, and that is that the Major Programme of forestry, in fact, gets a proposed increase of only US$110 000. But the Forestry Department is proposed to get US$435 000, and this because of a reduction in the regional offices. So as far as the work of the Department is concerned, there is a not negligible increase.

Also with regard to forestry, questions were raised about the support to the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. Certainly, whereas in the summary we have shown the support of the FAO Regular Programme to the TFAP under individual sub-programmes with discrete elements so that you can see precisely where the support emanates from, in the full Programme of Work and Budget we intend also to provide, as some of you have suggested, including in the Programme Committee, a recapitulatory narrative and table which would enable you to see this increase. But let me share with you that whereas the provision in the present budget for support to the TFAP is US$1 250 000, for the biennium, when you take all the provisions which are shown separately, the proposed contribution is US$3 087 000.

The next point is about the TCP. Time presses, but the subjects are important, and I would rather give you less information and hope that I give it clearly rather than speak faster and lose both you and myself. On the TCP and the percentage share, the Director-General can only express regret that he cannot fulfil to the letter the terms of Conference resolution 9/89.

I do want to reply to those comments about the TCP. I will not attempt to reply to those comments that refer to positions of principles of governments. Those are well known, they are respected. The Secretariat will not presume to say anything about them. But if a comment is made, such as, "we have doubt about the resources going to the TCP" or "we have doubt about any increase for the TCP because of a lack of evaluation or a lack of objective evidence", those are implications that I feel I must address.

With regard to lack of evaluation, you, Mr Chairman, have had two external evaluations of the TCP with expert consultants, with results submitted to you, on the basis of which the Council has taken decisions.

Secondly, lack of objective evidence. This is a matter really more for you, the member nations, but from the point of view of the Secretariat let me ask what is objective? Who is supposed to have objective evidence about the value of the effectiveness of the TCP? To imply that anybody who benefits from the TCP cannot be objective about its value or its effectiveness -this is more a question to you, Sir, I would not accept because that would imply that only atheists can talk about the validity of God.

A specific question was asked about the category of TCP resources, for example, for emergencies, and it was pointed out that we show in budgetary Chapter 4 that the percentage of TCP resources for the category of emergency in 1990 was only 7.5 percent. That is a fact; I do not deny it. I would point out, however, that the percentage of TCP resources going to any category has never been predetermined, is not expected to be predetermined, and will vary from year to year. The percentage for emergencies has ranged from 50 percent in 1976 to the lowest point of 7.5 percent in 1990. But from the first five months of this year it seems to us abundantly clear that for this year the share of emergencies will be 20 percent. And, there is another element. It depends on where you classify the project. In practice my colleagues classify projects for an emergency when they have a very high component of equipment and supplies. But if I ask them what about the screwworm infestation in North Africa, where did they classify that, it is not in emergencies. They classified that under training and advisory

services because that was the primary nature of the assistance provided. I have not yet asked them where they are going to classify the assistance given to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in response to the problems of cholera.

If the nature of the project is more in advisory services, it is not an emergency according to this classification.

I would like to turn to the issue of cost increases. It is a serious matter and it is a matter which the Director-General and all of his colleagues take very seriously because of the magnitude of the sum involved, because of the burden it constitutes for member nations, whatever your attitude. Whether you accept our estimates, our attitude would be the same. Our attitude will be that we shall be as thorough and honest in making our estimates and presenting them to you and justifying them to you as we can be.

The assumptions are not of our invention. Whenever we make an assumption, for example, inflation in Italy, we take the rates set by the Central Statistical Institute. For inflation rates in other countries we take OECD forecasts, we take the analysis and the forecasts of International banks. Where there are rates agreed at the Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions, which is an inter-secretariat committee, rates that are also going to be observed by other organizations, we follow those. Where there are entitlements there is no speculation. It is the International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) which lays down the entitlements.

Lastly, where it is a question of analyzing how a specific entitlement affects FAO because of its particular staff mix, the grade mix, the distribution of staff by rotation, the age group of our children for purposes of the education grant, this is specific to FAO. Then it is based on an analysis of our staff population and their location and their families.

If we start with the basic principle that the cost increases are going to be revised, they will be estimated again thoroughly in all conscience and honesty.

The next question that has been raised is that we must not êxaggerate them. I have no difficulty in promising you that we do not and will not exaggerate them. In fact, as we have mentioned in debates earlier, the requirements in the last biennium and in the present one show that our provisions were underestimated. Let me briefly give you two examples to show how they are underestimated.

Some of you who were present at the last Conference will remember the hard time you gave me on the cost increases for the current biennium and the fact that the Director-General had thought fit to include a provision for the increase in General Service salaries. I had stated that the amount included was on the basis of 6 percent of the General Service wage bill, and you gave me hell for it. I told you that this was the rate which was included and you would see what the results were. The results are that the increase eventually awarded was 10.04 percent. In addition to that, General

Service salaries have benefited from earlier than expected adjustment for inflation. This very month, an increase in General Service salaries which in my incompetence I had not foreseen until the end of the year. The second example is Pension Fund Contributions. The Programme of. Work and Budget gives you the figures. Pension Fund Contributions were based on the full Programme of Work and Budget at the rate of 15 percent of remuneration. In fact, they have been set at 15.8 percent.

There are many other examples. I know your time is limited and you can discuss this more if you wish when we get to the relevant parts of the Finance Committee Report. I give these as examples to illustrate that, aside from not exaggerating our assumptions, there are other factors in which we are trapped, trapped by an inadequate provision for cost increases.

Mr Chairman, I will not go into the issue of absorption because Member Nations have addressed each other on that position, and the position of the Director-General is very clear as he mentioned it himself.

The final point is a specific point that I hope you will let me respond to, the question of the effect of exchange rates on the eventual budget level. The Summary has been presented to you at the current budget rate of 1 335 lire to the dollar. The full budget will also be presented to you at the same rate, so you will have a total basis for comparison.

What can happen at the Conference?

I am not Lord Keynes, so I have not made my fortune in arbitrage, but if you take the current rate it is not impossible that the budget rate that the Conference may find in November 20th may be around the same rate as the budget rate set for this biennium. If that were the case, the increase in assessed contributions would be 15.1 percent. Assuming, - this is an assumption that I will be able to confirm to you in the full Programme of Work and Budget - that we make an estimate for miscellaneous income of US$15 million, if the rate is higher, if the dollar is at 1 400 lire to the dollar at the time of the Conference, the proposed effective level of the budget would be reduced lower by US$10 million, then the contributions of member nations would be 13.3 percent higher and not 15.1 percent higher.

Mr Chairman, I love the subject. I would want to go on at much greater length. I hope that I have basically done justice to the debate. In concluding, I wish to thank you Mr Chairman, and through you all members of the Council.

LE PRESIDENT: Je voudrais dire une fois de plus que toutes les suggestions qui ont été faites par les membres du Conseil seront reprises dans le verbatim de nos deux séances d'aujourd'hui, que toutes ces suggestions seront soigneusement examinées et étudiées, et que l'on aura l'occasion, dans les semaines et les mois qui viennent, non seulement d'y répondre mais d'y donnet tout l'éclairage voulu.

Je crois que dans l'ensemble de nos travaux nous pouvons quand même exprimer, au nom du Conseil, notre satisfaction de savoir qu'au mois de janvier on est arrivé à un consensus dans la préparation du sommaire du Programme de travail et budget et que le Conseil est conscient dans les circonstances actuelles de l'importance d'obtenir un consensus de l'ensemble des membres de la FAO de façon à arriver à la présentation non plus d'un sommaire mais de l'ensemble du Programme de travail et budget à la Conférence lors de sa vingt-sixième session du mois de novembre de cette année.

Je crois qu'après avoir entendu les exposés de tous les membres et après avoir entendu ce que vient de dire M. Shah, nous pouvons exprimer notre satisfaction que le sommaire qui n'a pas été beaucoup critiqué, qui a été présenté par le Directeur général et qui répond aux recommandations des comités conjoints des finances et des programmes, a maintenu le budget en terme réel en parvenant quand même, dans toute la mesure du possible, à respecter les priorités et à maitriser les augmentations de coût en essayant, peut-être de façon imparfaite ou incomplète, de répondre quand même aux décisions de la Conférence précédente que l'on a exécutées dans le cadre de notre Programme de travail et budget. Un certain nombre de résolutions ont été votées. Une résolution n'est ni un souhait ni un voeu, elle est même contraignante pour le Directeur général de la FAO, et M. Shah a dû expliquer que des circonstances exceptionnelles ont fait que ces résolutions, qui ne sont pas des voeux, n'ont pas toutes pu être intégralement respectées, ce que je crois la majorité du Conseil déplore, parce que cela va à l'encontre des règles juridiques qui nous régissent.

Mais je crois aussi que le sommaire du Programme de travail et budget qui est clair et précis constitue un compromis entre des tendances différentes dans le but de rencontrer les difficultés auxquelles se trouve confrontée la FAO actuellement pour arriver à un consensus; ce consensus étant non pas un but en soi mais un moyen d'obtenir une large participation de tous et également la prise de conscience de la grande nécessité pour tous de remplir leurs obligations financières.

Le Conseil, dans l'ensemble, a approuvé les différentes options qui lui ont été soumises et a présenté un certain nombre de priorités, d'une manière claire, compte tenu des ressources limitées dont notre Organisation dispose, en s'efforçant de maintenir un niveau de programme acceptable pour toutes les différentes facettes des activités de l'Organisation dans son ensemble. On aura l'occasion de revoir le problème.

Le Conseil n'a pas émis d'objections en ce qui concerne les augmentations de coûts. Il a exprimé le voeu de voir ces augmentations de coûts réduites dans toute la mesure du possible. Cela sera examiné d'une manière précise, concrète et réaliste lors des travaux du Comité financier et du Comité du Programme, dans les semaines et les mois qui viennent. Je crois que, dans toute la mesure du possible, il faut maintenir ces augmentations de coûts à des niveaux acceptables, étant entendu qu'elles reflètent des éléments qui ne sont pas des éléments d'appréciation suggestifs mais des éléments objectifs dont il peut être déterminé avec précision sur quelle base ils ont été fixés.

Nous pouvons donc inviter le Directeur général et ses services, compte tenu de tout ce qui a été dit au cours de cet intéressant débat des séances plénières de ce matin et de cet après-midi, à finaliser, pour le soumettre aux différents comités et à la prochaine session du Conseil, la centième, le Programme de travail et budget, en exprimant le voeu que ce Programme de travail et budget très complet et très clair permettra enfin de recueillir le consensus que, j'en suis convaincu, tout le monde soúhaite.

The meeting rose at 19.15 hours
La séance est levée à 19 h 15
ge levanta la sesión a las 19.15 horas

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