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21.2 Scale of Contributions 1994-95 (continued)
21.2 Barème des contributions 1994-95 (suite)
21.2 Escala de cuotas para 1994-95 (continuación)

K. MEHBOOB (Assistant Director-General, Administration and Finance Department): There were three questions, and the one by the Republic of Korea dealt with the methodology used for calculating the scale of contributions, and that is the one which needs a lengthy reply. As I mentioned yesterday, FAO's scale of contributions is derived directly from the UN scale of assessments. The latter is computed by the UN Committee on Contributions. The methodology for the calculation of the scale is an extremely complex and highly specialized one. We managed to get a copy from the UN late last night. It is very lengthy and complicated, so I will read out the salient features from the methodology because it runs into a number of pages, and it is full of technical jargon and specialized aspects. But if any delegate is interested in a copy, we will be prepared to make the full one available to them.

As I have mentioned, determining the scale of assessment for Member Nations is a very complex procedure and requires a great deal of specialized data. The FAO Conference, by Resolution 42/55, said, and I quote, "that the United Nations Committee on Contributions is the most qualified body for assessing Member Governments' ability to pay as well as all other factors entering in the computation of an equitable scale of contributions and decided that the FAO scale of contributions will in future be derived directly from the United Nations scale of assessments". The fundamental criterion for the current methodology is the Member Nations' capacity to pay. In current practice this is determined by using a ten-year statistical base period to measure capacity to pay in terms of the average national income of Member Nations, referred to as the Member Nations' gross domestic product, converted to US dollars at official exchange rates. In order to arrive at the average national income of

Member Nations, the Contributions Committee uses a comprehensive data base for all Member Nations and non-Member States on national income in local currency, population and exchange rates for the ten-year period.

This information is compiled by the UN Statistical Office using official information provided by the Statistical Offices of the Member Nations and results in an average national income for each Member Nation. That is not the end. There are several other components which are then taken into account to arrive at the final figure for the national income for each Member Nation, and these elements are, apart from the data on national income for the ten-year period - and the current ten-year period which is being used for the current assessment is the period 1980-89 - there is debt relief. This reduces the annual national income of eligible countries with high levels of external debts. Then there is the low per capita income allowance, formula. This reduces the national income already adjusted for debt relief on the basis of its two parameters, namely the upper per capita income limit of US$2 000 and the relief gradient of 85 percent. Then there are the rates of assessment of Member States which may not be lower than 0.1 percent floor rate or exceed 25 percent ceiling rate. The assessment rates of least developed countries may not exceed 0.1 percent.

Then there is the scheme for taking into account excess to avoid excessive variations. The national income data so arrived at are prepared by the UN Statistical Office for all Member Nations. Then all these figures are adjusted in a different fashion for countries with market economies and countries which have centrally-planned economies. Here, the methodology becomes really technical, and it runs into pages and pages of plus that and minus that and plus that and minus that. Perhaps I will not read all that out, but if any distinguished delegate is interested in having a copy, we will be prepared to make it available.

I will now go to the questions raised or the comments made by Brazil and Lithuania. With regard to the question raised by Brazil, its proposed assessment for 1994-95 increased from 1.69 percent in 1992-93 to 1.86 percent. This rate is based on the UN scale of assessments adjusted for the difference of the membership of the two Organizations.

In the case of Lithuania, the Committee on Contributions has already considered the representations made by Lithuania. Lithuania had drawn attention to the distorting effect of the ruble exchange rates which were used for the conversion of national income into US dollars. The Committee on Contributions, after taking that representation into account, finally decided to recommend to the General Assembly that on the basis of national income and population data available at the Statistical Division, the rate of assessment for 1992-93 and 1994 for Lithuania should be 0.15 percent. This is the basis for the rate used in the proposed assessment by FAO. So all these figures are based on the UN Scale of Assessment, adjusted for the membership of the two Organizations.

Finally, if I could flag one aspect for the Council's consideration, it is Appendix C to the document under consideration, which gives the scale of contributions. That is provisional, as stated in the Finance Committee's report, paragraph 3.68. This scale is to be finalized at the time of the forthcoming session of the Conference, because it is at that time that the final scale would be worked out, depending on new membership.

LE PRESIDENT: Je crois que nous pouvons difficilement obtenir plus de renseignements. Je vous ai déjà signalé la situation d'un Etat qui a disparu, la Yougoslavie, et je pense qu'il est utile, pour information, d'indiquer que pour deux pays faisant partie de notre Organisation mais ne faisant pas partie de l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies - la Confédération Helvétique et le Royaume de Tonga - leur contribution est la résultante de pourcentages que l'Organisation des Nations Unies leur demande de fournir pour certaines activités, notamment pour celles de la FAO dont ils font partie intégrante.

Il me reste maintenant à vous soumettre le projet de résolution de la Conférence concernant le barème des contributions et nous ne pouvons que recommander à la Conférence d'adopter ce barème, étant entendu que le Secrétariat de la FAO est à la disposition de tous les Etats Membres pour leur fournir toutes les explications complémentaires qu'ils souhaiteraient, suite à la répartition qui est faite non pas à notre niveau mais à New York.

Y a-t-il d'autres remarques sur ce point de l'ordre du jour?

Tel n'étant pas le cas je déclare ce point clos en proposant l'adoption de la résolution.

Morad Ali ARDESHIRI (Iran, Islamic Republic of): First of all, I apologize for being late yesterday, because I too had questions on this issue.

I would like to thank Mr Mehboob, the Assistant Director-General, for his clarification and explanation.

Concerning the scale of contributions for our country, as indicated in Appendix C of the document before us, there is an increase of 0.1 percent for the biennium 1994-95. My delegation would like to reserve its right to express the government's view at the appropriate forum of FAO, after further investigation from our Representative in the UN.

LE PRESIDENT: Y-a-t-il d'autres questions? Etes-vous d'accord pour que nous soumettions à la Conférence le projet de résolution tel qu'il est libellé?

Je déclare close la discussion du point 21 de notre ordre du jour. Il en sera ainsi.


11. Recent Developments in the UN System of Interest to FAO
11. Faits nouveaux survenus récemment: dans le système des Nations Unies qui intéressent la FAO
11. Novedades recientes en el sistema de las Naciones Unidas de interés para la FAO

LE PRESIDENT: Nous passons maintenant au point 11, "Faits nouveaux survenus récemment dansle système des Nations Unies qui intéressent la FAO".Nous

nous référons à ce sujet au document C 93/9, qui est le rapport relatif à cette question. Il nous sera présenté par Mme Killingsworth, Directeur en charge du Bureau des relations extérieures. Je la remercie d'honorer notre session de sa présence et je lui donne immédiatement la parole.

Ms Kay KILLINGSWORTH (Director, Office for External Relations): I shall be as brief as I can, because I know that you have a very heavy agenda this morning.

The document before you, which, as you will have already noted, is also submitted to the Conference, is in the nature of an interim report. There will be a supplement prepared in the Autumn, which will update you on the outcome of a number of meetings which have not yet taken place or are only just in the process of being concluded in other fora in the UN system. I shall limit myself now to giving you some essential updating of what is reported in the document, since it was prepared in March of this year, and to providing some additional information. As always, this document is very selective in its coverage, and certainly does not purport to be an exhaustive report on what FAO is doing with other organizations in the UN system. This is primarily in order to facilitate the Council's debate by not overlapping with other items on the Council agenda. I cite as an example the International Conference on Nutrition which was of course an outstanding example of inter-agency cooperation and collaboration; this is not covered in the present document, as it is the next item on your agenda. The same is true of international cooperation in fisheries and forestry, which you have already addressed in some detail in the context of your discussions of the reports of COFI and COFO.

Where action is required by or requested of the Council concerning FAO's own programmes, normally a separate Agenda Item is envisaged to permit the kind of adequate and focused discussion which you need to have in order to arrive at such action or decision. The document before you instead limits itself to presenting, in as concise a manner as possible, matters of which you need to be kept informed, but without the views and analysis of the Secretariat which you would expect were any particular action or decision needed from the Council at this session.

My task is also facilitated by the fact that because we are coming so late in the Council's timetable, some of the information which I might otherwise have given today has already been provided under other items of your agenda - for example, the latest situation on the Uruguay Round.

Another subject on which you have already been informed by Mr Hjort, I believe a few days ago, is the question of the future of the World Food Council. As you know, this is part of a broader discussion which is taking place among Member States in the General Assembly. Unlike in most years, the General Assembly did not bring its 47th Session for 1992 to a close at the end of the year; it has resumed its session in 1993 and continues to meet periodically in New York. The main subject before the resumed session is the question of the restructuring and revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social and related fields. As of yesterday, there was still no agreement on the draft text which is before an ad hoc Committee of the General Assembly

which is conducting informal consultations. The proposals in this draft text relate primarily to UN intergovernmental bodies and to the governance and financing of UN funds and programmes engaged in operational activities - and that, as you know, also includes the World Food Programme. We will be informing you and the Conference in the autumn of any conclusions reached, or any decisions which will have been taken by the resumed session of the GA by that time.

I would like to turn now to another major event, which is the World Conference on Human Rights. As you know, this is still ongoing in Vienna - in fact, it is drawing to a close this week. The Director-General addressed the World Conference last Friday, and his statement was focused on humanity's right to freedom from hunger, drawing the attention of the Conference to reaffirmations of that right, most recently at the ICN in the World Declaration. His statement has been made available to you, and I would just like to add that since the draft Final Report which was before the World Conference did not contain any clear and specific reference to the right to food, the Director-General has formally proposed a short text which is based on the relevant portions of the World Declaration on Nutrition, which had been agreed by the 159 countries and the EEC present at the ICN last December. The text is now being considered by the Conference's Drafting Committee, and we have reason to hope that the final outcome of the World Conference will give due recognition to the- importance of access to food and the right of all individuals to freedom from hunger.

Going on to another major event for FAO this year: this was the first regular session for 1993 of the Administrative Committee on Coordination. The Director-General has always attached the highest priority to this committee. As you know, it groups the Executive Heads of the UN specialized agencies, under the chairmanship of the Secretary-General and with the participation of the heads of the autonomous UN Programmes. He participates personally in the ACC's sessions, which take place twice a year, and FAO is active throughout the year in the preparatory process for these meetings and also in the activities of the subsidiary machinery of the ACC. This year, in addition, the spring session, which is normally hosted by one of the member agencies of the ACC, was hosted by FAO here in Rome.It took place from 19 to 21 April.

The main substantive item on the ACC's agenda, which had in fact been initially suggested by the Director-General, was the question of coordination of humanitarian assistance, including emergency relief and the continuum to rehabilitation and development. There was a very rich discussion. Time does not permit me to summarize it here, but that debate does constitute a major input to the discussion which will take place at the Economic and Social Council at its substantive session for 1993, which opens next week in Geneva. FAO will of course participate in the ECOSOC session as always, and a full report will be given to you in the autumn.

Going on to the follow-up to UNCED: It has been intensive at both the interagency and intergovernmental levels. The ACC has been assisted by its new subsidiary, the Inter-agency Committee on Sustainable Development, in focusing on system-wide efforts to assist Member Countries in implementing Agenda 21. An ACC statement which underlines the gap between commitment to actionandcommitment in terms of financinghas been submitted to the

intergovernmental Commission on Sustainable Development, which as you know has been set up as a result of UNCED, and which is meeting for its first substantive session in New York now.

We have some last minute news from Mr Mahler, who is representing FAO in New York. The CSD has adopted the proposals put forward by its organizational session earlier this year, (and which are reported in the document) for its multi-year programme of work. It will be starting in 1994 with multi-sectoral questions. It will have a high-level segment, and it will have reports, as it had this year, from the organizations of the system. FAO has already presented its report to the CSD.

Going on now to other aspects of UNCED follow-up: UNEP Governing Council has also met, in May, in Nairobi. The main focus of that debate was the level and priorities of the Environment Fund. While the Secretariat had proposed a target of US$200 million for the Fund in 1994-95, the final agreed target by the Council was US$120-130 million. There was therefore a reordering of priorities. Atmosphere, environmental legislation, and environmental assessment and monitoring will now receive lower priority and capacity building in developing countries has moved very much higher in the scale of priorities.

The Substantive Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the Elaboration of an International Convention to Combat Desertification met in Nairobi at the end of May and early June of this year. FAO contributed very substantially, through background documents and technical presentations, to the Session. The Organization's expertise in poverty, land degradation, environmental and legal matters was made available to Member Countries through the Secretariat of the Committee.

FAO is also contributing in very much the same way to the preparations for the Global Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and to the Conference on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. For the latter Conference, as you may know, FAO has been designated as the scientific and technical adviser to the Secretariat.

There is some last minute news from New York about the UNDP Governing Council, which finished on Friday. We have begun to receive reports on the Session. Most of what was decided will be analyzed and reported to you later on this year, but I would point out that qne of the issues of great interest to FAO was that of agency support costs. The text finally adopted last week, inter alia. welcomes the progress which has been made in the implementation of TSS 1 (which is Technical Support Services at the Programme level), and urges acceleration in the pace of approvals in TSS 2 funding, (which is at project level). Significantly in this connection, the Council also urged greater involvement of Specialized Agencies in the design and formulation of projects, irrespective of implementation modalities. The decision also reaffirmed the intention to carry out an external review of this whole issue in 1994 for a report to the Governing Council that year.

Going on to some other points which are covered in the document: Poverty alleviation: since the document was finalized last March, the ACC Sub-Committee on Rural Development, which is the new name of what was formerly

the ACC Task Force on Rural Development, held its 21st meeting at World Bank headquarters in May of this year. FAO provides both the Secretariat and the Chairman of this important part of the ACC Subsidiary machinery. The two panels of the Sub-Committee, one on monitoring and evaluation, and another on people's participation also met. The Sub-Committee has reaffirmed that its mandate should remain firmly anchored in rural development, but will be enlarged to review linkages between urban and rural poverty. It will also cover related subjects such as macro-economic policies, inter-sectoral as well as rural-urban linkages and the inter-connections between rural poverty and the environment, to the extent that they affect rural development and contribute to poverty alleviation, which is a major thrust of UN System efforts.

Going on to other international conferences: Preparations for the World Summit on Social Development have progressed in recent weeks, beginning with the election of Ambassador Juan Somavia, President of ECOSOC, as Chairman of the Preparatory Committee, for the Summit, which will take place in 1995. FAO has been represented at the organizational session of the PrepCom in April and has participated in an inter-agency meeting as well. There will be three substantive sessions of the PrepCom between now and 1995, two next year and the third in January of 1995.

Drug Abuse Control: there are some new developments. In accordance with the General Assembly Resolution 47/100, FAO has been working very closely with the UN Drug Control Programme and other member agencies to update the System-Wide Plan of Action on Drug Abuse Control, with agency-specific implementation plans as Annexes. This updated Plan is going to be considered next month by ECOSOC.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations has asked FAO to undertake a study on the need for, and feasibility of, a diversification fund for Africa's commodities. This is the major item I would report to you under the heading of trade and commodity issues. This report will be prepared for submission to the General Assembly in 1993, so we have a very short deadline. We are working on it very hard at the moment. We have been in touch with a number of UN Bodies and specialized agencies, including the UN, UNCTAD, UNDP, the African Development Bank, the ECA, the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation.

On other issues, there has been some slow progress on the Common Fund for Commodities. We will provide more information if any delegate is interested but I think it would be better if I stopped here. I remain, at your disposal, Mr Chairman, for any further clarifications you may require.

Amin ABDEL-MALEK (Liban) (Langue originale arabe): Monsieur le Président, je voudrais tout d'abord remercier Mme Killingsworth de nous avoir présenté ce document d'une manière exhaustive et utile. Nous apprécions ce document que nous jugeons extrêmement utile car il nous donne une idée claire des activités auxquelles participent la FAO avec les autres organisations du système des Nations Unies.

Nous approuvons certaines des activités mentionnées dans ce document, notamment la participation du Directeur général à la Conférence internationale des droits de l'homme. Mme Killingsworth nous a informés que le Directeur général avait assisté à cette Conférence vendredi dernier. Nous approuvons aussi les activités de l'Organisation pour l'atténuation de la pauvreté dans le monde et l'aide humanitaire d'urgence.

Si elle accepte les informations relatives à la restructuration des Nations Unies, la délégation libanaise n'accepte pas cependant que cette question soit soumise à cette réunion du Conseil, d'autant plus qu'elle est toujours l'objet d'un examen devant l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies où nos gouvernements sont représentés.

Il se peut qu'à l'avenir le Conseil puisse discuter de cette question lorsque l'Assemblée générale des Nations Unies aura adopté une résolution à ce sujet et si cette résolution fait état de questions ayant un rapport quelconque avec la FAO, compte tenu, cependant, de l'examen des activités de la FAO entrepris durant les années 1988-89. Cet examen a prouvé que les activités de l'Organisation étaient tout à fait satisfaisantes et que la transparence de ces activités était parfaite. Nous ne voyons donc pas la nécessité de réviser cette question ni de l'étudier à nouveau, et la délégation libanaise réaffirme son désaccord au sujet de la discussion de cette question en ce moment.

Vishnu BHAGWAN (India): I thank the Secretariat for an informative and interesting document with regard to recent developments in the United Nations system. It gives a useful review of the wide front on which FAO works with other organizations in making its contribution. I would thank Ms Killingsworth for her update on the document. We have noted with keen interest the renewed emphasis on poverty eradication as a development priority in the discussions and decisions in the various important fora of the United Nations, such as the General Assembly, ECOSOC, UNCTAD, ACC and other subsidiary bodies, and the active participation of FAO in this important initiative.

With reference to paragraph 1.5, the critical issues highlighted by the Director-General of FAO before ECOSOC are most relevant and deserve the attention of all concerned.

We are also appreciative of the stress and focus on the initiative to be taken by the national governments of developing countries themselves, in various resolutions of the General Assembly, and the efforts to coordinate the activities of all the agencies of the UN system in meeting the needs of developing countries in the most effective manner.

Resolutions 47/197 and 47/199 on International Cooperation for the Eradication of Poverty in Developing Countries and the Review of the Operational Activities of the United Nations Development System, contain United Nations system's approach to the problem and how to develop a most effective response to it.

As the various components of the proposed response are yet to take a final shape, we look forward to a more efficient and effective system by which to serve the developing countries better.

We have noted with satisfaction FAO's cooperation and collaboration with the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs in extending humanitarian relief in situations of natural and man-made disasters, especially in the preparation of special situation reports and consolidated inter-agency appeals for the Special Emergency for the Horn of Africa and the Drought Emergency in South Africa.

We also commend their work in respect of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, the working group and DHA Task Force on newly-independent states, as well as on the establishment of a Register of Disaster Management expertise.

We welcome the formation of the Commission on Sustainable Development as an institutional arrangement for the follow-up of UNCED. We hope that the Commission will concentrate on the transfer of environmentally-sound technologies, capacity building and financial resources and mechanisms to help the developing countries.

We also welcome the establishment of an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the Elaboration of an International Convention to Combat Desertification, and we call for a positive and constructive outcome of the same.

J.C. MACHIN (United Kingdom): I, too, am very grateful to Ms Killingsworth for updating this important paper before us and agree with you that this is an extremely important occasion for taking a wider look at what the UN system does and where FAO slots into that system where it responds to these developments in its future activities. We think this is an extremely important paper. Clearly a lot of work has gone into it. Therefore, we welcome it and welcome its continuing production.

I do not want to take up too much time, but I would like to make some comments on the substance of the paper which, as we all recognize, addresses extremely important areas, not least the question of poverty eradication. I have just learnt an interesting statistic this morning - it is not mine - 13 million to 18 million people die from poverty-related causes every year, the equivalent of one hundred fully-loaded 747s crashing every day, which makes one think.

I mention first the establishment of the Commission on Sustainable Development which we see as a major innovation in the system. It has a specific mandate to monitor the performance of Agenda 21. In order to carry out that monitoring role the Commission will need accurate and focused information from governments and from all the agencies in the UN System on their progress in implementing the agenda. The first session is still in progress in New York, where we and others are working hard to ensure that the Commission is established as a very effective body in monitoring the implementation of the agreements at Rio. Therefore, we welcome the FAO participation in the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development, and encourage FAO to provide as much information as possible on the implications of Agenda 21 for our own Organization which has a major role to play in the implementation of Agenda 21.

At this point a brief word on the global conference on the sustainable development of small island developing states. This will offer a valuable opportunity to focus on the issues which directly affect small islands. Maintaining this focus is essential to the success of the conference and its ability to produce constructive and practical results. We firmly believe that the problems faced by small island states must be addressed at the right level if solutions are to be effective. Most often this will be at national or regional levels with the support of the international agencies where appropriate. We welcome the positive approach FAO has shown to this conference.

Another important conference is the one which Ms Killingsworth has already mentioned, the Conference on Human Rights, which takes place clearly at a time of great political change. It provides us all with a good opportunity to take stock of the programmes made in the field of human rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration. We strongly support the objectives of the Conference. I read with particular interest the address of the Director-General. My Government attaches great importance to universal adherence to the existing human rights Instruments. We want to explore methods of improving implementation, in particular the provision of technical assistance.

Another important development is the Fourth World Conference on Women to be held in Beijing next year. Women make up half the world's work force yet much of their potential contribution is lost through debilitating but avoidable ill health. We hope the meeting will address fully the issue of health care for women.

Another area in which FAO has an important role to play and on which Ms Killingsworth gave us an update was drug abuse control and we urge FAO to continue the drugs dimension in its future activities. We are particularly pleased to note that FAO projects fully take into account the drugs dimension and hope that the revision of the System-Wide Plan of Action will develop into a more action-oriented plan, encouraging organizations like FAO to become further engaged in tackling drug problems. I was particularly interested to read comments about the development of satellite imagery, which is very interesting. It would be extremely helpful to us to see the results of that. It seems to us that if successful, this could be an extremely important tool in evaluating the success of crop eradication and crop substitution.

The delegate of India referred to some of the operational activities of the UN system addressed in the paper. Perhaps I can just start with a brief reminder that Resolution 47/199 was not a completely new Resolution, but a continuation of earlier Resolution 44/211 of December 1989. Therefore, we do not think it is defensible to adduce, as the paper seems to do, that it is too early to show much progress yet. The earlier Resolution explicitly required definite and considerable progress in the areas it covered. Resolution 47/199 itself expressed with a degree of disappointment a lack of progress on what are essentially the same themes. We hope agencies like FAO will push hard for progress in this area.

One particular development was the Country Strategy Note. We are keen that all agencies pursue this innovation vigorously. In our view, FAO is right to suggest it will be best to start in a few countries first, but we expect and

we hope that in time Country Notes will become the norm rather than the exception.

I am afraid I also have to say we do not share the interpretation of flexibility mentioned in paragraph 7.9 of the paper. Essentially we believe that UN programmes should be linked in some way to national programming frameworks. Another point is that the programme approach relies on improved measurement of output and impact which is a major gap in the UN system and, indeed, in many bilateral agencies. We are trying to put it right in order to measure both output and indicators of performance and success. Success, of course, is the indicator on which contributions will continue to flow or not flow.

In our experience, many UN agencies also misinterpret national execution as meaning employment by agencies of nationals of a particular country. We are pleased that FAO does not fall into that trap. We urge continued consideration of national execution and capacity-building at every possible opportunity.

Decentralization is widely regarded as extremely important in assisting programme management in the field in terms of speeding up decision-making, and in making programmes more responsive to individual country circumstances. We encourage FAO to respond to the increasing pressure for meaningful decentralization and to the emerging important role for UN response coordinators.

Two last comments - very small ones. We welcome the participation of FAO in field management training courses in Turin and also ask FAO to explore as much as it can the possibility of complementing these activities with its own internal training systems. Finally, we congratulate FAO on the moves it has taken towards the harmonization of rules and procedures including Trust Fund project documentation. We encourage FAO to continue in this direction and to press ahead with even more progress.

Mrs Melinda L. KIMBLE (United States of America) : My delegation would also like to thank Ms Killingsworth for her introduction on this very important and timely subject. We all have serious interest in the system-wide development.

We attach particular importance to FAO's work on rural development initiatives to counter narcotics production in many regions. FAO's role in this area is critical and can be vital to the implementation of the System-Wide Action Plan on Drug Abuse Control which we strongly support. FAO's supportive cooperation with the new UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs in the area of humanitarian emergencies is also to be commended. We encourage FAO to continue to broaden its active cooperation with UN Secretariat and other UN agencies in this area.

FAO has a critical and catalytic role in the post-UNCED agenda as underlined in Agenda 21. Small but urgent investments now in key FAO Regular Programmes can lay a firm foundation for global action on implementing the environment and sustainable agricultural development agenda. Preparations for the global assessment of the state of the world's plant genetic resources now in process are criticaltothe development of a globally costed Plan of Action. The

recent progress of FAO in cataloguing domestic farm animal diversity in certain regions can similarly jump-start the process of assessing animal genetic resources in the near future.

Path-breaking efforts in Latin America in FAO's sustainable agriculture and rural development area, especially the collaborative work with other agencies such as UNDP and UNEP, and with NGOs, can offer a model for efforts in other regions.

The regional work in integrated pest management in Asia is another demonstration of how FAO can synergize multilateral approaches to agro-environmental problems.

The report before us offers an important opportunity to review the changes under way in the UN system and the multiple challenges affecting it. I recall, Mr Chairman, that the Council had an extensive discussion of this item in November, reflecting the importance all Member States attach to strengthening and improving the UN system.

As UN reform and system coordination is a key issue, we look forward to FAO's progress report on the implications and impact of UNGA Resolution 47/199 on its operational activities later this year. This is a period of reorientation and recommitment to the entire UN system. Recent political and economic changes open up unprecedented opportunities. Global consensus is developing around representative democracy, individual human rights, and market-based economic systems. These changes have had unexpected consequences. Complex emergencies continue to inject turbulence and unanticipated pressures on the UN system. These tragic emergencies underscore the critical importance of world food security. A response to these crises was the creation of the Department of Human Affairs. We strongly support DHA's coordinative function and encourage FAO to continue to participate fully in all inter-agency activities.

We would like to take this opportunity to reaffirm our strong commitment to the restructuring and revitalization of the United Nations system as a whole and of the FAO in particular. The necessity of rebuilding agricultural opportunities and integrating the social and environmental aspects of rural development multilaterally cannot be denied. However, this is a time of economic uncertainties, when the performance of UN agencies is under question from skeptical legislatures and anxious publics, it is more important than ever to promote institutional changes that yield visible, concrete results.

Thus harmonizing FAO's development activities with those of other UN agencies, multilateral financial institutions, and NGOs is vital. UNDP's coordinative mandate offers an existing mechanism to do this. To deal with competing demands and resource constraints, UN agencies must build bridges to organizations with similar goals and experience.

Forging a systematic plan for UNCED follow-up is the biggest challenge the UN system faces. FAO has a central role in this process. This role is preeminent in Agenda 21 Chapters 10-14 that deal with land resources, deforestation, fragile ecosystems, desertification, sustainable agriculture and rural development.

Although FAO's broad technical expertise in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and the related economic and social dimensions makes it unique in the UN system, one of the main challenges from UNCED is (a) to collaborate more effectively with national and international organizations, and (b) to make information available to countries that enables them to carry out the necessary analyses, planning, and monitoring related to the implementation of Agenda 21.

FAO's strategy for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) implies a major new direction for FAO that focuses its diverse technical skills on the priority problems in developing countries. The US is especially encouraged in that the SARD framework has been broadened to include forestry and fisheries and we continue to look forward to a more rapid implementation of the Special Action Programmes (SAPs) to implement SARD.

In our view the glue that will hold together FAO's implementation of Agenda 21 is the development of integrated, geographically referenced information management systems. All Member States recognize the global asset we have in the enormous amount of information contained in FAO's data bases. The officially published statistics represent only a fraction of the data available on land and water resources, from ARTEMIS and its vegetation and cloud cover data, from the recent forestry assessment, and from fisheries data bases.

Such information is potentially invaluable to national planners and policymakers in drawing a clear picture, for example, of soil erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, and water pollution. The United States considers it essential to make fuller use of these powerful information resources to assist national decision-makers in analyzing and making rational planning decision as they develop the National -Environmental plans under the CSD planned follow-up to UNCED.

In the near term, the United States would welcome a pilot activity to develop a SARD information management framework that could be translated into operational phase in one or two regions. If successful, this could be an important means of disseminating more widely and to a more practical end FAO's rich information resources.

On a separate note, Mr Chairman, the United States appreciates inclusion in the report of a section on drug abuse control and commends FAO's response to the drug problem. We encourage FAO to broaden its program objectives in this important area and to intensify its efforts to promote rural development initiatives in key drug producing and trafficking countries. Each Member State must be supportive of these efforts if they are to succeed. It is imperative that all recipient and donor countries cooperate with FAO in working toward the elimination of this destructive trade. The US strongly supports the System Wide Action Plan on Drug Abuse Control, or SWAP, as a means to increase systemic attention to, and cooperation on, drug control. We encourage FAO to implement these recommendations and to coordinate closely with the UN Drug Control Program.

Yvan JOBIN (Canada): La délégation du Canada désire exprimer son appréciation au secrétariat de la FAO pour le document C 93/9, qui nous fournit une toile de fond très bien préparée et très utile au sujet des faits nouveaux dans le système onusien intéressant la FAO.

Nous avons également beaucoup apprécié les remarques additionnelles, claires et bien structurées de Mme Killingsworth. Tout comme d'autres délégations qui se sont déjà exprimées nous considérons ce point de notre ordre du jour comme très important, étant donné les changements de grande portée qui sont en cours dans le système onusien et leurs implications pour la FAO. Dans ce contexte, ma délégation souhaite vous faire part des vues canadiennes suivantes.

Nous nous réjouissons de la place majeure qui est accordée avec raison, dans ce document, au suivi de la Conférence de Rio. Ce suivi constitue en effet un défi de toute première importance pour la communauté internationale, et pour la FAO en particulier. Nous voulons encourager la FAO à développer des relations de très étroite collaboration avec la nouvelle commission du développement durable, dont la première session de fond se déroule présentement.

Le Canada considère qu'une coordination améliorée de l'assistance humanitaire d'urgence constitue un autre défi essentiel. C'est dans cet esprit que le Canada a appuyé la création du Département des Affaires humanitaires de l'ONU et que nous soutenons ce dernier dans l'exécution de son mandat. Le Canada encourage la FAO a collaborer pleinement avec ce Département.

Nous avons également accueilli avec grand intérêt l'agenda pour la paix présenté par le Secrétaire général de l'ONU, M. Boutros-Ghali. Nous jugeons très important que cet agenda pour la paix s'accompagne d'un agenda pour le développement. En effet, la paix et la sécurité internationales doivent reposer sur de solides bases politiques, économiques et sociales. Dans cet esprit, le Canada est fermement convaincu que la réforme du système onusien de développement doit être un objectif prioritaire pour la communauté internationale.

Dans ce contexte, le Canada souhaite le succès des efforts en cours visant à revitaliser le conseil économique et social. Nous espérons vivement que le rôle essentiel d'impulsion politique et de coordination de l’ECOSOC ainsi que celui du comité administratif de coordination pourront être renforcés, pour le plus grand bénéfice de la communauté internationale, tout en respectant le polyçentrisme du système onusien, auquel nous savons que la FAO demeure très attachée.

Alors que les défis mondiaux ne cessent de croître en nombre et en gravité, le Canada considère qu'il est impérieux d'oeuvrer résolument en faveur du renouveau de toutes les institutions onusiennes, afin d'assurer que ces dernières soient en mesure de répondre avec une efficacité accrue à de tels défis.

Dans ce contexte, et compte tenu du mandat essentiel qui est le sien, nous considérons comme extrêmement important que la FAO soit à l’avant-garde du renouveau. Alors que le bateau du renouveau du système onusien s'apprête à quitter le port, il est en effet absolument essentiel que la FAO ne reste

pas sur le quai, mais qu'elle prenne la place qui lui revient dans le poste de pilotage, au côté des gouvernements et des autres organisations onusiennes.

Monsieur le Président, des décisions d'une grande portée pour l'avenir du système onusien devront en effet être prises dans les prochains mois et les prochaines années. Au cours de ce processus très complexe, nos gouvernements auront besoin des avis, des conseils, de l'expérience et, parfois aussi, peut-être, des mises en garde de la FAO. Or, les vues de la FAO seront d'autant plus écoutées que celle-ci apparaîtra, aux yeux de nos gouvernements, comme une organisation moderne, transparente et tournée résolument vers l'avenir.

Monsieur le Président, alors que notre Organisation, née à Québec, approche rapidement de ses cinquante ans, notre monde trouble a le plus grand besoin d'une FAO forte, vibrante, dynamique. Notre monde a le plus grand besoin d'une FAO toujours fidèle à sa mission, mais qui, à l'instar de toute autre organisation, sache aussi réexaminer régulièrement ses priorités, ses programmes ainsi que ses méthodes de travail.

Monsieur le Président, comme, il y a longtemps déjà, bien avant nous, bien avant la FAO, le grand philosophe Hegel l'avait compris, la vie est le mouvement. La seule constante dans notre monde, c'est le changement. En dépit de tous les fleurons de ses remarquables réalisations passées et présentes, la FAO ne peut pas se soustraire à cette loi fondamentale de la nature.

Animé par cette préoccupation, le Canada considère que le renouveau de la FAO sera grandement favori, entre autres, par une revitalisation de ses organes directeurs, et particulièrement de ses comités restreints. Le Canada est persuadé que des organes directeurs revigorés seront les meilleurs garants d'une FAO dynamique et à la fine pointe de l'excellence au sein du système multilatéral.

En terminant, Monsieur le Président, ma délégation tient à réitérer la très ferme conviction du Canada que l'ONU et ses agences, dont la FAO, se doivent d'être à l’avant-garde des efforts visant à promouvoir le rôle de la femme dans la société. Le Canada appelle de nouveau la FAO à prêcher par l'exemple, en accroissant la proportion de femmes à tous les niveaux de responsabilité dans l'Organisation.

LE PRESIDENT: Merci au délégué du Canada de son intervention. Bien avant Hegel, les philosophes grecs avaient déjà contribué à promouvoir le changement dont vous avez parlé. Je vous remercie d'avoir souligné le rôle de pilote de la FAO, Organisation forte, vibrante et dynamique et je ne doute pas que votre pays contribuera à lui donner les moyens voulus pour réaliser ses objectifs.

Ms Aurore LUNDKVIST (Sweden) : I have the honour to speak on behalf of the four Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

I will use this opportunity to say a few words about ongoing reform activities. The Nordic countries presented a joint memorandum to the General Assembly through ECOSOC last July on reform of UN governance and finance based on the Nordic UN Project presented in 1991. The memorandum stressed inter alia

the need for new, small Governing Bodies of the programmes and funds to provide operational guidance to the Organization to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the UN system. It was proposed that the bodies meet frequently and be composed by developing and developed countries. Furthermore, it suggested the establishment of an International Development Council for policy guidance and priority setting.

The project and the memorandum also contain proposals with regard to a new financial system for the programmes and funds composed by three types of contributions, namely: assessed contributions, negotiated pledges and voluntary contributions. With some 200 Trust Funds in the UN and the agencies we have seen an increase in funding outside the decision-making powers of the respective Governing Bodies. What we are aiming at is a strengthened relation between long-term programme of objectives and financial resources. Therefore, it must be secured that activities funded from extrabudgetary resources are in line with the Organization's objectives and priorities and brought under improved guidance of the Governing Bodies.

The proposals in the Nordic project have gone through a phase of consultations and have been an important input into intensive negotiations in New York on the restructuring and revitalization of the UN in the economic, social and related fields.

The Nordic countries welcome the result of the negotiations in the informal working group under the General Assembly on principles for governance and financing of the UN development activities. In the draft resolution presented by the working group the respective roles of ECOSOC and the General Assembly have been more clearly spelt out. Thé result, yet to be formally approved, also includes a new form of governance. The Nordic countries welcome this starting point and are looking forward to the continued process including a funding mechanism of the operational activities that will ensure a more predictable, continuous and strengthened funding basis. We trust all parties participating in the coming changes towards a system that can provide and deliver the maximum amount of development assistance for each available dollar.

Some of the most important topics in the ongoing discussion in New York are also highly relevant for FAO and in the context of this Council meeting.

Over the last decades the specialized agencies have increased their work on technical assistance and other operational activities and accordingly decreased their role as "centres of excellence", thus serving all Member Countries. This has for instance become relevant in the light of the emerging needs of Eastern Europe. One of the consequences of the weakened normative role of the agencies has been the build-up of such capacity within the World Bank group and the regional banks. This is for instance the case regarding such FAO "centre of excellence" functions as in the field of environment and to some extent, also in the field of agricultural development. Another consequence of this orientation from normative to operational activities is the gradual change from regular budget funding to an increasing reliance on extrabudgetary funding. This tendency has also hampered the influence and control of the Governing Bodies of the respective agencies.

On the one hand we welcome the fact that activities such as field testing of new methods have led to strengthening of the agencies' own capabilities. On the other hand we observe with concern that the technical quality, the speed and reliability of administration of agency-executed projects have declined significantly. To enhance the relevance of the specialized agencies there is furthermore a need for increased concentration on their own mandates. The analytical capacity of the agencies needs to be restored through a clearer priority-setting for available resources and the termination of obsolete or irrelevant activities.

In our view the work for reforms and strengthening of their normative functions such as sectoral analysis and advice will make them more relevant partners for the Member States and also lead to a continued role for the agencies to play with regard to the execution of projects.

To meet the challenges before the UN agencies it is of utmost importance that these have the proper personnel to do so, that is that efficiency, competence and integrity shall be more important criteria than geographical distribution when considering recruitment and promotion, as stipulated in the UN Charter.

To conclude, what has been said above is not only relevant with regard to the UN system and its specialized agencies in general, but very much so in the case of FAO in particular. The Nordic countries have actively been working for reforms within FAO and we welcome the steps taken in that direction. Nevertheless, we find that there is still more to do, especially with regard to the implementation of such reforms, which will facilitate FAO Member Countries' possibility to monitor the activities.

LE PRESIDENT: Je vous remercie d'avoir donné à nouveau un résumé du "Blue book" avec le Plan scandinave que nous connaissons bien et que nous avons lu et relu. Nous aurons l'occasion d'en reparler. Merci de cette intervention très complète.

Tri WIBOWO (Indonesia): My delegation would like to express its concern on the continued worsening of the economic situation and conditions in many developing countries, which have led to a decline in the standard of living, the persistence and increase of widespread poverty. It has diminished the ability of the developing countries to implement their economic and social development policies. In this regard my delegation emphasizes the importance of the establishment of a "New Standing Committee on Poverty Alleviation" decided by UNCTAD VIII in Cartagena, February 1992, and the UNGA Resolution 47/197 on "International Cooperation for the Eradication of Poverty in the Developing Countries".

My delegation is also concerned over the plight of refugees, returnees and displaced persons as well as the critical economic and social conditions in Africa, particularly in the sub-Saharan region. In this regard my delegation welcomes the UNGA Resolution 46/182 on "Strengthening of the Coordination of Humanitarian Emergency Assistance of the UN" as well as the creation of the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), which began its function in April 1992.

My delegation reaffirms that sustainable development is a paramount concern to developing countries, and therefore the Rio Declaration has demonstrated a global commitment to assist the developing countries in accelerating and improving their development and environment. It is important to achieve successful implementation of Agenda 21 in the near future. We welcome the UNGA Resolution 47/191 entitled "Institutional Arrangements to follow up the UN Conference on Environment and Development" which endorsed various recommendations, among others the establishment of a High Level Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

As regards human rights, my delegation would like to emphasize that the basic provisions contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights embody two mutually balancing aspects : those which respect the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual and those which stipulate obligations of the individual to society and state. The right of each individual to an adequate and wholesome diet and the right not to die of starvation are fundamental rights of human beings. We fully support the statement of the Director-General of FAO in the World Conference on Human Rights being held in Vienna. In this connection, developed and developing countries need to cooperate more effectively in assuring their people that the right to be free from hunger will not be constrained by differences in their perceptions of basic human rights.

Indonesia welcomes the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in September 1994, as well as the World Summit for Social Development in Denmark 1995, the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing September 1995, and the UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Turkey in June 1996. Indonesia will host a Ministerial Meeting on Population in October 1993 to formulate Guidelines for preparations by Non-Aligned Member Countries for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1991. It is also under consideration to convene the 4th Ministerial Conference of Non-Aligned Countries devoted to the role of women in development for the purpose of coordinating the positions of the Non-Aligned countries.

My delegation also welcome the Resolution 48/3 endorsed by ECOSOC that proclaimed the "Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, 1993-2002", and the UNGA Resolution 47/3 which proclaimed 3rd of December 1992 as "International Day of Disabled Persons".

As to drug abuse control, my delegation is of the opinion that there must be a concerted and comprehensive international action to be taken in solving the illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs. We welcome a number of resolutions related to drug abuse control taken by UNGA at its 47th Session.

As regards the Trade and Commodities issues, my delegation observed the increase of unilateral protectionist measures that violate the rules of international trade. It has happened at a time when the developing countries are taking the initiative to liberalize their trade regimes and to integrate their economies into the global system of trade finance. Therefore, we would like to stress the need to continue the ongoing Uruguay Round with maximum transparency and to give full consideration to the interests of developing

countries. Commodity trade is the life blood for advancing development in numerous developing countries, which remained heavily dependent on commodity exports for their foreign exchange earnings. Therefore, the international community should contribute constructively in order to create a stable and remunerative condition for commodities which would be of mutual benefit to both producers and consumers. My delegation welcomes the decision by the United Nations Committee on Trade and Development VIII to launch a process of consultations on convening an International Conference on Commodities.

José Luis BERNAL (México): Me uno, como delegación de México, señor Presidente, al agradecimiento a la Secretaria por el excelente documento que nos presenta, que fue complementado por los comentarios de la Sra. Killingsworth a quien también felicitamos por sus palabras. Mi delegación entiende que el documento quedó abierto para ser complementado para su versión definitiva que se presentará a la Conferencia, y, en este sentido, quisiéramos hacer tres comentarios muy breves. Uno tiene que ver con los preparativos de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Población y Desarrollo. Recientemente se celebró en México, y por eso lo comento, la Conferencia Regional Latinoamericana y del Caribe sobre Población y Desarrollo, que fue un evento significativo por dos razones. En primer lugar, no únicamente porque se presentaron todos los países de la región, sino porque la Conferencia emitió, más que una declaración, un consenso, un documento distinto a los que se acostumbra en este tipo de reuniones. América Latina y el Caribe presentaron el Consenso Latinoamericano y del Caribe sobre Población y Desarrollo donde ya se anuncian acciones concretas en materia de distribución de la población y su relación con el desarrollo y el medio ambiente. Se trató el tema de la mujer y la dinámica de la población, políticas y programas nacionales en materia de población, planificación familiar, salud y migración internacional.

El consenso tiene, además, una segunda parte muy importante. Ya América Latina y el Caribe se comprometieron a elaborar en el curso de un año, a partir de la fecha del 4 de mayo en que se celebró esta conferencia en México, un plan de acción. México, como Presidente del Comité de Expertos Gubernamentales de Alto Nivel coordina los esfuerzos de este plan de acción, y este Comité tuvo ya una primera reunión recientemente con motivo del segundo Comité preparatorio en Nueva York.

Comento esto como dato informativo para que se pudiera incorporar al documento final y desde luego, mi delegación está dispuesta a aportar los elementos que se necesiten para ello.

En segundo lugar también el Gobierno de México está prestando una gran atención a la definición de un programa de desarrollo en el marco de las Naciones Unidas. Ya hemos instalado en mi país una comisión nacional que elaborará el documento nacional para aportar sus observaciones en la materia y también estamos trabajando en el marco regional sobre el tema, y ya recientemente hubo un reflejo de la nueva actitud que América en general y América Latina en particular tienen sobre el tema.

En el marco de las organizaciones de Estados americanos se creó recientemente el Consejo Interamericano para el Desarrollo integral a propuesta de México y es una acción ya muy específica concreta y que da una nueva visión de lo que

debe ser el desarrollo en la nueva estructura de las relaciones económicas internacionales.

Mi Gobierno considera que la definición de una Agenda para el desarrollo, de un Programa para el desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas nos brinda la oportunidad, primero de adoptar un enfoque diferente a las acciones de la Organización, y segundo, a canalizar de manera distinta también los recursos para el desarrollo. Sí creemos que la elaboración de la Agenda para el desarrollo va a ser una oportunidad magnífica para que se reestructure el sistema de las Naciones Unidas y para que avancemos también en la inter-vinculación entre los diferentes órganos del sistema de las propias Naciones Unidas.

En tercer lugar, y finalmente quisiera comentar un aspecto que ha estado en la Mesa hoy en la mañana; el tema de la lucha contra la pobreza. Independientemente de los esfuerzos que se hacen dentro del marco de las. Naciones Unidas para analizar el tema y adoptar acciones en contra de la pobreza, mi Gobierno convocó a una Conferencia Mundial sobre la Pobreza que se efectuará en México el próximo mes de septiembre y estamos, desde luego, invitando a participar a organismos intergubernamentales, la FAO está invitada y deseamos contar con la presencia del mayor número de países en esta Conferencia, que no es convocada por el sistema de las Naciones Unidas, sino por el Gobierno de México, pero tiene el respaldo de las Naciones Unidas, del Banco Mundial y de organismos no gubernamentales de diferentes países. Son datos informativos que quería aportar a la Mésa.

Jacques LAUREAU (France): Monsieur le Président, je remercie Mme. Killingsworth de la présentation très claire des problèmes et des faits nouveaux qui sont intervenus dans le système des Nations Unies et je remercie également le Secrétariat pour le document fort clair et concis qui nous a été remis.

Monsieur le Président, on nous parle de décision concernant l'avenir du système des Nations Unies. Nous nous sommes tous prononcés sur la revitalisation de l’ECOSOC sur laquelle d'ailleurs, si vous vous en souvenez bien, la France avait remis fin 1992 un document dans ce sens qui était assez

proche d'ailleurs des réflexions nordiques.

Nous ne pensons toutefois pas que l'idée de revitalisation de l’ECOSOC soit contradictoire avec notre souci de voir Rome confirmée comme capitale des réflexions et de la mise en oeuvre des moyens opérationnels sur la sécurité alimentaire, l'aide alimentaire et la coopération en matière de nutrition à travers la possibilité d'un dialogue avec l'OMS.

A cet égard, je voudrais poser une question qui est la suivante: nous avons appris qu'une résolution des Nations Unies avait décidé le transfert des personnels du CMA auprès du Département de la coordination des politiques et du développement durable de M. Desai. En même temps, des discussions semblent prouver que le CMA continuerait à se réunir à Rome en marge des réunions de la Conférence tous les deux ans.

Il y a donc là, semble-1-il, une orientation sur laquelle j'aurais aimé avoir le commentaire du Secrétariat.

Je voulais poursuivre en disant que nous nous félicitons des relations de coopération, là je parle de Rome elle-même, qui se sont établies entre la FAO et le PAM sur l'aide alimentaire d'urgence, ceci sous l'égide et les directives du DAH et dans des zones géographiques précises, notamment en Afrique et je souligne encore une fois l'utilité du système d'alerte rapide.

Cette satisfaction toutefois se teinte, du point de vue de la délégation française, de quelques critiques dès lors que nous parlons de stratégies à moyen ou long terme concernant l'aide alimentaire et la stratégie alimentaire. Au CPA du PAM, nous sommes un certain nombre de délégués à avoir regretté l'absence de stratégie de cette très importante organisation quant aux moyens dont elle dispose, aussi souhaiterions-nous qu'au-delà de l'aide d'urgence proprement dite et de sa mise en oeuvre, l’autonomisation croissante du PAM par rapport à la FAO ne se traduise pas par un manque de travail en commun sur le moyen terme concernant par exemple le relèvement, la réhabilitation après catastrophe ou urgence ou la prévention de catastrophes naturelles, et j'aimerais avoir l'avis du Secrétariat sur l'avenir de sa coopération avec le PAM compte tenu des nouvelles circonstances.

Nous nous interrogeons sur l'avenir des rapports entre l'OAA et le Groupe de Bretton Woods, en particulier avec la Banque mondiale.

Comment en effet concentrer les moyens de l'OAA sur son mandat initial avec une bonne répartition des tâches si, en même temps, les grands organismes de financement, le PNUD, d'un côté, et la Banque mondiale, de l'autre, se dérobent. J'aimerais, si vous le permettez, me référer à cet égard à la déclaration de la représentante de la Suède pour demander que cette question soit approfondie.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie très vivement l'Ambassadeur de France de sa courte mais très opérationnelle intervention. Je me permettrai de faire remarquer que le PAM n'est pas une organisation mais un programme, que je crois que la meilleure collaboration s'est nouée depuis quelques mois déjà et que nous souhaitons tous qu'elle se renforce encore davantage à l'avenir.

Chadli LAROUSSI (Tunisie): Je voudrais remercier Mme Killingsworth, qui est chargée des relations avec les autres organisations des Nations Unies, pour son excellent document, C 93/9, qui est suffisamment vaste pour couvrir tous les sujets qui nous occupent. Comme je l'ai déjà dit, au cours de mon intervention, je ne parlerai que de la Conférence internationale sur les droits de l'homme qui très heureusement se tient à Vienne en ce moment, parallèlement à notre Conseil, du 14 au 25 juin 1993, ceci à la suite de la Résolution 46/476 de 1992 de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU.

J'accorde une grande importance à la position très ferme adoptée par le Directeur général, M. Saouma, au cours de cette Conférence internationale. Notre pays avait également accueilli le Séminaire régional préparatoire de cette Conférence qui a traité des droits de l'homme sur le continent africain.

Le fait que Tunis ait accueilli ce Séminaire constitue une preuve de notre foi profonde dans la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme et du fait que nous sommes persuadés qu'il existe un lien très étroit et organique entre le développement, d'un côté, et les droits de l'homme, de l'autre, développement qui est la raison d'être de notre Organisation et même du système des Nations Unies dans son ensemble. Nous croyons que l'on ne peut pas établir de distinction entre les droits économiques, sociaux et culturels de l'être humain, d'une part, et ses droits civiques et politiques, d'autre part.

Nous croyons également qu'il est heureux qu'hier, 22 juin, le Président de la République tunisienne, Monsieur Ben Ali, au cours d'une déclaration faite au Parlement européen devant les députés de la Communauté européenne à Strasbourg, ait souligné la nécessité de considérer les droits de l'homme comme formant un tout indivisible.

Tout ceci, M. le Président, nous le voyons au moment où nous sommes réunis ici, au sein de l'Organisation des Nations Unies chargée de l'alimentation et de l'agriculture, et nous constatons que cette activité va tout à fait dans le sens de ce qu'avaient voulu les Nations Unies le 18 décembre 1992 lorsqu'elles ont adopté la Résolution 123/47 sur le droit au développement et nous voudrions instamment que la Conférence internationale sur les droits de l'homme, qui se tient actuellement à Vienne, puisse étudier ce lien organique entre le développement et la possibilité de garantir les droits économiques, sociaux et culturels de chacun des habitants de notre planète en plus de ses droits civiques et politiques.

S'agissant de l'atténuation de la pauvreté, nous souscrivons à l'appui que doit apporter la FAO à la Commission permanente de l'atténuation de la pauvreté dans le cadre des compétences qui lui sont dévolues par son Acte constitutif. Nous estimons, toutefois, que pour les aspects relatifs à l'alimentation et à l'agriculture, la FAO a un rôle moteur à jouer au sein de cette Commission, surtout que les premiers besoins à satisfaire pour les populations cibles de cette Commission, c'est-à-dire les pauvres, sont les besoins alimentaires. Bien sûr, les aspects sanitaires, éducationnels et autres besoins sont importants à satisfaire pour l’eradication de la pauvreté. Mais, sans garantir l'alimentation nécessaire pour répondre aux besoins vitaux du pauvre, il devient superflu de penser aux autres besoins. C'est pourquoi, nous soutenons l'intérêt accordé par l'Assemblée générale à l'étude de la relation entre "les Droits de l'Homme et l'extrême pauvreté" dans sa Résolution 47/134 du 18 décembre 1992. Nous saluons également l'initiative prise par l'Assemblée générale dans sa Résolution 47/196 du 22 décembre 1992 de faire, à partir de 1993, la journée du 17 octobre: "Journée internationale pour l'élimination de la pauvreté". Ainsi, cette journée sera célébrée juste à la suite de la Journée mondiale de l'alimentation qui est célébrée régulièrement le 16 octobre de chaque année.

D'autre part, l'élection de la Tunisie comme Vice-Président de la Commission de développement durable dans sa session d'organisation tenue à New York du 24 au 26 février 1993, est la preuve de l'intérêt que nous accordons au développement durable qui constitue l'une des priorités essentielles retenues par la Conférence des Nations Unies pour l'environnement et le développement (CNUED).

Nous estimons toutefois que la FAO a un rôle de chef de file dans la promotion du développement agricole durable dans le monde, ce qui lui confère des responsabilités essentielles, au sein de ce Comité, en matière d'alimentation et d'agriculture.

Toujours dans le cadre du suivi des recommandations de la CNUED, il y a lieu de signaler la Résolution 47/188 par laquelle l'Assemblée générale a décidé de créer, sous ses auspices, un Comité intergouvememental regroupant les pays concernés, en particulier en Afrique, pour l'élaboration d'une Convention internationale sur la lutte contre la désertification.

Nous espérons que cette Convention soit finalisée, comme prévu, en juin 1994.

Nous encourageons également la FAO à participer activement aux conférences internationales prévues pour les prochaines années dans le même esprit qui a présidé à la préparation de ces conférences.Il s'agit de:

- la Conférence internationale sur la population et le développement qui se tiendra au Caire en 1994;

- le Sommet mondial pour le développement social qui se réunira au Danemark en 1995;

- la Conférence des Nations Unies sur les établissements humains (Habitat II) qui se tiendra en Turquie du 3 au 14 juin 1996;

- la quatrième Conférence mondiale sur les femmes, qui se tiendra à Beijing du 4 au 15 septembre 1995: il est à signaler, à ce propos, que mon pays - qui accorde à la femme une place de choix tant au niveau de son statut social qu'au niveau de son rôle moteur dans les activités économiques, appuie l'engagement de la FAO en faveur de la promotion de la participation des femmes au développement.

Winston RUDDER (Trinidad and Tobago): Development is a serious business. The issues confronting mankind at this time are quite complex and continue to confound us, calling for continuing concerted resolve and action and innovative approaches on the part of the community of nations for their resolution. As practitioners of development we appear to be like King Canute standing on the shore, for even as we solve some problems an avalanche of others bombard us. International and intergovernmental support to national and regional approaches and endeavours are required and continue to be urgently needed.

In this regard, how the UN system performs its governance, effectiveness and efficiency is of immense concern to us all.

My delegation, on behalf of the 13-member CARICOM states of Latin America and the Caribbean, is therefore pleased with the information provided in document CL 103/9, and in particular the updates which we are promised as we approach Conference 1993.

We note the initiatives being taken in New York with respect to the changes to be brought about in the UN system. Indeed, our governments are actively participating in that process, and no doubt the deliberations there, when they are concluded, will be available to us here for us to reflect on their likely impact on FAO. However, we are moved to observe that in many respects our organization has undergone pioneering initiatives of its own in respect of organizational development and reform, programme review, and restructuring, in response to the continuing appeal from the membership for self-renewal. In that regard, perhaps FAO provides a model - though not a perfect one - of these unfolding events within the UN system.

We note with pleasure the participation of FAO in the range of UN system-wide activities, which either impinge upon conditions or are intrinsically related to our programme of work. We commend the Organization for its involvement in poverty alleviation and the follow-up to UNCED, and we would urge continuing efforts in respect of trade and commodity matters - not only continuing but expanding efforts in that regard.

We support the intended participation in the range of international conferences that have been indicated, and I am sure you will pardon our particular interest in the upcoming Global Conference on Small Island States. The position that we would take on that particular conference and its urgency was very clearly stated by the United States delegate.

However, we also reflect on the importance of the conferences on Population and Development, Social Development, and on Women.

We commend the FAO for its leadership role in the infra-system coordination and collaborative mechanisms.

Raphael RABE (Madagascar): Ma délégation joint sa voix à toutes celles des délégations qui ont félicité Mme Killingsworth pour la présentation très claire de ce point très important de notre ordre du jour. Nous sommes reconnaissants au Secrétariat d'avoir produit un document actualisé de valeur appréciable.

Ma délégation voudrait faire siennes les déclarations des délégations d'Indonésie, de Trinité-et-Tobago concernant les produits de base. Elle est heureuse d'apprendre qu'une étude a été réalisée sur la diversification des produits agricoles d'exportation en Afrique. Cela répond en partie tout au moins aux préoccupations que nous avons manifestées, lors de la dernière session du Comité des produits, relatives à la détérioration continue des prix de ces produits sur les marchés mondiaux. Nous souhaiterions donc disposer de cette étude en français de préférence si cette langue a été utilisée et nous réitérons notre requête tendant à demander à la FAO d'aider nos pays dans les programmes d'action et projets pouvant favoriser une diversification appropriée, en ce sens que les nouveaux produits devraient connaître de meilleurs débouchés et utilisations.


Patricio MONTERO (Chile): Mi delegación no podría, señor Presidente, quedar ausente de participar y efectuar algunos comentarios durante el debate del tema que nos ocupa en estos momentos.

En efecto, el documento que examinamos, muy bien presentado por la Sra. Killingsworth, y que contiene una completa reseña sobre las novedades recientes en el sistema de las Naciones Unidas de interés para la FAO, es pertinente y necesario. Sin duda son numerosos los temas de la agenda internacional vinculados a la pobreza, asistencia humanitaria y medio ambiente que son tratados en foros propios y que requieren, sin embargo, de la coparticipación de la FAO. Por ello nos congratulamos de que nuestra Organización pueda efectuar sus contribuciones a los esfuerzos del sistema de Naciones Unidas en pro de numerosas iniciativas para el desarrollo económico y social que, a la postre, son esenciales para el fortalecimiento de la paz y seguridad internacionales.

Mi delegación quisiera referirse en particular al punto 4 del documento de la Secretaría que destaca con precisión la agenda de Conferencias internacionales que tendrán lugar durante los próximos años y que, sin duda, comprometerán la participación activa de la FAO. Es el caso, como estamos ciertos, de que lo hará con la Cumbre Mundial para el Desarrollo Social que tendrá lugar en Dinamarca en 1995. La iniciativa de esta Conferencia Mundial que ocupará la atención principal del ECOSOC en su seguimiento de alto nivel, que se inicia a fines de-la próxima semana en Ginebra, y que ha tenido a Chile como su principal propulsor, permitirá examinar en una dinámica moderna los problemas críticos de la pobreza, de la integración social y del desempleo que afectan a numerosos sectores de la población, tanto del mundo desarrollado como en desarrollo.

En vista de la importancia de la alimentación y nutrición para el desarrollo socioeconómico de los pueblos, que atañe directamente a la FAO, esperamos que nuestra Organización entregue en la Conferencia de Dinamarca sus mejores esfuerzos, aportes y recomendaciones sobre un tema que será uno de los aspectos vinculados a la pobreza, que deberá ser examinado en esta Cumbre mundial.

De la misma manera nos felicitamos de la mención que el documento que comentamos hace sobre la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, que tiene lugar en Viena. Como, también, a aquéllas referidas a población y desarrollo, asentamientos humanos y sobre la mujer, previstas en el calendario para los próximos años.

Mi delegación, señor Presidente, respalda con entusiasmo la activa participación que le ha cabido a la FAO en la etapa preparatoria para lo que, esperamos, sea el éxito de estas Conferencia mundiales vinculadas, justamente, a numerosos aspectos que le son propios.

LE PRESIDENT: Nous savons tous que le Chili a joué un rôle important dans la préparation du Sommet mondial pour le développement social qui aura lieu au Danemark.

Ivan MARULANDA GOMEZ (Colombia): En primer término, señor Presidente, queremos expresar nuestra firme convicción de que el esfuerzo que se hace en las Naciones Unidas para actualizar la Organización y ponerla a tono con las necesidades del mundo contemporáneo, son esfuerzos que hay que respaldar y que, de hecho, Colombia está auspiciando en Nueva York. Al mismo tiempo queremos insistir en algo que hemos dicho en diferentes ocasiones, y es que consideramos que la FAO debe hacer un gran esfuerzo para permanecer en sintonía con esas transformaciones que se llevan a cabo en el sistema de las Naciones unidas. Los tiempos, señor Presidente, han cambiado mucho y, como bien se ha dicho aqui, los propios progresos que en muchos campos se han obtenido por la labor de la FAO a lo largo de estos cerca de 50 años de actividades, nos indican que es necesario revisar nuestro sistema de trabajo y nuestros propios objetivos para mantener la vigencia dentro de la comunidad internacional. Nosotros respaldamos todos los esfuerzos que se hagan para introducir estos cambios en la FAO.

Quisiera referirme concretamente, señor Presidente, al punto número 6 del documento que estamos discutiendo y que se titula: Fiscalización de uso indebido de drogas. En primer término para aplaudir los esfuerzos que se están haciendo en la FAO para respaldar los programas de erradicación de cultivos ilegales en el mundo y alentar a la Organización para que profundice en su interés de apoyar estos programas en los países que están amenazados por el crimen organizado.

En segundo término, hacer una leve observación en el párrafo 6.6 del documento, en su versión española. En el segundo renglón se dice que las actividades de la FAO están encaminadas a reducir la demanda. Me parece, señor Presidente, que hay un error de traducción. Me imagino, que se quiere decir reducir la oferta.

Aprovecho la oportunidad para llamar la atención de los países miembros de la FAO, y la atención de la Secretaría de la FAO, en el hecho de que la lucha contra los cultivos ilegales de materias primas para la producción de estupefacientes de drogas psicotrópicas, es una lucha muy compleja. Es una lucha muy difícil, ya que las zonas agrícolas en donde están ubicados estos cultivos son zonas de violencia; son zonas de violencia precisamente porque son zonas explotadas por el crimen organizado. Las actividades que giran alrededor de estos cultivos; la vida misma de los campesinos que habitan estas regiones, está permanentemente amenazada y asediada por la violencia más cruel que se pueda imaginar. Esto complica de una manera muy alarmante cualquier actividad que pueda desarrollar la FAO o cualquier otro organismo de Naciones Unidas en estas zonas de cultivos ilegales.

En tercer lugar, señor Presidente, deseo llamar la atención en el hecho de que, por lo general, estos cultivos están llevándose a cabo en zonas ecológicamente muy frágiles. Se trata de zonas remotas, de zonas escondidas al control de las autoridades, de zonas selváticas que se están deforestando sin ningún rigor tecnológico, produciendo un riesgo gigantesco de desquiciamiento del orden ambiental en estas regiones. Por lo cual la acción que se quiere desarrollar en este campo plantea una urgencia de extraordinaria importancia. Es difícil, también, señor Presidente, la labor de apoyo de la FAO en estas zonas de cultivos ilegales, porque es muy difícil cambiar la producción de cultivos para la producción de drogas psicotrópicas por otro

tipo de cultivos. Los cultivos ilegales son extraordinariamente rentables y resulta muy difícil convencer a los campesinos para que abandonen estos cultivos y se dediquen a otro tipo de actividades agrícolas o pecuarias.

Por esto, señor Presidente, cuando se habla de este tema hay que saber que se está hablando de un tema que necesita un tratamiento muy especial y muy distinto al tratamiento que se le da a otro tipo de programas por parte de la FAO.

Finalmente, quiero advertir, señor Presidente, que estamos hablando de grandes extensiones de tierra, muchas más hectáreas de las que un lector desprevenido puede imaginarse; muchas más hectáreas de las que los señores delegados alcanzan a imaginarse por la simple lectura de un documento como éste. Hasta hace un año, en mi país se estimaba que los cultivos de amapola para la producción de heroína - cultivos muy recientes en Colombia - podrían alcanzar una extensión total de cerca de 30 000 hectáreas. Esto lo menciono para que se tenga una idea de la magnitud del problema y de la importancia que tiene la participación de la FAO y de toda la comunidad internacional en los programas de erradicación de la droga.

Colombia, señor Presidente, hace un esfuerzo heroico, y esto lo sabe muy bien todo el mundo, para combatir el tráfico de droga en el mundo. En esa lucha han perdido la vida miles de compatriotas que en forma valerosa han dedicado su existencia a luchar por los intereses de la humanidad. Por eso siempre estamos recordando a los países desarrollados que ellos tienen una gran responsabilidad en todo este drama del tráfico de drogas. Los consumidores, las personas drogadictas del mundo desarrollado, están generando una corriente de recursos que alimenta una actividad criminal que amenaza muy seriamente la estabilidad de muchos Estados y de la sociedad en general.

Así como países como Colombia se esfuerzan con un costo de sangre sumamente grande por acabar con el fenómeno de la drogadicción y del comercio ilegal de drogas, de la misma manera solicitamos todos los días un esfuerzo mayor para que los países que tienen consumidores de drogas psicotrópicas se esfuercen también por limitar el consumo, por erradicar el consumo que es, a fin de cuentas, el origen de toda esta tragedia.

MA GENG-OU (China) (Original language Chinese): I would like to thank the Secretariat for having prepared a very detailed document and for Ms Killingsworth's presentation of the document.

From the introduction, we have learned of the activities carried out within the UN system - that is, human rights, the eradication of poverty and sustainable development. I would like to express the views of my delegation on these questions and I turn first to the eradication of poverty.

Developments in the food and agricultural field for many years have proved that without the eradication of poverty there can be no food security to speak of, because food security not only concerns agricultural production, but also agricultural trade and development in all the rural areas. In addition, the eradication of poverty does not concern agricultural trade alone; it also concernsother economic areas within a country because it

calls for efforts on the part of all departments for the common goal - to eradicate poverty.

In the light of this, my delegation spoke about the coordination of the UN system in the field of food security. Once again we call for the coordination of the agencies concerned.

Secondly, I would like to say a few words on human rights. In China we have a saying, "People rely on food for their livelihood". That means that the first need of human beings is to eat. If they cannot feed themselves, we cannot talk about their human rights because the basic human right is the right to live. In the light of this, I believe that in protecting human rights FAO has an important role to play and I appreciate the statement made by the Director-General at the Human Rights Conference.

Thirdly, concerning sustainable development, this is a very important matter in our lives today. It includes two aspects - one is the protection of the environment and the other is development. If we can solve this issue properly it will achieve good results; otherwise they will be in contradiction to each other. In different regions of the world, in different countries, even in different parts of the same country, the two aspects are interrelated, but have different emphasis.

In policy-making all countries should formulate their policies in the light of their own specific conditions. In protecting human rights and in promoting environmental development, FAO has an experimental role to play. I hope that FAO in future will strengthen its cooperation with other UN bodies and continue to play its essential role in these fields.

Benson Crispus MBOGOH (Kenya) : My delegation appreciate the efforts that the Secretariat has been making and continues to make in maintaining a strong FAO presence in international fora. We appreciate particularly the excellent update by Ms Killingsworth that we have just heard.

Obviously, the international agenda of discussions has been diverse in scope, reflecting the wide range of global problems which have to be addressed by the international community. It will obviously be too ambitious for the Organization to attempt to respond to all the emerging issues with equal enthusiasm. Therefore, we urge FAO to remain particularly responsive to certain issues of overriding concern, particularly efforts towards the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development for the masses of the poor.

In these fora, FAO should stress the absolute need to maintain a tranquil social order as a prerequisite for achieving meaningful and sustained growth in agriculture and rural development. We are encouraged to note the serious concern being given to international trade as it affects agricultural commodities from poor exporting countries, especially those in Africa. In this regard, FAO is best placed to articulate the problems of international trade as they affect the economies, food security, social welfare and the development of developing countries. FAO must maintain pressure in global fora, including the General Assembly itself, where matters regarding trade in agricultural products are concerned.

Equally, the emerging reforms with respect to approaches in the UN system is an important issue to us. We believe this aims at strengthening national capacities, and the greater self-reliance of developing countries in order to manage development processes of their own. While being cognizant of the operational problem that this will generate for the Organization we are pleased with the efforts that FAO has made and continues to make in ensuring the achievement of these reforms. We urge FAO to maintain dialogue to ensure the necessary improvements continue to be made in the execution of these reforms, with the minimum impact on the Organization.

In conclusion, we request the Secretariat to update the membership more regularly, and where possible to release to us the full schedule of meetings and sessions to facilitate continuous consultation between members of the Organization.

T.A. ANUMUDU (Nigeria): My delegation appreciate the active role that FAO is playing in the UN system through its collaborative approach with other agencies to the problems of development.

Three key issues are reported on in the document, with emphasis being given to them by FAO. These are combating desertification, the alleviation of poverty and the establishment of the Common Fund for Commodities. These areas of activity are very significant to the improvement of conditions and the well-being of people in many developing countries. FAO should therefore spare no effort in inducing greater progress on these subjects.

The discussions within the UN system aimed at dealing with the changing international circumstances, with the objective of making the United Nations more responsive to the needs of Member Nations, are welcome to my delegation. The firm-based UN agencies charged with the responsibility of alleviating poverty and hunger, promoting agriculture, improving nutrition and bringing about food security conditions should ensure the successful implementation of the programmes. We are conscious of the achievements they have made so far and urge them to ensure greater dedication and more effective coordination of efforts to help the poorer nations of our Organization.

In working to improve the conditions of people in the developing world, I believe FAO should find the human capital in those countries relevant to each achievement of its objectives.

The adoption of such people will cost less to the Organization, it will enhance the capacity building which is being emphasized in the work of the FAO and thus enable those countries to stand on their own. It is therefore necessary that FAO should have due regard to the principle of geographic distribution of its operational staff.

Shahid RASHID (Pakistan): First let me also express our gratitude to the Secretariat for providing useful information contained in the document before us. We also thank Ms Killingsworth for furnishing additional information on the subject.

We understand the document under this Agenda Item 11 is primarily for the information of the Council. We welcome the coverage of a wide range, of issues in this document and have taken particular note of the increased coordination within the UN system for humanitarian and emergency systems under the aegis of the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs. We would encourage that such inter-agencies' coordination should be strengthened and liaison, particularly at the field level, must be made effective.

The delegation of Pakistan has also taken special note of developments regarding the operational activities and the main features of Resolution 47/199. We will be watching with key interest the progress of the various measures as these are implemented. Some of these measures have obviously far-reaching implications for the field activities of FAO. The emphasis on country strategy notes and the enhanced role of the FAO Resident Coordinator are only a couple of these features. The focus on programme approach and the stress on national execution and decentralization is also one which needs to be correctly appreciated. We understand that some of these' changes are still in the process of evolution and we hope that FAO will actively participate in this process so that its specialized aspects of its mandate are not diluted.

Having said that, we would like to state it would be inappropriate to pursue here the substantive matters which are being discussed at ECOSOC and the General Assembly, particularly in the sphere of restructuring of the UN system. Such a substantive discussion would be beyond the scope of this item and we trust that concerns that some of us have will be taken care of by our counterpart at the appropriate fora. While there is much value in renewal in dynamism of organization we should be careful in the pursuit of reform for its own sake. We should be cautious regarding continuous experimentation and must allow for some measure of stability to ensure proper impact of changes already undertaken.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie particulièrement le délégué du Pakistan de son intervention en me permettant respectueusement de lui faire remarquer que les matières qui relèvent de la compétence de la FAO doivent être traitées par nous, et que les questions de restructuration qui touchent à l'alimentation, à l'agriculture et à l'ensemble du mandat de la FAO nous concernent directement.

Je passe maintenant la parole au Représentant de la République du Congo, M. Mombouli.

Michel MOMBOULI (Congo): Je voudrais pour commencer remercier Mme Killingsworth pour son exposé toujours très intéressant et surtout très enrichissant.

Monsieur le Président, je n'avais pas l'intention d'intervenir sur le point 11 de l'ordre du jour, d'abord parce que, comme vient de le dire le délégué du Pakistan, nous estimions que nous avions ici un document d'informatipn sur lequel nous devions normalement prendre appui, et ensuite parce que, comme l'a dit M. Abdel-Malekdu Liban, nous ne nous attendions pas à discuter de

questions sur lesquelles des décisions n'ont pas encore été prises, notamment la question de la restructuration des institutions du système des Nations Unies, mais nous avons constaté tout au long de cette matinée que, malgré l'appel lancé par M. Abdel-Malek pour que nous ne débattions pas de la question de la restructuration, certaines délégations ont quand même voulu absolument donner leur position sur la question.

Nous ne céderons pas à la tentation de l'aborder tout de suite, dans la mesure où la façon de la traiter aura des incidences directes sur les autres points inscrits à notre ordre du jour, notamment les points 13 et 14 qui ont à l'évidence un lien avec la façon d'envisager d'éventuelles nouvelles réformes. Lorsque nous aborderons ces questions, la délégation congolaise s'exprimera plus abondamment. Pour l'instant, nous voudrions simplement remercier toutes les autres régions qui, à l'occasion de l'examen de ce point de l'ordre du jour, ont, une fois de plus, voulu renouveler à notre région leur solidarité entière et totale face à la situation de crise que nous traversons actuellement.

Pour ne prendre trop de temps, attendu qu'il nous sera possible de nous exprimer plus en détail au titre des points 13 et 14, nous aimerions nous arrêter là pour le moment.

Eberhard SCHMAUZ (Germany): Since this Conference document before us refers to some of the most challenging issues the international community has to cope with in the years to come, my delegation would not want to stand behind with its view in a very brief intervention on this very informative and most useful document which has been introduced by Ms Killingsworth in a very substantive manner.

The document provides a comprehensive overview of recent developments, especially on actions arising from the 47th General Assembly. First of all I would support FAO in its efforts to play an active and/or supportive role of the various issues described in the document. If you allow me, I want just to make a few remarks and put some specific questions to the issues the document deals with.

We have already made reference to FAO's important role in the Administrative Committee on Coordination Task Force and Rural Development in the context of poverty alleviation. Addressing this issue the 47th General Assembly declared 17th October in its Resolution 47/197 as the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty starting 1993, reflected in paragraph 1.13. This day follows immediately after World Food Day of the 16th October. Poverty and hunger build an unfortunate interaction, therefore one could assume a close linkage between future actions carried out for these two days and my delegation would appreciate if the Secretariat could comment on its views on that point.

Great attention has to be attributed to Resolution 47/149 entitled Food and Agriculture Development adopted by the General Assembly at its 47th session. It is referred to in paragraph 8.13 and 8.14. The results shall be presented at the 49th session of the General Assembly as a separate item. The measures covered by these Resolutions directly aim at the stimulation of food and

agricultural production in developing countries. This implies a close link to Agenda 21 and ICN. Operational paragraph 5 in the Resolution "encourages all relevant organs of the United Nations system dealing with food and agriculture, as well as regional and sub-regional financial institutions to include their cooperation and coordination in the field of food and agricultural development". In paragraph 8.5 it is pointed out that FAO will have to play a key role in preparing the report for the General Assembly. We look forward to learning more from the Secretariat on its approach with regard to this task.

We feel there is a direct link between Resolution 149 and 150 which pays attention to the functioning of the World Food Council, reflected in paragraph 8.16. In the context to Resolution 149 the World Food Council could and should play an important policy-guiding role towards improving the food security situation. On details we have already outlined our position on the World Food Council under Item 5 of the agenda.

Barbara DENHAM (Observer for the International Organization of Consumers Unions): In April 1991, participants at the joint FAO and Netherlands Government meeting on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) developed the Den Bosch Declaration, articulating a set of principles that lay the foundations for replacing chemical-based agriculture with sustainable, holistic agriculture to provide for global good and fibre needs. The Den Bosch Declaration was endorsed at the 1991 FAO Biennial Conference, where Member States decided that SARD should be reflected in all FAO programmes. The Declaration also was incorporated in Chapter 14 of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992.

In response to these events, FAO has developed a strategy for incorporating SARD into its programmes. This strategy prioritizes four themes and twelve Special Action Programmes (SAPs) as the first step in what is expected to be an ongoing process of re-orienting FAO's principles, practices and projects. The four themes are: structural adjustment and policy reform; human resource development; management of key inputs, including a focus on Integrated Pest Management; and management of natural resources.

The seven priority areas for the SAPs relating to agriculture are intended to raise rural incomes and foster 'sustainable intensification' of farm production without degrading the environment and by optimizing traditional technologies and biological processes. They cover: rural households; plant genetic diversity; animal genetic diversity; pest management; plant nutrition; water resources; and land conservation. We understand the SAPs have been developed as an interim measure which will remain in place over an anticipated 3-5 year period, leading to permanent policies dedicated to the principles of SARD.

The constructive work being undertaken by FAO on SARD invites endorsement and support from other international agencies. Resources for the SAPs have not yet been committed, and are expected to come from extra-budgetary sources including UNDP, Trust Funds, and World Food Programme. We support the initial steps to promote SARD, and urge agencies to fund the SAPs.

As long-time advocates of SARD and peoples' participation at FAO as well as within our countries, the International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), the Pesticide Action Network (PAN), the Consumer Policy Institute (CPI), and many other NGOs welcome these developments. However, even as we recognize and applaud them, we are concerned that the SAPs are vague and ambiguous in key areas, inviting counterproductive and potentially damaging interpretation, and are not funded at requisite levels. We therefore strongly urge that FAO move to clarify and safeguard its commitment to SARD at the 1993 Conference by incorporating the principles which the SAPs seek to promote in all FAO and associated programmes and projects, and further developing its SARD policies to include the following points:

1. SARD and IPM: The FAO must clearly and consistently include the need to reduce off-farm inputs, especially of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, as a goal of SARD. There is accumulating experience from many countries of the value of reducing chemical inputs. The FAO's own Intercountry Rice Integrated Pest Management Project in South East Asia has demonstrated dramatically reduced pesticide use in the seven participating countries, accompanied by slightly increased rice yields and farmers' incomes. In Indonesia, the IPA programme has been so successful that IPM has become a popular movement and has in part been spreading itself.

In September 1992, the FAO's Panel of Experts on Integrated Pest Control in Agriculture reconfirmed its initial definition of Integrated Pest Management (or integrated control), [agreed in 1967], which states:

"For the purposes of this Panel, Integrated Control is defined as a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economic injury. In its restricted sense it refers to the management of single pest species on specific crops or in particular places. In a more general sense, it applies to the co-ordinated management of all pest populations in the agricultural or forest environment. It is not simply the juxtaposition or superimposition of two control techniques (such as chemical and biological controls) but the integration of all suitable management techniques with the natural regulating and limiting elements of the environment."

This definition does not make sufficiently clear the need to use chemicals as a last resort or specify use of least-toxic materials; neither does it address wider issues of equity and economic viability. In part as a result of this ambiguity, the agrochemical industry now promotes a distorted concept 'IPM' emphasizing only rotation of chemicals to delay pest resistance and integration of chemicals with other methods of pest control.

One of the twelve SAPs FAO has developed to achieve SARD focuses on Integrated Pest Management. The approach laid out in the IPM SAP recognizes IPM as holistic, ecological and farmer-centered. IPM needs to be clearly identified as an 'insight-intensive', rather than an 'input-intensive' management regime, as recognized in FAO field-work through the definition expressed in Field Programme Circular 8/92 of December 1992. FAO should further clarify its position on IPM by officially adopting this definition:

"The presence of pests does not automatically require control measures, as damage may be insignificant. When plant protection measures are deemed necessary, a system of non-chemical pest methodologies should be considered before a decision is taken to use pesticides. Suitable pest control methods should be used in an integrated manner and pesticides should be used on an as needed basis only, and as a last resort component of an IPM strategy. In such a strategy, the effects of pesticides on human health, the environment, sustainability of the agricultural system and the economy should be carefully considered."

Selection of least toxic materials in those cases where pesticides are deemed necessary should also be incorporated into this definition.

Finally, many farmers' organizations and other NGOs have adopted the principle of low external input sustainable agriculture (LEISA), which embraces the definition of IPM used in FAO's field circular, but which also emphasizes that LEISA is "economically feasible, ecologically sound, culturally adapted and socially just". We strongly encourage the FAO to incorporate these principles into its IPM and SARD definitions.

2. Agricultural Extension and Privatization:The FAO acknowledges that education in agriculture, both formal and non-formal, through extension and training of the rural population is a pre-requisite to investment in new agricultural production technologies and sustainable agricultural development programmes. Delegates to the Committee on Agriculture meeting noted the need to elaborate the agricultural knowledge system, that is research, education and extension, including farmers' indigenous knowledge.

However, financial pressures in both the Third World and in OECD (donor) countries have restricted funds for extension, and investment in this area is declining. An FAO sponsored survey of 207 agricultural extension organizations in 113 countries revealed that about US$6 billion was spent in 1988 on extension worldwide. At 600 000 extension workers to 1.2 billion farmers, this amounts to only US$5 per farmer per year, a figure that includes farmers and extension workers in rich countries. However inadequate these past levels of funding may have been, the FAO's investment in extension is slated for significant cuts in its 1994-95 funding cycle.

In some cases, privatization is promoted as a response to a funding crisis, rather than to an evaluation of best practice. Among the areas being considered for privatization which arouse concern are parts of the International Agriculture Research Centres, for example the CIMMYT board has a paper circulating that discusses prospects for privatizing their research.

At the FAO's COAG meeting in April-May 1993, delegates noted that "Fostering participation of private agents in the rural development process was... a desirable component of FAO's agricultural planning assistance." FAO and a number of Member States, both OECD and Southern countries, made extensive reference to privatization of extension services. However, the term was used with some confusion, to include any service, for profit and non-profit, that is not government funded. Thus, "privatization" appears to lump together private consultancies, companies and transnationals selling fertilizers, pesticides, seeds and other agricultural inputs, with non-profit

organizations, such as farmers' associations, environmental and development NGOs, etc.

FAO must make a strong and crystal-clear distinction between these two approaches to privatization. The term 'privatized' should not be used to refer to participatory extension through farmers' organizations and NGOs. It should refer only to the profit-making sector.

As the private sector can be expected to focus on larger and richer producers, it must remain the responsibility of governments to reach women and men farmers with lower incomes, using radio, television, farmer listener groups, facilitating exchange and discussion between farmers in a region. Governments must also be responsible for developing sustainable agriculture for rural development, as profit-oriented services cannot be guaranteed to invest time and resources in SARD.

3. People's Participation: The FAO must actively promote the participation of the intended beneficiaries in the design and execution of a development project. Recent studies show that genuine people's participation greatly increases the sustainability of a given project. Indeed, the last meeting of the UNEP/FAO Panel of Experts on Integrated Pest Management concluded that the people's participation of the FAO Intercountry Rice IPC project in Indonesia was one, if not the key, element in explaining the resounding success of this project. In addition, one of the FAO's twelve SAPs focuses on people's participation. FAO must push people's participation in all aspects of a development project, and must not restrict such participation to the implementation of projects. Wherever possible, the intended beneficiaries should be involved all project stages, Including inception, development and evaluation, in addition to implementation.

Since women often carry out much of the agricultural work in many countries, agricultural development projects that do not incorporate the participation of women have a much higher chance of failing than those that do. FAO commitment to explicitly recognizing the role of women in agriculture and developing projects to maximize the participation of women is recognized and welcomed and is a perspective which should inform the development of SARD.

4. Structural Adjustment and Agriculture: The FAO is the lead organization advising governments on agricultural policy and thus enjoys a strong "comparative advantage" in this area, making it a priority for FAO work. In this capacity, the FAO will be advising governments in relation to agricultural programming relating to the World Bank/IMF structural adjustment policies.

The World Bank favours development of an export agricultural sector. The FAO has criticized the impact of World Bank structural adjustment policies on agricultural prices noting that heavily indebted countries are required by the World Bank/IMF "to export more and import less to correct trade imbalances. While any single country following this prescription would likely have little effect on the international market, the number of countries now on that same prescription are enough to affect the international market significantly. The result is downward pressure on world market prices.Exacerbating the effect

of policy stimulation of exports and curtailing imports are the generally lower real incomes resulting from the structural adjustment process."

As an adviser to policy-makers, FAO will be called on to further guide government policies for World Bank/IMF structural adjustment policies, and Member States have urged closer cooperation. The World Bank is the financial institution with which FAO has the greatest collaboration. Unofficial estimates note that 25-35 percent of World Bank agricultural projects are designed by FAO. The agricultural export sector traditionally attracts the greatest agro-chemical inputs and sustainable agricultural practices have not yet addressed this sector. FAO is urged to use its position to ensure that there is no contradiction between the goals of SARD and structural adjustment policies.

The interests of Third World countries in developing greater food security could be undermined by structural adjustment policies, and FAO is urged to protect these interests.

5. Trade, Health and the Environment: The FAO has stated its commitment to strengthen efforts to promote sustainable development through trade, and to make trade and the environment mutually supporting. FAO Member States have urged completion of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in order to remove protectionist measures against their agricultural products. However, the link between trade, environmental protection and sustainability is tenuous. An FAO study of International Trade, Environment and Sustainable Agricultural Development points out that international environmental agreements (IEA) have been suggested as a means of avoiding conflicting demands under trade and environment. The OECD has also been examining Draft Guidelines for Using Trade provisions in International Environmental Agreements. All this work is in its infancy and there is no agreement over measures to protect health and environment in relation to trade. It is therefore imperative that there is no automatic assumption that sustainable development, can be promoted through trade.

An example of the conflict between trade, health and environment lies in the promotion of export crops, which have generally been produced under intensive agricultural production systems, using higher inputs of agrochemicals, with consequent health and environmental problems. In addition, the demands of the export agricultural sector can undermine local food security by diverting land which previously grew food for local consumption into export crops, or by diverting resources for investment into the export sector. International policies which have not acknowledged the need for food security on a country, regional or local level have led to greater dependence on imports of essential food, at the same time as being dependent on export crops whose prices have now been forced down as a result of structural adjustment policies. Poverty and food insecurity in turn have further environmental consequences when farmers are forced to over-exploit fragile ecosystems.

A further example of conflict in trade is linked to harmonization of standards. FAO has been encouraged to establish rules and principles related to standards in sanitary and phytosanitary programmes to facilitate international trade. Many of these standards would be set by the Codex Alimentarius.Indeed, the Codex is being presented as an ultimate

international arbiter to harmonize pesticide residue standards as part of a GATT agreement. As presently constituted, however, the Codex raises a number of serious concerns. First, it is far from neutral; Codex is strongly influenced by and serves the interests of industry. Second, Codex uses quantitative risk assessment to set residue levels. We believe this is an inappropriate methodology given the lack of reasonable data sets and low levels of scientific understanding of many health and environmental impacts of pesticides, separately and together. Rather, the precautionary principle should be invoked, to ensure that as standards are harmonized, there is upward pressure on permitted residue levels, and the Codex approved level is at least level with that of the country with the strictest standards. FAO must ensure that there is not a relaxing of permitted residue levels to the detriment of human (or environmental) health.

6. Plant Genetic Resources and Biodiversity: The UNCEDprocess and Agenda 21 clearly recognize FAO's leadership in the conservation and utilization of the part of biological diversity that nourishes and nurtures people. FAO's long and constructive history addressing the technical and policy issues related to crop, forestry and livestock genetics has done much to stimulate national and regional action both by governments and NGOs. The FAO Conference this year marks the tenth anniversary of the establishment of the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources and the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources. Over the past decade, FAO, governments and NGOs have worked together to make great strides in our understanding of the problems and solutions associated with the conservation and development of this fundamental resource.

Much more remains to be accomplished.

In the context of SARD, FAO's pioneering work with agricultural biodiversity must become more holistic and scientifically accessible at the farm level. Rural communities understand from long experience that the conservation and use of cultivated plants, livestock, forest species, etc., is an integrated strategy. Science has tended to divide this strategy along the lines of academic disciplines rather than farmer's needs. The FAO Conference should consider restructuring the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources into a Commission on Agricultural Biodiversity. The International Undertaking should be re-worked into a legally-binding Convention on Agricultural Biodiversity to be housed and supported by FAO as a major facility of the Biological Diversity Convention.

FAO has also been the leader in defining and developing the concepts of Farmers' Rights and the Informal Innovation System. Although the concept is well-developed as a financial transfer mechanism and in relation to germplasm collection, more work is urgently needed, in the context of Germplasm, Information systems, Financial resources, Technologies and Systems for research and marketing (GIFTS). In order to ensure an equitable sharing of the benefits of plant genetic resources, the Commission must address all five elements of the GIFTS pack and be assured the South has access to all five. The way to proceed is in the context of farmers' rights.

Over the ten year history of the FAO Commission, a whole new set of technologies have come to the fore with profound implications for biodiversity

and for SARD. New biotechnologies may reshape the entire structure of agricultural production and marketing. FAO's initial work, through the Commission, to establish a Code of Conduct for Biotechnology needs to be vigorously pursued.

Many of the new challenges facing this field of work will be addressed in the upcoming International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, to which NGOs attach the highest importance. The conference process, with it's State of the World Report and Plan of Action, will place the future work of the international community on a firm technical and scientific footing. We urge FAO and governments to accord this conference high priority as a crucial element of their commitment to SARD.

LE PRESIDENT: Je remercie la Représentante de l'Union des consommateurs de son intervention. Elle était particulièrement intéressante, notamment en ce qui concerne la lutte contre les ravageurs et les intrants et la distinction faite entre les situations lucratives et la défense des consommateurs. De fait, il existe des techniques de lutte contre les ravageurs qui permettent de ne pas utiliser de pesticides ou d'insecticides, notamment la conservation sous vide et autres procédés qui méritent d'être diffusés.

Je donne maintenant la parole au très honorable Représentant du Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement qui nous a promis une courte intervention. S'il désire faire figurer sa plus longue intervention dans le verbatim, il va de soi que cette autorisation lui sera donnée.

Evlogui BONEV (UNDP): May I first join the speakers before me in complimenting the FAO Secretariat and Ms Killingsworth for the valuable information provided on the item under discussion. With your permission, I will refer very briefly to the outcome of the 40th Session of the UNDP's Governing Council which ended its work only last week, and particularly on subjects related to your discussions.

Concluding its 40th Session, the Governing Council approved 10 UNDP country programmes in Africa, 9 in Asia and the Pacific region, 2 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 4 among the Arab States. Fifteen country programmes in different regions received one-year extensions. On the follow-up to the General Assembly Resolution 47/199 which called upon the United Nations system to adopt a more coordinated approach, the Council requested the Administrator working together with the rest of the United Nations Development system, to strengthen UNDP's efforts to implement the Resolution. The Organization was asked to do that, both within the framework of its activities and within the relevant inter-agency coordination mechanisms.

On national execution and agency support costs, the Council called upon recipient countries, with UNDP assistance as requested by the concerned countries, to assess carefully the national capacities for carrying out execution responsibilities before approval of UNDP's programmes and projects. It also encouraged greater use of United Nations Specialized Agencies in the design, technical appraisal and backstopping of nationally executed projects, and urged UNDP to accelerate the pace of approvals of TSS-2 funding of UNDP

financed projects. The Council invited the Administrator to continue consultations with the smaller technical agencies with a view to fully incorporating them into the new support costs arrangements.

On follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the Governing Council requested the Administrator to proceed with the implementation of Capacity 21. It also noted that the current level of resources for Capacity 21 was still limited and called on developed countries to contribute generously to the initiative. The Council further decided that the distribution of Capacity 21 resources would follow the criteria applied to Special Programme Resources while particular attention should be given to the needs of least developed countries. In that context, it supported the intention of the Administrator to devote 40 percent of the overall budget of the initiative to least developed countries.

On the Office for Project Services, the Council accepted the outlined modalities for the transfer of the Office, subject to a number of requirements and the understanding that the modalities would be clarified prior to the transfer's taking place.

Finally, you may recall that Mr Draper, who was appointed as Administrator in 1986, announced his resignation effective 15 July. On 15 June 1993, James Gustav Speth was confirmed by the General Assembly to be the next Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme. On the same day Mr Speth made a statement and, inter alia, said, and I quote, "A UN agenda for development is an essential complement to its agenda for peace. I want UNDP to contribute to making peace possible by helping people attack not each other but the deprivation and disparities that are among the root causes of conflict and chaos". And in conclusion, he declared - and I quote again - "Let me say that I look forward to the opportunity to work with the UN Secretariat and the various programmes and agencies of -the UN family in a cooperative spirit of partnership. Together we have a big job in focusing our roles and missions, overcoming fragmentation and forging an integrated and well-coordinated effort in the countries with which we cooperate".

LE PRESIDENT: Nous savons tous que l'Administrateur du PNUD a donné sa démission et qu'un nouvel Administrateur va prendre le PNUD en charge. Nous souhaitons que le PNUD reprenne un nouveau souffle après une période qui fut particulièrement difficile.

Je remercie l'ensemble des intervenants sur ce point particulièrement intéressant de notre ordre du jour.

Ms Kay KILLINGSWORTH (Director, Office for External Relations): Actually, the questions were rather few, but I am delighted not to have to summarize the debate because it has been extremely wide-ranging, and so many different subjects have been touched upon. However, as I have said earlier, this is not an item on which common positions are necessary. Essentially, what I have retained of this debate, aside from the very interesting points which we in the Secretariat have noted and will be taking into account, is that this item has also become, to a certain extent, a forum for exchange of information

among Member Nations of the Council. A number of delegations have provided additional information. I am thinking for instance of that provided by the delegate of Mexico. We have also just had some further information from UNDP on the Governing Council. All of these are, I think, very useful. They indicate how wide-ranging this subject matter is and how many different issues there are which can be examined. I will confine myself to answering a few questions, and commenting on those issues relevant to FAO's work in interagency fora, and which concern our relations with other organizations.

We are extremely gratified by the support which has been expressed for activities in a number of areas in which we are working so closely with our sister organizations, on these multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional issues. I would start, I think, by making just a few comments in answer to questions raised on operational activities, in particular by the delegate of the United Kingdom. With regard to country strategy notes, dealt with in the document, I would just like to add that in a recent circular letter FAO's Representatives in countries have been requested to closely collaborate with UN Resident Coordinators or UNDP Resident Representatives, as the case may be, and other agency colleagues in order to ensure that the Organization does fully contribute to the efforts of governments which have started the process of formulating country strategy notes.

As you know, this process is not being applied across the board in all countries.

With regard to national programming frameworks, in general FAO projects are related first of all to the policies and priorities of governments requesting assistance from the Organization. FAO supports the programme approach, and, as we have repeatedly stated, we will continue to do our best to support those efforts. With regard to national execution we are currently experiencing a sharp increase in UNDP projects executed by national government authorities, and in some cases the Organization has been asked to participate as an implementing agency and to provide technical support services under TSS-2. Efforts continue to systematically strengthen national capacities through specific training programmes for national project directors and staff in project formulation and implementation.

A final word on field management training: FAO is complementing the system-wide training efforts mentioned in the document through additional programmes for the FAO Representatives on the new working arrangements in UN operational activities and the increasing importance of FAO's policy work. The third of these programmes will actually take place in early July.

Turning to drug abuse control: The delegate of Colombia is quite correct. This text should not have said "demand reduction", it should say "supply reduction". We regret that mistake.

I will not comment on the interesting intervention of the delegate of Colombia. I would point out that FAO has been working in the area of crop substitution for many, many years. Most of our field work, of course, is financed through extra-budgetary funds, and we therefore can only carry out such projects when there is a request from the government and extra-budgetary resources are available.I would like, however, to say that at the interagency

level the Inter-Agency Meeting on Drug Abuse Control has asked us to take a new look in the coming year at issues related to supply reduction in illicit narcotics and psychotropic substances. FAO will also be collaborating with the other agencies in the preparation of a number of papers, one on women, drug abuse and drug control, which is for the Fourth World Conference on Women, and others on international cooperation in crime prevention and drug control and the social and economic impact of drug abuse control, which will be for the World Summit on Social Development.

That brings me on to a number of comments that were made about the various conferences which are coming up, such as the Conference on Women, the one on Population and Development. We will of course be participating actively in the preparatory processes, and appreciate the encouragement to do so that we have been given this morning.

A number of questions were raised on commodities issues. The delegate of Indonesia mentioned the international conference on commodities which had been called for at UNCTAD VIII. I would like to inform him that there are consultations ongoing, but as yet no decision to carry that proposal forward.

The delegate of Madagascar mentioned the study which we are preparing for the UN on a Diversification Fund for Commodities in Africa. We certainly expect it to be available in French. What we cannot say at the moment is in what form and when it will be available, because we are preparing it at the request of the UN and the final format of its submission to the General Assembly is not yet decided.

That takes me to a question raised by the delegate of Germany: What will be the role that FAO will play in the implementation of the Resolution on Food and Agriculture passed by the General Assembly? I would point out that the report requested is not for the General Assembly this year, but for the General Assembly next year. We do expect to be requested, as we have been for the study that I have just mentioned, to contribute substantively to the report which will be submitted, but the initiative on that will have to come from the Secretary-General. It is perhaps not surprising that it has not come yet, because there is a considerable amount of lead-time. The General Assembly considers food and agriculture every other year, in a biennial programme. In the year in which it does not consider food and agriculture, the issue is considered by ECOSOC, which is the case this year.

Some comments were also made about the agenda for peace and the agenda for development. As you know, the preparation of the agenda for development was requested by the 47th General Assembly last year. It is expected to take several years and will probably be agreed upon in 1995 on the 50th Anniversary of the UN - and incidentally, also, the 50th Anniversary of FAO - but here we have already received an invitation to actively participate in preparations at the UN system level and we certainly will be doing so.

A question was raised by the delegate of Germany concerning the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, which indeed is now to be observed every year on 17th October, one day after World Food Day. This will be the first year in which this day will be observed, and it is perhaps too early for us to be able to say exactly how the two days will be related. As you may know,

this year the theme for World Food Day, which will also be addressed at the General Assembly in New York, is going to be "Harvesting Nature's Diversity", particularly concerning biodiversity and plant and animal genetic resources.

There were really no questions on some of the other issues, but we have certainly noted and welcomed, and are grateful for, the support expressed for our work on humanitarian assistance, on the Director-General's participation at the Conference on Human Rights, and on poverty alleviation, which is a system-wide priority of great importance.

A number of comments were made about the follow-up to UNCED, and you have of course already discussed the issues and FAO's lead role a number of times during the last few days. I would only like to recall that in the interagency sphere FAO has taken the lead role, of the type referred to by the delegate of Canada, from the very beginning on this issue. As you know, the Director-General was asked to chair the ACC's small task force which made the initial proposals to the ACC last October on how the inter-agency machinery should support the efforts of the intergovernmental machinery in follow-up to UNCED. The result of that task force, which was presented in October, was the formation of the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development. Mr Mahler, our Assistant Director-General and Special Advisor on Environment and Development, has played an absolutely key role in supporting the Director-General, in representing us subsequently at the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development, and as Special Representative of FAO at the first meeting of the CSD which is under way now in New York. Those are only some of the indications that one may cite of the way in which FAO has assumed, and will continue to assume, its lead role in this area in the inter-agency sphere.

A few questions were raised concerning the status of decisions in the General Assembly and on-going negotiations with regard to the whole restructuring process. As I said earlier, no decision has yet been taken on the texts which are before the resumed session of the General Assembly concerning the future of the World Food Council and the broader question of restructuring the United Nations itself. However, the restructuring of the UN Secretariat was an issue which, on the basis of the proposals of the Secretary-General, went to the Fifth Committee of the General Assembly earlier this year, and the decision, which Mr Hjort informed you of the other day with regard to the transfer of the posts in the Secretariat to New York, has been taken by the General Assembly on the basis of the recommendations of the Fifth Committee.

DEPUTY DIRECTOR-GENERAL: Just to follow on from where Ms Killingsworth concluded on the World Food Council: I believe the easiest way to respond to comments made is to remind the Council that earlier it considered this issue of the World Food Council when it was taking up the report of the Committee on World Food Security.

Perhaps it would be as well to remember that in that report, which you have endorsed, in paragraphs 21 and 42 - or really Part V - the Committee on World Food Security asked the Director-General to bring this matter to the attention of the Fifth Committee. That has been done, and the views of the Committee on Food Security on this matter have been put forward.Asis well-known, a

decision has not been taken with respect to the future of the World Food Council. It would appear to be virtually certain that the Committee on World Food Security is going to end up with an enhanced role. That, I think, is clear. Exactly what that role will be will have to be taken up by that Committee at a subsequent session.

The other point that has been made is that at the FAO Conference, where the Ministers of Agriculture come together, some of whom will happen to be members of the World Food Council, should there continue to be one they may wish to address a particular theme at the FAO Conference.

Nothing has been decided, of course, on this. It is a thought which has been advanced, as I understand it, in some of the discussions. However, nothing more definitive can be said and perhaps I am more definitive than I should have been already.

Turning to the World Food Programme, there was the question about the relationship and collaboration between the two organizations. They are good. We have the lead role, and always have had for food needs assessments, food supply assessments. On almost every occasion we invite the World Food Programme to join us in those assessments, and they have been doing so. We have even been issuing the Report on a joint basis. These assessments, led by FAO, are the standard which is used in connection with the Department of Humanitarian Affairs' consolidated appeals and so forth. This part of the work seems to be going fine.

The other major part of the relationship is with respect to their projects. Most of the projects - I believe about 85 percent now - are matters which fall within our mandate. In every one of those cases FAO is involved. In most cases, if it is a food and agriculture project, we provide the leadership to the mission. FAO leads the mission. We will always be involved.

Those of you who have reviewed the work proposals of the Executive Director in the CFA work will probably recall that she has, in fact, proposed an increase in resources in her next budget for the collaborative work with FAO. That increase is in connection with projects work. We have made known to her that we stand ready to help in any way we can. There are some within the Programme and here who believe that there can be some improvements made on the cycle and we are ready and willing to work with her and with them on that. In other words, at the present time relations are very good.

We have also been in contact - and this will be introduction to your next Agenda Item - on the follow-up of the International Conference on Nutrition. It has seemed that this would be an ideal for "food-for-work" and could be a facilitator towards the objectives that the Member Countries have agreed with respect to alleviating the hunger situation.

LE PRESIDENT: Je n'aurai ni le temps ni la volonté de résumer cet intéressant débat sur un document très synthétique mais particulièrement intéressant. Il serait certes souhaitable de faire une synthèse mais je crois que les sujets sont tellement nombreux et tellement divers, allant de la restructuration de la famille des Nations Unies en passant par l'organisation de conférences

internationales jusqu'aux problèmes de la drogue, des ressources phytogénétiques..., que cette synthèse est extrêmement difficile. En effet, on a abordé la question du Conseil mondial de l'alimentation, on a parlé des interrelations avec le Programme alimentaire mondial et de nombreuses interventions ont eu lieu. Ce document d'information a suscité l'intérêt de tous les Membres du Conseil et peut être la preuve de la nécessité, pour le Conseil, de disposer du temps suffisant pour être informé largement sur ce qui se passe dans l'ensemble du système des Nations Unies car notre responsabilité implique que nous nous intéressions à ce qui se passe ailleurs. Si nous voulons également peser sur les décisions qui sont prises dans d'autres enceintes, il est indispensable que la FAO et, par conséquent, les organisations qui s'occupent, de près ou de loin, de l'alimentation, de l'agriculture et de la nutrition puissent coordonner leurs efforts, et pour ce faire, ainsi que l'a souligné le représentant du Canada, nous avons un rôle de pilote à jouer et nous voulons une Organisation forte, vibrante et dynamique.

Le seul reproche formulé à l'égard du document concerne le paragraphe 7.9 relatif à l’approche-programme du système des Nations Unies considéré comme étant lié aux programmes nationaux. Une observation a été faite par un membre du Conseil. Je crois qu'il faut souligner que l’approche-programme doit se situer au niveau d'ensembles régionaux. Le pays qui a fait cette remarque fait partie d'une communauté parfaitement consciente de la nécessité, dans le monde d'aujourd'hui, d'avoir des approches régionales de plus en plus solides, de plus en plus structurées, de plus en plus cohérentes.

La question du commerce des produits de base a été évoquée notamment par l'Indonésie, Trinité-et-Tobago, Madagascar et le Nigeria.

On a parlé du Fonds commun, et lors du Comité des programmes, j'ai exprimé mes regrets. Je ne citerai pas le nom des pays qui ont quitté le Fonds commun mais je pense qu'il est très important que tous les membres de la famille des Nations Unies restent solidaires au sein de toutes les organisations et qu'il est regrettable que certains pays importants quittent certaines organisations opérationnelles de la famille des Nations Unies.

Je fais appel à l'esprit unilatéral de tous pour que nous puissions renforcer cette famille et non l'affaiblir.

Maintenant, sans avoir fait la synthèse que je souhaitais, je voudrais vous donner quelques informations concernant la poursuite de nos travaux.

Je précise tout d'abord que le forum européen se réunira à 13 heures précises dans la salle de la Malaisie. D'autre part, en ce qui concerne le Comité technique chargé du problème des pavillons, les travaux se poursuivent. Il y a un certain nombre de difficultés mais nous aurons sans doute un texte pour demain avec certaines phrases entre parenthèses et certaines réserves de la part de certains pays ce qui nous amènera à nous pencher sur le document et y a consacrer tout le temps voulu.

Nous reportons à la fin de la séance de cet après-midi les points 13 et 14 qui seront examinés après le point 15. Nous commencerons à 14 h 30 par une réunion réservée uniquement aux chefs de délégations mais, qui sera suivi

par une réunion ouverte au cours de laquelle nous examinerons les points 15.1 et 15.3 ainsi que les point 13 et 14.

En ce qui concerne le point 12 comme l'a très bien souligné le Directeur général adjoint, M. Hjort, nous allons entendre l'exposé du Dr Lupien sur le suivi de la Conférence internationale. S'il y a des questions, je vous demanderai d'intervenir très brièvement de façon à ce que nous puissions terminer ce point ce matin.

La Conférence sur la nutrition qui a eu lieu en décembre a rencontré un très grand succès mais nécessite toute une série de mesures quant à son suivi. Les travaux qui concernent le suivi de cette Conférence et qui vont vous être expliqués, nécessiteront un certain temps avant de pouvoir faire l'objet de commentaires et, par conséquent, si l'un d'entre vous désire intervenir je lui demanderai d'être très bref.

Je remercie Mme. Killingsworth de ses interventions en début et en fin de discussion de notre point 11 de l'ordre du jour.

Nous passons au point 12 et je donne la parole au Dr Lupien qui va nous présenter le document CL 103/18.

12. Follow-up to the International Conference on Nutrition
12. Suivi de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition
12. Actividades complementarias de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición

John R. LUPIEN (Director, Food Policy and Nutrition Division): The December 1992 International Conference on Nutrition was a historic event. We had more than a thousand delegates from 159 countries and the European Economic Community. They met for the first time to discuss the first intergovernmental conference ever held on nutrition. There were also representatives from 144 non-governmental organizations, 11 intergovernmental organizations and 14 UN organizations, in addition to FAO and WHO. The Conference culminated in the unanimous adoption of the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition.

The ICN Plan of Action for Nutrition, among other provisions, calls on the Governing Bodies of FAO, WHO and other international organizations to decide, in the course of 1993, of ways and means of implementing the ICN recommendations. The Committee on Forestry, the Committee on Agriculture, the Committee on World Food Security have already discussed ICN follow-up earlier this year.

The document before you, CL 103/18, "Follow-up to the International Conference on Nutrition", incorporates the Committee on Agriculture document, COAG 93/6, "Implementing the ICN Plan of Action", which was the background document to COAG discussions on ICN. These documents together review all ICN activities to date, highlight the major strategies and actions of the Plan of Action, describe generally the planned FAO follow-up to the ICN and provide an update on FAO follow-up actions already initiated.

The ICN marked the beginning of renewed and vigorous efforts at all levels to eliminate hunger and malnutrition and to improve the nutritional well-being of all populations. The ICN recognized that poverty, social inequality and the lack of education are the root causes of malnutrition, and stress that improvements in human welfare, including nutritional well-being, must be at the centre of social and economic development efforts. Governments, NGOs, UN agencies and the international community have committed themselves to intensifying efforts and activities to achieve the goals and objectives of the ICN.

One of the key strategies to emerge from the ICN is to promote explicitly better nutrition through a range of agricultural and developmental policies and programmes by incorporating nutrition objectives into their planning and implementation. FAO, through its various policy and planning efforts, is in fact assisting Member Governments to develop and strengthen their capacity for incorporating nutrition objectives into development activities.

In addition, FAO is ready to assist countries to implement the Plan of Action by focusing on the following areas: improving nutrition through community development and household food security; assuring food quality and safety; combating micronutrient deficiency diseases; promoting nutrition education; monitoring nutritional status and making better use of nutrition-related information for planning and monitoring.

A number of countries is making good progress in ICN follow-up activities but many would benefit considerably from technical and financial support from FAO, WHO bilateral donors and other UN agencies. FAO is taking an active role in identifying such needs for assistance, especially in the formulation of national plans of action.

To be brief, the Committee on Forestry, the Committee on Agriculture and the Committee on Food Security have discussed and endorsed the ICN follow-up which is presented to you today. We have, therefore, provided additional information on follow-up to this date in the document before you. We believe that the document shows that FAO is pushing ahead vigorously to work with Member Nations in order to implement fully the ICN recommendations. We hope that the Council will also endorse the approach set out in the document before you and we look forward to the Council's comments.

LE PRESIDENT: Je voudrais vous rappeler que la mise en oeuvre du Plan d'action de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition a fait l'objet d'un examen minutieux et approfondi lors de la douzième session du COAG qui s'est tenue du 26 avril au 4 mai et que le rapport de l'agriculture, que nous avons examiné a été endossé par notre Conseil.

Le document CL 103/18 contient une introduction ainsi que le résumé du travail effectué par le Comité de l'agriculture qui a procédé à une étude approfondie du processus du suivi de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition.

Monsieur l'Ambassadeur de France vient de me faire parvenir son intervention qui figurera bien sûr au Verbatim. Je suggérerais d'ailleurs à tous ceux qui ont préparé uneintervention écrite de la déposer afin qu'elle figure au

Verbatim. S'il y a quelques questions précises, je vous demanderai de les poser maintenant.

Je vois que plusieurs pays demandent à remettre leurs interventions. Je prie donc ces pays de venir déposer leurs interventions dès que nous lèverons la séance, interventions qui seront lues dans le Verbatim avec la plus grande attention, par tous les membres du Conseil et par tous les observateurs.

S'il n'y a pas de questions précises à poser au Dr Lupien, concernant ce point de l'ordre du jour, je vous propose d'en rester là pour ce matin.

Kiala KIA MATEVA (Angola): Permettez-nous d'exprimer notre gratitude à M. Lupien pour l'exposé qu'il vient de faire sans oublier le Secrétariat.

A la lecture de tout ce qui a été dit, écrit et fait jusqu'à aujourd'hui sur la nutrition, nous pouvons dire que la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition a été un succès sans précédent. Elle a atteint ses objectifs. Aujourd'hui, les pays développés et en voie de développement, les organisations intergouvernementales et non gouvernementales, les institutions des Nations Unies sont informés sur la situation nutritionnelle dans le monde, sur les origines de la malnutrition. Après ce grand événement, la grande machine de la FAO s'est remise en marche pour matérialiser les conclusions et recommandations contenues dans les deux documents clés: le Plan d'action et la Déclaration internationale sur la nutrition.

Il a été reconnu que la FAO avait un rôle à jouer dans le suivi de la CIN, notamment le renforcement des activités au niveau des pays. Nous nous félicitons des orientations qui ont été transmises aux représentants de la FAO dans les pays et de la nécessité des cadres associés comme signalés dans les paragraphes 5 et 6. Ces cadres supplémentaires sont dotés de compétence appropriée.

En Angola, Monsieur le Président, il existe une bonne collaboration entre la FAO, le PNUD, l'UNICEF pour aider le pays dans l'élaboration du plan d'action national. Grâce à cette collaboration, nonobstant les conditions actuelles que le pays traverse, un projet a été identifié. En accord avec les paragraphes 7 et 8 du document CL 103/18, grâce à l'appui de la FAO, l'Angola pourra matérialiser ce projet intitulé Renforcement du Système de vigilance alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans les deux prochaines années en Angola. Ce projet doit être inclus dans le Programme de développement du pays. Sa mise en oeuvre sera garantie par une coordination inter-sectorielle. La délégation angolaise, Monsieur le Président, encourage la FAO d'aller toujours de l'avant dans son effort d'appuyer les Etats Membres qui en feront la demande. Elle se félicite du lancement des divers programmes d'action spéciaux. Elle encourage la promotion de la coopération intersectorielle et interinstitutions.

En ce qui concerne le suivi de la CIN au niveau régional et sous-régional, la délégation de l'Angola a participé activement à l'atelier organisé sur l'alimentation et la nutrition dans les pays africains de langue officielle portugaise qui a eu lieu à Bissau du 24 au 28 mai 1993.

Une fois de plus, nous profitons de cette occasion pour remercier la FAO, l'UNICEF, l'OMS et la coopération française qui ont bien voulu supporter financièrement la participation de la délégation angolaise.

Monsieur le Président, Il est proposé au paragraphe 21 la création, l'établissement d'un centre de références, de formation et de recherche en matière de qualité et de contrôle des aliments. La délégation angolaise souscrit à cette initiative de la FAO qui saura trouver des ressources extrabudgétaires pour son installation. Nous remercions déjà les pays donateurs qui ne ménageront aucun effort pour mettre à la disposition de la FAO des ressources supplémentaires.

Elle appuie le paragraphe 30 en ce qui concerne les points focaux respectifs de la FAO et l'OMS, et le souhait exprimé à la fin du paragraphe: la désignation d'autres points focaux et groupes de soutien à la CIN dans d'autres organisations.

Pour terminer, Monsieur le Président, ma délégation appuie les conclusions et les recommandations du Comité de l'agriculture sur le suivi et la mise en oeuvre du Plan d'action de la CIN.1

Sra. Ileana DI GIOVAN BATTISTA (Argentina): La Argentina ha trabajado activamente en las tareas preparatorias para la CIN y ha continuado implementando acciones tendientes a implementar las recomendaciones del Plan de Acción allí establecido.

Se ha propiciado una amplia convocatoria en el interior del pais, haciendo esfuerzos para el fomento de la integración intersectorial.

El impulso inicial, ignorado a partir de la convocatoria y las propuestas de la CIN ha tenido sus frutos en la promoción de actividades, tanto a nivel regional como provincial y nacional, tendientes a lograr la mejora de la situación alimentario nutricional de los grupos vulnerables.

La Secretaria de Proyectos de Cooperación Técnica, que organizó y coordinó las tareas preparatorias para la CIN y actualmente coordina la implementación del Plan de Acción Nacional, en concordancia con las propuestas emanadas de la citada Conferencia, ha fomentado y apoyado la realización de Encuentros Regionales de Nutrición, insistiendo en la necesidad de una labor pluridisciplinaria para abordar el problema y en el establecimiento de mecanismos de actuación intersectorial consensuados. Actualmente y como parte de la estrategia de promover la participación y la descentralización, se encuentran en plena organización los Comités Provinciales de Nutrición, a los que se les hace llegar las informaciones y documentos de la CIN.

Asimismo se han planificado distintas tareas de capacitación y asistencia técnica a nivel provincial y regional, tendientes a fomentar el entrenamiento de recursos humanos en actividades de formulación y evaluación de proyectos integrales. Como parte de estas actividades se llevará a cabo el próximo mes

1 Texte reçu avec demande d'insertion aux procès-verbaux.

de mayo en Buenos Aires, un Taller sobre Sistemas de Vigilancia Alimentaria Nutricional, con el objetivo de establecer las bases para la implementación del SISVAN a nivel nacional.

En la certidumbre de que no existe una politica social y una politica econòmica divorciadas, sino que ambas deben ser partes activas de un solo concepto general, se ha emprendido una politica integral, instrumentada a través del Plan Económico Social que involucra el desarrollo y el crecimiento, particularmente el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de los grupos de riesgo nutricional, con el objetivo de posibilitar un mejor acceso a una alimentación adecuada y suficiente.

Dicho plan, consta de 40 puntos, algunos de ellos son:

1. Libre elección por parte de los trabajadores de su obra social, dentro de las comprendidas en el sistema nacional de salud.

2. Desregulación de las prestaciones medico-asistenciales (eliminación de la intermediación en salud), libertad para las obras sociales para contratar a los prestadores (sanatorios, clínicas), sin imposición de precio, tanto por los consejos profesionales como por las asociaciones empresarias.

3. Transformación del hospital público y del modelo de atención médica, garantizando su finaneiamiento a través de la obligatoriedad de pago de las obras sociales. Diseño de un modelo eficiente de prestación y gerenciamiento.

4. Programa para jubilados y pensionados, programa pro-bienestar, se proporcionará asistencia para alimentación y vivienda a beneficiarios en situación de pobreza.

5. Programa social integral, se otorgarán subsidios económicos extraordinarios en caso de necesidades primarias insatisfechas.

6. Programa de asistencia nutricional de salud y medicamentos para ancianos sin cobertura previsional ni social.

7. Polos productivos, se desarrollarán 208 polos que beneficiarán a 4 millones de personas.

8. Polos productivos para aborígenes, se desarrollarán 24 polos que beneficiarán a 235 000 personas.

9. Polos productivos para discapacitados, se desarrollarán 12 polos productivos que beneficiarán a 180 000 personas.

10. Huertas familiares, se crearán 65 000 huertas que beneficiarán a 325 000 personas.

11. Minifundios, se desarrollarán 50 proyectos que beneficiarán a 50 000 personas.

12. Proyectos de centros comunitarios integrales, se desarrollarán 80 proyectos en favor de 140 000 habitantes de barrios carenciados.

13. Microemprendimientos, se propiciará la creación de 1 000 microempresas.

14. Programa preventivo para niños en situación de riesgo (programa de prevención de abandono, jardines maternales, familias subsidiadas, educación permanente, prevención HIV y ETS).Se beneficiarán 160 000 niños.

15. Programas de tratamiento familiar (amas externas, amas de cuidado preferencial HIV, pequeños hogares, familias sustitutas, familias sustitutas de discapacitados, libertad asistida). Se beneficiarán 18 300 familias.

16. Programa federal de capacitación y movilización juvenil. Se realizarán 300 seminarios de capacitación y formación de promotores sociales juveniles.

17. Programa global de desarrollo urbano, con financiamiento parcial del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, se desarrollan obras en 15 provincias y Capital Federal.

18. Programa de inversiones sociales municipales. El segundo tramo de este programa con financiamiento parcial del BID comenzará a ser ejecutado en agosto de 1993.

19. Programa de desarrollo municipal, con financiamiento parcial del Banco Mundial, se desarrollarán obras de infraestructuras y equipamientos sociales en 5 provincias.

20. Desarrollo de la atención primaria de la salud.

21. Construcción y equipamiento, 40 centros de salud destinados a la atención primaria en todo el pais con fondos del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

22. Desarrollo del programa nacional de garantía de calidad de la atención médica con el objetivo de normatizar y fiscalizar todas las actividades de atención médica protegiendo a la población que demanda servicios.

23. Programa de salud materno infantil. Distribución de leche entera, 600 000 niños (0 a 2 años), 300 000 madres. Distribución de leche modificada y adicionada con vitaminas y minerales, 170 000 niños. Distribución de medicamentos para niños con anemia, enfermedades diarréicas, dificultades respiratorias y para laatención del parto. Equipamiento del primer nivel de atención materno infantil.

24. Programa materno infantil y nutrición (Gobierno nacional - BIRF) a desarrollarse en áreas de pobreza estructural, 700 000 niños (de 0 a 2 años), 1 300 000 niños (de 2 a 5 años), 350 000 embarazadas.

25. Compra y distribución de material de neonatologia para equipar 161 hospitales.

26. Instituto Nacional Central Unico Coordinador de Ablación e Implante (INCUCAI). Recuperación nacional y administrativa, regionalización y participación de la comunidad.

27. Programa intensivo de erradicación del sarampión cobertura 9 000 000 menores de 15 años.

28. Programa de vacunación antitetánica en mujeres en edad fértil destinado a eliminar el tétanos neonatal en provincias de alto riesgo, 900 000 personas. Programa de vacunación contra la hepatitis Β destinada a personal de salud y otros grupos de riesgo, 80 000 personas. Programa de vacunación contra la tuberculosis, difteria, tétanos y coqueluche, 685 000 menores de 1 año, 1 500 000 (de 1 a 5 años)

29. Control de enfermedades prevalentes especialmente enfermedad de chagas y paludismo y acciones para consolidar la erradicación de la rabia canina.

30. Desarrollo del programa de educación sanitaria, coordinación con el Ministerio de Educación, participación de organizaciones no gubernamentales.

31. Programa de investigación, docencia y producción en los institutos nacionales.

32. Desarrollo de la administración nacional de medicamentos, alimentos y tecnología médica incluyendo la normatización, control y fiscalización en las tres áreas.

33. Desarrollo de los recursos humanos en el sector a través de la asignación de 6 400 nuevas becas, 25 000 horas cátedra y 2 300 contratos de residentes orientados a las áreas prioritarias.

34. Se elaborará el Código sanitario argentino (recopilación y ordenamiento) y elaboración de proyectos de ley sobre ejercicio de actividades de la salud, medicamentos, sanidad, fronteras y transporte, protección de

salud del trabajador, tecnología y material biomédico, sangre, tabaco y accidentes.

35. Mejoramiento de la infraestructura escolar.

36. Mejoramiento del equipamiento escolar.

37. Mejor educación para todos.

38. Inserción productiva de jóvenes y adultos.

39. Programa de empleo y seguro de desempleo. Programa intensivo de trabajo. Formación para jóvenes en búsqueda del primer empleo.

40. Programa de propiedad participada. Programa de trabajadores que acceden a la propiedad de las acciones, hasta un 10%, de 63 empresas.

41. Aumento de las asignaciones familiares fijas, por nacimiento, adopción, matrimonio y escolaridad.

Complementariamente desde la Dirección de Salud Materno Infantil de la Secretaría de Salud del Ministerio de Salud y Acción Social de la Nación se encuentra a la aprobación del señor Secretario una propuesta de "Plan Nacional de Acción para Mejorar la Nutrición", cuyos objetivos son:

- Establecer un diagnóstico actualizado y completo de la situación nutricional en el país.

- Optimizar las acciones del componente nutrición dentro del Programa de Salud Materno Infantil.

- Optimizar las acciones del Programa de Promoción Social Nutricional (comedores escolares e infantiles).

- Incorporar acciones de nutrición en la atención en salud de otros grupos etáreos - adolescentes, adultos y ancianos.

- Prevenir las carencias demicronutrientes específicos en los grupos vulnerables- niños y embarazadas.

- Mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos.

- Incorporar la educación alimentario nutricional en la educación formal e informal.

- Capacitar a los recursos humanos de las distintas disciplinas involucradas en el sistema de alimentación y nutrición.

- Establecer las bases de un sistema de evaluación permanente del estado nutricional de la población y el monitoreo de los programas relacionados con los componentes del sistema.

- Promover la creación de un ente nacional de análisis y planificación de políticas intersectoriales en distintos niveles.1

Craig BURNS (Australia): Australia took an active part in the ICN and is among those countries who adopted the World Declaration on Nutrition and Plan of Action arising from it.

Australia is already addressing some of the nine strategies in the Plan of Action as a result of the early development of Australia's National Food and Nutrition Policy which was announced by the Minister for Aged, Family and Health Services in September 1992.

1 Texto incluido en las actas a petición expresa.

The Policy has achieved wide ranging and positive intersectoral involvement in its development and implementation, including traditionally 'non-health' areas: primary industries; food manufacturers; retailers; and distributors; consumers and community groups; and the Commonwealth and State/Territory government bodies.

Priority strategies identified in the Policy are in the early stages of implementation under the food and nutrition component of our National Health Advancement Programme. The policy implementation process will be measured against a set of nutrition goals and targets, relating to the overall National Goals and Targets. It is at present too early to evaluate the strategies against the goals and targets.

The International Congress on Nutrition to be held in Australia in Adelaide from 26 September 1993, will provide an opportunity to review progress and report on policy implementation following the ICN Declaration on Nutrition and Plan of Action. A representative from WHO Europe (Dr Elisabet Heising) is expected to convene a workshop of key participants in conjunction with the Adelaide Congress to discuss 'Beyond ICN'. The tentative date for the workshop is Sunday 26 September. Australia will be assisting in organizing this workshop.

Australia has had informal discussions with Dr Ian Darnton-Hill, Regional Adviser in Nutrition, WHO, Manila, concerning the ICN Plan of Action, and the role of Australia's National Food and Nutrition Policy in addressing the strategies set out in the Plan.

Finally, Mr Chairman, we commend the FAO for the rapid and thorough manner in which the outcome of the ICN is being introduced as an integral component of FAO technical programmes and projects.1

Iain MACGILLIVRAY (Canada): Canada strongly supports the call contained in the world declaration and plan of action for nutrition, for vigorous and concerted effort by all to improve the nutritional status of humanity. It goes without saying, Mr Chairman, that we see the role of the international cooperation community as one of encouraging and contributing to this process. The FAO has an obvious key role to play by virtue of its mandate and technical expertise.

In this regard, and having attended all committee discussions, we looked forward to this follow-up report with the expectations of an analytical review on overall progress achieved and of the difficulties being encountered.

FAO's update report attempts, in a very general way, to say what should and might take place but does not specifically provide enough detail on what is being accomplished, what progress is being achieved, what the problems are and what specifically (with greater delineation) can be done about it.

1 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

More specifically, and to help our understanding and analysis - in reference to country level activities.

What are the results from the evaluation of country needs?

What are the obstacles to completing plans of action that have been identified by the regional offices?

What are the areas requiring technical assistance in the preparation of country plans of action?

Which are areas where the donor community - cognizant of funding stringency -could try to respond?

Is there potential for intra-regional sharing of methodologies and expertise?

We understand that preparation of action plans is progressing well in some countries, moderately well in others and has not begun in the remainder. At COAG, we noted the importance of having greater clarity on the number of countries that had requested assistance to improve existing plans.

While reasons for differential progress will undoubtedly vary from country to country - and FAO is evaluating needs on a regular basis - how is this information being used? This is most pertinent for countries that have not yet started. It also is important to know how this information can be used by the donor community to assist?

The Canadian delegation believes that addressing more precisely some of these questions would be more helpful in tracking progress towards ICN goals and in knowing how FAO and its members can better assist in this regard.1

Antonio BAYAS (Chile): Chile ha asumido plenamente las tareas planteadas, por la Conferencia Internacional sobre Nutrición (CIN), tanto en la Declaración Mundial como en el Plan de Acción para la Nutrición.

El Gobierno de mi país ha basado su estrategia de desarrollo en un crecimiento económico con equidad y justicia social, realizando un gran esfuerzo económico y social que se ha traducido en importantes aumentos del empleo y los salarios reales, control y reducción de la inflación, aumento de la inversión y crecimiento económico, unidos a un incremento sustancial del gasto social, especialmente orientado al ámbito de la salud, educación y vivienda, alcanzando para 1993 un nivel de 6 000 millones de dólares EE.UU., lo cual representa más del 60 por ciento del total del gasto público. Este compromiso con la equidad, sin descuidar el crecimiento económico, ha permitido recuperar un rol protagónico de las políticas sociales a través de un mejoramiento de la cobertura y calidad de los principales programas sociales dirigidos a la población infantil principalmente en las áreas de nutrición, salud, educación, deportes, etc., y hacia otros grupos vulnerables. Esto constituye el esfuerzo más importante y sostenido en el terreno social en varias décadas. Gracias a

1 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

él, se espera que hacia fines del presente año la pobreza haya disminuido en un porcentaje importante, unido al mejoramiento en la calidad de vida de los niños más pobres y sus familias.

En este contexto, las políticas económicas, sociales y agrícolas se han orientado hacia la modernización e integración social y productiva, apoyando especialmente a aquellos grupos más vulnerables desde un punto de vista socioeconómico y/o biomédico.

Reconociendo que Chile se encuentra en una etapa de transición, donde los problemas por déficit tienden a disminuir, con la persistencia de algunas áreas geográficas especialmente deprimidas, emergiendo las situaciones por exceso (obesidad, por ejemplo), así como los problemas de calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos, se han realizado las acciones necesarias para actuar sobre dichas áreas en forma especial.

Asimismo, a través de los Ministerios de Educación, Salud, Agricultura y Economía, se han adoptado las medidas que permitan ir enfrentando los problemas nutricionales por exceso, que afectan especialmente a la población adulta, y mejorando la calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos.

El Ministerio de Planificación y Cooperación es el encargado de coordinar las políticas sociales, impulsando el nuevo enfoque de orientación del gasto e inversión social hacia la integración al desarrollo de los grupos más vulnerables. Ese Ministerio ha sido el encargado de velar por el funcionamiento de las comisiones nacionales y regionales de alimentación y nutrición, instancias multisectoriales de coordinación que reúnen a las principales instituciones públicas y privadas relacionadas con el tema, tanto a nivel nacional como regional.

A través de estas Comisiones, se preparó la participación de Chile en la CIN. Actualmente, las diferentes comisiones regionales están preparando Planes de acción para la década 1990-2000), a partir de los cuales se formulará el Plan Nacional de Acción comprometido en la CIN, el que estará disponible en marzo de 1994.1

Juan NUIRY SÁNCHEZ (Cuba): Muy brevemente señor Presidente! pues sólo haremos referencia a cuestiones muy precisas: correspondiéndole el primer lugar a insistir que "la Declaración Mundial y el Plan de Acción para la Nutrición" que fueron aprobados en la Conferencia en diciembre de 1992, deben constituir el punto de referencia para los programas de la FAO, en materia de nutrición a mediano y largo plazo, lo cual permitirá apoyar los esfuerzos de los gobiernos para evaluar los aspectos de las políticas generales, así como las correspondientes actividades de desarrollo sobre la nutrición y la seguridad alimentaria en los hogares, incorporando objetivos, consideraciones y componentes nutricionales en la política y programa de desarrollo.

1 Texto incluido en las actas a petición expresa.

En tal sentido, señor Presidente, nuestra delegación entiende que la actividad de la FAO debe estar estrechamente vinculada con las políticas sobre alimentación y nutrición que sean prioritarias en los diferentes países y se desplegara a requerimiento de los mismos.1

Haris ZANNETIS (Cyprus): Cyprus is attaching high priority to the issue of food and nutrition and subscribes to the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition as approved by the International Conference on Nutrition.

Following the conclusions of the ICN several activities have been undertaken in Cyprus to pursue the objectives of the Plan of Action.

First, a national seminar has been organized. Competent officers from the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Education have participated in the seminar, representatives from NGOs and the private sectors also took part in the seminar. The office of the FAO representative in Cyprus has been of valuable assistance in carrying out this seminar and I wish to express my Government's appreciation for this assistance.

Second: following the recommendations of the ICN, but also a relevant recommendation from the national seminar, a National Committee on Nutrition has been established by the Council of Ministers with the mandate to identify programmes and plans with the objective of improving the nutritional level of the population, membership to this Committee is not restricted to government representatives but it includes also members of NGOs, farmers' and consumers' associations, and other private groups.

Turning to the document under consideration my delegation supports the proposed follow-up activities for the implementation of the ICN Plan of Action. We hope that the required extrabudgetary resources will be made available to FAO to enable the Organization to implement this Plan of Action.2

Jacques LAUREAU (France): Nous avons étudié avec intérêt le document CL 103/18 qui présente les mesures prises par l'Organisation pour assurer le suivi de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition.

En passant en revue les dispositions énoncées dans ce document qui nous paraissent essentielles, nous aimerions insister chaque fois sur l'importance d'une concertation et d'une coordination conceptuelles et opérationnelles entre les différentes organisations du système des Nations Unies, et en particulier l'OMS, le PAM, l'UNESCO et l'UNICEF, ainsi qu'avec les ONG.

En premier lieu, pour fonder une stratégie et définir un plan d'action, chaque pays a besoin de préciser la situation nutritionnelle et de recenser les moyens de l'améliorer. Dans le cadre d'activités que nous jugeons essentielles

1 Texto incluido en las actas a petición expresa.

2 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

pour appuyer la définition et la mise en oeuvre de programmes d'action nationaux, la FAO a un rôle majeur à jouer dans l'actualisation des bases de données et nous approuvons les actions prévues au paragraphe 177 du document CL 103/3 destinées à mieux connaître la composition des aliments, les carences en micronutriments, l'état nutritionnel des ménages.

Dans les pays en développement, cette mise à jour des connaissances exige la collaboration la plus étroite entre la FAO, l'OMS et le PAM sur le terrain. Ce processus en effet implique fortement les organisations du secteur de la santé et de l'éducation, attentives notamment aux groupes les plus vulnérables, telles que l'OMS et l'UNICEF.

La participation nationale à la mise à jour de ces données et à leur utilisation efficace dans les programmes d'action est tout aussi fondamentale; elle demande qu'au préalable un effort considérable soit consenti pour la formation en nutrition des personnels chargés des enquêtes et des cadres nationaux qui seront impliqués dans les plans d'action.

Pour sa part, la France envisage de financer dès cette année un tel projet au Viet Nam et d'étudier un programme de formation des cadres intermédiaires en Afrique.

Parallèlement, la France entend promouvoir un effort de recherche supplémentaire notamment sur les carences en micronutriments.

En second lieu, l'amélioration durable de la nutrition ne peut se faire que dans le respect des habitudes de consommation locale et en s'appuyant sur les ressources et potentialités locales et régionales. Nous appuyons donc sans réserve les efforts que la FAO entend produire pour la promotion de la consommation d'aliments traditionnels (comme il est dit au paragraphe 182 du document CL 103/3) mais aussi sa collaboration accrue avec le PAM pour que les programmes d'aide alimentaire soient adaptés aux exigences nutritionnelles et s'intègrent dans les Plans d'action (paragraphe 183).

Dans cette optique, le développement des échanges régionaux constitue à nos yeux un des piliers de toute politique nutritionnelle et il convient de souligner ici encore l'intérêt des opérations triangulaires et des achats locaux pour que l'aide alimentaire réponde le mieux possible aux besoins réels des populations.

La France approuve donc aussi le principe de réunions régionales et sous-régionales que la FAO " se propose d'organiser, notamment avec l'OMS et l'UNICEF, comme il est dit au paragraphe 14 du document CL 103/18.

Pour ce qui la concerne, la France contribuera à cet effet à l'organisation d'ateliers tel celui de Cotonou sur la Situation alimentaire et nutritionnelle en zones urbaines en Afrique. Par ailleurs, elle a déjà fait savoir à l'Organisation qu'elle est disposée à répondre à sa demande de renforcement du personnel des représentations nationales et/ou régionales de la FAO sur le terrain, par la mise à disposition d'un cadre associé.

En troisième lieu, la CIN a mis en évidence les interrelations existant entre l'alimentation, la nutritionetlasantédans lecontexte généralde la

pauvreté. Il convient donc effectivement, comme l'indique le paragraphe 15 du document CL 103/18, que les organismes concernés se coordonnent dans leur approche des problèmes et harmonisent leurs politiques.

Dans cette perspective, nous souhaiterions recevoir des précisions sur le rôle du Sous-Comité de la nutrition du CAC, ainsi que des éclaircissements sur les mécanismes ad hoc de concertation qui sont évoqués dans ce même paragraphe 15, notamment en ce qui regarde les Divisions de la nutrition de la FAO et de l'OMS.

Enfin, comme nous l'avons déjà dit lors du Comité de l'agriculture, nous ne pouvons qu'encourager la FAO à appuyer la mise en place de réseaux d'ONG visant à améliorer les approvisionnements alimentaires et l'état nutritionnel.

Les organisations non gouvernementales sont, de fait, des partenaires privilégiés dès qu'il s'agit de faire appel à la participation active des populations et des communautés. Or, chacun convient maintenant que cette participation est la condition sine qua non d'une mise en oeuvre efficace des plans d'action.

Nous regrettons, à cet égard, qu'il soit si difficile d'estimer, à la lecture du Programme de travail 1994-95, les moyens réels que l'Organisation mobilisera pour concrétiser cette coopération avec les ONG, qu'il s'agisse des ressources ou des modalités de travail et des instruments de concertation dont il est fait mention au paragraphe 16 du document CL 103/18.1

Tri WIBOWO (Indonesia): Let me start my intervention by congratulating not only the FAO and WHO, but also all countries, international organizations including NGOs for their generous assistance and cooperation to make the ICN a successful one. We wish to thank the Secretariat for the preparation of this substantive document CL 103/18 and for the very informative explanation of this important agenda on ICN.

Indonesia support the implementation of the outcome of ICN and urge FAO to continuously monitor and review the implementation of the Plan of Action in close coordination with other UN agencies including WHO and UNICEF. Within the limited allocation of funds, it is our hope that FAO will carefully set up its priority in implementation of the programme of nutrition.

Mr Chairman, Indonesia is currently in its final stage of its First 25-Years Development Plan and necessary preparation is currently under way in order to have a smooth embarkation on the Second 25-Years Long-Term Development Plan.

I am pleased to inform you, Mr Chairman, that the Indonesian Government has taken the ICN outcomes as an important input for planning our future programmes in nutrition.

As we have stated in our previous intervention, we support the FAO's plan to strengthen its works in the area of nutrition policy at country level.

1 Texte reçu avec demande d'insertion aux procès-verbaux.

Mr Chairman, my delegation support the Secretariat plan to strengthen its efforts in improving nutritional well-being through the promotion and implementation of food and agricultural based strategies throughout the social, economic and agriculture sectors.

The improvement of the international trade especially in agriculture including food commodities should be seen as a part and parcel of the aforesaid Global Strategies. Therefore the works of FAO regarding the international food trade is very important, including the possible establishment of a centre for Reference Training and Research in Food Quality and Control. My delegation believe that such a centre will help the developing countries in enhancing their capability and gaining complete information regarding food quality and control.

We also wish to support the works of FAO in the related programme of activities including the activities related to Codex Alimentarius.

We also look forward to FAO initiative in realization of regional and sub-regional networks for exchanging experiences in particular in the region of Asia and Pacific in the field of nutrition.

The works on nutrition in the region is very important considering the need for improving the quality of the Human Resources Development of the huge number of population in Asian Countries.1

Rafael MUÑOZ-FRAGA (México): El tema del seguimiento a los acuerdos y de las actividades complementarias a la CIN, suscritos recientemente por 159 Estados en esta ciudad, nos brinda la oportunidad de reflexionar sobre los compromisos que hemos adquirido como nación para luchar contra el hambre y la desnutrición.

Mi delegación desea hacer una mención y reconocimiento a la Reunión Regional de América Latina preparatoria a la CIN. México tuvo el gusto y honor de hospedar en la ciudad capital a los delegados de todos los países americanos de habla hispana y a Brasil.

De esta reunión regional surgieron una Declaración Política y una propuesta de un Programa Regional en la materia. Estos dos documentos, producto del esfuerzo y profesionalismo de los delegados latinoamericanos, fueron una importante contribución a los documentos finales que se adoptaron en diciembre último.

El Documento Regional de América Latina reconoce plenamente a la pobreza como principal fuente del hambre y la malnutrición en nuestros países. El problema del acceso a los alimentos limita las posibilidades de desarrollo humano y social de nuestras naciones.

2 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

En el caso particular de México, en cumplimiento a los párrafos 15, 16, 18 y 19 de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Nutrición, ha dado inicio a la formulación y puesta en marcha de un Plan de acción nacional, comprometido con un ejercicio presupuestal.

Este plan está inserto en un Programa nacional de desarrollo, que combate la pobreza extrema, a través de la generación de empleo y, consecuentemente, otorga un aumento en el ingreso de las familias y, de esta manera, garantiza el acceso a los alimentos indispensables que aseguren un bienestar nutricional.

Esta acción de politica económica general, está complementada con estrategias especiales para atender aquellos grupos sujetos a algún riesgo de inseguridad alimentaria desde el punto de vista biológico o social.

Deseo hacer especial mención al apoyo que nos presta el Sistema de Vigilancia de la Alimentación y Nutrición (SISVAN) promovido y asesorado por la Oficina Regional de la FAO. Conjuntamente con diversos organismos internacionales continuarán las actividades de capacitación en las comunidades. Nuestra legislación se encuentra en un proceso de adecuación permanente para el control alimentario y de protección al consumidor y garantizamos nuestra participación decidida en el Codex Alimentarius.

Deseo informar a este honorable Consejo que la División de Nutrición de la FAO y México están estudiando la posibilidad de promover una reunión que agrupa a México, a todos los países centroamericanos y a los del Caribe de habla castellana para formular conjuntamente y bajo la misma metodología los respectivos programas nacionales de nutrición.

Mi delegación desea reiterar nuestro más amplio reconocimiento a la FAO y a la OMS por la trascendencia que alcanzó la CIN. Sin embargo, deseamos llamar la atención en el hecho de que, en esta materia, lo más importante aún está por hacer. El panorama en materia nutricional es crítico, pero sabemos que la cooperación internacional, con una actitud solidaria, continúa siendo una respuesta viable.1

Inge GERREMO (Sweden): One of the major reasons for the success of the work involved in the preparation of the ICN were the national and regional activities engaging almost all Member Countries. As we stressed during the COAG discussions it is now urgent to continue this work.

It is positive that the Secretariat will allocate resources for supporting those countries who need external help in order to be able to develop national plans of action. However, what is the magnitude of personnel and financial resources intended?

It is, as we have previously indicated, also positive that the Secretariat is "exploring the need for and the feasibility of establishing a Centre for Reference, Training and Research in Food Quality and Control", "is taking

1 Texto incluido en las actas a petición expresa.

steps to establish the Nutrition Education and Communications Group in the Nutrition Programmes Service of the Food Policy and Nutrition Division" and taking steps to establish "a new Food Quality Liaison Group". Hopefully, more details can be presented on these issues in the near future.

It is particularly encouraging to find that the Secretariat intends to "promote the establishment of regional or sub-regional networks" and that this hopefully could be done in cooperation with WHO regional offices. A more permanent form of the networks, which were established during the preparations of the ICN documents, may turn out to be one of the major early outcomes of the Conference.

Regarding the cooperation with other UN bodies we are happy to see that references are now made to both UNICEF and ACC/SCN.

As to the future work of FAO/WHO it would be desirable if more detailed schedules and plans could be presented as to how this is envisaged.

As we brought up during the COAG meeting several major issues were highlighted at the ICN, e.g. women's participation, community activities, education etc. These issues need more detailed presentation.

Sweden supports FAO in the work so far being done after the ICN. It is necessary, however, that these activities continue at least to the extent outlined in the document and that necessary follow-up activities are planned.

We would once again stress that we expect the Secretariat at the Conference in November to present a preliminary plan on how, within FAO's mandate, to achieve the objectives in the ICN Declaration and specifically those before the end of this decade trying to eliminate:

- famine and famine-related deaths;

- starvation and nutritional deficiency diseases in communities affected by natural and man-made disasters; and

- iodine and vitamin A deficiencies.1

Ms Janet F. BITEGEKO (Tanzania): My delegation would like to thank the Secretariat for a clear document CL 103/18 on the follow-up to ICN. My sincere gratitude extends to Mr Lupien for his brief and elaborate introduction of the document.

Based on the mid-1990 population estimates Tanzania will have to feed an additional 187 million people by the year 2010. This is an increase of more than 50 percent over the mid-1990 estimate of 24.3 million. Mr Chairman, at the same time, the natural resource base, land and water, is already seriously threatened by unsustainable farming practices and environmental pressures caused by human activities. Although Tanzania is endowed with abundant land and diversity of agro-ecological zones, land use is highly constrained by

1 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

reliability and distribution of rainfall, tsetse infestation and lack of basic socio-economic infrastructures.

Mr Chairman, while the Tanzania population is growing and the natural resource base is being degraded, recent studies indicate that food security is far from being achieved. The study on formulation of a comprehensive Food Security Programme concluded that the aggregate national food availability in Tanzania is not that of plenty, but that of a critical balance between production and needs. In addition, at the sub-national and household level serious nutritional problems exist including a high incidence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) especially in children under five years and nutritional anaemia among lactating women.

Mr Chairman, causes of food insecurity and malnutrition range from inadequate food supply in rural households, inflation, inappropriate food practices and women's workload. The latter is the most cause of the household malnutrition as shown by several nutritional surveys.

Sustainable comprehensive food security will only be realized if the problems confronting women farmers is taken into account not only by tackling the immediate causes or the obvious constraints but through education.

Mr Chairman, Tanzania has a nutrition policy which was adopted in 1992 together with a Medium-term Plan of Action on Nutrition arising from it. Both documents need to be reviewed to reflect the orientation of the ICN Plan of Action on Nutrition. This will be the agenda of the national conference which is planned in November 1993 to discuss the National Plan of Action for Nutrition as a follow-up of the ICN.

Mr Chairman, the lead institution in terms of the ICN in Tanzania is the Ministry of Health and its specialized agency Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre (TPNC) but usually nutrition programmes are multi-sectoral in nature, therefore cover Ministries of Agriculture, Community Development, Women and Children, and the Planning Commission. The major initiative on nutrition currently being implemented in Tanzania is the Child Survival and Development which is coordinated in the Planning Commission.

Within the agricultural sector, Tanzania, in collaboration with FAO, has formulated a comprehensive Food Security Programme which aims at combating food security at various levels, national, regional and household. The policy goals of the Tanzania Food Security Programme are ensuring adequacy for food supplies, maintaining safe supply stability and securing access to available supplies by all consumers according to their nutritional needs. In this context, nutrition is a core issue in the comprehensive Food Security Programme.

Mr Chairman, my delegation appreciates the commitment of FAO to a vigorous follow-up to the ICN through strengthened collaboration throughout the UN system.

My delegation also commends the Director-General for reviewing the Programme of Work in light with the outcome of ICN to ensure capability of strategies and actions with those contained in the World Declaration and Plan of Action and Nutrition.

Finally, Mr Chairman, my delegation would like to request FAO to continue its assistance to Member Countries in reformulating and implementing national nutrition plans of action, monitoring nutritional status and making better use of available nutrition-related information. It is through concerted efforts that we can fight hunger and malnutrition.1

Ray ALLEN (United Kingdom) : My delegation is pleased to endorse the COAG conclusion that the focus of activity should be on strengthening the capacity of national and local governments to prepare and implement their own national plans of action to achieve nutritional goals. Given that FAO had the prime role in sponsoring the ICN process, it is inevitable that the main responsibility for donor assistance in this area will fall upon FAO.

The ICN Declaration was quite right not to seek to specify new global targets for nutrition. We believe it is for each country to establish their own goals, and a plan of action to achieve them, based on their own circumstances. It is clear that many countries will require assistance in this process.

The new ICN-relevant activities will need to be related to the resources likely to be available and there is a clear reference to this effect in the ICN Plan of Action. A reprioritization of FAO activities is likely to be necessary, in order to enable sufficient attention to be devoted by FAO to ICN follow-up and to ensure that expectations aroused by the ICN process are not frustrated.

We are not clear what the proposed Special Action Programmes (paragraph 10 of CL 103/18) will involve and would like to know when FAO will be in a position to specify their thinking and give details of how these envisaged SAPs relate to proposed Regular Programme activity. We hope that new special programmes are not a device to avoid difficult decisions about prioritization of Regular Programme activities.

Given the need to rigorously prioritize FAO's proposed new activities, we suggest that the proposal in paragraph 21 of the COAG document for a new Centre for Food Quality is of lower priority than activities to assist countries to develop their national nutrition plans, and to assist in promoting household food security and in combatting micronutrient diseases.

We would appreciate a reassurance that FAO are working to ensure adequate FAO in-house nutrition capacity to enable it to follow through on these proposals including action to fill the vacancies amongst senior nutrition staff.1

1 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.


Ms Charlotte ROE (United States of America): The United States will soon formulate its own National Plan of Action for Nutrition. We intend to seek strong public involvement. In fact, NGO and business groups are already meeting informally to make recommendations for the plan. In addition, USAID has undertaken follow-up activities including a new US$50 million programme to help combat micronutrient deficiency disease and assistance to selected nations in formulating their national plans.

The United States noted in April at the Committee on Agriculture its interest in incorporating in ICN follow-up the efforts by the Codex Alimentarius to look at various nutrition labelling systems and ways in which they could be harmonized. The ICN Plan of Action called for such an activity and the Codex is the proper mechanism for carrying it out. Will this be part of the Special Action Programme on Nutrition and Food Quality? We would appreciate a report from the Secretariat on its efforts in this area during this Council meeting.

The International Conference on Nutrition was an excellent illustration of effective collaboration among UN agencies and we encourage further cooperation in the follow-up by FAO, WHO, and other concerned UN bodies. We support the ongoing efforts in the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition to coordinate approaches and policies among UN agencies carrying out nutrition programmes in the field.

An essential element in ICN follow-up, especially in developing countries, lies in involving women and seeing that households and small rural producers become pivotal units in policy planning. Ending hunger and malnutrition will, as the ICN has pointed out, required increased international cooperation and investment in rural communities, the development of agriculture-based enterprises, and more focused technical assistance to build national capacities and develop nutrition education.

We support FAO's efforts to assist developing nations with the formulation of their National Plans of Action. We would encourage FAO to ask governments to involve the private sector, NGO's and local organizations with successful records of stimulating community-based rural enterprises.1

Giuseppe VASTA (Observateur de l'OCDE): Je vous remercie pour avoir voulu m'accorder la parole sur un problème si important comme celui de la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition.

Le Comité de l'agriculture au cours de sa douzième session n'a pas manqué de souligner l'importance de cette Conférence, ce qu'a fait aussi le Comité des forêts et de leur part aussi le Comité du Programme et le Comité financier. Mais, avec regret il faut souligner que les fonds limités du Programme ordinaire ne permettront pas de fournir une assistance technique aux pays qui en font la demande en vue d'élaborer ou de réviser des plans d'action nationaux.

La responsabilité de la FAO et de l'OMS est très grande car les problèmes de la nutrition et de la santé sont étroitement liés.

1 Statement inserted in the verbatim records on request.

Le travail qui reste à faire est énorme et engage les différents niveaux et secteurs des gouvernements, des ONG, du secteur privé et de la communauté internationale.

A l'éducation alimentaire, il faut réserver une priorité importante pour éviter des dégâts irréversibles surtout sur la santé des enfants à cause de carences en micronutriments.

D'autre part, il ne faut pas oublier que des causes de maladies et de mort peuvent aussi résider dans la superalimentation. Nous connaissons des cas de pays où les calories dépassent de 30 pour cent la quantité journalière nécessaire. Des erreurs de ce genre sont à la base de l'obésité, du diabète et de maladies de l'appareil vasculaire. La responsabilité de tout cela tombe presque toujours sur l'ignorance des parents.

Je pense que chacun de nous a le devoir de devenir un missionnaire de santé.

Le magnifique discours du Directeur général, M. Saouma, fait en ces jours-ci à Vienne, confirme la préoccupation et les efforts de la FAO pour éviter la famine, la maladie, la mort de millions de personnes.Répondons tous avec vigueur à cet énorme défi.1

The meeting rose at 12.45 hours.
La séance est levée à 12 h 45.
Se levanta la sesión a las 12.45 horas.

1 Texte reçu avec demande d'insertion aux procès-verbaux.

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