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5. Director-General's Review of the Programmes, Structures and Policies of the Organization (cont'd)
5. Examen par le Directeur général des programmes, structures et politiques de l'Organisation (suite)
5. Examen realizado por el Director General de los programas, estructuras y políticas de la Organización (continuación)

- Council discussion and decisions (cont'd)
- Débats et décisions du Conseil (suite)
- Debate y decisiones del Consejo (continuación)

EL PRESIDENTE: Distinguidos delegados, señor Director General, pasamos a la segunda sesión de nuestros trabajos.

Deseo hacer notar que, conforme al párrafo 6 de la Nota sobre los Métodos de Trabajo de este Consejo, ustedes observarán que pueden pasar directamente a los verbatim sus declaraciones completas que aparecerán así, completas, y hacer en sus declaraciones un resumen enfocando los aspectos principales.

No quiero limitarles, es simplemente una sugerencia que ustedes sabrán cómo considerar.

Igualmente les hago saber que en esa nota metodológica ustedes pueden perfectamente hacer referencia a intervenciones que han sido ya formuladas, que recogen sus puntos de vista respecto de la totalidad o parte de sus intervenciones, y de esa manera sumarse a posiciones en común dando quizá todavía más fuerza a las posiciones que de manera conjunta se están presentando en este Consejo. Asimismo, deseo anunciarles que tengo la intención de trabajar un poco más allá de las cinco y media de esta tarde con el propósito de cubrir la mayor parte de la lista de oradores que he podido recoger. El motivo de este anuncio es que lo consideren para que puedan ustedes estar presentes más allá de las cinco y media y que nuestros trabajos puedan culminar, conforme a lo previsto en el calendario, mañana al mediodía en el tratamiento de este punto número cinco de nuestra agenda.

Soetatwo HADIWIGENO (Indonesia): It is an honour for the Indonesian delegation to speak on behalf of the Asia Group.

At the outset the Asia Group would like to record its appreciation to the Director-General for providing the Council with the excellent document which is now before us for consideration and decision by the Council as mandated in the Conference Resolution 10/93. The Asia Group finds that the document on the Director-General's Review of Programmes, Structures and Policies of the Organization as contained in CL 106/2 and CL 106/2 Sup.l are of excellent quality, comprehensive, containing lucid explanations, a clear way of thinking and also very convincing.

On January 1st, 1994, the Director-General, in assuming his office, rightly-stated: "The Organization is confronted with two major challenges, firstly, to eliminate the unacceptable situation whereby currently 800 million people do not have adequate access to food while overall there is enough to feed everyone, and secondly, to ensure that the world will produce a sustainable way enough to feed 9 000 million people in the year 2030."

The Asia Group notes that about 60 percent out of 800 million people who do not have adequate access to food, we believe, are living in Asia. The Asia Group, therefore, is in complete agreement with his statement.

The Asia Group would like to praise the starting point by which the Director-General laid down his far-sighted view and on which he has based the FAO course of actions, namely safeguarding the access of food and its production in a sustainable way, a situation in respect of which the developing countries have been continuously deprived and struggling to achieve.

The Asia Group supports the Director-General's findings that in order for FAO to be able to fully execute its mandate in assisting the developing countries, it should first adapt and gear itself to the present challenges. After studying the document carefully, the Asia Group would like to state that in principle the Asia Group is in general agreement with the Director-General's proposal namely:

Launchimg two new priority programmes; (1) Special Programme on Food Production in Support of Food Security in LIFDCs, and (2) Emergency Prevention system for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases.

Creating two new departments, namely Technical Cooperation Department and Department of Sustainable Development; and also creating one new division and office, namely Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Division in the Economic and Social Policy Department and Office for Coordination of Normative, Operational and Decentralized Activities.

Establishing Subregional Offices and strengthening of the Regional Offices.

The progressive establishment of a cadre of national professional officers in country representation offices.

Those are observations of the Asia group. Of course, later on the individual countries will elaborate their own observations on the proposals.

Now that I have discharged my duties as Chairman of the Asian Group, I would like to elaborate upon my own delegation's strong support for the Director-General's initiatives outlined in his Review of the Programmes, Structures and Policies of the Organization.

The Indonesian Delegation deeply appreciates the Director-General's far-sighted view upon which he has based the FAO course of action.

The emphasis being placed by FAO upon enhancing food production in support of food security in low-income food-deficit countries lies particularly close to our hearts. We are gratified to note that FAO is rising to the occassion and squarely facing the most serious threats challenging these countries. This is very much in line with the resolution on food security

passed by the Tenth Non-Aligned Movement Summit in Jakarta in 1992. The Director-General's convening of a high-level seminar to deal with food security deserves special recommendations.

Mr Chairman, we fully support the Director-General's findings that in order for FAO to be able to fully execute its mandate in assisting the developing countries, it should first adapt and gear itself to the present challenges, particularly in reference to the proposals that:

FAO should be decentralized, i.e. the structure be brought closer to the field of action. In this respect, we would like to propose that the decentralziation should incorporate both the spreading of qualified personnel over regions, subregions, and countries/national levels; or for delegation of authority from FAO's Headquarters to the regions, subregions, and countries/national levels in an orderly manner.

We share the Director-General's opinion that the FAO has to be rendered less bureaucratic by decentralizing its expertise closer to the field of action. The idea of strengthening the Regional and Subregional Offices, particularly by providing these offices with multidisciplinary technical teams, is fully supported and its implementation should not be delayed any longer. We are confident that this process, implemented in tandem with rotation between Headquarters and the field, would serve to provide the highest quality of staff. Since this practice has already been proven successful in a member of UN agencies, we would like to encourage the Director-General to implement the rotation feature mentioned in paragraph 132. Furthermore while fully supporting the Director-General's target to change the balance between the Headquarters and field staff from three-quarters and a quarter into two-thirds and one-third during this biennium, 1994-95, we would wish to see a better balance, at least a fifty-fifty ratio, achieved by the end of the next biennium, 1996-97.

FAO should be more efficient through the review of its structure and current operational procedures by delegation of authority to lower organization levels. The Director-General's retaining of high-level consultants to review the prevailing administrative procedures and practices with a view to increasing operational efficiency has been very much appreciated.

It is believed that ever since its inception, over the last 50 years, FAO has never undergone significant management review. The normal practice in the business world is to conduct such reviews every five to seven years if one wants to remain competitive. It is now, therefore, high time that the existing FAO procedures, regulations, rules and practices be thoroughly reviewed and simplified.

We wish also to recommend that the Director-General should not miss this excellent occasion to conduct procedural review and introduce improved in-house procedures. While the existing divisions are being transferred and reshaped, these actions should be accompanied by the introduction of improved and simplified procedures, particularly those related to field operations that have been very lengthy giving rise to great delays. While in sharpening priority concentration, with initiation of Special Programmes on Food Production in Support of Food Security in low-income food-deficit countries and Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases; in principle we would like also to support these proposals. In order to create greater responsibility concerning these

top priorities, we would like to recommend that a special unit be established to coordinate these cross-sectoral activities.

Mr Chairman, the Indonesian Delegation is in agreement with the Director-General that FAO should strengthen national capacities, particularly in view of reducing costs, i.e. by purchasing equipment and other materials needed locally, and also using national experts or national consultants based on requirements and capabilities. We are sure there are many Member Nations which are fully supportive of this idea.

The other aim of complementing the Regional Offices with multidisciplinary teams and Subregional Offices with specific teams to provide immediate support and technical backstopping to the field operations is the exact reply to a long overdue requirement. It will not only cut down the time lag in obtaining the right experts, but will also provide the expert with the knowledge specific to the region. With such a high concentration of personnel in Headquarters, such redeployment would certainly not impinge upon the critical mass required to maintain a centre of excellence. The exchange of technical expertise between neighbouring countries will also be very much facilitated and could be handled satisfactorily at the regional level.

Indonesia is strongly committed to carry out sustainable forest management, and has already demonstrated a strong commitment to manage, develop and conserve its forests in line with decisions reached in the UNCED, especially the Principle on Forests and Agenda 21. Therefore, Indonesia strongly supports the decisions taken by FAO to assume a leading role in the implementation of the UNCED follow-up for the forest sector.

Indonesia as an archipelagic country accords great attention on marine resources preservation and the development of the fisheries sector in a sustainable manner. Indonesia therefore fully supports the FAO-promoted agreement on the establishment of the IOTC and agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by fishing vessels on high seas. At present Indonesia is undergoing a careful study of the impact of the implementation of the Code of Conduct of Responsible Fishing. The Uruguay Round is expected to create a new atmosphere in international trade arrangements, providing an opportunity to the developing countries to expand their agricultural exports, which will provide a strong thrust to their agricultural development. But this will not necessarily hold true, unless they are able to enhance their agricultural efficiency, in order to compete successfuly in the international market. In this case, we believe that FAO can do a great deal to help developing countries capable of meeting those challenges.

Mr Chairman, before concluding my statement, I would like to avail myself of this opportunity to inform this meeting of the upcoming Ministerial Meeting on Food Security scheduled for Bali, Indonesia, on 10 to 11 October 1994 to be preceded by a Senior Officials' Meeting on 7 to 8 October 1994. All NAM member countries and other developing countries, as well as the interested donors and international organizations, are kindly invited to participate.

In conclusion, Mr Chairman, I would like to reiterate that the Indonesian delegation strongly believes in the pivotal role of the Food and Agriculture Organization in fostering agricultural development in each member to the ultimate goal of their national development. Therefore, the

Indonesian delegation supports all efforts being expanded by the Director-General of FAO to strengthen the Organization.

Thank you.

Per H. Harald GRUE (Norway): I have the honour of making this statement on behalf of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Sweden and my own country, Norway.

I would like to start by commending the Director-General for his determined approach to bring about long-awaited changes in the Organization. The very interesting document presented to the Council responds well to the concerns of the Nordic countries. The general direction of change presented in the document aims to strengthen the fight against hunger, malnutrition and low food security. The Nordic countries have for a long time requested more forceful action in this direction and can fully support this move. [The implementation of the necessary changes in the organization will be demanding for FAO staff at all levels. We are therefore looking forward to see the Director-General forming his team to assist him in this demanding task.]

Further, there is a clear recognition in the document of the need to make priorities. The Nordic countries have been advocating a stricter priority setting, and we therefore welcome this acknowledgment. The top priority should be given to FAO's role as a leading global agency in food and agriculture.

Mr Chairman, the overall objective for us all is to restore or improve the quality of FAO's work in all areas of its activity, and at all levels of the Organization. We would like to see FAO regain its appropriate role as the most important world organization in agriculture, fisheries and forestry. Our impression so far, is that the Director-General's proposals represent the first steps in this direction.

However, there is a long road ahead and many more steps that need to be taken before we can be certain that we shall reach our goal.

Based on the thinking of the Nordic countries, there are some fundamental principles that need to be safeguarded to achieve our objectives. First of all, FAO must take its role as a global organization seriously, the organization needs to increase its relevance to all its members by taking up important global issues within its mandate including UNCED follow-up and implementation and formulate policy recommendations on the basis of its analysis. Secondly, FAO should strengthen its normative role and become a true centre of excellence by enhancing its quality of performance in all areas of its work. This will require, amongst other things, a review of the appropriate staffing in order to improve the "skills mix" of the organization, so that it will be able to address the new challenges in the best possible way. There is also a need for consistent efforts to restore the analytical capacity through clearer priorities and termination of obsolete activities. FAO will in the future have to say no to taking on extra-budgetary funded activities if these fall outside the general priorities of the Organizaiton. Thirdly, FAO needs to become part of the general restructuring of the UN system, as has been advocated not least by the Nordic UN Project. This refers, in particular, to the redirection of technical assistance along the lines that already have been indicated in

the document presented to the Council by the Director-General. We support the proposed redirection.

Mr Chairman, turning now to the more specific proposals in the document, the Nordic countries can support the proposed new programme for enhanced food production for food security in low-income, food-deficit countries. It needs to be recognized, however, that the paper in front of us is not an operational programme document, hence a lot of work on how to implement the programme remains to be done. We would also like to underline the need for cooperating efficiently with other international organizations in this area.

Regarding the proposed new programme on combating transboundary pests and diseases, we recognize that FAO, in dynamic cooperation with other international organs, has a comparative advantage in this important area. We would however, like to hear more from the Secretariat on the rationale behind selecting this activity as a top priority.

Turning to the proposals for modifications of the organizational structure, we can endorse these changes. The formation of a new Technical Cooperation Department can contribute to enhanced quality of both the technical assistance provided to member countries and to the normative work of the technical departments. There is a strong need for reinforcing the links between the sectoral analysis and strategical priorities at country level. The present trend of implementing isolated projects should be discontinued.

The Nordic countries are, however, concerned about the need to maintain the forestry and fisheries departments above a critical size. These departments are already rather small, and special care needs to be taken not to jeopardize the technical quality of these departments' work.

The establishment of a Department of Sustainable Development is important for the follow-up of the cross-sectoral issues, which are important in FAO's work. Ideally these issues should be fully integrated into the work of the various technical departments. Nevertheless, at present we can see the need for having a separate department coordinating these issues in order to increase awareness of the broader issues of sustainability in all programmes.

The new department will also be important to increase FAO's capacity to participate in the follow-up and operationalization of UNCED decisions. FAO's contribution to strengthen the proper management of natural resources is strongly needed. This refers particularly to forestry issues, genetic resources and fisheries.

The Nordic countries have for a long time been concerned about the importance of improving the quality of the policy work of the Organization. We can therefore fully subscribe to the proposed establishment of a new Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Division

It is our belief that decentralization should be pursued with caution and with the objectives of a professional strengthening of FAO's activities, and an improved efficiency in the Organization. It should not focus on field representation as an objective in itself, but see it as part of the general ambition to improve quality. The number of field offices must therefore be judged by their functions and relevance, and we see no clear justification at present to increase the number of field offices.

Therefore, the establishment of new subregional offices needs to be viewed in connection with a re-examination of the existing field representations.

The Nordic countries welcome the objectives of reducing administrative costs in the Organization. We would, however, caution against counting on rapid benefits from office automation. Experience from the present FINSYS system demonstrates clearly that expected financial gains can be extremely difficult to harvest. We would also like to point to the fact that budget increases will have to be balanced by corresponding budget reductions in a situation with no net growth.

The Nordic countries can support a careful and pragmatic scrutiny of the activities of joint units, FAO/UN regional commissions. We would, however, like to underline the need for continuing these activities some way or another. There is further a need for a careful review of FAO's activities in Europe. It is obvious that there are great challenges confronting the Organization in Central and Eastern Europe, and there is a need for a stronger presence in the region. The whole issue of regional representation within Europe has to be looked into and this question will be further discussed at the regional conference in Dublin next month.

Mr Chairman, in conclusion, the Nordic countries have time and again expressed concern over the declining resources allocated to the forestry and fisheries sectors. We fully support the Director-General's proposals to halt this trend, and we are looking forward to further steps in the same direction, when next year he presents his first full Programme of Work and Budget.

Ramón VILLEDA BERMUDEZ (Honduras): Ha sido de gran utilidad que las regiones se pronunciaran antes de que lo hagamos por separado los países. Este procedimiento nos ha ahorrado tiempo y ha permitido un examen adecuado de la propuesta del señor Director General en lo normativo y en lo operativo para la nueva orientación de esta Organización para la Agricultura y la Alimentación del mundo.

Quiero ahora referirme concretamente a algunos cambios propuestos y sobre los cuales hay que decidir en este período de sesiones. No creo que la mujer se margine si se tiene una sección especial para ella. Por el contrario, el riesgo es que se la olvide, que se la excluya, si no hay un programa o proyectos específicos para ella. Esa es nuestra experiencia regional y subregional, cuando al no haberse diseñado para la mujer proyectos bien determinados se le excluyó en la reforma agraria, en la comercialización agrícola, en los proyectos forestales y de acuicultura, que habrían ayudado mucho a las madres solteras. Por eso, compartimos las ideas del Director General sobre el imperativo social.

En lo que concierne al medio ambiente, como binomio indisoluble con el desarrollo sostenible, queremos darle una importancia especial a la prevención de los incendios forestales, que en nuestro país y en nuestra subregión son graves y urgen de un programa preventivo. No se trata sólo de proteger el bosque sino de garantizar la biodiversidad.

Los países expuestos a los incendios estacionales necesitan que la FAO considere prioritario para su región un proyecto específico y esperamos la asistencia técnica para lograrlo. La participación popular nos interesa en las actividades orientadas a lograr la seguridad alimentaria. Las organizaciones de base, cooperativas, asociaciones, clubes y aún a niveles

superiores, como federaciones y confederaciones nacionales e internacionales han facilitado su participación en el desarrollo agrícola y rural sostenidos. De ahí, que en la futura reestructuración de la FAO, pedimos que quede claramente definida una unidad técnica responsable de comunicarse y de interactuar con estas organizaciones.

En el fomento de la pesca responsable, hay que adjetivarla así, es necesario homogeneizar las leyes regionales, porque nada estamos haciendo cuando un país declara la veda estacional y el vecino sigue pescando. La regionalización de las leyes es prioritaria. Pienso que la nueva visión de la FAO debe incluir entre sus iniciativas fomentar la creación de leyes con disposiciones similares cuando se trata de aguas regionales contiguas y continuas.

Finalmente, al respaldar la propuesta del señor Director General, y lo hacemos con entusiasmo, deseamos destacar que ningún proyecto de seguridad alimentaria puede tener éxito si no se hace previamente un inventario de las disponibilidades de agua para la irrigación y, en consecuencia, es necesario que se le dé prioridad a los estudios para garantizar la disponibilidad de agua para la agricultura y la alimentación, como parte fundamental en la transferencia de nueva tecnología.

Compartimos las nuevas opciones estratégicas que ha planteado el día de hoy el Director General y las esperamos con el necesario complemento de la asistencia técnica regional y subregional, para garantizar su sostenibilidad.

Juan Carlos VIGNAUD (Argentina): No necesito decir lo complacidos que estamos de verle a usted presidiendo esta reunión del Consejo y asimismo que usted, junto con el Embajador de la República Dominicana, sean los encargados de transmitir al Director General nuestro apoyo y nuestra esperanza en su gestión.

Compartimos el diagnóstico, hecho en este documento CL 106/2, que tenemos a la vista, tanto sobre la situación de la FAO como sobre los desafíos y oportunidades que deberá enfrentar. En especial quiero subrayar nuestro acuerdo con la necesidad de ampliar el espectro de asociación de la FAO con otros protagonistas del desarrollo, en particular con instituciones nacionales públicas y privadas y reforzar la cooperación con organismos financieros mundiales y regionales.

Asimismo apoyamos la afirmación que indica que ahora, más que nunca, la FAO debe orientar su acción hacia el desarrollo sostenible y que se creará un departamento especial para que se ocupe de ello. Esta propuesta está de acuerdo con lo decidido en la Conferencia de Río de Janeiro sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, donde se estableció el compromiso político y se nos dio la base conceptual e instrumental de la cooperación a largo plazo para el desarrollo sostenible.

Los jefes de Estado y de gobierno de Iberoamérica han analizado los problemas y las preocupaciones más acuciantes de nuestra región. En la última reunión, que tuvo lugar en julio de 1993, se llegó a conclusiones coincidentes con las que figuran en el documento CL/106/2.

En la cumbre iberoamericana se señaló que la coyuntura internacional ofrece una oportunidad singular para la acción multilateral, tanto en lo que se

refiere a la solución de problemas económicos y sociales como de mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad. Se afirmó en esa reunión que la satisfacción de las necesidades básicas en los países severamente afectados por la expansión de la pobreza debe ser un objetivo de alta prioridad. El desarrollo social, y en especial la lucha contra la pobreza, llama, se dijo en esa reunión, al trabajo conjunto de todos los actores sociales. Además, el desarrollo social debe incluir acciones dirigidas a mejorar la distribución del ingreso, erradicar la pobreza e incrementar y dar prioridad al gasto social en función de las necesidades básicas, que obviamente incluyen la obtención de seguridad alimentaria.

Hasta aquí he reproducido algunas partes de la declaración final de esa cumbre iberoamericana porque, como dije al principio, hay coincidencias entre lo acordado en ese foro y las propuestas que estamos analizando.

Me refiero ahora a los comentarios de mi delegación con respecto a las propuestas y voy a tratar de seguir el orden contenido en el documento que estamos analizando.

Con respecto a los principios rectores (párrafos 23 al 27 del documento), la propuesta de que la FAO sea un centro de excelencia no puede ser discutida y la apoyamos.

A nuestro juicio, un requisito esencial para alcanzar el objetivo de "excelencia" es fortalecer, con el apoyo de los países, el nuevo liderazgo en la FAO a fin que ese liderazgo inspire en el personal de esta Organización nueva fe en la misión de la FAO, confianza en sus dirigentes y espíritu de iniciativa.

Apoyamos vigorosamente que la descentralización esté incluida entre los principios rectores de las propuestas. A este respecto deseo llamar la atención sobre el hecho de que "descentralización" es un término con muy diferentes significaciones y alcances y, por tanto, debería aclararse con precisión cuál es el significado que se le dará en las propuestas y cuáles serán sus implicaciones y consecuencias.

Estamos de acuerdo en que una adecuada descentralización permitirá utilizar mejor la capacidad nacional y regional, y que será posible trabajar con menores costos. Pero para que ello suceda, subrayamos que la descentralización debe ser técnico-funcional y operacional. Difícilmente podrá adelantarse en un proceso de descentralización si las Oficinas Regionales dependen totalmente para sus actividades de las divisiones técnicas de la sede.

Obviamente ello debe verse en el objetivo global de mejorar la calidad de los servicios y no considerar a la descentralización como un fin en sí misma.

Una de las claves para obtener una adecuada descentralización podría ser promover una mayor participación de los países concernientes en la planificación y ejecución de las actividades de la FAO en la región. Esa participación iría así más allá del ritual de enviar delegados a las conferencias regionales.

Apoyamos, señor Presidente, que se preste especial atención a la seguridad alimentaria, pero creemos que la erradicación del hambre de núcleos humanos debe perseguirse en cualquiera que sea el país en desarrollo en que se

encuentre, y ella debe constituir la primera prioridad de la Organización. Nos damos cuenta de la necesidad de dar preferente atención a los países de bajos ingresos con déficit alimentario, pero no son los únicos países donde existe desnutrición y hambre. El derecho a la alimentación, reconocido como un derecho humano, asiste a todos, cualquiera sea el país en desarrollo en que se encuentre.

Con referencia a las propuestas concretas de los párrafos 32 y siguientes, quiero decir, señor Presidente, que apoyamos la creación del nuevo Departamento de Cooperación Técnica. Creemos, sin embargo, que debería aclararse un poco más su competencia frente al proceso de descentralización que se propone y, asimismo, sobre cuál sería el papel de las oficinas regionales en las materias de competencia del nuevo Departamento de Cooperación Técnica. Ello tiene especial importancia si se tiene en cuenta que las políticas, las estrategias de desarrollo, y aún las operaciones de campo, deben tener en cuenta las particularidades de cada región, de cada país, de cada sociedad. Difícilmente los modelos y las recomendaciones para un país o una región son extrapolables.

Con respecto al asesoramiento sobre políticas de desarrollo, desearíamos que se enfatice el desarrollo social, que ahora se lo califica como integral a diferencia del desarrollo integrado que se citaba hasta no hace mucho. Este será el tema de la Cumbre de Copenhague de 1985. En este contexto, apoyamos la importancia que se da a la mujer en el proceso de desarrollo, pero deseamos sugerir que se incorpore una mención a los jóvenes, especialmente cuando se trate de la creación de empleo.

También, con respecto al asesoramiento sobre políticas, creemos que debería tenerse en cuenta el nuevo contexto internacional que surge después de la conclusión de la Ronda Uruguay. La firma de los Acuerdos de Marrakech, tendrá una importante influencia sobre el comercio internacional de productos agrícolas.

Las nuevas características del comercio mundial y la internacionalización de las economías, exigirán en la FAO un rol esencial en el apoyo a la planificación de políticas agrícolas en los países en desarrollo, a fin de que la eliminación de los subsidios de los países industrializados se traduzca en un mayor incentivo y retribución a la producción agrícola en los países en desarrollo.

Con relación a la dependencia que se ocupará del Programa de Cooperación Técnica, compartimos lo que se señala en el sentido de que los PCT darán prioridad a la seguridad alimentaria. Creo, asimismo, que habría que reforzar la idea de que estos programas podrán ser de carácter regional o subregional, y aún más, que formarán parte del acervo de los recursos de las oficinas regionales. Ello contribuirá a disipar cualquier duda sobre la objetividad en la selección de los proyectos.

La cooperación con otros organismos multilaterales es un tema central porque, por una parte, permitirá enfoques integrales e integrados para resolver los problemas del desarrollo y a la vez evitará duplicaciones que significan despilfarro de recursos. Creo que sería importante conocer un poco más las ideas del Director General a este respecto.

Vemos que dentro de las estructuras descentralizadas que dependerán del Director General, se ha incluido a las oficinas de enlace con las Naciones Unidas, mientras que en el Departamento de Cooperación Técnica hay una

dependencia de cooperación con los Organismos Multilaterales. Nos preguntamos si no sería conveniente unificarlas. Esto nos lleva a preguntarnos cómo se piensa, más allá de los contactos a través del Comité de Coordinación Administrativa del sistema de Naciones Unidas y otros órganos que intentan facilitar ciertos grados de coordinación en el Sistema.

Nos preguntamos cómo se piensa estructurar la cooperación con el PNUD y con la Organización Mundial de la Salud, ya que es también importante en tanto es imposible hablar del hambre si no tenemos en cuenta a los problemas médicos de la nutrición. Asimismo con la OIT, porque es difícil hablar del desarrollo rural sin tener en cuenta el rol de los trabajadores rurales. La coordinación con el Banco Mundial y el FMI en materia de asesoramiento sobre políticas de desarrollo, es un punto crucial porque las sugerencias que estos organismos hacen a los gobiernos de los países en desarrollo, es un punto crucial porque las sugerencias que estos organismos hacen a los gobiernos de los países en desarrollo, generalmente tienen marcadas diferencias con las que surgen de las agencias especializadas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas competentes en problemas de desarrollo.

Se acaba de crear la Organización Mundial de Comercio, en cuyo marco existirá un Comité de Productos Agrícolas y un Comité de Comercio y, Medio Ambiente. Sería importante conocer cómo se organizará con esta nueva institución la cooperación en especial en lo que respecta a la evaluación de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay y sobre todo de la intervención técnica que le cabría a la FAO en la aplicación del Acuerdo Sanitario y Fitosanitario, siempre evitando duplicaciones que restarían recursos a las actividades prioritarias que a nuestro juicio van dirigidas a la seguridad alimentaria.

La cooperación con las ONG nos parece que debe merecer también el máximo apoyo. Ello encuadra en el contexto de la propuesta que nos ha hecho el Director General de dar intervención a todos los protagonistas del desarrollo, incluyendo al sector privado y se justifica en tanto muchas ONG son extremadamente eficientes, tienen buena capacidad para obtener recursos y los emplean con costos operativos más bajos que muchas organizaciones intergubernamentales.

Con referencia a las estructuras en el terreno, Párrafos 55 y siguientes, apoyamos la propuesta de descentralizar y en ese contexto de reforzar las Oficinas Regionales. Una de las medidas que se propone a ese fin es el traslado del personal que existe en las Divisiones Mixtas con las Comisiones Económicas de las Naciones Unidas. En la Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe donde existía una división conjunta CEPAL/FAO ya es así porque se dispone del servicio de esos funcionarios. Quizá debería aclararse un poco más en consecuencia, de donde saldrá el equipo de funcionarios técnicos para reforzar a la Oficina Regional para América Latina y el Caribe.

Con respecto a las Oficinas en los países, entendemos que hasta ahora su carácter predominante ha sido de representación de la Dirección General y agentes de enlace con las Divisiones Técnicas y operativas de la Sede. Creo que no realizaban, al menos muchas de ellas, una función técnica propiamente dicha. Por ello, estimamos muy atinada la propuesta que se nos ha formulado de descentralizarlas dotándolas de capacidad técnica, utilizando a expertos nacionales. La apoyamos porque entendemos que implica cambiar el carácter y hacer más significativo el rol de estas oficinas en

los países. La reforma debería incluir, en el futuro, la creación de una relación apropiada especialmente técnica entre las oficinas regionales y subregionales y las oficinas en los países.

Sobre el Programa Especial sobre Producción de Alimentos en Apoyo de la Seguridad Alimentaria, Párrafos 66 y siguientes, estimamos que las recomendaciones del Comité de Expertos son muy pertinentes y atinadas, como asimismo los comentarios del documento sobre las relaciones entre seguridad alimentaria y otros elementos del Programa.

Creemos, sin embargo, que cuando se elaboraren criterios para la selección de países, reiteramos que se deberían tener en cuenta no sólo países, sino casos concretos de comunidades en situación de marginalidad o pobreza extrema, con riesgo de desnutrición, aún en países que no necesariamente tienen muy bajos ingresos o déficit de alimentos, pero que son países en desarrollo.

Coincidimos y apoyamos la prioridad dada a la seguridad alimentaria. Observando el nuevo organigrama propuesto no hemos entendido que unidad llevará la responsabilidad principal y coordinará los esfuerzos de toda la Organización en los programas cuyo objetivo inmediato sea la erradicación del hambre y la obtención de seguridad alimentaria. La importancia que se reconoce a la seguridad alimentaria, debería reflejarse posiblemente en las actividades prioritarias de la lucha contra el hambre, que es la fase más grave de la falta de seguridad alimentaria y, posiblemente, en la creación de una dependencia estructural que se ocupe de él y que incluya a la Dirección de Alimentación y Nutrición que figura en el departamento de Política Económica y Social.

Con respecto a la Integración de las tecnologías y la experiencia de los agricultores: demostración y extensión a gran escala, se nos plantean propuestas que son imaginativas y novedosas y que mi delegación desea apoyar. No obstante, deseo señalar que quizá sería oportuno considerar algunas iniciativas que podrían ser de utilidad y que tienen lugar ya en América Latina.

Desde 1993 se iniciaron las emisiones de la televisión educativa para nuestra región a través del satélite HISPASAT. Participan de este Programa 170 Universidades de América Latina y todos los países de la Región. Pensamos que en este Programa que se irradia a través del satélite HISPAST, muy bien se podrían incluir programas de entrenamiento para agricultores. Hay otros programas de la misma naturaleza, uno que se llama MUTIS. Hay un Mercado Común del Conocimiento, que ha sido una iniciativa de nuestros hermanos uruguayos, y hay una Universidad Satelital, que se difunde también en América Latina desde Argentina, que, quizá, podría ser instrumento para concretar la iniciativa del Director General.

Concluimos esta intervención, señor Presidente, señalando que apreciamos el esfuerzo hecho para preparar este documento en un clima caracterizado por el poco tiempo disponible y el poco margen de maniobra que permite hoy en día la Organización. Por ello no esperamos hoy respuestas a los interrogantes que hemos planteado. Se trata de inquietudes sobre las que volveremos en el futuro.

El documento trasunta una convicción que compartimos y es que, entre los pobres y los recursos que se pueden obtener para ayudarlos, generalmente existe una larga distancia en términos de burocracia que reduce esos

recursos considerablemente. Por ello, apoyamos firmemente cuanto se pueda hacer para disminuir la burocracia y aumentar la eficiencia. En ese contexto, apreciamos que se intente racionalizar la estructura de la Secretaría. Valoramos, asimismo, que se haya reconocido la necesidad de asegurar el carácter interdisciplinario de las actividades de la FAO, su transparencia, que se fortalezca la idea de descentralizar, que se trabaje en problemas de control financiero y de gerencia de recursos humanos y de evaluación objetiva de resultados de las actividades emprendidas.

Aseguramos al Director General que Argentina colaborará en la mayor medida de sus posibilidades para que su gestión permita que la FAO pueda afrontar con éxito las responsabilidades que le ha confiado la Comunidad Internacional.

EL PRESIDENTE: Yo deseo volver a solicitarles, de una manera muy humilde, pero también firme, que traten de acomodar sus puntos principales dentro de los 10 minutos que estamos fijando. Yo considero que ir a un grado de detalle, quizás excesivo, podría ser a estas alturas un tanto inadecuado, digamos, porque hay una serie de cuestiones que como el propio señor Director General ha indicado son de carácter normativo, y lo que estamos aprobando es un primer paso que vamos a ir evaluando en la marcha.

Yo les agradezco, desde luego, que le hagan saber a este Consejo cuáles son sus posiciones. Todo se va a incorporar en el Informe; también podrían hacerlo directamente al verbatim, para que podamos concluir nuestros trabajos en los tiempos que hemos prefijado.

Christian BERGER (France): En premier lieu, permettez-moi de vous féliciter, Monsieur le Directeur général, pour la qualité des documents qui sont soumis à cette session du Conseil. Nous apprécions le processus consultatif qui a conduit à leur élaboration, le rôle joué par le Comité financier et le Comité du programme et les efforts déployés par le Secrétariat pour apporter des renseignements complémentaires de façon à faciliter la tâche du Conseil.

La délégation française se félicite particulièrement de la concision et de la clarté du document principal, ainsi que de la précision des informations contenues dans le document supplémentaire, qui manifestent une volonté de transparence à l'égard du Conseil.

La démarche progressive, qui limite les propositions immédiates de remaniement à une enveloppe d'environ 3 0 millions de dollars, nous paraît suffisamment prudente et nous pouvons l'approuver. La redistribution des économies administratives au profit des programmes opérationnels est, par ailleurs, la méthode adéquate qu'il convenait d'adopter dans le contexte de la "croissance zéro".

La délégation française adhère aux principes fondamentaux qui sous-tendent les propositions de réforme que nous examinons: le renforcement de la FAO en tant que centre d'excellence dans ses différents domaines de compétence, la poursuite de la décentralisation, la rationalisation des activités opérationnelles par le canal de mesures structurelles, la recherche d'une efficacité accrue et de modalités d'action moins coûteuses, et le recentrage des priorités.

Permettez-nous, cependant, de regretter que parmi ces principes ne figure pas le rappel de la collaboration indispensable de la FAO avec ses partenaires du système des Nations Unies et les institutions de Bretton Woods. Celle-ci n'est, en effet, évoquée que plus loin dans le texte.

La coordination est pourtant essentielle pour relever les défis de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale; elle doit permettre de valoriser les compétences de chaque organe, tout en s'assurant que chacun exerce pleinement, mais strictement, son mandat. En particulier, elle nous paraît cruciale entre les trois institutions basées à Rome qui concourent au développement de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation. Nous avons eu l'occasion, avec de très nombreuses autres délégations, de réaffirmer ce principe lors de la trente-septième session du CPA, la semaine dernière. Demain, la collaboration sera également essentielle avec la future Organisation mondiale du commerce.

Monsieur le Président, je vais maintenant structurer mon discours en reprenant les différents points soumis au Conseil "pour décision", tels qu'ils figurent dans la double page qui a été remise aux membres du Conseil il y a une dizaine de jours. Je commencerai par l'examen des structures.

Les principes directeurs que nous venons de rappeler sont à la base des propositions de restructuration du Siège, qui nous paraissent empreintes de logique et que nous approuvons globalement. Il va de soi que celles-ci ne pourront prendre leur plein effet sans une volonté interne forte de décloisonnement ni le développement de la coopération interbureaux qui sont évoqués au paragraphe 335 du document principal. Derrière les structures, il y a des hommes qui doivent s'approprier ce projet de réforme.

Plusieurs questions se posent à propos des conséquences des changements proposés. S'il faut reconnaître la logique de la transformation du Département du développement en Département de la coopération technique, on peut s'interroger cependant sur la manière dont l'Organisation surmontera la séparation entre les activités normatives et les activités opérationnelles menées à l'échelon des pays.

Dans un ordre d'idées différent, nous voudrions solliciter des éclaircissements sur l'élargissement du champ d'action dans deux secteurs clés, que sont l'investissement et l'aide d'urgence:

- pour le premier, il s'agit de s'assurer que l'établissement d'un programme à long terme de services d'appui à l'expansion de la production alimentaire ne se fasse pas au détriment des activités fondamentales que développe le Centre d'investissement pour répondre à la demande des institutions financières internationales. On peut, en effet, s'interroger sur ce point, puisque ses effectifs demeureraient inchangés;

- pour le second, l'urgence, nous souhaiterions savoir ce qu'il faut entendre, au paragraphe 49 du document principal, par "une unité visible chargée de coordonner l'assistance d'urgence". Ce point n'est que peu détaillé dans le document complémentaire et nous pensons qu'une référence plus explicite devrait être faite au rôle de la FAO dans la conception et la mise en oeuvre des actions de réhabilitation.

Enfin, précision nous serait utile sur la façon dont seront gérées les contributions extrabudgétaires fournies en appui aux activités du Programme régulier.

La création du Département du développement durable conduit ma délégation à plusieurs commentaires. Le développement durable est une préoccupation transversale et d'aucuns s'interrogeront sur l'utilité d'un département nouveau qui pourrait, en effet, conduire à confiner la réflexion et l'initiative, alors que celles-ci doivent relever de tous les secteurs d'activités. Il nous semble cependant que la lisibilité de la priorité accordée à la mise en oeuvre des accords de la CNUED et du rôle de chef de file qui revient à la FAO dans certains domaines devait être assurée. Aussi, de Département regroupe-t-il des bureaux dont le cloisonnement à l'intérieur de secteurs thématiques n'avait pas de véritable justification.

En définitive, ce nouveau Département du développement durable paraît pouvoir assumer deux fonctions capitales: d'une part, l'observation globale de la durabilité du développement et de l'impact des projets; d'autre part, l'examen préventif des projets pour que l'un des critères de sélection de ceux-ci soit leur durabilité. Cela exige qu'un dialogue se noue avec les Départements sectoriels, ainsi qu'avec le Département de la Coopération tecnique. Le Directeur général voudra certainement préciser selon quelles modalités ce dialogue pourra se développer.

Il nous est proposé une décentralisation progressive conduisant à mieux répartir les responsabilités entre le personnel du Siège et celui des échelons décentralisés de l'Organisation. Cette proposition rejoint notre préoccupation d'amélioration des services rendus aux pays membres. Nous approuvons le principe du renforcement des bureaux régionaux et de la création de bureaux sous-régionaux, en souhaitant fermement que l'on évite l'écueil d'un alourdissement de la bureaucratie et que cette décentralisation s'accompagne d'une déconcentration des responsabilités.

Aussi, il y a lieu de bien évaluer les implications financières et opérationnelles des mesures qui conduiraient à affecter un tiers du personnel sur le terrain, au lieu d'un quart actuellement.

Deux questions se posent plus particulièrement:

Tout d'abord, si nous sommes favorables au renforcement de la capacité d'analyse des bureaux régionaux et au resserrement du dispositif des bureaux-pays par le biais d'accréditations multiples, la délégation française estime que cela ne devrait pas se faire au détriment des fonctions actuellement développées au sein d'organes mixtes entre la FAO et ses partenaires, comme les Commissions économiques régionales des Nations Unies. Nous souhaiterions obtenir des assurances à cet égard.

Ensuite, ma délégation souhaiterait obtenir de plus amples informations sur la politique d'utilisation systématique de fonctionnaires nationaux. Quel serait le statut de ces agents, dans quelles conditions serait respecté le principe de neutralité des cadres des Nations Unies et peut-on évaluer le rapport coût/avantages de ces affectations?

Monsieur le Président, il y a déjà plusieurs années que la France marque son attachement à l'affinement des priorités du programme de travail et budget de notre Organisation. Les premiers signaux que nous envoie le Directeur général, à travers de légers transferts de ressources au profit du secteur des pêches et de la foresterie, ainsi que par le lancement de deux nouveaux programmes prioritaires, vont pour nous dans le bon sens et nous sommes en mesure de les approuver.

En premier lieu, le programme PFRDA qui s'inscrit dans le renforcement des activités de la FAO dans le domaine de la sécurité alimentaire par l'augmentation de la production, nous paraît relever d'une démarche à la fois responsable et courageuse; c'est un défi que lance la FAO. Le Directeur général, dans son introduction, aime à rappeler la dimension sociale.

L'annexe 5 du document d'information complémentaire présente des arguments convaincants, mais montre aussi combien, à côté d'un souffle productiviste fondé sur les transferts de technologies, il importe que l'Organisation maintienne le rôle qui est le sien dans la définition des politiques d'accompagnement, par exemple pour favoriser l'accès des populations aux produits alimentaires et pour améliorer le fontionnement des marchés internationaux des produits de base.

L'intégration des technologies et des expériences des agriculteurs, et les principes de démonstration et de vulgarisation appliqués sur une grande échelle, ne doivent cependant pas nous conduire à une vision trop réductrice de la production agricole. Il faut garder le souci de la "professionnalisation" de l'agriculteur en tant qu'acteur du développement. Nous entendons par là, aider les producteurs à se comporter en entrepreneurs, capables d'assimiler les messages techniques et de s'organiser pour améliorer leurs capacités de négociation et de cogestion avec des interlocuteurs commerciaux et institutionnels.

Nous savons, par ailleurs, que l'aide alimentaire fait aujourd'hui partie des outils de la réhabilitation et du développement, et considérons qu'il convient d'engager la réflexion sur ce volet complémentaire des activités de l'Organisation et de se rapprocher du PAM, en particulier, pour concevoir ce "cadre commun" évoqué au paragraphe 93 du document principal, à l'intérieur duquel les différents acteurs pourront coopérer.

Pour en terminer sur ce sujet, Monsieur le Président, ma délégation souhaiterait recevoir des éclaircissements à propos de la notion de projets "nourriture contre intrants agricoles" qui figure au paragraphe 92.

Monsieur le Président, me voilà au terme de ce discours dont je vous demande de bien vouloir excuser la longueur; la délégation française s'est prononcée en faveur des principes directeurs de la réforme soumise à notre examen. Nous considérons que les modalités détaillées de sa mise en oeuvre sont du domaine de la gestion de l'Organisation qui appartient au Directeur général: "prudence et célérité en sont les mots clés", comme cela est indiqué dans le document principal.

Nous lui demandons de rester fidèle aux idées-force que sont la transparence, la coopération, la nécessité de réduire la bureaucratie par un élagage des procédures, le besoin d'une communication accrue - interne à l'Organisation mais aussi vis-à-vis de l'extérieur - et la recherche d'une diminution des coûts administratifs pour améliorer les performances de la FAO et lui donner l'autorité et la sagesse de ses 50 ans.

Nous sommes à la fois confiants et motivés pour suivre ces évolutions avec les autres membres du Conseil, au fil des rapports réguliers que le Directeur général s'est engagé à nous transmettre, par le canal du Comité financier et du Comité du programme.

Mrs Maria KADLECIKOVA (Slovakia): Let me submit the statement of the Slovak Republic of the review of the summaries from the conceptually oriented workshop of the Eastern and Central European countries on agricultural policy in transition organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization five days ago in the Slovak Republic. Firstly, let me start with a statement of the Slovak Republic. On behalf of my country I take the liberty to express appreciation and thanks to His Excellency Jacques Diouf for initiation of such a profound document concerning the global situation in nutrition which evaluated and offers an effective solution for problems of hunger and malnutrition of human population.

The principles mentioned are a good starting point for the rationalization and revival of activities of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. They ensure the FAO's development for the third millennium and they clearly demonstrate the fact that in this period new demands and requirements for its functional and organizational restructuring appear.

We would like to appreciate the courage with which His Excellency Director-General initiates many decisive changes in the Organization under conditions of budgetary restrictions. Many of proposed measures, despite their important conceptual character, do not require any additional financial inputs and they are feasible for realization.

We fully agree with the statement that FAO is a relevant organization designed to satisfying the needs of the member countries and that it is a centre of professional uniqueness. However, if FAO wants to hold its high prestige in the European subregion, we would like to recommend a necessity of more pro-active policy and a better visibility of FAO policy in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, so that FAO can proportionally join actions, measures and solution of problems resulting from GATT agreements, provide specialized assistance in studies on the possibility of selected commodities to get access to world markets.

We have our positives in the disponibility of well-qualified human resources, science and availability of some sources for economic transformation. On the other hand, however, we can also see our negatives which prevail in present time, big financial management, preparation of projects for international financial institutions, economic and social development in rural areas, access to world markets. All these represent an opportunity for FAO to enhance its authority and prestige in the subregion of Central and Eastern Europe.

We appreciate the establishment of two new departments which will lead toward the division of conceptual and operational actions. Such a division will enhance the concentration of professional, intellectual and conceptual work of the whole organization. On the other hand, it is evident that efficiency of every system is given by functional interrelation and harmonization of conceptual and operational management. They can be separated just theoretically. The close coordination of these two departments should result in efficient implementation of results of the department which deals with problems of concepts and development into department of operational tasks. Only the system which provides services may have an operational character in relation to member countries, not services as such. These two departments can not work as isolated.

The approach toward organizational structured adjustments is progressive. It represents restructuring of all organizational units in relation to

other units within inner boundaries of original systems. To reach profound organizational changes and their positive impact on the 50 year-old body suffered by reluctance and routine is a very demanding goal. Its realization will require dynamic, creative and flexible cooperation of all units of FAO in order to regard needs and interests of Member Nations.

With regard to our needs, it is highly appreciated the aim to ensure direct cooperation of member countries with the Department for Technical Cooperation in satisfying countries' specific requirements.

As to the programme for food security in the low-income countries. It is necessary to say that this issue is a FAO priority and it helps to implement FAO's mission. There are no doubts about it. It is to be mentioned that the term food security becomes an issue in some countries of Eastern Europe as well. Food security is not always a matter of quantitative indicators. It has also qualitative dimensions and in this respect it becomes extremely important for the quality of nutrition and health of people in all countries of our subregion.

We are grateful for the increased attention to the role and mission of women in rural development and agriculture.

We support the efforts to undertake FAO's specialized programmes on the prevention of transfer of plant and animal disease and pests.

The programme report mentions FAO's support for countries in political and social transformation, which we suppose, include the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe as well. All countries of the world are in transition, however, the most markable dimensions can be seen in our sub-region. Our social transformation lags behind the economical transformation due to the fact that transition is a very painful process. We recommend an establishment of a work team in the frame of the Department for Sustainable Development for dealing with conceptual issues of economic transformation in the Central and Eastern Europe with the aim to gradually integrate existing, two separate subsystems of agriculture in Europe.

We should not forget that problems of Central and East European countries are temporary. After completion of transformation we are convinced that it is real to expect that these countries may become strong supporters of the Organization.

Among further progressive features of the programme review is the aim of the decentralization of the Organization and its actions, and proposals for establishment of subregional offices. Offers to provide housing for an FAO Subregional Office in capitals of two Member Nations were already presented at the FAO Regional European Conference in Prague. Despite the urgency of needs and attention needed by countries at that time they were not given the chance. We would like to emphasize that with regard to the future development of the Organization and needs of countries of Eastern Europe, we fully support the establishment of a subregional centre for Eastern Europe as it was mentioned in the Programme Review of His Excellency. We wish to note, however, that a subregional centre is only a tool not the aim of our interest. It is necessary to secure direct contacts of countries involved with the technical divisions of FAO located in Headquarters. Functional and organizational links of countries with a subregional centre should have such a design that it should not result in prolongation of the decision-making process in specific agricultural problems which are to be

solved by the Centre of Excellence in the FAO. The subregional centre should not in any case substitute national approach of the Headquarters to the Member Nations.

The proposed budgetary adjustments are considered to be a minimal but inevitable strategy leading to implementation of the profound programme and organization changes in practice.

I would like to conclude the presentation of the Slovak Republic by expressing our thanks and appreciation to His Excellency the Director-General for the preparation of such a highly competent and important conceptual document which will increase the authority of the Organization and set its new objectives in harmony with basic needs of mankind. The solution of the problem of hunger and poverty of the human population means a decisive contribution to the peaceful life on Earth.

As part of the country statement of the Slovak Republic, and in accordance with the proposal of the subregional group of central and eastern European countries, I would like to submit for information to the FAO Council the conclusions from the Workshop on Agricultural Policy in Transition.

In the course of workshop debates and in the country papers two general issues appeared to dominate the macroeconomic conditions for reforms and the restructuring of the agricultural sector.

It was generally recognized that the macroeconomic situation in the national economy had, in the course of the reforms so far and will in the future, exert a dominant impact on agricultural policies implemented and their effectiveness. Among the major factors discussed, influencing agricultural growth and rural development, were a continuing high rate of inflation, growing urban unemployment, shifts in international trade patterns in industrial and in farm commodities. The shrinking domestic demand and ensuing collapse of domestic markets, i.e. an effect of reduced or eliminated subsidies to retail food prices and declining real incomes of the population, were indicated as a barrier to expansion of agricultural output.

The inherited low productivity of the production systems developed under central planning, both in the agricultural and in the industrial sectors, were found to be a major barrier to growth as well. This was found to be one of the factors contributing to the high costs of the transformation process.

The critical condition of state budgets and short financial resources for support of the reforms in the agricultural sector were indicated as a major barrier in continuing reforms, with the past external and internal debt burden exerting a specially heavy impact.

The reforms conducted in the agricultural sector, including in particular the privatization programmes, were found to involve the key issues in agrarian structure.

The importance of policies which would accelerate development of land markets, allowing farmers access to land but also permitting use of farmland as collateral for loans, was stressed.

It was generally recognized that the first stage of privatization programmes has been concluded and at present much more expensive and comprehensive legislation would be required, supported by economic analyses.

It was observed that notwithstanding a number of universal patterns and features of the economic reforms in the CEE economies in transition, the countries are undergoing differentiation in terms of economics, national food balances, changing position of the agricultural sector in the economy, with highly varied starting conditions for the reforms. While a number of countries experienced surpluses of farm products in relation to the effective demand and opening export markets was becoming crucial, other countries had the target of food policy balancing domestic demand and achieving short- and medium-term food security.

In general the orientation of agricultural policies toward European integration and multilateral trade negotiations were recognized and implications for national policies accounted for.

The participants of the Workshop, following an extensive and detailed debate on the proposed activities and programme of work for the Agricultural Policy Network, expressed their interest and support for the establishment of the Network, recognizing its importance and possible usefulness to the policy-makers in the CEE economies in transition.

Mr Chairman, distinguished delegates, in accordance with your interest, the summary report of the Workshop on Agriculture Policy in Transition is available for you. During this workshop, in connection with our deep interest in solving the problems of other sub-regions, the programme review of the Director-General was mentioned many times. It was stated that this document represented a new wind of change in the Organization. It is to these changes that we look for a way to revitalize our fragile economies. Thank you very much for your attention.

Alvaro GURGEL DE ALENCAR (Brazil): Mr Chairman, in spite of your recommendation, I cannot fail to express my delegation's satisfaction at seeing you in the chair, and wish you much success and assure you of all our cooperation. I would like also to thank the distinguished Director-General for his very clear and articulate presentation that he made this morning, as well as the Deputy Director-General for the illustration of the proposed changes.

Views have been expressed by the President of the Group of 77 and by the Chairman of the Latin American and Caribbean Group on the set of proposals which the distinguished Director-General has submitted to the Council. The comprehensive nature of the paper presented by my original group allows me to be very brief. Besides, we believe that the proposals should be seen in their entirety. Looking at them from a broad perspective, my delegation finds them sensible, realistic and coherent. They are admittedly limited in their scope and yet they are balanced. They are derived from this Organization's undisputed priorities. And they are in keeping with the concerns expressed at the Hebrew-American Summmit held last year in Brazil.

Mr Chairman, from the very beginning we deemed it important that the Council give the Director-General, at this early stage of his tenure of office, a clear vote of confidence. Having examined his proposals, we feel

that he has greatly facilitated matters for us. We thus have no hesitation in joining in the adoption of the decisions before the Council as you, sir, have read them out to us this morning.

I wish to assure Dr Diouf of the full cooperation of my government for the successful implementation of these decisions.

Jürgen OBSTREICH (Germany): Mr Chairman, in order to honour your request for short statements, and in an effort to follow our friend and colleague from Brazil, I intend to cut drastically my statement and make only a very few remarks.

The first one is that the document before us and the introduction given by the Director-General this morning seems to us to be a very helpful basis for a profound discussion of this important session.

The fact that the Director-General has responded in a very short time to questions of the Programme and Finance Committees by submitting the supplementary document CL 106/2-Sup.l is welcomed by my delegation as an encouraging sign of willingness for dialogue and transparency vis-à-vis the Member States and this Governing Body, and I want to ask you to continue this way in the future.

Coming back to my promise to be short, I want to make only the following remarks. First, we support the Director-General's endeavours to distinctly improve the food situation especially in the poorest countries through increases in production.

In this connection, we would like to emphasize the need for continued development and introduction of site-adequate technologies; adapted and site-related research for sustainable food production which avoids the errors of the "First Green Revolution"; and for increased efforts for the conservation of biodiversity of plant and animal genetic resources which have high priority with regard to food security and environmentally sound agriculture. I am convinced that the fourth International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, which will be held in Germany in 1996, will make an important contribution in this respect.

Mr Chairman, for an adequate and at the same time balanced nutrition of broad sections of the population, it is of decisive importance, as the Director-General has himself stressed this morning, that not only food supply security but also food consumption security must be ensured. This means access to food for the whole population, i.e. households and each individual. Both require fair prices and adequate incomes and purchasing power.

Of course, adequate and stable political, economic and social overall conditions must prevail in order to stabilize food security and economic and social development also in the long term. In many fields, FAO as the secretariat cannot influence these conditions, but in one area it certainly can, as my neighbour from France has mentioned. These overall conditions include close cooperation and coordination with and between international organizations, especially the ones here in Rome, non-governmental organizations and the private sector.

Also the other special programmes, the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) in the livestock and crops sectors should receive enhanced support. An amount of US$2.9 million has been earmarked for this purpose, and we endorse the envisaged measures. In this connection I would like to add, however, that we are in full agreement with what is stated in paragraph 105 of the document, namely that the Working Capital Fund is not a suitable source of funding.

An important element in the Director-General's reform proposal is decentralization. The envisaged transfer of posts in connection with decentralization and the establishment of Subregional Offices, and in this context the increased use of qualified national staff, can be assessed positively as long as both Regional and Subregional Offices and Headquarters maintain the necessary technical standard and capacity, and as long as they all have the critical mass of expertise to fulfil their important task. Whether the proposed measures will help to save costs in the long term remains to be seen. The increase in expenditure on FAO Representatives, which is by far the largest increase in connection with the reform proposals, will certainly require further attention by the Council.

With regard to the intention to transfer FAO staff from the so-called joint divisions with other organizations, we would like to ask the following question: how should the work done so far by the FAO/ECE Geneva office in the agricultural and timber sectors be continued in the future? In this context, I would like to refer to paragraph 56 which points out expressly that the fruitful joint activities should not be cancelled. Structural or organizational changes in the FAO Secretariat are primarily in the competence of the Director-General. We welcome the fact that the Director-General has given high priority to the human factor in his reform considerations and intends to carry out the proposed changes step by step. Let us not forget that the staff of FAO are the most important asset that this Organization has.

Quite a few arguments speak in favour of a concentration of the operational units of FAO in a technical cooperation department. However, the department with normative tasks should continue to take an adequate part in project formulation and backstopping in order to avoid it becoming a sort of ivory tower. The synergy between normative and operational functions must be fully maintained.

The catalytic effect of FAO's field work in the framework of the TCP is undisputed. On the other hand, it should be borne in mind that according to the mandate and constitution, the main task of FAO lies in normative-conceptual activities as well as in policy advice. In other words, FAO should not be primarily a project execution organization but remain a "Centre of Excellence". This would also be in line with the "National Execution Priority" set in the framework of UNDP.

The creation of a Department of Sustainable Development stresses rightly the importance and commitment of FAO in connection with the Follow-up to Agenda 21 of the UNCED Conference in Rio in June 1992. I would like to stress, however, that sustainable development should continue to be a central matter for all FAO work units.

The Director-General deals in detail with the budgetary impact of the envisaged measures. This applies in particular to the supplementary

document which contributes to a better transparency in that sector. It was confirmed again that the programme changes are within the budget level approved by the 27th FAO Conference, which is a zero real growth budget.

However, under IV, in the introduction to the main document CL 106/2, it is stated that the proposals will have a progressive impact on the budgets for 1996-97 and beyond. We would be grateful for some explanation in this respect. My delegation is aware that this special Council shall only decide on specific proposals contained in the Director-General's letter of 20 May. With this in mind, we would like to point out that the table of cost savings and the resource allocations for programme changes in Annex 2D to the Supplementary document need further explanation. For instance, with US$18.4 million, about 60 percent of the intended savings are to be made by frozen posts, as was shown in the slides which we have seen. What are the financial consequences when posts are unfrozen? Does it mean automatic increases for the next budget? A first comment on this would certainly be useful.

As far as the lists of sessions to be retained and those proposed for postponement or cancellation are concerned, we believe that these lists require further examination and discussion in the appropriate framework.

Mr Chairman, this includes my remarks in our first round of comments on the Director-General's proposals. My delegation has listened carefully and with great interest to what speakers of the different regional groups and national delegations have to say on them. We are prepared to contribute constructively to our further deliberations and will assist actively in the implementation of the changes in our Organization agreed to by this special Council. We are ready to help the Director-General in his endeavour to prepare FAO for the challenges it faces.

M. MAJIDUL HAQUE (Bangladesh): Mr Chairman, I would first like to express my appreciation to the Director-General and his colleagues in the Secretariat for presenting to us a very comprehensive and appropriately focused review of the programmes, structures and policies of the Organization. In spite of the very limited scope for making changes in the approved Programme of Work and Budget within the framework of a zero growth budget, the Director-General's reprogramming exercise marks a significant step forward towards making the Organization responsive to the priority needs of its Member Nations. My delegation congratulates the Director-General on the pragmatic initiatives he has undertaken to bring about qualitative changes in the way FAO functions and to chart a new course for the FAO in order that it can fulfil its charter obligations more efficiently and cost-effectively.

An organization like FAO, vast as it is in its coverage, must be dynamic. I must changes its focus and strategy by being consistent with the changing needs of its beneficiaries. The case for change outlined in the document is very timely and should be translate into specific actions as early as circumstances permit. The Director-General has identified three major areas where he believes improvements and new orientation are essential to enable FAO to meet the new challenges, viz. decentralization, cost-effective delivery of services and strengthening of national capacities. We fully support this policy thrust and believe that the proposed changes would be driven by the guiding principles enumerated in the review paper. We believe that separating FAO's normative activities from its operational activities and bringing both these activities closer to Member States will strengthen

the Organization in the long term and maximize the impact and effectiveness of FAO services to Member Nations.

We are generally in agreement with the rationale of the proposed changes in the organizational structure and hope that the new strategic orientation will contribute towards greater efficiency. We are also of the view that the process of change should proceed steadily and that the Director-General should have the flexibility in carrying on with the streamlining exercise, which, we recognize, is a complex process. The reorganized Technical Cooperation Division, which will provide assistance in policy, investment and technical assistance through field operations, will be more responsive to national requirements. The Policy Formulation Division, which would be organized on a regional and country basis, will intensify its policy advisory services to Member States.

Mr Chairman, my delegation particularly welcomes the Director-General's proposal to strengthen the FAO Regional Offices by providing each office with a complete multidisciplinary team. This will be an important step to enhance national capacities. Creation of a few Subregional Offices will also be very helpful in addressing the needs of some countries which are far away from the Regional Offices. We also strongly support the Director-General's proposed policy of increased use of national expertise, which will not only strengthen national capacities, but shall be cost-effective as well.

We are pleased to note that the Director-General's process of reorganization shall also cover measures aimed at improving management practices. The steps envisaged to reduce the cost of administrative and logistic support to FAO are particularly encouraging. We welcome the Director-General's effort in cutting administrative costs, costs on publications and meetings, etc. However, we ought to be careful while effecting cost reduction in the field of publications. This is where we differ. The importance of publications cannot be overemphasized and therefore, cost reduction could perhaps be effected by using cheaper qualities of paper instead of the costlier variety thereby allowing publication of important ones without recourse to a total ban. We hope the Director-General will explore further avenues of reducing administrative costs wherever it is feasible, keeping in view the resources limitations.

We fully share the Director-General's proposal for sharpening the focus on food security in the low-income, food-deficit countries. It is a complex problem of endemic proportions for which sustainable solutions need to be found to ensure that the world has enough food to feed 9 million people in the year 2030. Increasing aggregate availability of food in the developing countries must, therefore, be a vital strategy for FAO. Action needs to be focused in those countries having low and critical levels of food security judged on the basis of FAO's food security indicators. We also agree with the need to step up action against locust attacks and effective handling of transboundary diseases, as well as pest eradication programmes. FAO must be better equipped to provide a rapid response in times of such emergencies. A strengthened preventive capacity in FAO will help develop much needed effective cooperative mechanism to combat this serious problem.

Finally, Mr Chairman, I once again commend the Director-General's efforts and initiatives in an effort to revitalize the Organization in key priority areas, and assure him of the full support the Government of Bangladesh in his endeavour.

Enrico DE MAIO (Italy): The Italian Government wishes to congratulate the Director-General and the Secretariat on the remarkable efforts made in submitting to this Council a document so rich and yet so concise. Let me briefly comment on eight points. The first is the refocusing of technical priorities.

Food security. We welcome the sharpened concentration on food production in support of food security in low-income food-deficit countries as well as the approach proposed. We welcome too the proposal to launch a small number of pilot projects focused on technology transfer and aimed at achieving results in a short time-span. In this connecting, the Italian Government is already considering the possibility, mentioned in the Director-General's document, that existing FAO projects be suitably adapted and used as vehicles to start the validation/demonstration components of the programme and to address requirements for policy reforms.

Potential Limits of the Approach Proposed. The danger might be that food security is perceived only as a problem of increased supply of basic food crops. Concentrating on increasing aggregate supply of food at national level might leave in the shade the problem of access to food by poorer segments of the rural population. We have taken note that in the proposed approach validation and transfer of technology should be accompanied by complementary measures but they still focus on inputs supply, marketing, infrastructures. Technology-driven growth can be a solution. However, the pattern of growth is equally important. Efficient labour-intensive growth should allow the poor to make use of their most important asset, namely labour; this provides jobs in increases income.

Uruguay Round, Structural Adjustment and Cooperation with other Agencies. Also on the positive side, we want to support the sharpened concentration of the Organization in the provision of assistance in assessing and monitoring the implications of the Uruguay Round negotiations at country level for policy decisions. We also welcome the intention to enhance partnership with multilateral financing institutions when they assist individual countries in the design of macro-economic policies specifically aimed at reducing rural poverty. It is important to note that cooperation should also be consistently pursued within the UN system, particularly with the World Food Programme and IFAD, in order to avoid duplication of efforts and inefficient use of resources at country level. Improved coordination with the other agriculture-related agencies is in our opinion a must. Furthermore, it would allow donors to have a more complete view of the interventions needed in the so called continuum from emergency to rehabilitation and agricultural development. In this line, we would like also to stress the importance that FAO remains the main forum for discussion on agricultural and rural development, with renewed emphasis on food security and sustainable security.

FAO as a Centre of Excellence. This will imply structural but also cultural change. In fact, this constitutional function of the Organization has lost momentum in the recent past. It is striking to note that, with the exception of agricultural statistics and Early Warning bulletins, few of FAO's publications are used as reference in international fora. FAO's staff should be encouraged to take the initiative, and promotion and rewarding mechanisms for publications could be considered.

Restructuring of the Organization. Changing structure and strategy is relatively easy. Cultural changes are more difficult. Efforts will be

necessary to define the values of the Organization, to obtain the commitment of the staff and of member countries, and to organize work around it.

In this connection, we would like to note that the new organization chart submitted obviously can only define the structure, the skeleton, and it merely provides the framework within which the Organization will try to organize the work of the various units. Our impression is that in the recent past FAO has suffered from a typical problem of large organizations, namely that the underlying forces of differentiation have become stronger than those driving towards integration. In other words, units and departments have developed a tendency to give higher priority to their own roles and goals than to those of the Organization as a whole. Some integrative mechanisms should be provided for and a new culture for team work be encouraged.

We fully share the Director-General's view "that reallocating less than 4.5 percent of the total budget cannot be considered to have a significant impact on the ongoing programme of work". Therefore, we understand that most of the relevant changes are to be expected to take place in the longer run, perhaps beyond the two years of the present proposal.

Decentralization. The Organization needs to get closer to the complex problems of the various regions of the world.

The technical units in such a decentralized system should have adequate size, a critical mass, in order to allow for high quality interventions in a wide range of activities. The risk might be that of creating small, miniature-size duplications of the Organization. With the lapse of time, those units could lose contact with Headquarters in a number of activities. Problems of homogeneity and technical standards could surface. Much will depend on the working mechanism to be established between Headquarters and the field, and on the recruitment patterns. In this last connection, while the use of local capacities should be welcomed, we still think that a mix of national, regional and international expertise is necessary. For example, Latin American experts in the Regional Offices will certainly benefit from the presence of technical personnel with experience in Asia and other areas. We would like therefore to avoid what could be a regionalization and compartmentalization of the technical work of FAO. This, added to a potential dichotomy within Headquarters, which we will describe later on, could make the forces of differentiation prevail on the forces of integration.

Also with reference to decentralization, FAO representatives, now to be attached directly to the Office of the Director-General, should have managerial capabilities, independence from potential local pressures and be supported in terms of staff. Their competence should cover all aspects of the work of the Organization. The same applies to Regional and Subregional Offices. The problem is that it will be almost impossible, due to budgetary constraints, to cover all or even the most important technical fields. A solution could be that regional and national offices be strengthened mainly in the policy advice and economic analysis sector.

Technical Cooperation Department. Turning to the separation of normative activities from operational work and to restructuring of the Secretariat, we note that the Technical Cooperation Department will become the core of field activities with an expanded scope of action. As contributors to the

Trust Funds Programme, our experience with the Development Department has been positive indeed in terms of coordination and promotion of field projects. Since 1982, projects for approximately US$390 million (if we include a special contribution to the TCP) have been identified and agreed upon. As donors, we would therefore welcome working with a more comprehensive counterpart department.

However, the risk with the proposed Technical Cooperation Department is that is could also become another organization within the Organization if appropriate measures are not foreseen. If our understanding is correct, all field activities, technical and operational, would be encompassed by this department. To follow up un projects at the technical and operational level probably implies the necessity to have technical officers outposted from the normative departments. We do like the separation of the work of the Organization between normative aspects and country-based assistance but the possible obstacle is again represented by budgetary constraints which will not allow, de facto, for enough staff for both functions. The end result could be that the Technical Cooperation Department should continue drawing on the expertise of the normative departments, thus not allowing the separation of long-term from short-term work.

Other New Departments and Units. Finally, we would like to make a general comment on the creation of the Department of Sustainable Development and the Division on Women and People's Participation in Development. The priority to be given to these issues can only be supported. Nevertheless, action should not be limited to these measures. In recent years, FAO has promoted training on gender analysis to identify the role of women in development projects. Still, field projects are formulated in most cases in the old fashion, namely either you have projects aiming specifically at women or projects in which target groups are undistinguished. Similar consideration could be made on the so called participatory approach. In other words, gender analysis should be built into project documents. As is the case for the presence of indicators for the monitoring and evaluation of project activities, a clear indication of how the project will affect women and men should represent a criterion for appraisal of projects. The same should apply to environmental concerns and to the issue of development support communication for institutional support.

In conclusion, with the above, mentioned caveats, we would like to reiterate our support to the document submitted to the Council and to the flexibility to carry out the proposed measures which the Director-General is requesting.

I.F. MARIA DOS ANJOS (Angola) (Langue originale portugais): Nous voudrions avant tout manifester notre appui au Président du groupe africain, Monsieur l'Ambassadeur de l'Ouganda, pour son allocution. C'est un grand plaisir pour nous de prendre la parole devant cette auguste assemblée, qui nous a élu comme l'un des vice-président de cette cent sixième session du Conseil.

Nous profitons de cette occasion pour vous exprimer nos sincères remerciements et c'est un grand honneur et un signe de confiance que vous avez fait à mon pays et à ma personne.

En abordant ce point très important de notre ordre du jour, M. le Président, nous voudrions rendre hommage tout d'abord au Directeur général, à tous ceux qui, tant dans le groupe d'experts qu'au sein des

comités et aussi bien au Secrétariat, que parmi les délégués, ont fourni un travail énorme dans le seul but de renforcer l'efficacité et de donner un nouvel élan à la FAO.

Nos félicitations s'adressent également au Directeur général, pour les efforts déployés pour nous présenter en un laps de temps court, des documents excellents et bien élaborés.

Sa présentation est parfaitement claire, précise et concise. Les renseignements contenus dans le document CL 106/2-Sup.l viennent éclairer encore notre compréhension.

Les propositions du Directeur général sont pertinentes et dignes d'être louées, et avant toute considération, nous partageons les opinions émises par le Comité financier et le Comité du programme.

Les deux nouveaux programmes prioritaires méritent notre soutien, comme décrits au paragraphe 65 du document CL 106/2. La production alimentaire à l'appui de la sécurité dans nos pays à faible rendement et à déficit alimentaire constitue la base même des activités de la FAO. Ces propositions renforceront sans doute les activités de l'Organisation. A cet égard nous appuyons la suggestion du Directeur général de tenir un sommet mondial de l'alimentation en 1996, comme stipulé au paragraphe 32 du document CL 106/6.

Dans plusieurs pays, la sécurité alimentaire est basée sur les tubercules, les plantains et les légumes traditionnels. Nous pensons que ces produits doivent être considérés aussi comme prioritaires, sur le même pied que les céréales.

Nous saluons la création d'un système de prévention des crises (EMPRES) mais nous constatons que l'attention principale est limitée à la peste bovine et aux acridiens. Or, il existe d'autres maladies qui entravent la sécurité alimentaire telles que la trypanosomiase et la peste porcine africaine qui infestent des milliers d'hectares favorables à l'élevage. Nous souhaitons que ces constatations soient prises en considération lors de l'exécution de ces programmes.

En ce qui concerne, Monsieur le Président, les propositions préconisées par le Directeur général sur la modification des structures de l'Organisation telle que la transformation de l'actuel département du développement, la création d'un nouveau département de développement durable, à partir des actuelles unités des départements de l'agriculture et des politiques économiques et sociales, la nouvelle création d'une division de l'analyse du développement agricole et social et la création d'un bureau de coordination des activités normatives opérationnelles et décentralisées, elles ne posent aucun problème à notre délégation car les doutes que nous présentons ont été dissipés par l'explication contenue in extenso dans le document CL 106/2 Supplément 1.

Il n'y a pas de doute, Monsieur le Président, que la nouvelle approche politique que le Directeur général nous propose, consistant à décentraliser progressivement et à redéployer le personnel, va à l'encontre de notre consentement.

En ce qui concerne les structures de terrain, notre délégation approuve le renforcement des bureaux régionaux et l'établissement des bureaux sous-

régionaux. L'Afrique australe, région agricole par excellence, expérimente une organisation régionale déjà reconnue, la Communauté de l'Afrique australe, et une représentation spécifique de la FAO au niveau d'un Bureau sous-régional serait bien accueillie.

Nous nous félicitons particulièrement, Monsieur le Président, de l'idée géniale du Directeur général de l'utilisation systématique des fonctionnaires nationaux. L'utilisation des experts nationaux est d'une importance capitale. Connaissant mieux les particularités et les valeurs socio-économiques des pays, cela permettra, sans doute, de renforcer la capacité d'intervention de la FAO, améliorer l'évaluation, le suivi des projets et contribuer à la réduction des coûts.

L'exemple nous a montré au fil du temps que l'inclusion de l'expertise nationale dans les projets de la Banque mondiale a des effets positifs à plusieurs titres.

Comme stipulé au paragraphe 72, nous défendons avec fermeté les activités du type "aliment contre travail" comme contribution au développement socio-économique, et à la création d'emplois.

Nous soulignons aussi, Monsieur le Président, l'importance de la collaboration avec d'autres partenaires tels que les organisations du système des Nations Unies, les institutions régionales et sous-régionales, et les ONG.

Pour terminer, nous ne pouvons que féliciter le Directeur général pour avoir réalisé un accroissement des ressources dans les grands programmes de l'agriculture, pêches et forêts, ne modifiant pas les limites globales du budget, en accord avec la recommandation de la vingt-septième session de la Conférence.

Pour la réalisation de certains programmes de la FAO, il est sans doute nécessaire et indispensable de mobiliser des ressources extrabudgétaires pour compléter les ressources du programme ordinaire qui sont limitées.

Monsieur le Directeur général, notre disponibilité pour vous appuyer dans votre difficile mission est totale. Nous vous souhaitons bon succès.

Christodoulos CHRISTODOULOU (Cyprus): Allow me to begin by expressing the appreciation and support of my delegation for the genuine efforts of the Director-General Mr Jacques Diouf to reorganize and improve the FAO activities, as described in document CL 106/2.

We do realize the considerable constraints facing this reprogramming exercise, given that it was bound to be made within the framework of a no-growth budget. Therefore, it wouldn't be realistic to expect radical or impressive improvements in FAO activities, during the present biennium. On the other hand, it is encouraging to note that the proposals under review are "geared to a progressive impact in the context of the budgetary proposals for the next biennium 1996-97" as stated in the same document.

In the light of this perspective, the discussions and conclusions of this special Session of FAO Council could be the initiation of a process towards the strengthening of FAO's capacity to respond positively and in time to the pressing demands, which the international community continues to place on FAO. Surely, such a process is subject to improved arrangements of both

the financial and human resources of this Organization. For this reason we are of the view that the payment of contributions in time and the reduction of costs, where possible, should be considered as priority issues.

Following these general observations we wish to express our brief comments on specific issues regarding the proposed programme priorities and structural arrangements.

The food production increase for supporting food security in Low-income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDC) is surely a priority of universal support.

Urgent action is required to combat this tragic reality. The proposed action towards a "new green revolution" based on the use of more productive technologies and on the application of sustainable production systems do constitue sound radical measures for increasing food production.

However, we do believe that the fundamental issue of the potential access to food should always be an integral part of FAO's policy advisory role. Income-generating issues are surely multidisciplinary and complex issues. They are, however, interrelated with the huge problem of food security and nutrition. In this connection we can see the merits of the proposals of the Director-General to launch a Special Programme on Food Production in support of Food Security in LIFD Countries, as outlined in paras 74-77.

In general, we support the intended efforts for improving paragraphs the functions and operations of FAO within an evolutionary process of decentralization and rationalization of operational activities through appropriate structural arrangements. To this end we have no difficulty in endorsing the guiding principles as stated in paragraph 24.

Referring to the transformation of the present Development Department into the Technical Cooperation Department (TCD), as shown in the organizational chart in Annex 4, we can see the advantage of having the three interrelated services, i.e. policy formulation, investment centre and field operations under one department.

Likewise, the placing of the Technical Cooperation Programme Unit and the TCDC/ECDC focal point under the same roof could improve and expand their activities. Furthermore, the closer link between investment and technical cooperation projects could lead to the mobilization of external resources.

We welcome the continued priority given to the economic and technical cooperation among developing countries, but it is perhaps important for FAO to learn to use, even more than in the past, such active partners as the non-governmental organizations and the private sector.

Considering the functions of the proposed Policy Division under TCD as described in paragraphs 43-45 and the Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Division to be established under the Department of Economic and Social Policy, as also described in para 63, we realize there is a strong link between these two divisions. Therefore, we suggest that certain arrangements are necessary for achieving the proper cooperation of the two divisions and for avoiding possible duplication.

In the light of these brief remarks and taking into consideration the relevant analysis in the document under review, we do hope and wish, that

the TCD will gradually become a department of great value, especially for the member countries which urgently need assistance from FAO.

Concerning the proposed establishment of the Department of Sustainable Development, we welcome the intention to give higher visibility to the priority on sustainable development and the environment.

We do realize that the main role of the Department of Sustainable Development is to incorporate a number of functions so to enable FAO to better integrate its cross-sectorial work and discharge its obligations vis-à-vis the United Nations system, as mentioned in para 52. However, since other departments, will continue to deal with the issues of sustainable development, we suggest that proper arrangements should be made in order to avoid duplications.

Regarding the proposals for the centralization of activities to regional, subregional and country level, we are satisfied with the rationale as presented in paras 55-61. The proposed strengthening of FAO's Regional Offices, the establishment of subregional offices, where needed and the increased use of national capabilities will ensure, in our view, greater responsiveness and closer relevance of FAO's services to Member States.

On the other hand we see that the process of decentralization does imply certain difficulties and, in the short term, cost increases as well. Additionally, the intended decentralization should not be at the expense of a sufficient capacity at the Headquarters. For this reason while supporting the respective proposals we also suggest to proceed with care.

The Emergency Prevention System programme is also welcomed, with its preliminary accent on locust and rinderpest. We hope that FAO will be able to broaden its system in the future, as these are only two of the major pest and disease problems which beset our agriculture and livestock system.

Finally, we do welcome the commitment of the Director General to submit regularly progress reports to FAO Governing Bodies and his intention to keep the Permanent Representatives of Member Nations in Rome regularly informed. We trust that these arrangements will continue in the future.

In concluding, I wish to register my delegation's endorsement of the proposals of the Director-General in connection with his review of the Programme, Structure and Policies of FAO, and once again, to express our willingness to cooperate and support the efforts for strengthening the FAO activities.

We wish to hope that the implementation of these proposals will further enhance the fruitful and dynamic role of FAO for the benefit of member countries and the humanity at large. We are permanently encountering the huge challenges born by continuous change and the need for adjustment to the evolving socio-economic conditions across the world. It is our prime responsibility to face these challenges. And we shall be successful if we only work fervently and decisively and if we fully acknowledge the noble responsibilities bestowed on us by the past generations for the benefit of the current and future generations.

Mrs Melinda L. KIMBLE (United States of America): the United States delegation joins other members in expressing its appreciation for the

Director-General's thoughtful and far-sighted approach to modernizing FAO. This is a moment of historic transition and of great promise for the Organization. We are impressed with the rapid progress made in beginning to refocus the Organization towards results-oriented management and a rededication to its core mandate. We also applaud the open consultation process that proceeded it. We also look forward to the more far-reaching changes that can be instituted in the 1996-97 Programme of Work and Budget, and the prospects of greater transparency, enhanced consultation, open communications and stronger partnerships in the introductory sections of CL 106/2. We support the overall thrust of the proposed restructuring; its success will depend on the degree of flexibility FAO management brings to the task. As fine tuning and adjustments are always necessary, we especially appreciate the Director-General's emphasis on the dynamic nature of this effort.

The postponement or cancellation of meetings and publications is a bold move. We have carefully studied these lists and endorse these proposals. The stringent budget context in which the Director-General must operate poses a challenge and an opportunity for bringing more effective change to the management structure and organizational culture of FAO. Completing this process will require clearly defined objectives and incentives for more efficient, innovative approaches, general reductions in bureaucracy and the continual elimination of unsustainable programmes.

We wholeheartedly endorse the new emergency prevention system for transborder pests and diseases (EMPRES) . The proposed system stresses the long-term aspects of pest control such as strategic resources and strengthened regional preparedness which can help avert the evolution of localized outbreaks into full-scale plagues that pose potential social, economic, and environmental hazards across entire regions.

Paragraph 11 in the basic document suggests that FAO has a more pro-active role to play in collaborating with the new world trade organization to improve harmonization of trade standards and respond to new trade policies. Thus FAO's role in Codex Alimentarius and the International Plant Protection convention may need to be reinforced. We would like to know if the Director-General shares this view, and, if so, how the restructured FAO will accommodate it.

We also value the collaborative effort of FAO with IAEA, especially the growing activities in the area of food irradiation. We would appreciate clarification of the proposal contained in paragraph 56, on redeploying FAO staff presently in joint divisons with the UN regional economic and social commissions. These joint divisons have been performing valuable functions, in our view. We urge consultations as soon as possible to determine how best to maintain the key joint FAO-ECE activities.

The Director-General's proposal, in paragraph 27 of his written text, that the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources be transformed into a commission on agricultural biodiversity is a welcome recognition of the vital importance of preserving genetic resources to ensure 21st century food security. Conservation and improved management of traditional livestock breeds and indigenous crops can lead to greater adaptability and disease resistance, better food supplies, more rational use of marginal and improved economic conditions for farmers. Progress on the broad biodiversity agenda is essential for implementation of Agenda 21. FAO

leadership in the agrobiodiversity area - FAO's special provenance - will do much to restore FAO credibility and influence.

As a measure of US commitment to this programme, we intend to pledge in the near future, US$1 million to support preparations for the international technical conference on plant genetic resources. We are further preparing to pledge US$200 000 to promote a global programme for the management and conservation of endangered animal genetic resources.

For the long term, FAO must quickly launch the centre for domestic animal diversity and find more Regular Budget resources to devote to the agrobiodiversity agenda where FAO has a clear mandate and exceptional technical expertise. The proposed 8.5 percent reduction in the already underfunded animal genetic resources programme should be carefully reviewed in the light of the strategic import of these activities. Without investments in this area today, any future food security strategy is doomed to fail.

Concerning the proposed special programme on food production in support of food security in low-income food-deficit countries, we support establishing this vital programme which seeks to mobilize FAO resources for the all-critical mission of eradicating hunger. The balance struck by the Director-General in highlighting the need for ensuring socio-economic and environmental sustainability of our prouduction-focused stategies is an essential one, achieving this goal calls for a holistic approach that equilibrates technology transfer with long-term conservation of the agricultural resources base, people's participation, capacity-building, and appropriate social and economic policies: including secure land tenure arrangements, sound pricing policies and an enabling environment for the private sector.

We welcome the Director-General's caution that a technology-driven strategy must not override FAO's commitments to sustainability and the achievement of household food security. FAO's programmes for nutritional improvement, integrated pest management, farmer-centre agricultural resource management programmes and community forestry are good models of participatory cooperation and biocontrol that may provide keys to the solution. We would hope to see them expanded.

The proposed Department of Sustainable Development (DSD) can be a pivotal part of this process. However, to make it effective the department will need social and natural resource management capacities and a well-defined interdepartmental mandate. While we appreciate the clarifications given in the supplemental document, some basic questions remain.

The formation of a women's division is a positive step. Women produce the great majority of foods on marginal lands and must be an integral part of any food security strategy. The functions of the rural development and agrarian reform division seem rather vague and appear to overlap those of the field operations divisons in the new Technical Cooperation Department.

Despite the regrouping of several smaller cross-cutting units, it is not apparent that the proposed new department or other changes would significantly strengthen FAO's ability to respond to Agenda 21. FAO is responsible for UNCED follow-up to the land resource cluster of Agenda 21. The programme areas of Chapter 14 (SARD/sustainable agriculture) as well as the chapters relating to land, forestry, fisheries and mountains have

considerable convergence with FAO capabilities. We would like to know how FAO plans to make SARD operational, and whether it will develop an organizational strategy that empowers the SAPs critical to its implementation with well-defined goals and the authorities required to achieve them in a timely manner.

FAO has a wealth of information banks across several departments which, if made more interactive, accessible and geographically referenced, would be invaluable assets in its efforts to achieve sustainable food security. We would welcome more information on the Director-General's plans on the above issues in November.

The new information on the Technical Cooperation Department is quite helpful. While we are not entirely comfortable with the proposed separation of operational and normative functions, we are pleased that the Director-General is looking at the functional linkages with other units. We support the concept of achieving more strategic coordination of field services and of bringing multidisciplinary teams closer to the field.

A remaining concern is whether the greatly reduced forestry department will be adequately equipped to meet the challenges facing them. We understand that the normative functions of forestry may be addressed at the November 1994 Council and would welcome an opportunity to work with FAO in the formulation of viable plans.

This office for coordination of normative, operation and decentralized activities, in addition to having a unique name, seems to have functions that are currently located elsewhere, including handling regional conferences. Is this the intent?

In looking at the new Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Division, we see that policy research and analysis would be conducted here. We see an inextricable linkage between policy analysis and policy advice and are uneasy about having the functions formulation division and this division?

With respect to subregional offices in North Africa, Southern and East Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Caribbean and Eastern Europe, we would be interested in learning more about their impact on the Regular Budget, about what the newly configured subregional offices will look like in terms of staff and functions, and which country offices are closing. In regard to the proposed decentralization, we would also appreciate knowing how effective management capacities will be delegated to the field. In our view, decentralization has proven most successful and cost effective in new bureaucratic structures. The creation of new offices too often adds overheads and a new layer of decision-making instead of enhancing efficiency.

In developing a comprehensive strategy for sustainable household food security and agricultural biodiversity, we would encourage the Director-General to use existing governance mechanisms to develop further his broad proposals and clarify his benchmarks for measuring progress over the next 18 months. In particular, we look to the new leadership for developing the management tools and methodology for trimming high-risk, unsustainable programmes and for redirecting funding to high priority sustainable food security programmes.

We strongly support the collaborative efforts now underway between FAO and UNDP to develop sustainability indicators and establish UN system-wide criteria for gauging progress towards these common goals. It would be extremely useful if FAO could report on these developments at the November 1994 Council and offer a description of short- and long-term targets FAO hopes to achieve in this and the 1996-97 biennium.

We applaud the Director-General's initiatives in structuring closer cooperation with the IBRD and regional development banks, with the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture and other important players. As the new agenda is shaped, we would also welcome the development of more interactive, productive relationships among the Rome-based food agencies and closer linkages with UNDP, the CGIAR network, IUCN and other NGOs with important roles to play in sustainable agriculture and global food security.

Finally, we wish to commend FAO on its report of April 15 1994 on Monitoring of the Development and Implementation of the System-Wide Action Plan on Drug Abuse Control. Although this issue is not part of the restructuring plan, we are generally aware of initial efforts by FAO to integrate these concerns in its rural development programmes, in drug abuse education for rural youth, and in sustainable agricultural production systems. With funding from the UN Drug Control Program, FAO has provided a valuable contribution to the base line surveys of opium poppy crops in select areas. Drug crops remove large tracts of agricultural lands from food production. FAO's efforts to promote drug control enhance their ability to promote sustainable food security without unintentionally aiding the producers of illicit crops. We encourage more FAO attention to this growing international challenge, and would welcome an opportunity to have this issue addressed in greater detail in a future Council session.

Raphaël RABE (Madagascar): La délégation de Madagascar fait siennes les déclarations des Présidents du Groupe des 77 et du Groupe africain et prononcera, par conséquent, une déclaration assez brève. Malgré le temps très réduit qui séparait la Conférence de la présente Session du conseil, le Directeur général a pu entreprendre d'une manière suffisamment approfondie l'examen prescrit par la Conférence. Nous lui exprimons nos vives félicitations. Le fait que le Directeur général ait fait appel à des experts de haut niveau pour l'assister constitue pour nous une initiative fort heureuse. Nous sommes reconnaissants au Secrétariat d'avoir mis à notre disposition des documents dont la clarté et la transparence contribuent à nous faciliter la prise de décisions.

Le document CL 106/6 portant rapport de la Session conjointe du Comité financier et du Comité des Programmes nous est précieux à plus d'un titre dans la mesure où ces organes se sont employés à examiner les avantages et les inconvénients des mesures à prendre et les actions à développer.

Nos félicitations vont également aux Présidents de ces Comités ainsi qu'à leurs membres. Nous relevons au paragraphe 15 du document que ces Comités approuvent à l'unanimité les grandes dimensions stratégiques du processus de changement proposé, à savoir: décentralisation, prestations de services plus rentables et renforcement des capacités nationales. Notre délégation partage sans réserve cette position encourageante des Comités. Cette notion de renforcement des capacités nationales est d'une importance capitale pour l'avenir de la coopération entre la FAO et les Etats Membres, notamment des

pays en voie de développement. Le Directeur général mise beaucoup sur cette mesure pour réduire les coûts d'intervention de l'Organisation et pour renforcer ses avantages comparatifs et lui permettre, ce faisant, d'étendre ce genre d'interventions en matière de développement proprement dit. A cet effet, nous appuyons très chaleureusement les commentaires, observations et propositions contenus dans les paragraphes 17 à 22 du document principal. Nous souhaitons vivement leur mise en application rapide.

Cela étant, ma délégation voudrait, si vous le permettez, formuler quelques commentaires, en se conformant au plan figurant dans le document intitulé: "Points soumis au Conseil pour décision".

Mais avant d'y procéder, je voudrais faire part à cette auguste assemblée des points de vue du Ministre d'Etat à l'Agriculture et au Développement de Madagascar à l'endroit des priorités de l'Organisation suite à la lettre du 18 janvier 1994 que le Directeur général lui a envoyé. Comme il est dit à juste titre au paragraphe 3 du document CL 106/2, le Directeur général n'a pas pu prendre en considération toutes les propositions reçues mais en tiendra compte dans l'exercice futur. Le Ministre malgache souhaiterait que, dans le prochain biennium, le programme Elevage soit classé au même niveau que les forêts et les pêches eu égard à la place prépondérante que ce secteur occupe dans l'économie en particulier, au rôle qu'il joue dans la sécurité alimentaire et dans l'amélioration du niveau de vie des petits agriculteurs. Le grand programme proposé pourrait comprendre un programme santé animale et un programme production animale.

Nous sommes certains que le Directeur général en a pris note et ne manquera pas de l'examiner lors de la préparation du prochain budget; et nous l'en remercions vivement. Ma délégation a écouté attentivement le discours liminaire du Directeur général et a lu le document CL 106/INF/5 qui donne la déclaration complète du Directeur général.

Nous appuyons chaleureusement toutes les actions proposées par le Directeur général pour relancer les secteurs "Forêts" et "Pêches". Pour le secteur "Forêts", nous sommes reconnaissants au Directeur général de la proposition d'organiser une réunion du Groupe consultatif sur le PAFT en 1995 tel que cela figure au paragraphe 35 du document CL 106/INF/5. Bien entendu, il serait souhaitable que, d'ici là, le Directeur général puisse rassembler les fonds extrabudgétaires requis. Un appel est donc lancé aux membres qui soutiennent le PAFT et le secteur forestier pour qu'ils contribuent sans tarder à rassembler les fonds extrabudgétaires de ce programme. En tout cas, nous voudrions inviter le Conseil à se prononcer favorablement sur la tenue de cette première réunion du Groupe consultatif si important pour nous, pour préparer la session de 1995 de la Commission du développement durable.

Ma délégation approuve la mise en service d'un programme spécial de sécurité alimentaire dans les pays à faible revenu et à déficit alimentaire ainsi que le programme visant la mise en place et la promotion d'un système de prévention et la réponse rapide contre les ravageurs et les maladies transfrontières des animaux et des plantes.

Le programme spécial sur la sécurité alimentaire connaîtra un succès assuré si les mesures et actions décrites dans les paragraphes 66 à 74 du document principal sont effectivement mises en oeuvre. Pour ce faire, il faudra un engagement profond, résolu et soutenu des principaux protagonistes, à savoir les agriculteurs eux-mêmes, qui devront être consultés et concernés

pendant tout le processus de programmation, de planification et de mise en oeuvre des projets, les départements techniques responsables de la sécurité alimentaire dans les pays dont le mandat principal est d'assurer un encadrement approprié, les institutions multilatérales et bilatérales tel qu'indiqué au paragraphe 93, le secteur privé et, bien entendu, les ONG.

Nous pensons, nous aussi, qu'il y a lieu de mettre en application et d'utiliser les résultats des recherches sur les variétés de céréales performantes non encore vulgarisés; il est temps, à notre sens, d'exploiter les résultats encourageants obtenus sur le manioc dans le Centre de recherches d'Ibadan, au Nigéria. Il faut aussi intensifier et améliorer les utilisations de cultures traditionnelles, comme l'a indiqué le Président du groupe africain dans son discours; cela implique cependant la nécessité de disposer de quantités suffisantes de semences, de tubercules et de boutures à vulgariser ainsi que des intrants requis pour garantir une bonne productivité.

Il faudra, en outre, trouver une solution au problème du financement du monde rural et, dans certains cas, aux problèmes fonciers; mais cela ne devrait pas constituer un goulot d'étranglement national car on peut bien intervenir en premier là où ces difficultés n'existent pas. Il faudra aussi procéder, bien entendu, à la réhabilitation des infrastructures hydroagricoles et de communication et désenclaver les zones de production à fort potentiel.

Pour le deuxième programme spécial, à savoir la mise en place d'un système performant de prévention des urgences, nous convenons avec le Directeur général que la FAO a toujours joué un rôle déterminant dans la lutte contre les maladies des plantes et des animaux et contre les ravageurs transfrontières. Elle doit non seulement préserver cette capacité mais aussi et surtout la renforcer.

En ce qui concerne les propositions du Directeur général relatives à la modification des structures, ma délégation les trouve justifiées et pertinentes et les approuve en conséquence.

L'Organisation doit être en mesure de répondre aux défis auxquels elle est et sera confrontée, à savoir éliminer la faim et la malnutrition frappant déjà plus de 800 millions de personnes et nourrir convenablement une population de neuf milliards en l'an 2030. Elle doit remplir les mandats qui sont les siens suite à la Conférence de Rio et à la Conférence internationale sur la nutrition; et elle doit suivre de près les répercussions sur la sécurité alimentaire de l'Accord et de la Déclaration de Marrakech.

Les nouvelles structures sont donc plus que justifiées; elles obtiendront leur maximum d'efficacité en collaborant étroitement et d'une façon permanente avec les anciennes structures. Nous sommes convaincus que la création de nouveaux bureaux sous-régionaux et leur localisation seront déterminées par des critères précis tel que le demandent le Comité financier et le Comité du programme au paragraphe 1.28 du document CL 106/4.

Enfin, je ne sais pas si le moment est opportun de le faire mais, en tout cas, ma délégation serait favorable à ce que les décisions du Conseil soient rédigées sous forme de résolution. Telle résolution reprendrait, en

quelque sorte, les points figurant dans la note que j'ai citée précédemment et cela pourrait faciliter le travail du Comité de rédaction.

Yalal RASSOOLOF (Iran, Islamic Republic of): First and foremost, Mr Chairman, on behalf of myself and the delegation from the Islamic Republic of Iran, I should like to welcome you on the chair. I hereby extend my heartfelt wishes for the success of the meeting and the prosperity of the member countries likewise.

Mr Chairman, the review of the programmes, structures and policies of the Food and Agriculture Organization shows that Mr Director-General has fulfilled his duty comprehensively and with a profound understanding of the complications facing the developing countries. While treating major international issues, the presented proposals have not failed to deal with the real problems of FAO's member states. In addition, his astuteness has been in presenting the proposals in the framework of a zero-growth budget following an objective function which attempts to maximize the impact and cost-effectiveness of the Organization's action.

The suggestions for prioritizing the allocation of resources for forestry in order to create a leading role for the FAO in the implementation of the decisions made by UNCED, augmenting the resources allotted to fisheries in order to prevent overfishing practices and promote responsible fisheries, establishing relations between FAO's activities and the outcomes of the Uruguay Round agreements as well as the World Trade Organization, and last but not least, highlighting the issue of food security, especially in the Low-Income, Food-Deficit Countries, betoken the sensitivity of the FAO toward paramount global issues henceforward and its leading role in the member states' capitalizing on the positive effects of such world events.

Separation of long-term activities from short-term ones, decentralization of activities, increasing the number of regional and subregional offices, creation of the Department for Sustainable Development and transformation of the Development Department into the Technical Cooperation Department will undoubtedly lead to the following:

- Qualitative improvement and increased responsiveness and relevance of services, increasing efficiency of natural resources management.

- Enhancement of coordination and integrity in the different stages of the planning process, including policy-making, investments and operations, which will all in all assist the FAO in achieving a more efficient and effective management system.

A sharpened priority concentration, with initiation of a special programme on food production in support of food security is a logical and powerful strategy in combating the hunger and malnutrition in the world. We have witnessed the success of this strategy in wheat production in the Islamic Republic of Iran, through a programme called the "pivotal wheat production scheme", which increased the total wheat production by 70 percent over the last five years. Therefore we objectively and strongly support this priority issue.

Hereby I would like to appreciate the establishment of the Department for Sustainable Development and the said transformation and wish the best prospects for the two Departments.

Greater dependence upon the expertise of the developing countries, strengthening of FAO offices in these countries and re-deployment of FAO experts based in Rome to regional offices will on the one hand boost the national capacity of such countries' expertise (the most significant problem in many of them as far as development is concerned) and, on the other hand, make possible the reference of the real needs of these countries to the centre and their expeditious, timely follow-up.

While the proposals have been fully advocated in the common report of the joint meeting of the Programme and Finance Committees, it has rightly been mentioned that in certain cases more precise information can help the member states in their decision-making. Fortunately my Government was availed of the opportunity to host Mr Director-General for a short period, and could not only show him some of the capabilities of the Third World countries but also had the chance to obtain more detailed and accurate information on his proposals. On the basis of our discussions on these propositions, I have the pleasure to announce that the Islamic Republic of Iran fully supports the proposed programmes in toto. The Director-General's mastery over the details of the proposals and even necessary executive schemes assured the Iranian Government that, in case these proposals are seriously seconded by all member states, in the future we will witness an organization which aside from being a centre of excellence, can keenly fathom the agricultural problems of the developing countries, take practical measures to solve them and help these countries in traversing the road to development ever more swiftly.

Transforming the FAO into a centre of excellence requires the incorporation of highly qualified specialists, closer connection and interaction with international research institutions such as CGIAR universities of the Member Nations and strong incentives of the personnel to remain in the forefront of science, which of course will be taken into your kind consideration.

Mr Director-General is taking the momentous responsibility of FAO's leadership at a time when many international cruces which have been under years of study and negotiation are arriving at the implementation stage or passing through it instantaneously. Among these, one can name the GATT, the WTO, as well as matters like liberalization, privatization and structural adjustment, which, apart from placing broad and deep effects on the agricultural sectors of the Southern countries and global trade relation, may influence the domestic, social and political scenes of any country. The researches done and books and articles published in this field imply different and at times contradictory impacts on the agricultural and economic fate of the developing countries, which adds to the complexity and ambiguity of the subject. Evidently the impression of such events is different in each and every country, consequently requiring distinctive policy-makings. The FAO, as a centre of excellence, can perform systematic research on proper policy-making by the experts of its member states with the supervision of prominent international scientists, and thus play a decisive role in this area.

The proposal for the incorporation of research, training and extension as well as the integration of policy advice, investment and technical assistance into one organizational unit through field operations not only ensures the necessary coordination and compatibility between different components of the concerned system but also brings FAO's services nearer to

the realistic demands of its member countries and supplies the outcomes directly to practical domains.

My delegation strongly supports the idea of TCDC and ECDC, and is pleased to express its willingness and readiness to fully participate and share in concerned activities. We also support the extension of regional and sub-regional offices in pursuing a more decentralized organization. However, we are of the strong opinion that achievement of the Director-General's objectives on mitigation of the problems of distances and means of communications needs to authorize him to continue this practice in the future.

As regards sustainable agriculture which has been underscored in the proposals, I should like to put emphasis on one significant point although it has been implicitly mentioned. Mere technical and economic justifications do not ensure the sustainability of a prosperous agricultural system. Social and cultural sustainability is among the prerequisites which, if unheeded, may destroy all the endeavour. My country has witnessed obtrusive examples of this kind in the past. Agro-industries and agricultural corporations set up in Iran on the basis of the experience and technical assistance of advanced countries possessed favourable technical conditions and notable economic return, yet due to standing on unstable social and cultural grounds, they collapsed with an incredible speed as soon as the obligatory membership of the farmers was relaxed. I hope that the Director-General will base his programmes on very firm socio-cultural foundations while taking advantage of other successful and failed attempts in different countries.

It is needless to say that the FAO's key to success is for its Sustainable Development Department to subsume all agricultural, fisheries, forestry and policy services in a comprehensive and consistent way.

Ladies and Gentlemen, let me end my words while underlining another point. The Director-General has mentioned the following in paragraph 8 of his report to the Council of the FAO:

"While seeking to maintain its relevance and value to all members, it must accord priority attention to the most fragile economies...

FAO should do its utmost to assist them in breaking away from the destiny of backwater of development initiative, which some may consider their inevitable fate."

I sincerely hope that His Excellency will gain sheer success in this sacred goal of his, yet I would like to emphasize that as long as this mentality, that is, "disbelief of the Third World in its real potentials for development" exists, any effort by any organization or authority may bring about little effect.

Mr Director-General, provided that you, as a knowledgeable and experienced individual, and as the leader of the most important international organization in the field of agricultural development, take into account the change of this conception through simultaneous cultural, technical and socio-economical measures as the preliminary to other activities, you can rest assured of your success in achieving the aforesaid humanitarian goal.

Mr Chairman, the constructive and discerning proposals of the Director-General on the programmes, structures and policies of the Organization are fully advocated by the Government of the Islamic Republic

of Iran, and we announce our unrestricted readiness for its thorough, universal implementation. In the meantime, we are of the belief that materializing the proposed changes is not a simple task, and cordially request the esteemed Council Members to pave the way for the swift implementation of the Director-General's proposals by providing the greatest flexibility possible.

Aguinaldo LISBOA RAMOS (Cap-Vert): D'emblée je voudrais vous dire la satisfaction de la délégation du Cap-Vert de vous voir présider pour la deuxième fois une session du Conseil. Je voudrais aussi saluer les autres membres du Bureau et les féliciter pour leur élection.

Une forte volonté de rénovation anime le Système des Nations Unies depuis quelques années. Au sein de la FAO les débats concernant sa restructuration ne sont pas d'aujourd'hui. En effet, "l'examen de certains aspects des buts et opérations de la FAO" soumis au Conseil et à la Conférence en 1989, réaffirmait, d'un côté, la nécessité de reconnaître et renforcer le rôle principal de l'Organisation, et, de l'autre, s'interrogeait sur sa structure géographique, qui devrait être revue d'urgence, étant donné l'importance et la priorité accordées à l'analyse et aux conseils en matière politique. La Conférence, à sa vingt-septième session, en 1993, a donné l'occasion pour déclencher le processus de changements profondément ressentis.

En effet, en reconnaissant au Directeur général, qui venait d'être élu, la possibilité d'examiner le Programme de travail et budget, la Conférence a adopté la Résolution 10/93 qui autorisait le Directeur général à entreprendre l'examen des programmes, structures et politiques et soumettre ses propositions au Conseil, pour décision, tout en respectant les limites du budget approuvé. Cette réunion supplémentaire du Conseil est donc appelée à se prononcer sur les propositions du Directeur général.

J'aimerais, Monsieur le Président, témoigner à Monsieur le Directeur général la satisfaction de la délégation du Cap-Vert pour sa présence pour la première fois au Conseil, notre reconnaissance pour sa brillante et passionnée introduction à nos travaux, pour la façon dont il s'est acquitté de son mandat et pour sa ferme détermination à tout faire pour que notre Organisation, en collaboration avec d'autres partenaires, relève le plus grand défi qui se pose encore aujourd'hui à l'humanité et constitue, d'ailleurs, son objectif principal - combattre la malnutrition et vaincre la faim.

Déjà pendant la campagne électorale, Monsieur Jacques Diouf avait entamé avec les Etats Membres et leurs Représentants à Rome un processus de dialogue et consultation dans le but de faire de la FAO une organisation plus dynamique, souple et efficace, qui puisse mieux répondre aux perspectives, besoins et demandes de ses Etats Membres, chaque jour confrontés à de nouveaux défis imposés par les transformations profondes et rapides qui secouent le monde et par une population qui ne cesse d'augmenter.

Après son élection, le Directeur général a aussi associé à cet exercice des experts indépendants de haut niveau et le personnel de la FAO - aussi bien du Siège que sur le terrain -, ce qui a permis la présentation d'un document d'excellente qualité, complété par des éclaircissements exhaustifs demandés par le Comité du Programme et le Comité financier.

Le Gouvernement du Cap-Vert a analysé avec le plus vif intérêt les propositions qui nous sont soumises et l'approche adoptée par le Directeur général. Elles vont dans le sens de la rationalisation des structures au Siège, la décentralisation des activités techniques, à travers la réorganisation des structures de terrain et l'utilisation des capacités nationales et régionales, ce qui entraînera une réduction des coûts. Avec la réorientation des priorités une attention particulière est donnée à la sécurité alimentaire, tout particulièrement à l'augmentation de la productivité et de la production alimentaire dans les PFRDA, à la prévention et à la lutte contre les ravageurs et maladies transfrontières des plantes et des animaux et à la participation féminine et publique au développement. C'est une approche cohérente et intégrée et sa mise en oeuvre permet la préservation et le renforcement de la FAO comme Centre d'excellence en tout ce qui concerne l'alimentation et l'agriculture, et de Chef de file dans l'intégration des activités du développement durable, dans le suivi et la mise en oeuvre des décisions de la CNUED, et dans la coopération technique avec et entre les Etats.

Nous avons beaucoup apprécié l'engagement du Directeur général de soumettre régulièrement au Conseil, par l'intermédiaire du Comité du Programme et du Comité financier, des rapports sur l'exécution des mesures approuvées. Je suis convaincu que cette procédure assurera un dialogue très utile avec les Etats Membres et permettra l'établissement d'une confiance réciproque et la création de conditions optimales pour la préparation du Programme de travail et budget pour le prochain biennium.

Mérite aussi notre soutien sa décision d'élargir l'éventail des partenaires externes de la FAO, en favorisant la coopération avec les ONG et le secteur privé, y compris à l'échelle locale. Nous connaissons les profonds changements politiques intervenus dans nos pays ces dernières années, et une telle approche est hautement appréciée, surtout si l'on considère la responsabilité supplémentaire du Centre d'investissement en ce qui concerne la sécurité alimentaire dans les PFRDA.

Le programme d'accroissement de la production alimentaire dans les PFRDA, reprenant les recommandations du séminaire de haut niveau sur la sécurité alimentaire dans ces pays, a attiré notre attention sur la singulière et très difficile situation en Afrique, seule région où l'accroissement de la production est inférieur au taux moyen de croissance de la population, dû à la dégradation continue des sols, à la deforestation et aux catastrophes naturelles et provoquées par l'homme.

Ma délégation souhaite vivement que les problèmes de sécurité alimentaire et de l'agriculture durable de l'Afrique restent au centre des préoccupations de la FAO.

J'exprime aussi ma satisfaction en constatant que l'emploi dans les zones rurales, les problèmes d'accès aux aliments, particulièrement complexes en Afrique, et le suivi des implications sur les pays en développement des résultats des accords de l'Uruguay Round sont en première ligne des préoccupations de notre Organisation.

La délégation capverdienne considère très importante l'aide que la FAO accorde aux pays insulaires en développement et estime qu'elle devrait être plus substantielle à l'avenir. Le processus de décentralisation des ressources et la plus grande utilisation des capacités nationales doivent prendre en dû compte les spécificités de ces pays et leur situation

géographique. Ainsi, par exemple, le Cap-Vert, considérant la distance qui le sépare du Bureau régional de l'Afrique et les difficultés de liaison existant dans le continent, aimerait voir renforcée la Représentation de la FAO à Praia.

Monsieur le Président, je tiens à féliciter le Directeur général de son choix concernant l'affectation de ressources aux grands programmes Agriculture, Forêts et Pêches, notamment pour la relance de la promotion de l'accroissement de la production en commençant par des terres ayant les plus grandes potentialités agricoles. Toutefois, de pareilles activités en cours dans d'autres zones moins fertiles ne devraient pas être abandonnées ou réduites car cela pourrait entraîner l'accélération du processus de dégradation des terres, contrariant le principe de l'agriculture durable et les exigences même de la sécurité alimentaire.

J'aimerais aussi saluer la décision du Directeur général d'inscrire dans le Programme ordinaire des ressources pour la préparation de la Conférence technique internationale sur les ressources phytogénétiques, dont l'objectif est de rendre opérationnel le système global de la FAO pour la conservation et l'utilisation des ressources phytogénétiques. Ce procesus doit être conduit par les pays sous l'autorité et la supervision de la Commission des ressources phytogénétiques et son Groupe de travail.

Je voudrais aussi faire miens les propos de l'Ambassadeur de l'Ouganda, Président du Groupe africain, et donner la ferme adhésion de la délégation de mon pays aux propositions du Directeur général, qui a accompli un excellent travail dans des conditions si contraignantes et dans un délai tellement court.

La délégation du Cap-Vert approuve des propositions du Directeur général contenues dans les documents CL 106/2 et CL 106/2-Sup.1 et propose au Conseil de les adopter sous forme de Résolution.

Votre tâche, Monsieur le Directeur général, sera ardue et de longue haleine.

Il faut, vous l'avez déjà dit, "soin et diligence", "prudence et célérité", une gestion moderne qui tienne compte des facteurs organisátionnels et humains. Il faut aussi que, dès maintenant, le Conseil vous donne le "feu vert" pour faire démarrer cette première étape.

Je suis convaincu qu'à la Conférence de 1995, l'année de la célébration du 50ème anniversaire de la création de la FAO, quand vous présenterez les résultats du travail accompli pendant ce biennium, le Programme de travail et budget pour 1996/97 ainsi que le Plan à moyen terme intégreront les mesures et ressources qui amèneront notre Organisation à sa complète rénovation.

Mme Michelle COMEAU (Canada): Monsieur le Président, le Directeur général nous avait promis transparence. Les documents sur le programme nous apportent la preuve qu'il est à l'écoute des Etats Membres et qu'il perçoit le principe consultatif comme un élément de coopération efficace plutôt que comme une intrusion.

Au nom du Canada, Monsieur le Président, je tiens à féliciter le nouveau Directeur général et lui dire qu'il s'agit d'un excellent début de mandat.

Nous sommes, tous, à l'ère des contrôles et des réductions budgétaires particulièrement sévères. Les contribuables de nos pays respectifs remettent tout en question, y compris l'appartenance aux institutions internationales. Il faut désormais que les Gouvernements soient en mesure de défendre leur investissement dans ces organisations et d'en garantir l'efficacité. C'est là une réalité que le nouveau Directeur général semble avoir saisie. Sa transparence et l'établissement explicite de mesures et de politiques favorisant l'efficience et l'efficacité à la FAO, caractériseront désormais les activités de l'Organisation et seront identifiées à la nouvelle Administration. C'est là une initiative fondamentale qui constamment nous forcera à remettre en question nos priorités, à réévaluer nos programmes à la lumière de l'évolution de la situation, et de leur rendement. C'est de plus, ainsi que les grandes entreprises en ont fait l'expérience, la seule façon de rester dans la course, de sortir vainqueur de la compétition qui surgit de toutes parts.

L'esprit d'économie qui caractérise les changements, le renouveau que nous propose le Directeur général oriente la FAO vers une ère s'alimentant non au principe de l'action pour l'action mais plutôt à celui de l'action pour les résultats imputables, escomptés et atteints.

Dans son programme, le Directeur général met l'accent sur la sécurité alimentaire. C'est le défi clé et une question complexe. Comment amener, particulièrement dans les pays souffrant de pénuries alimentaires, l'intégration d'éléments aussi disparates et pourtant interactifs que les questions portant sur les importations et les échanges internationaux, les politiques de production, les stratégies de stabilisation? Comment marier tous ces éléments aux préoccupations reliées à l'accès, à l'aide alimentaire, à la valeur nutritive des denrées, au régime foncier et à l'assistance technique? Intégrer et coordonner tous ces facteurs représente un défi de grande taille. Le Canada compte aider le Directeur général à parachever ce défi dans un souci de coopération et d'efficacité.

Dans un contexte plus vaste, après sept ans de négociations, on vient enfin de signer l'accord du GATT. C'est un premier pas vers un marché international plus ouvert. Nous aimerions connaître quelles mesures le Directeur général envisage pour établir des liens entre le sous-comité consultatif de l'écoulement des excédents et la nouvelle organisation du commerce international?

Au chapitre de l'agriculture, les dispositions en vue de la nouvelle organisation multilatérale de commerce arrivent à point nommé. La priorité que le Directeur général accorde au Programme "EMPRES" reçoit la pleine approbation du Canada. De plus, le Canada attache une importance primordiale à la préservation des programmes normatifs tels le Codex alimentarius et l'Accord international sur la protection des plantes. Le Canada place aussi beaucoup d'espoir dans l'avènement rapide des programmes de statistiques commerciales comme le Centre international de l'information agricole ou la base de données sources et destinataires sur internet.

Pour nous, la biodiversité reste très importante. La proposition de convoquer une conférence technique internationale sur les ressources phytogénétiques a reçu l'appui chaleureux du Canada. Nous sommes heureux que la FAO participe au cinquième Congrès mondial sur les ressources zoogénétiques, qui aura lieu à Guelph, Ontario cet été. Nous encourageons la FAO à faire avancer ses propres initiatives pour la conservation de ces ressources.

Le Canada, c'est bien connu, s'est fait au cours des dernières années le défenseur systématique de l'enjeu forestier au sein de la FAO. A maintes reprises, il a critiqué l'Organisation pour son indifférence apparente à la cause de la forêt mondiale et lui a reproché l'absence de profil du programme de la foresterie.

Quand il est venu au Canada le 7 mars dernier, le Directeur général a promis, et je cite "un signal psychologiquement positif" sur la question forestière. Le Canada lit ce message positif dans l'effort de rééquilibrage du budget ordinaire en faveur des forêts, dans la démarche de coordination des multiples initiatives suscitées par le suivi de la Conférence de Rio, dans l'ébauche d'une stratégie de programme forestier qui justement se situe dans la foulée de la CNUED, dans l'importance de son rôle normatif enfin assumé et dans le souci de consultation et d'implication des divers intervenants.

Evidemment, là aussi certaines préoccupations ne semblent pas disparaître aussi rapidement que nous le souhaitons, à savoir 1° le déséquilibre flagrant qui existe dans le secteur forestier entre le budget du programme ordinaire et celui des activités extrabudgétaires et, 2° le besoin urgent de doter le poste de sous-directeur général de la foresterie d'un gestionnaire efficace et aguerri, d'un expert forestier et environnementaliste convaincu capable d'épauler le Directeur général dans l'immense et pressant défi de la forêt post Rio.

Quant aux pêcheries, je tiens à souligner, dans un premier temps, toute l'importance que le Canada attache à l'élaboration du Code de conduite pour une pêche responsable. Le Canada vient de ratifier l'accord pour contrôler la pêche en haute mer et nous espérons que tous les pays membres feront de même dans les plus brefs délais. Ceci marquera un pas de plus vers notre objectif commun de développement durable de nos ressources halieutiques à l'étendue de la planète comme le veut Action 21.

Le Canada appuie la création du département du développement durable. Par la création de ce nouveau département, la FAO reconnaît également la place importante que jouent les femmes dans le développement. Les deux nouveaux départements traverseront une période de rodage et devront, par le fait même, être soumis à une surveillance assidue pour assurer qu'ils sont bien orientés et donnent leur pleine mesure.

Au cours des années, le Canada a suggéré que les réformes que se donnerait la FAO sous-entendent une délégation d'autorité, une compression de la chaîne de commandes, de la hiérarchie ainsi que l'établissement de mécanismes d'imputabilité et d'évaluation. Nous comprenons que ce sont là des principes sur lesquels s'est appuyé le Directeur général et nous l'en félicitons. Nous espérons que leur mise en place aboutira non seulement à des économies non négligeables au profit des programmes mais aussi à une vigueur accrue de l'engagement indispensable du personnel au service de l'Organisation.

Le Directeur général nous propose aussi une décentralisation.

L'élargissement des effectifs régionaux et la création de cellules sous-régionales ont pour but d'accroître l'efficacité et la pertinence des programmes sur le terrain. Nous tenons à souligner que, pour maximiser ce rendement, cette décentralisation doit être précédée de la définition de critères assurant la cohésion des services opérationnels, afin d'éviter

tout phénomène de dispersion des ressources et de dédoublement des activités et afin de maintenir la synergie et la complémentarité des différentes unités. Elle doit, comme nous l'avons dit, s'accompagner d'une délégation d'autorité et d'un mécanisme de surveillance approprié. Un comité pour revoir les projets de terrain aiderait sûrement la FAO à assurer une cohérence entre ses objectifs et les réalisations des projets. Des rapports d'étapes seraient sûrement fort appréciés des Etats-membres qui ont des comptes à rendre à leurs contribuables.

Ceci m'amène à vous faire part d'une certaine appréhension liée à la décentralisation - le retrait de la partie FAO du partenariat de la commission mixte CEE-FAO sur l'agriculture et le bois. Nous jugeons particulièrement importants les travaux sur le bois. A ce sujet, si les pays tropicaux bénéficient de l'Organisation internationale du bois tropical, les régions tempérées n'ont pour seul forum où débattre des questions des marchés du bois et des produits forestiers que cette commission.

Le Canada se réjouit également de l'initiative de la FAO au chapitre de la coopération avec d'autres institutions internationales et régionales et nous félicitons le Directeur général de l'avancement du dossier avec l'IICA. C'est là un modèle de coopération que nous souhaitons voir se répéter avec d'autres institutions régionales et internationales.

Tant qu'il y aura transparence manifeste, contrôle consciencieux et écoute active de la part du Secrétariat, le Canada se rangera derrière lui et appuiera sans réserve son Directeur général. Nos meilleurs voeux de succès accompagnent Monsieur Diouf et toute son équipe, pour une FAO saine et efficace.

J.M. MAKWETA (Tanzania): Please accept my gratitude for giving me this opportunity to address this crucial meeting in order to express our genuine satisfaction to the Director-General of FAO for the efficiency he has demonstrated in the preparation and presentation of his proposals. These proposals show the Director-General's commitment to solve the daunting problems of poverty and food insecurity globally. We are also aware that the proposals have been prepared, taking into account the constraints of the budget, staff contracts and time. However, we feel that there is room for further adjustments in the proposals because no idea is born perfect.

Nothing endures except change, so, if FAO is to endure, it must change or accept changes. It is in the light of this interpretation of the Director-General's proposals that my country supports in principle decentralization as a process of devolution of financial, human and administrative responsibilities to the regional, subregional and country offices.

The limits to this process of decentralization we hope will judiciously be taken care of by the Director-General. Still, there is clearly a need to define the roles and responsibilities of the regional, subregional and country offices in order to avoid conflicts and duplications. Taking into account that some of the country representatives will have multi-accreditation, one would wish to see a clear distinction between the role of the subregional offices and those of the country offices with multi-accreditation. Furthermore, in a country with several FAO projects, multi-accreditation is likely to weaken the country office's ability to interract

with the respective governments. It is, therefore, necessary that multi-accreditation be decided on a selective basis.

If our main thrust is to assail the challenges of poverty and food insecurity, then FAO has to maintain a significant presence in the problem areas, namely the low-income food-deficit countries. In a sense, I am arguing for the strengthening of the country offices in low-income food-deficit countries, not only through reallocation of staff but also through a threshold reallocation of financial resources and decision-making powers. This situation also requires undisputable technical competence of FAO country representatives. In this respect, the appointment of country representatives with a political or diplomatic background is likely to limit the impact of FAO activities where they are needed most.

However, we hope that these proposals will be implemented without eroding FAO's principles of universality. This, however, reminds me of the famous saying made by one of the Chinese leaders who once said that in dealing with such issues we should not mind the colour of the cat provided it catches the rat. In choosing or appointing people to main FAO offices, regional, subregional or country offices, we should be guided by competence or by people's ability to deliver goods and not by any other criteria. In addition, FAO has to ensure that there is close coordination between the field programmes and the regular programmes to enhance the impact of FAO's activities. Country representatives are well disposed to contribute to the success of the regular programmes, although they are in most cases not consulted. We are confident that these measures, if pursued diligently, can contribute substantially to overcome the challenges facing our Organization.

On the other proposed reforms, my delegation concurs with the remarks made by the delegations of the UK, China, the African Group, the Latin American Group, the Asian Group and the EEC.

Finally, it is our hope that the Council's decisions in this meeting will lay the framework of a process which would lead to a strong organization which will be more responsive to the challenges of food insecurity and poverty which affect most of the developing countries.

With these remarks, may I say that Tanzania will gibe all the support needed in the implementation of these proposals once they become accepted.

Milad Abdessalam SHMEYLA (Libya) (Original language arabic): At the outset I would like to support the statements made by the Chairmen, of the Near East Group, the African Group and the Group of 77. I would also like to express our appreciation to the Director-General who has resorted to complex and wide-ranging counsultations in order to develop the proposals contained in the document now before us, Cl 106/2, entitled Director-General's Review of the Programme's Structures and Policies of the Organization. This document is submitted to us in accordance with Conference Resolution 10/93 as adopted by the last Session of the FAO Conference in November last year.

Since we have little time at our disposal, my delegation is not going to comment on all the topics which are before us for discussion. We shall simply focus on a few points which seem to us to be of particular relevance.

In paragraph 6 of the document, it says that the Organization has to confront two major challenges; firstly, to eliminate the unacceptable human tragedy whereby currently 800 million people do not have adequate access to food; secondly, the Organization has to ensure that the world will produce in a sustainable way enough food to feed 9 billion people by the year 2030.

This is where, in my view, FAO has a very important role to play in order to analyse the food security situation throughout the world and see what can be done to help Member Nations develop and implement appropriate action programmes in order to achieve such food security in every region of the world. In this way we shall eventually have collective self-sufficiency which is of particular importance to current low-income food-deficit countries. It is absolutely essential that the Organization should nourish and develop cooperation amongst all international organizations to help these low-income food-deficit countries. In this connection we would like to stress the particular importance of the special programme on food production in support of food security in LIFDCS and EMPRES, the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases.

We agree with the Director-General's proposal to start action on these two new priority programmes within the ceiling of the PWB for the biennium 1994-95 adopted by the 27th FAO Conference in 1993.

Paragraph 9 deals with a series of important technical matters such as the unchecked conversion of prime agricultural land to other uses, the continued draining of soil fertility, the deforestation, the pressure on dwindling water reserves which lead to desertification and drought.

FAO will clearly have to take the necessary measures to put a stop to the courses of desertification. To this effect the Organization should cooperate with all the countries interested at national, subregional and regional level. It should also cooperate with international institutions and organizations dealing with this particularly pressing problem.

My delegation would like to support the new strategies which are being proposed in paragraphs 17-22 of the document before us, in other words the section headed, "The Case for Change". These, of course, deal essentially with decentralization and strengthening of national competence as the basis for the success of development programmes in Member Nations.

The proposal to establish a Sustainable Development Department is most timely because existing ecological systems are becoming increasingly fragile. Measures have to be taken to protect them and to protect the renewal of natural resources which are now threatened because of deforestation, overgrazing and other phenomena.

The proposal by the Director-General fully meets these challenges. We support his proposal for the establishment of a Sustainable Development Department in FAO because we think that this will be extremely useful. We would like to express our appreciation to the Director-General for proposing this measure which will help to safeguard the interest of Member Nations.

The Extension, Research and Education Division is the cornerstone of the Sustainable Development Department. In our view extension as well as education is particularly essential beacause agriculture, after all, is the very root or foundation of the economy of many developing countries. The

role of agricultural research to assist the development of agriculture is, quite clearly, equally vital. This is why FAO should strengthen national agricultural research systems and facilities through the assistance to universities in carrying out agricultural research programmes by providing technical assistance as required to such universities, in particular in developing countries, so that agricultural problems can gradually be solved.

My delegation has looked carefully at the new organizational chart of divisions and units as found in Annex 3 of the Director-General's proposal. We fully support these proposed changes which we hope will bear positive fruit.

In closing, we hope that FAO will achieve success in its efforts so that we can put an end to the unacceptable situation in which millions of people do not have enough food. My country believes that food is an essential basic right of all human beings.

We also wish the Director-General and his staff every success in the implementation of the new priority programme as defined in the Programme of Work and Budget adopted for the 1994-95 biennium so that the expectations of all the human race may be met in the long run.

José Luis BERNAL (Mexico): Mi delegación quisiera, en primer lugar, unirse a las expresiones que fueron manifestadas esta mañana a nombre del GRULAC, por el distinguido observador de la República Dominicana.

Mi delegación quisiera agregar algunos conceptos particulares y dos de carácter general, que creemos pueden servir de apoyo para la labor tan efectiva que está realizando el señor Director General.

En México estamos muy animados por las propuestas que hemos analizado, que han sido puestas a consideración del Consejo por parte del Director General y cuya aprobación, no tenemos ninguna duda, nos permitirá salir de esta reunión con resultados prácticos en beneficio de la Organización pero sobre todo en favor de nuestros pueblos en lo que toca a desarrollo y cooperación en materia agroalimentaria.

Hemos presentado a la consideración de la Secretaría, para ser incluidos en el verbatim, un documento amplio con comentarios específicos en materia de las diferentes propuestas que han sido presentadas. Tenemos comentarios sobre el Departamento de Cooperación Técnica, sobre la creación del Departamento de Desarrollo Sostenible, sobre las iniciativas para renovar la estructura local y en materia también del Programa especial sobre la producción de alimentos y el apoyo a la seguridad alimentaria de la PBIDA. Tenemos algunos comentarios sobre la seguridad alimentaria duradera, sobre el sistema de prevención de emergencia de plagas y enfermedades transfronterizas de animales y plantas, sobre el Programa de reducción de publicaciones y en materia de celebración de reuniones. Creemos que ese documento puede ser de utilidad en forma detallada para estos trabajos que tenemos ante nosotros.

Sólo quisiera detenerme en un aspecto particular, y es el que se refiere a la propuesta para modificar las representaciones de la FAO a nivel regional, subregional y local. La propuesta para una estructura local renovada se considera como un factor fundamental para reforzar la vinculación entre los Estados Miembros y la Secretaría. Creemos, en mi

delegación, que esto permitirá hacer más eficientes las actividades que la Organización realiza en los Países Miembros. En este sentido y como una aportación de mi país, consideramos que es necesario hacer una definición más explícita de las funciones y atribuciones de las Representaciones, así como de la coordinación que debe existir entre éstas y los Gobiernos de los países sede. En particular, proponemos examinar la normatividad con que funcionan las Representaciones, así como sus mecanismos de coordinación, de tal forma que se refuerce la vinculación con las instituciones gubernamentales nacionales y sectoriales que son responsables de la cooperación internacional en cada uno de los países.

También creemos necesario definir con claridad la relación que se quiere impulsar desde la FAO con las ONGs y con los sectores privado y social para que las nuevas normas sean aprobadas por los Estados Miembros, al momento o antes de ser aplicadas.

Por otra parte, es ya una exigencia el que las Representaciones cuenten con un esquema programático y presupuestario de carácter operativo, que evite improvisaciones o expectativas equivocadas. Un esquema de este tipo, a juicio de mi delegación, permitirá encauzar el proceso de cooperación con la FAO en los países, y podría traducirse en un reforzamiento de la capacidad institucional de cada país en favor de la cooperación internacional.

Esto es, señor Presidente, en lo que respecta a las consideraciones específicas, repito, hemos entregado un documento detallado con el que queremos hacer una aportación a las propuestas que nos ha hecho el Director General.

Dos consideraciones de carácter general respecto al proceso que estamos siguiendo. En primer lugar, a juicio de la delegación de México, quisiera reiterar que no debemos ver la restructuración de la FAO como un proceso único o como un proceso aislado. Participamos en este ejercicio convencidos de que nuestro esfuerzo se ubica en un proceso más amplio de reestructuración de los sectores económico y social del sistema de Naciones Unidas. Los compromisos que adoptemos en el curso de esta reunión del Consejo serán un insumo muy importante tanto para la revitalización de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas como para la formulación y puesta en práctica de la Agenda para el Desarrollo que hace unos días fue presentada por el Secretario General de la ONU a la Comunidad Internacional y que será discutida en la próxima reunión del Consejo Económico y Social.

Mi país considera que la Agenda para el Desarrollo deberá facilitar la creación de nuevas áreas de consenso sobre la base de instrumentos intergubernamentales ya existentes; permitirá reforzar la coordinación de las actividades dentro del Sistema de las Naciones Unidas; y debe llevar a restablecer la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo aprovechando los objetivos y los compromisos contraídos en la Asamblea General y otros foros internacionales. Este proceso supone también evaluar los trabajos que realizan los Organismos Internacionales y proponer medidas para superar los factores que obstaculizan la aplicación y el cumplimiento de sus metas, teniendo en mente que debemos utilizar con racionalidad y eficiencia los escasos recursos disponibles. De ahí que mi Delegación comparta el punto de vista expresado en el día de hoy por varias delegaciones, de que en su reestructuración la FAO debe contemplar una relación renovada y más estrecha con otros foros como la ONUDI, la OMPI, el GATT, la nueva Organización Mundial del Comercio, el Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario

Internacional y los Bancos de Desarrollo Regionales y, desde luego, las Comisiones Regionales de Naciones Unidas.

Compartimos también el punto de vista de que en el ámbito alimentario debe desarrollarse también una mayor coordinación y trabajo conjunto de los organismos alimentarios con sede en Roma.

En segundo lugar, como una declaración de carácter general, debemos tener presente que los cambios que ahora propone el Director General no son los únicos ni son los definitivos.

La restructuración de la FAO debe ser un proceso continuo, abierto, que responda de manera permanente a las nuevas realidades internacionales y a las necesidades de nuestros pueblos. Por ello, la reestructuración no debe limitarse únicamente a cambios en la estructura orgánica y operativa. Al aprobar esta reforma deberíamos expresar un mayor compromiso político de nuestros gobiernos y de la Secretaría con la Organización, tanto a nivel del examen de las propuestas como en su instrumentación, seguimiento y evaluación.

Yo quisiera insistir en este punto, señor Presidente, porque lo que estamos aprobando no es sólo una reforma de estructura o de personal; es a juicio del Gobierno de México, una transformación conceptual de fondo que todos venimos requiriendo, exigiendo y que es urgente emprender para elevar los niveles de vida de nuestras poblaciones. También servirá para mejorar el rendimiento de la producción y la eficacia en la distribución de alimentos; para elevar las condiciones de vida de la población rural; fomentar la conservación de los recursos naturales y la adopción de métodos innovadores de producción agrícola, así como para dar inicio a nuevas formas de asistencia técnica y de cooperación internacional.

Cuando proponemos este compromiso renovado quisiera, señor Presidente, reiterar el compromiso del Gobierno de México con la Organización. Queremos expresar en este momento nuestro voto de confianza en la gestión del Director General, reiterando que México tiene el compromiso de dar todo su apoyo a la reestructuración y cumplir las metas que se están proponiendo. Lo hacemos convencidos de la obligación que tiene México en la comunidad internacional. La economía mexicana ocupa ya entre el 10° y el 13° lugar de importancia en el mundo. Nuestro comercio exterior se expande rápidamente con todas las regiones del planeta. Junto con Canadá y Estados Unidos, al empezar este año, pusimos en práctica el tratado de libre comercio de América del Norte, cuyos resultados positivos son cada vez más evidentes y cuyo estudio se propone entre las metas elaboradas por el Director General. Este tratado es complementado ya por otros acuerdos de libre comercio de México, con Chile, Costa Rica y con Colombia y Venezuela.

Más recientemente México se incorporó a la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico, la OCDE. Somos también un país de la APEC y tenemos cada vez más profundas relaciones de cooperación con los países europeos.

Consideramos que las nuevas circunstancias ubican a México en una posición de mayor responsabilidad, pero también en una mejor situación para seguir pugnando por un desarrollo mundial más equilibrado, impulsando, como país en desarrolo de América Latina, relaciones de cooperación más fructífera entre países con distinto nivel de desarrollo.

Por ello, hoy, al dar este voto de confianza al señor Director, reiteramos el compromiso de México que está expresado en su constitución política con la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. Estamos seguros de que sólo a través de la cooperación podemos brindar mejores oportunidades de desarrollo y mejores niveles de vida y bienestar para nuestras sociedades.

Bandar AL-SHALHOOB (Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of) (Original language Arabic): At the outset I am pleased to see you chair the deliberations of this Council session. I also wish to congratulate your elected Vice-chairman.

I should like to extend our thanks to the Director-General, his collaborators and the Secretariat, for the sound preparation of the document CL 106/2 and CL 106/2-Sup. 1. We also thank him for having fully implemented in a timely manner the task entrusted to him by the General Conference in Resolution 93/1.

At the outset we would like to welcome what has been stated by the Chairman of the Near East Group. However I wish to address some specific points, and this because of time constraint. My delegation wishes to welcome the proposals submitted by the Director-General within the review of the Organization's programmes, structures and policies. We believe that these proposals represent the basis of the strengthening of the role of the Organization and the promotion of its efficiency in facing up to its challenges.

The approach adopted by the Director-General concerning food security and the priority given to food production and food security in low-income food-deficit countries, is an approach we consider as one of the most important approaches and our policy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is precisely based on giving the highest priority to food security and this in the field of agriculture. We are pleased to see FAO give the priority to this issue, namely through the increase of food production and the wider use of technology, especially the types of technology which have proved its efficiency. We also welcome the use of local technologies and promotion of these technologies bearing in mind the fact that these technologies will have a bearing on production.

We do also welcome the EMPRES system namely the Emergency Prevention system for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases and we believe that it should be given the highest priority in the Organization. In this connection I believe that cooperation between FAO and other international and specialized organizations should be encouraged because it is of mutual benefit to all these organizations.

As for the proposals concerning the restructuring of the Organization and bearing in mind the clarifications submitted by the Director-General in document CL 106/2-Sup.l, we do support them fully and consider them as the first step in the right direction namely that of promoting the role of the Organization. Furthermore we do believe that we do need regular progress reports on the implementation of these proposals and assessing their impact. We do also support the progressive decentralization policies in the various activities of the Organization. This would also promote the national and regional expertise. The office for coordination of normative and operational and decentralized activities would further increase the impact of decentralization and we believe that it would be one of the positive features leading to the implementation of these priorities at the

Headquarters and field levels. We believe that these initiatives are just the initial step of a long-term process to be furthered in the future.

Finally, we wish every success to the Director-General and to FAO.

Emiliano ORTEGA (Chile): Es muy grato, Sr. Presidente, poder expresar la opinión de mi país respecto del tema central de este período de sesiones del Consejo sobre las proposiciones del Sr. Director General para reformar la estructura y los programas de la FAO, de acuerdo con el mandato recibido en la última Conferencia General.

Deseo, en primer lugar, expresar nuestras felicitaciones al Sr. Director General por la excelente presentación que nos ha hecho en el Día de hoy respecto a las propuestas de reforma, a las estructuras y al Programa de la FAO. Quisiera expresar nuestro respaldo a las propuestas del Director General, tal como lo señalara el Presidente del GRULAC en el día de hoy, en particular a los principios rectores contenidos en el documento sobre programas, estructuras y políticas de la FAO.

Sin duda los desafíos que enfrenta la humanidad hoy en día son de gran magnitud. El desafío del hambre y la malnutrición es tal vez el más inquietante. Es por ello que la prioridad asignada a la seguridad alimentaria, con particular énfasis respecto a las sociedades con déficit crónico de disponibilidad de alimentos resulta de la mayor significación económica y humana. Es importante, en consecuencia, que la FAO se ocupe permanentemente de mantener actualizadas sus estructuras y programas a fin de asistir prioritaria y adecuadamente a los países miembros a enfrentar estos desafíos.

En mi país, Sr. Presidente, junto a un prolongado proceso de asentamiento y consolidación política, se han llevado a cabo esfuerzos de gran envergadura destinados a perfeccionar una estrategia de comercio fundada en la apertura de fronteras, el libre intercambio y la competencia. Lo que señalo para Chile representa, con diferencia de matices, la trayectoria de la región Latinoamericana en numerosos casos. Varios países han optado por reducir las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias al comercio, y en relación con ello, es preciso hacer presente que mientras se discutía la forma de liberalizar el comercio en la Ronda Uruguay, numerosos países latinoamericanos de hecho estaban poniendo en práctica con gran sacrificio muchas de estas medidas. Lo anterior, Sr. Presidente, podría ser un augurio de mejores tiempos para la región. Sin embargo, ha constituido un esfuerzo lleno de sacrificios y limitaciones.

Sin bien los índices económicos de la región son relativamente promisorios, especialmente en los últimos años, todo indica que los sacrificios están lejos de terminar. El tránsito desde un esquema económico de sustitución de importaciones a otro de libre comercio demanda cambios significativos en la estructura productiva de los países que afectan a sectores amplios de la población rural. El caso de los productores agrícolas es, sin duda, el más difícil y está obligando a los gobiernos regionales a buscar elementos de apoyo que permitan encontrar la forma de mejorar la competitividad de la agricultura, ya sea mediante programas de mejoramiento tecnológico o buscando alternativas productivas para la utilización de sus recursos u otras fórmulas. He aquí un campo en el cual la FAO ciertamente puede y debe prestar un apoyo de primera importancia. Es el campo de la transformación productiva el que necesita de apoyos significativos por parte de la FAO.

Chile estima de la mayor importancia una estrecha colaboración con la recientemente creada Organización de Comercio Internacional por parte de la FAO. Necesitamos un acompañamiento sistemático por parte de este Organismo. Para abordar con solidez los procesos de transformación productiva orientados al proceso de exportación, es indispensable para el desarrollo futuro de nuestras economías agrícolas el análisis prospectivo tanto de la oferta como de la demanda de productos básicos, como asimismo de los productos agrícolas no tradicionales.

La inserción en los mercados internacionales presenta obstáculos graves por las distorsiones de los mercados, por la intervención en los mismos y por la insuficiente información para tomar decisiones eficaces y oportunas.

La progresiva segmentación de la demanda está provocando constantes necesidades de ajustes por el lado de la oferta. Nuestros sistemas agrícolas deben ser cada vez más dinámicos para adecuarse a los cambios que presenta la demanda de productos agrícolas. En este proceso necesitamos el acompañamiento estrecho de la FAO.

Sr. Presidente, mi país apoya la proposición del Director General para adecuar la estructura y los programas de la Organización.

Tal como se expresó por parte del Presidente del GRULAC, hemos analizado con detención el Documento Examen por el Director General de los programas estructuras y políticas de la Organización y hemos copncluido que éste contiene los lineamientos adecuados para atacar más directa y eficazmente los problemas básicos en los países con situaciones más apremiantes. Se ha considerado, no obstante, que ello no debe ir en desmedro de la acción de la Organización en favor del desarrollo agrícola en su sentido más amplio, según las necesidades de cada país y de cada región.

Apoyamos también la propuesta de reestructuración que el Director General ha presentado a este Consejo. Nos parece positivo el esfuerzo por descentralizar y fortalecer las oficinas regionales y nacionales y apoyamos igualmente la creación de oficinas subregionales. Pensamos que, a nivel regional, la FAO debe continuar trabajando conjuntamente con las comisiones económicas de las Naciones Unidas. La experiencia de la dirección conjunta FAO/CEPAL en el caso de América Latina ha sido considerada positiva por la región.

Finalmente, pensando desde la perspectiva agraria, quisiéramos sugerir que la FAO estimule en primer término la reflexión y, en segundo lugar, la participación activa en la Cumbre social convocada por la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas en Copenhague en marzo próximo, ya que si hay un desafío para el cual se está aún lejos de obtener respuestas, es para la preservación de una ruralidad mínima en las sociedades modernas. Este es un tema de alta significación socioeconómica y, sobre todo, de enorme trascendencia medioambiental. Por otra parte, existe una estrecha relación entre el hambre, la pobreza rural, la seguridad alimentaria y la dimensión social del desarrollo. De ahí la importancia que estos temas sean debidamente considerados en esta Cumbre social y el importante papel que le corresponde a la FAO en esa ocasión. Deseo, finalmente felicitar y agradecer al Director General su acertada y bien estructurada exposición, deseándole el mayor de los éxitos en sus tareas de dirección de la FAO. Mi país se compromete a dar todo el respaldo posible para estas funciones.

Arnaldo José BADILLO ROJAS (Venezuela): La delegación de Venezuela desea expresar su apoyo al proceso de reforma que el Director General ha decidido llevar adelante en la FAO así como a su firme disposición de iniciarla cuanto antes a través de las acciones que ha propuesto para su aprobación ante este Consejo.

Sr. Presidente, el distinguido representante de la República Dominicana, quien ha hablado en nombre del Grupo de Países de América Latina y el Caribe, ha expuesto con detalle la posición de nuestra región. La delegación de Venezuela hace suyo este planteamiento que expresa la voluntad colectiva de América Latina y el Caribe en respaldo a las iniciativas del Director General. De esa manera, los países de la región hemos querido destacar la importancia de la dimensión regional en el trabajo de la FAO, ya que esa visión de los problemas añade a la visión individual o soberana de cada país una perspectiva que, por un lado contribuye a simplificar el trabajo de la Organización y, por el otro, señala una vía para visualizar y atender los problemas comunes en las regiones, permitiendo a la FAO una cobertura más amplia en sus intervenciones en favor de los países.

Sr. Presidente, somos reiterativos en el planteamiento de que muchos de nuestros problemas son comunes a los países de una o más regiones. Por ello vemos con satisfacción que el Director General asigne especial atención a los programas regionales de cooperación técnica y económica, para cuyo avance será necesario ampliar el esquema que sirve actualmente de marco a los programas CTPD/CEPD entre países en desarrollo, integrando, bajo la coordinación de la FAO, todas aquellas posibilidades de cooperación que brinden los organismos multilaterales, los gobiernos e instituciones cooperantes y los propios países en desarrollo, para atacar los problemas en un horizonte de tiempo de mediano y largo plazo.

En este sentido, respaldamos la recomendación de la delegación de los Estados Unidos de América de reforzar las relaciones de cooperación con el IMCA en la región.

Tal como lo señala el Director General en el Documento en discusión, las nuevas situaciones demandan formas de organización del trabajo que potencien las capacidades de la FAO y de los países miembros para enfrentarlas. Por eso queremos expresar nuestro respaldo a su decisión de renovar las estructuras de campo y de llevar adelante un proceso de descentralización de las actividades normativas y operativas de la FAO, que saquen del aislamiento a las dependencias regionales. La intención del Director General de aprovechar al máximo las capacidades humanas y demás recursos de las regiones y países, agrega un componente esencial al proceso de descentralización de las actividades de la FAO.

Como se podrá observar, Sr. Presidente, asignamos a la visión regional de los problemas una importancia significativa para el cambio de la forma como la FAO deberá atender los problemas de los países en el futuro. Esta perspectiva nos ayudará no sólo a atender, sin superposiciones o contraposiciones de esfuerzos, los problemas que tienen una dimensión continental o subcontinental, sino también aprovechar las capacidades regionales y nacionales en esquemas de cooperación multi y bilaterales que se adecúen a las necesidades particulares y a las posibilidades de los países.

Sr. Presidente, teniendo como marco el planteamiento de la región de América Latina y el Caribe y de conformidad con las pautas que el Director General nos ha hecho llegar a través de su Nota Informativa del 19 de mayo de este año, queremos concluir expresando nuestro apoyo a las propuestas del Director General en los términos en que están descritas en la Nota Informativa ya mencionada, permitiéndonos agregar solamente un comentario en relación a una de las propuestas del Director General.

Nuestro comentario se refiere al problema de la Seguridad Alimentaria, objeto prioritario de atención de la FAO bajo la gestión del actual Director General, como él muy bien lo ha señalado. Tal como ya los hemos expresado, apoyamos la creación y rápida puesta en marcha del Programa Especial sobre la Producción de Alimentos en Apoyo de la Seguridad Alimentaria de los Países de Bajos Ingresos y Déficit de Alimentos, a la vez que compartimos la recomendación del Grupo de Expertos que participó en el seminario de seguridad alimentaria promovida por el Director General en el mes de enero de este año, en el sentido de que la FAO mantenga sometida a examen su definición general de países beneficiarios de este programa, refinando los indicadores y tomando más en cuenta el estado nutricional de las poblaciones.

Consideramos necesario también prestar más atención a la amplia variedad de situaciones que manifiestan los países en materia de seguridad alimentaria, como lo señala también el Grupo de Expertos mencionado. Por eso, en el documento que expresa la posición de la región de América Latina y el Caribe hemos planteado que "En la región, el problema de la seguridad alimentaria asume características particulares, ya que a la pobreza rural se suma la alta proporción de población pobre, con graves problemas alimentarios y nutricionales, que reside en las capitales y principales ciudades de la mayoría de los países de la región" . Entendemos que el Programa Especial sobre la Producción de Alimentos en Apoyo de la Seguridad Alimentaria de los Países de Bajos Ingresos y Déficit de Alimentos atiende a una de las manifestaciones más graves del problema de seguridad alimentaria en el mundo. Por ello, damos nuestro apoyo para que se ponga en marcha cuanto antes este programa especial en la seguridad de que el Programa Ordinario de trabajo de la FAO en este sector prioritario de la Seguridad Alimentaria atenderá las otras manifestaciones del problema. En este sentido, nos complace la aclaratoria contenida en las últimas líneas del Anexo 5, párrafo 16 del documento de información adicional que el Director General nos ha hecho llegar como respuesta a recomendaciones de los Comités del Programa y de Finanzas de la FAO.

Mrs Souad ABDALLAH (Syria) (Original language Arabic): Mr Chairman, my delegation supports your lucid and wise Chairmanship of the deliberations of this Council meeting. We would like to pay tribute to the Director-General for all the efforts that he made in collaboration with the Secretariat in the preparation of the documents under discussion and also for having undertaken the review of the programmes, structures and policies of the Organization. We would like to pay tribute to his wise leadership and his strong desire to promote dialogue which is clearly reflected in the positive results we see.

Mr Chairman, we would like to echo the statement delivered on behalf of the Near East. Having reviewed document CL 106/2 and CL 106/2-Sup.l, both documents have been prepared after a number of consultations and deliberations and we believe that they are worth supporting.

However, we would like to mention the following points: firstly, concerning food security, we would like to fully support the proposals of the Director-General concerning the strengthening of these programmes in such a way as to increase production and also through the support to be given to national programmes undertaken by the countries concerned.

Furthermore, we would like to support the continuous trend geared to facilitate the transfer of modern technology to developing countries in order to promote productivity in these countries. We also support the urgent assistance which should be given to food deficit countries. However, we believe that assistance should also be given to the development programmes undertaken by other countries with more favourable conditions.

Secondly, we support the proposal concerning the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases. We believe that it is a very sound proposal indeed. Furthermore, we do think that such an orientation by the Organization is the right step, and we also support the importance to be given to the Regional Offices. We welcome the strengthening of Subregional Offices. However, we believe that the East Mediterranean region does need an office bearing in mind its growing need for technical services.

Mr Chairman, we believe that the proposal submitted by the Director-General which would promote the role of women is worthy indeed. We support it because women play a major role in the promotion of agricultural development. Furthermore, we do support the creation of the new Technical Cooperation Department, taking account of its importance. We also support the Director-General's intention to reactivate the TCP and the cooperation between other international organizations, through coordination programmes and assistance in preparing for the implementation of the new GATT Agreement.

My country gives priority to Agriculture in its national plans. Finally, we appreciate fully the new orientation of the Director-General. Thank you very much, Mr Chairman.

Alfonso ANAYA TURRIENTES (España): Quisiera, en primer lugar, agradecer al Director General y a sus colaboradores de la Secretaría la preparación del documento que nos ha presentado, así como la información adicional al mismo, que consideramos de gran calidad, y que nos ha permitido estudiar y analizar las diversas propuestas que en el mismo se presentan.

Siguiendo el orden establecido en el Documento, queremos dejar de manifiesto que compartimos gran parte de los principios que se reflejan en el "Resumen operativo". En este sentido, es evidente el desafío con que se enfrenta la Organización para mitigar el hambre y la malnutrición en el mundo, al tiempo de la necesidad de que cumpla eficazmente su mandato en lo relativo a la producción y al comercio de productos agrícolas, pesqueros y forestales.

Es evidente que la limitación presupuestaria exigirá un esfuerzo de la Organización para racionalizar sus métodos de trabajo, ya que, siendo realistas, debemos pensar que las condiciones, en cuanto a recursos presupuestarios, seguirán siendo sustancialmente las mismas en los próximos años.

Quisiera, asimismo, mostrar nuestro acuerdo con la idea de fomentar producción in situ, en apoyo de las seguridad alimentaria en los países de bajos ingresos y con déficit de alimentos. De hecho, esta idea ha sido defendida en diferentes intervenciones por nuestra Delegación en este foro, en concreto, en las últimas sesiones del Consejo y de la Conferencia.

Pasando al cuerpo del documento, deseamos hacer unos comentarios en cuanto a los diversos párrafos del mismo, sobre todo empezando por el número ocho, en el que se expone y se anuncia la necesidad de llenar el vacío de tecnología que se presente en la actualidad para afrontar los problemas de producción y distribución de alimentos con los que el mundo se encuentra en estos momentos.

Es evidente que la FAO, al igual que otras instituciones y el conjunto de los países, tiene un desafío evidente en definir los sistemas que permiten hacer convivir los principios de aumento de la productividad con los de la sustentabilidad. En el propio documento se reconoce, más adelante, que hay que aumentar la productividad y la producción total de alimentos. Esto es inevitable ante la previsión de la población futura y la cifra de producción alimentaria actual que nos proporciona la estadística. Pero ahí está el desafío; hay que hacerlo teniendo en cuenta y sin defraudar las esperanzas que la humanidad tiene en el concepto de sustentabilidad para dejar a las generaciones futuras un planeta, al menos, como lo recibimos nosotros.

En el párrafo nueve del Documento se recoge una relación, que consideramos muy afortunada, relativa a los problemas a los que hay que hacer frente con toda urgencia y sin escatimar medio alguno para mejorar la situación alimentaria de la humanidad. Son la constante reducción de la fertilidad del suelo sin una sustitución apropiada de nutrientes, la erosión acelerada de la diversidad biológica, la deforestación acusada, la presión sobre las reservas de agua y los imperativos de una pesca responsable y equilibrada. Permítanos, sin embargo, introducir un concepto más a esta acertada lista. Es la desertización que, como todos sabemos, tiene consecuencias devastadoras para muchas regiones del planeta. En su conjunto, constituyen prácticamente el reto al que debe enfrentarse la humanidad y que afortunadamente comprobamos que la FAO hace suyo.

En cualquier caso, conviene tener presente que con independencia de la necesidad de prestar atención prioritaria a las economías más débiles, la Organización, como indica el propio documento, tiene que hacer un esfuerzo por mantener su interés y valor para todos sus miembros. En este sentido vemos con satisfacción el que uno de los principios básicos que regirán el proceso de cambio que nos propone el Director General, sea el que la FAO continúe siendo un Centro de Excelencia y centro de referencia mundial, de acuerdo con sus principales funciones constitucionales. Máxime, cuando en muchas de estas actividades de carácter normativo, es la única Organización Internacional competente para realizarlas; de ahí la gravedad que para la Comunidad internacional supondría el que la Organización disminuyera su actividad en este campo.

En base a lo anterior y aunque apoyamos el planteamiento formulado por el Director General de cierto nivel de descentralización de la Organización, queremos expresar nuestra preocupación por la afirmación del párrafo 36 en el sentido de "llevar a cabo una descentralización progresiva que abarque también a los departamentos normativos". Consideramos que una medida de estas características podría traer consecuencias negativas para la FAO,

máxime si tenemos en cuenta que algunos Departamentos como el de Pesca o Montes disponen ya en la actualidad de recursos humanos limitados.

Vemos con satisfacción la afirmación del Director General de que la distribución del personal requerirá ampliar consultas con los funcionarios interesados y con los órganos representativos de personal.

En relación con las modificaciones concretas propuestas en la sede Central, vemos con especial satisfacción la transformación del actual Departamento de Desarrollo en un Departamento de Cooperación Técnica, en tanto en cuanto esta nueva entidad consiga fortalecer la cooperación con los Organismos intergubernamentales y bilaterales, así como con las ONGs y el sector privado.

Acogemos favorablemente la creación de una Dirección que se ocupe de los asuntos relacionados con la integración de la mujer en el desarrollo, aspecto al que mi país, tal y como pusimos de manifiesto en la última Conferencia, ha dedicado un gran esfuerzo, habiendo realizado en los últimos años estudios muy completos en relación con la situación socioprofesional de la mujer en la agricultura.

En cuanto a la estructura sobre el terreno, quisiéramos poner de manifiesto nuestra preocupación en que las Oficinas Regionales, tal y como se conciben en el párrafo 55, en las que se organizará progresivamente en cada una de ellas un equipo multidisciplinario completo, se terminen convirtiendo en Unidades excesivamente autónomas y carentes, por tanto, de los necesarios nexos de unión con la sede central de la Organización.

Quisiéramos asimismo, en este apartado de las estructuras sobre el terreno, llamar la atención del peligro que puede suponer una excesiva proliferación de centros periféricos, ya que a las nuevas Oficinas subregionales hay que añadir las futuras oficinas en países que actualmente no existen. Esta propuesta, además del importante coste que supondrá ponerla en funcionamiento, puede también ocasionar una excesiva dispersión tanto de medios humanos como materiales de la Organización.

En relación con la redefinición de las prioridades mostramos nuestra aprobación a los nuevos programas propuestos, es decir, el dedicado a prestar apoyo para aumentar la producción de alimentos en los países de bajos ingresos con déficit de alimentos y dedicado a realizar una acción más decidida de lucha contra las plagas y las enfermedades de las plantas y animales.

Asimismo nos mostramos de acuerdo con la justificación y alcance global de estos programas prioritarios, y muy especialmente a la importancia que se da a la extensión y capacitación agrarias apoyadas siempre en la investigación correspondiente. En esta línea, consideramos una magnífica idea la realización de un pequeño número de proyectos piloto por el valor de demostración que puede obtenerse de los mismos. También quisiéramos hacer hincapié en la importancia que debería darse al fomento del cooperativismo en los diversos proyectos de creación de capacidad que se lleven a efecto, fórmula que sólo es viable, si la entidad creada es, a su vez, viable como empresa.

Con relación al sector pesquero, coincidimos plenamente con las ideas expresadas en el documento, que orientan el futuro hacia una conservación de las poblaciones pesqueras, limitando la sobreexplotación de las zonas

con grandes recursos, mediante acuerdos internacionales, en los cuales la FAO debe desempeñar una función de primer orden.

La elaboración del Código de Conducta para la Pesca Responsable, que recibió los apoyos incondicionales por parte del Comité de Pesca, del último Consejo y de la 27a Conferencia de la FAO, debe seguir adelante, a fin de poder presentar al próximo COFI los acuerdos alcanzados, tanto en sus aspectos políticos como técnicos, y cumplir así el mandato recibido.

En cuanto al sector forestal, consideramos que debe contar con los apoyos necesarios para que siga siendo un sector dinámico, generador de riqueza y contribuya a un desarrollo sostenible de las poblaciones afectadas. Pensamos que la lluvia ácida en los países desarrollados y el futuro de los bosques tropicales deben seguir siendo elementos importantes de reflexión en el seno de la FAO.

Antes de terminar mi intervención, Sr. Presidente quisiera hacer una propuesta, que creemos que puede estar en sintonía con el espíritu de las propuestas que el Director General ha sometido a la aprobación de este Consejo. En concreto, nuestra propuesta consiste en recomendar que la Organización adopte la decisión de utilizar exclusivamente papel reciclado en los documentos, comunicaciones, publicaciones, etc. que se elaboran en la misma.

Entendemos que éste sería un gesto ejemplarizante y consecuente con la creciente preocupación de la FAO por la sostenibilidad de los recursos naturales, y que posteriormente debería extenderse al resto de los Organismos del Sistema de Naciones Unidas.

Por otra parte, teniendo en cuenta el enorme volumen de papel que utiliza la Organización, y que en algún momento todos sufrimos, creemos que esta medida habría que considerarla algo más que un gesto.

Unicamente, a caso de ejemplo, podríamos decirles que en España, en el Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación y por supuesto en las Representaciones permanentes fuera de España, se utiliza desde hace ya algún tiempo, exclusivamente este tipo de papel, incluyendo las cartas utilizadas por el propio Ministro. Esperamos que esta propuesta cuente con el apoyo de los distintos miembros del Consejo.

Para finalizar, quisiera dejar constancia de que la delegación española apoya las propuestas presentadas por el Director General a este Consejo, al tiempo que muestra su acuerdo en concederle la flexibilidad necesaria dentro de los límites reglamentarios.

EL PRESIDENTE: Estoy seguro de que el señor Director General ha tomado buena nota de sus propuestas, que seguramente serán bien acogidas por este Consejo.

Tim MACKEY (Australia): Let me comencé by expressing Australia's full support for the new Executive Director and our willingness, indeed our desire to help carry out his heavy responsibilities. We have been impressed with the excellent start he has made in his still relatively new position. We have appreciated his frankness in addressing the challenges which face the Organization and his openness - transparency indeed, to use the word

which he himself uses in describing his approach - and we look forward to a continuation of that. We also appreciate the expression of consistency with the winds of change which are blowing throughout the entire UN system, and his ackowledgement that FAO cannot insulate itself from those changes. We are also impressed with the increased cooperation with other organizations that the DG has already initiated, including with the Rome-based food agencies, international financial institutions, and the similar intentions he has for NGOs in the private sector. Of course, the need remains for FAO to find sources of extra-budgetary funding as well. We certainly appreciated Mr Diouf's expression of interest in our priorities from his letter soon after his appointment. And indeed, Australia provided a detailed expression of those priorities, many of which I am pleased to say, have been reflected in his work programme. I would certainly like to acknowledge that.

One important set of measures which we did express as a high priority are the environmental sustainability measures, and these of course are included in several of his proposals, one of which is the creation of the new division, the Department of Sustainable Development, to focus on the UNCED follow-up and the sustainable use and efficient management of natural resources. We in Australia have undertaken a considerable amount of work in this field over the last few years and would be happy to share that with the Organization. We also support the proposed decentralization activities, including to regional, subregional and country levels. We certainly strongly support the proposed establishment of subregional offices and the location of one in the Pacific islands. We support the new division within the Sustainable Development Department on women's and people's participation, another example of an Australian priority which has been reflected in the work programme.

We agree with the measures to improve management systems and practice, to search for economies and to seed further reductions in the overall cost structure of the Organization. Like many other member countries, Australia is applying the same approaches within our own budget system and we support those here under the general no net increase approach.

We fully support the proposed emergency prevention system to combat transboundary plant and animal pests and diseases which is to concentrate initially on locusts and rinderpest. We are a country which is very familiar with the destructiveness of the plague locust and appreciate the reasoning behind its selection for action. In future we would not wish to see the system confined to only those mentioned. For example we would wish to see others included: foot-and-mouth disease is one and the old world screwworm fly is another.

In addition to that, we fully endorse the resources shifts to forestry and fisheries, areas that are of course of particular interest to the countries of the South West Pacific region which Australia represents here today. These shifts will allow FAO to play a leading role in the implementation of UNCED follow-up in the forestry sector and to carry out work for the preservation of overexploited fish stocks. We also note with satisfaction the increased provision to be made for the Code of Conduct on Responsible Fishing.

Mr Chairman, you can see that there are many areas in the DG's review which we support and we believe Australia's priorities in many cases have been taken into account in the work programme.

Let me turn now to the issue of food security. In his remarks this morning the Director-General said that his ambition is to have all countries in a position to meet their basic food needs. Of course, we fully support that ambition. The point I would make, however is that countries do not have to meet their basic food needs solely from food grown and produced within their own borders. The importance of other factors than food production in obtaining food security has indeed been reflected in the work programme with the emphasis on trade measures. Like many other members, Australia believes that the increased economic growth resulting from trade also is an important factor in obtaining food security. I notice, Mr Chairman, in the written version of the Director-General's statement, - of course he made a somewhat shortened version in his earlier remarks this morning - there was a sentence in paragraph 11 which I will just quote: "In view of the high dependence of a large number of food-insecure countries on agriculture for employment and income, their only feasible option for an early and sustainable improvement in food security is the enhancement of the productivity and production of food". Mr Chairman, Australia's view is that it is not the only feasible option. Of course, increased food production in the food-insecure countries is a very important component of increased food security and certainly a component in which FAO itself can bring a great deal of skill and expertise to assist those countries, but there are other important options, including world economic growth. There is general agreement, Mr Chairman, that there will be considerable world economic growth resulting from the Uruguay Round outcome. We in Australia regard that outcome as a good beginning rather than an end to the liberalization of world trade. The point I would like to make is that this new increased economic growth will benefit developing countries as well as developed countries. We are pleased to note that these trade issues are reflected in the DG's work programme, for example, in the significant area of work which facilitates trade and agricultural products such as the Codex Alimentarius work.

I was very interested today to hear many other members make similar points in relation to food security as those I have just made. I noticed one from the delegate of China, Vice-President Wu, who stressed from China's point of view increased market access to developed countries is an important factor for increased food security. There will, of course, be some improvement in market access through the Uruguay Round outcome. Australia identified work on trade issues as a high priority in our response to the DG's request. There are some aspects following on from that which do concern us because there are to be some reductions in some of the programmes in this category, including the programme on commodities policy and trade which is to go down by 9.5 percent. That covers producer-consumer consultation, collaboration with GATT and consultation at country level. Another to go down is food control and cosumer protection which also covers cooperation with the GATT development, the development of national food import/export inspection and certification systems and food quality control at various levels. Included also in this category are elements of the crop protection subprogramme,, where there is to be a postponement of activities in support of the strengthening of plant protection infrastructures in developing countries.

In the case of the elements dealing with the implementation of the International Plant Protection Convention, we seek advice from the Secretariat as to whether it has been affected by the Review. We would also be concerned if the element of this subprogramme involving integrated pest management were to be adversely affected. We have been closely involved in

this project in Southeast Asia and we are very much aware of the benefits developing countries can obtain from it. Its continuation, at least at the current level, will help to complement the overall emphasis given to food security in low-income food-deficit countries.

We would wish to see a reconsideration of any proposed reduction in allocation to the programmes I have just mentioned.

We place a priority on FAO's work on both plant and animal genetic resources. We note there is to be a decline in allocations to the Animal Genetic Resources programme due largely to a high vacancy rate. However, we are pleased the priority on work in animal genetic resources is to continue. We consider the work being done, including that on the world watch list, is valuable.

We would also mention that one aspect of food security is what could be termed seed security and we have noticed that there is a reduction under subprogramme We would like to express concern about that also.

In closing, may I stress again our full support for the DG, our general support for his work programme and our appreciation for the fact that Australian priorities have been reflected in it. We stress the role which increased trade and economic growth have to play in increased food security, as exemplified by the extra growth which will result from the Uruguay Round. We support the proposed establishment of a subregional office in the South-West Pacific Region.

Kenji SHIMIZU (Japan): My delegation welcomes the initiative of the Director-General who reviewed the programmes, structures and policies of the Organization and put forward the reform proposal for our deliberation as mandated by Conference Resolution 10/93.

The observation of my delegation focuses on three areas of the proposal which are as follows.

The first area is on Secretariat structures. As to the approach, Japan shares the way of thinking contained in paragraphs 35-40 in general. However, Japan is concerned about the expanded structure proposed by the Director-General, namely the number of units being increased from 38 to 52 in total.

Japan has some questions about the proposals, in particular the increase of the units and wishes the following points to be clarified further. First, Japan has a standing policy called "Scrap and Build" approach or criteria for any reform plan of the Organization. When you consider creating a new unit, you must abolish or scrap an existing unit. The case to build a new unit may be justified by abolishing an existing one, because building a new unit has serious implications in terms of decrease of efficiency and increase of budget, in particular, in the future.

The creation of a new structure itself needs very careful study.

Secondly, the expanded structure is studied in terms of decentralization which is the main process of the proposed reform by the Director-General. Some of the resources available now at Headquarters would be shifted to the field offices as a result of the proposed decentralization. My delegation

needs clarification on the future implications of the increase of units at Headquarters, despite the reduced resources available at Headquarters now.

Thirdly, there is not sufficient clarification on the demerit or shortcomings of the existing structure as well as on the merits of the reshaped structures.

Fourthly, there are missing reform proposals on other units such as for the Administration and Finance Department and the Department of General Affairs and Information. The proposal on those units may not be necessary to get the correct balanced picture of the re-shaped structure of the Secretariat.

On field structures, Japan supports in general the exercise to review and enhance the geographical proximity of this Organization.

The proposals on how to re-deploy staff resources for United National Regional Commissions, the creation of sub-regional offices and national programme offices as such, however, need careful study too.

The proposals, to re-deploy staff resources for UN Regional Commissions, creation of sub-regional offices and national programmes offices as such, however, need careful study, too. There is a danger of a layer of bureaucracy or just the creation of additional or dual structures at field levels or a budget increase in the duture as a result. It also needs to give attention to more strengthened linkage with UNDP, an authorised UN coordinator of operational activities, as the integrated approaches for development are growing.

The reform processes at field level should be implemented by a step-by-step basis with a view to ensuring the maximum efficiency of field activities as well as avoiding an increase in bureaucracy.

The second area is sharpened priority focus. Needless to say, my Government places high priority on the attainment of world food security. My Government has been of the view that for the attainment of world food security liberalized agricultural trade should not be the only tool. Strengthened production capacities of developing countries is the first track to be addressed.

In this connection, my delegation associates itself with, and fully supports, the basic-approach of the Director-General as well as the high level seminar to strenthen agricultural production of LIFDCs by the initiation of the special programme and to attain "a higher degree of food self-reliance "of these countries as refered to in the para 74 of the Director-General's proposal.

Moreover, my delegation welcomes the Director-General's approach to seek the participation of multilateral and regional financing institutions in the course of the programme implementation. It is the hope of Japan that in the future, this kind of collaboration approach with financing institutions will lead to more solid funding for agricultural development based on this special programme as well as field activities of this organization. My delegation believes this approach will become a new area and a concrete contribution of FAO to international agricultural development and will enhance the dynamism of FAO.

My delegation basically supports the Africa-oriented approach of the special programme, considering the current special situation in Africa. However, I would like to mention that the majority of the chronically under-nourished population still exists in the Asian region and also in other regions where many people are suffering from mal-nutrition today. Therefore, the initiation of this special programme should not adversely affect other programmes aimed at food security in other regions such as Asia, as mentioned by Indonesia on behalf of the Asian Groups.

In establishing food security, sustainability of agriculture is important to stress, as mentioned in the paragraph 90 (F) . As one example of the contribution of my country in this regard I would like to refer to an international conference planned by my country and FAO, in the fisheries area, to be held in the latter half of 1995, namely "The International Conference on Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries for Food Security" . It has been planned by my country and FAO.

My delegation hopes many countries dependent on the majority of food on fisheries resources will participate in the Conference.

My delegation, would also like to stress the importance of the long-term global food outlook following the previous 2010 outlook. The reliable long-term food outlook is very important in planning on food security strategy. In this connection I would like to point out the danger of an excessively optimistic food outlook because it may undermine the credibility of this organization.

With regard to EMPRES, we remeber last year's disaster caused in the area of West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa by locusts. My delegation welcomes the strengthening of FAO's activities in this area, making use of this Organization's expertise capabilities.

I turn to other matters, in particular the financial and personnel systems, FINSYS/PERSYS.

The related problem is a very regrettable development in terms of the use of our valuable resources and the responsibility of the management.

Japan strongly wishes the Finance and Programme Committees to give full attention to the causes and problems and prepare convincing recommendations for us.

In conclusion, my delegation highly commends the efforts of the Director-General who has initiated this important step to reform the organization and strengthen the food security. Japan is ready to actively cooperate with other member countries and the Secretariat to keep this momentum with a view to realizing a revitalized organization.

Bong Koo RHEE (Korea, Republic of): My intervention will be very brief in compliance of the recommendations of the independent Chairman and to assist the efficiency of this Council.

My delegation agrees with the Directo-General's view that FAO is now facing many challenges and welcomes his decision as a process for transferring FAO into a more efficient and responsible organization.

My delegation would kile to support what the Asian Group Chairman said on behalf of that Group on the principle proposed by Mr Diouf which is focused on enhancing the efficiency and streamlining of the Secretariat structure. In particular, we believe that the Director-General's proposal to save US$29.7 million through salary savings on frozen posts, publications and meetings which are cancelled or postponed and other operational cost reductions will be a very encouraging start.

Let me make a few comments on the Director-General's Review.

I agree that the food production is an important part of achieving food security for low-income, food deficit countries, but there seems to be an unbalanced tendency on food production for aiding those countries.

I would like to remind you that developing food marketing and distribution systems is as important as food production in achieving food security of those poor countries.

In addition, it is also important to take a balanced approach in selecting the low-income, food-deficit countries to avoid the support for food security being concentrated in a particular region.

We know of FAO's effort to establish a new Department for Technical Cooperation and Sustainable Development in order to cope with the ever-changing world of the agricultural environment. We thank the Director-General for his sincere efforts to emphasize women in development by creating the division charged the matter.

However, we do believe that it is necessary to watch closely so as not to create unnecessary overlaps in using budget, manpower, and office facilities with other Departments within the Organization.

My delegation considers that the restructuring of the Administration and Finance Department and the Department of General Affairs and Information is also an important part in restructuring FAO. In view of that, my delegation hopes that we will be informed of the restructuring of these two departments at least before the next Council meeting in November of this year.

It is necessary that the role of the regional office and sub-regional office be classified clearly so as not make any budget waste owing to work overlap. In connection with the transfer of staff presently in the joint divisions with the UN Regional Economic and Social Commission (UNRESC) which is envisaged as part of the strenghtening of the regional offices, paragraph 56 of document CL 106/2, my delegation wishes to be informed of whether any prior consultation with UNRESC took place regarding the transfer of staff.

Regarding the Sharpened Priority Focus, I would like to express a few more comments.

Weaknow very well that many people, particularly lots of children, do not have adequate access to food and suffer from malnutrition. Therefore, I agree that the food production is essential to achieve food security for low-income, food-deficit countries.

However, as many member countries stressed, we have to consider not only food production, but also the improvement of world agricultural marketing system to aid those countries. And the Special Programme for Food Production in Support of Food Security should be provided evenly to the low-income, food-deficit countries, including lots of Southern-Asian countries.

We believe that the Emergency Prevention Systems for Transboundary Animal and Plants Pests and Diseases is very important to attack the Agricultural problems which individual countries alone cannot solve. But it is also true that FAO is not yet endowed with sufficient technical and logistical capacities to cover preventive action and control operation on a large scale. The other problem of the issue is that there are still many countries having weak protecting structures.

In principle, however, we greatly welcome the Director-General's proposals for the solutions to the challenges facing FAO in the 1990's and beyond. We sincerely hope the proposal well be able to produce a successful fruit.

J.C. PANT (India): On behalf of the Indian delegation may I compliment the Director-General for his bold initiative and excellent presentation of his planned strategy for reorganizing the Food and Agriculture Organization.

According to the Director-General, two major challenges confronting the Organization are to eliminate a situation whereby currently 800 million people do not have adequate access to food and where 192 million children below the age of five suffer from malnutrition and secondly to ensure that the world could produce enough, in a sustainable manner, to feed 9 000 million people by the year 2030 AD. We agree that these two major challenges are required to be met by FAO. FAO is required to adapt to a situation of increasingly diverse and contrasting problems of its Member Nations. While it must seek to retain its relevance and value to all members, it must accord priority attention to the most fragile economies, for example of the least-developed countries. Countries in political and social transition, like those of Eastern Europe, represent another group of Member Nations which require support during the process of adjustment. FAO must contribute to the process of reduction of the gap between the haves and the have-nots, both in terms of standards of living and of technology.

The Director-General has also pointed out that in view of the Organization's mandate for the conservation and preservation of natural resources, FAO's actions should be geared to sustainable development. In the context of the reduction of finite resources reflected in: (a) conversion of prime agricultural land to other uses, (b) the draining of soil fertility, (c) the erosion of biological diversity, (d) the annual deforestation of 17 million hectares in tropical areas, the pressure of water resources and (f) imperatives of responsible fishing, FAO is obliged to play a more effective role in assisting Member Nations in the required reorientation of policy and the design of effective measures.

FAO would also have to play its role in the context of the conclusion of the Uruguay Round and the formation of a new World Trade Organization. This Agreement portends important implications for developing countries from changes in international markets for agricultural commodities as also changes in policy options open to countries in the future. The Organization would have to assist Member Nations in assessing the implications of the

Agreement at national, regional and group level. It will have to participate in the implementation of the provisions of the new World Trade Organization. It is expected to be closely involved in the work of the new Committee on Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures especially through the expert work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the International Plant Protection Convention, including expanded technical assistance to developing countries on food standards. It would be called upon to assist in food security assessments and food aid matters through the involvement of the Consultative Sub-Committee on Surplus Disposal. It would also have to assist developing countries in adjusting to the post-Uruguay Round disciplines on the choice of policies to support agriculture.

It is against this backdrop of complex challenges the Director-General seeks to undertake certain changes in the structures and policies of the Organization.

The changes proposed above by the Director-General insofar as the Administrative structure is concerned are, therefore, basically three: (1) transformation of the Development Department into the Technical Cooperation Department; (2) establishment of a new Department of Sustainable Development and (3) revamped field structure with the proposed establishment of Subregional Offices.

We support transformation of the Development Department into the Technical Cooperation Department as this is largely an administrative reshuffling and consolidation of functions with the objective of providing assistance in policy, investment and implementation of field operations to Member Nations. This Department would also be providing technical support to WFP as also coordinating emergency assistance through the medium of the Office for Special Relief Operations (OSRO). The focal point for TCDC-ECDC would come within this Department as also Technical Cooperation Programme Unit (TCP) . We welcome this innovation in structure and, therefore, support the Director-General's proposal whole-heartedly.

We also support the Director-General's proposal for creating a new Department, i.e. the Department of Sustainable Development. Presently activities relating to this issue are being dealt with in different Units of FAO and the intention of the Director-General is to integrate all cross-sectoral activities into this Department. The follow-up action on UNCED dominates the policy context in which the Mid-term Plan of FAO (1994-99) was framed. Ever since the 1987 Report of the World Commission on Environment & Development formalized the issue of sustainable development, the subject has been attracting increasing attention over the years. UNCED and Agenda 21, today are issues of major concern. India is also a signatory and active participant in UNCED. FAO would, therefore, have to coordinate its efforts, avoiding duplication with the other agencies in the UN System. With this background in mind, it is perhaps appropriate that the Director-General proposes to establish a separate Department of Sustainable Development and we support the project.

Some changes have been contemplated in the field structures of the Organization. We welcome the proposal to augment the Regional Offices of FAO by stationing multidisciplinary technical teams therein. Transfer of staff presently working in the joint divisions with the UN Regional and Economic and Social Commissions, to the FAO Regional Offices shall facilitate the strengthening of these offices without extra costs and are therefore welcome.

It has been proposed to establish Subregional Offices in North Africa, Southern and Eastern Africa; Pacific islands; Caribbean; and Eastern Europe. These offices would contain small teams of technical officers and would be headed by the FAO Representative in the country of location. Given the problems of the South Asian Region along with the fact that a large mass of population lives in this region, we suggest that a subregional office in South Asia must be considered favourably. The location of the office could be decided later after consulting countries in the region. While the proposed Subregional Office would be augmented with technical expertise, we suggest that their establishment may also be accompanied by a measure of autonomy in decision-making. We support the Director-General's proposal to replace internationally recruited professional staff in FAO country representations by National Programme Officers (NPOs) . This would help in cost reduction as also in assembling a team of officers who are conversant with local conditions and are technically as well equipped as internationally recruited professional staff. We strongly support this proposal of the Director-General.

The Director-General's proposals on the issue of food security are of considerable significance and we support them. This issue merits focusing a greater attention on it by FAO and the proposal reflects the needs of the developing countries in particular. India itself has, over the years, developed a well-defined food security policy which aims at increasing food production, encourages farmers by guaranteeing remunerative prices, safeguards consumer interests through a public distribution system, maintains adequate stocks of foodgrains to meet emergent situations, etc. India's food security, therefore, meets the goals of attaining desirable levels of food production, ensuring access to food supply to those who need it and increasing the stability of food supply through a mechanism of buffer stocking. It is important to ensure that people have continued access to sufficient supplies of nutritional, adequate and safe food. A successful food security system will provide for each household to have social and economic access to enough food to meet its needs. We are, therefore, in agreement with the Director-General's proposals on the issue of food security and support him fully. We also reiterate our strong commitment to South-South Cooperation and our faith in TCDC as a mechanism to promote development in the South. India is ready to offer its expertise and share its experience with the LIFDCs. I have been personally talking about this to the Mission of LIFDCs located in New Delhi and look forward for necessary support from the FAO system.

Insofar as the establishment of the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) is concerned, we extend our support to its establishment as also the earmarking of some part of the budget of 1994-95 for it. The locust problem is very much relevant to us, especially in view of last year's locust invasion which affected India. We also agree that early warning and control systems especially in the countries of origin of the desert locust in Africa could go a long way in containing the menace. The problem of the desert locust is also being discussed by us with the missions of concerned African and Asian nations in New Delhi and the Director-General's emphasis is bound to be helpful in preventing this natural menace. FAO must have the capability to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies and earmarking of specific finances for this operation is essential. It is also a fact that funding from donor countries generally gets delayed thereby losing its effectiveness. We, therefore, strongly support the proposal of the Director-General for the establishment of EMPRES.

We support changes in administrative procedures and systems especially where they are designed to reduce administrative and support costs, given the budgetary constraints that exist, both in FAO and in Member Nations. It is essential that FAO's administrative costs be reduced and the savings deployed for technical programmes which are of immediate relevance to Member Nations. For example, the proposal to recruit national programme officers in FAO Representatives' Offices rather than internationally recruited professional staff, is a sensible and valid measure of cost reduction. We support proposals aimed at cost reduction introduced by the Director-General.

Ms Katalin BAKK (Hungary): The Hungarian delegation has studied with much interest the review of the programmes, structures and policies of the Organization together with the documents, CL 106/6, i.e. the reports of the meetings of the Programme and Finance Committees. We also have been glad to listen to your introduction which no doubt casts further light on your reasons and concepts in streamlining the Organization.

It has been my delegation's impression that the Director-General's recomendations do enjoy a general support by both the two leading bodies of FAO and the overwhelming majority of Member Nations. I do not want to misuse the time of the Council so I am refraining to repeat the main points already made during this Session. I only would like to briefly address myself to our remarks as to the general impact and reasonability of the Director-General's proposals on the one side and some minor matters which may seem details to some delegates but might be vital to countries in transition the interest of which I also feel obliged to take up here and now.

The Hungarian delegation feels that the Director-General's proposals on streamlining the Secretariat, on revamping field structure and to sharpen priorities are all well-founded serving the genuine interest of the Organization and its Member Nations. It is why my Government expresses itself in favour of these recommendations. Some points we were reading with pleasure and satisfaction indeed recognizing ideas which had been brought forward many years ago by a number of delegates, Hungarians included, at different fora of FAO. One of such issues was the merger of operational divisions which we are now happy to notice as being one of the cornerstones of the new structure the DB intends to establish. The other is the setting up of subregional offices the Hungarian delegation has been advocating for approximately three years.

We support the two new departments to be set up and the change in handling policy issues within a centralized division with the proviso that policy advice will and shall note the exclusive monopoly of that division which should rather act as a coordination unit in this respect.

The document before us repeatedly stressed that it contains the general ideas and outlines of the reorganization and streamlining with details to be followed as soon as possible. While my delegation fully agrees with this approach I would like to call your kind attention to the importance and experience of all changes to be made within a reasonably short period not to keep staff-concerned in a state of uncertainty over a period of time longer than it would absolutely be needed. We are looking forward to the Director-General's systematic and frequent reporting to the Governing Bodies on the progress of restructuring work. There is no change proposed

to the Technical Cooperation Programme Unit, see paper CL 102/2-Sup.l, paragraph 14, and we are quite happy with that since in our interpretation the Director-General thinks as positively on TCP projects as my Government does hoping that these mostly efficient and cost-effective projects will continue to be available for governments requiring them.

I am turning now my attention to the priority setting included in the document before us. We fully understand that the Organization will deploy the bulk of its human and financial strength to assist low-income food-deficit countries. We are fully aware that the up-grading of the food economy in low-income food-deficit countries is the sine qua non of further worldwide development. What we are not fully in agreement with is the too strong production oriented approach we seem to detect in the document. Our views are pretty close to that expressed by the Programme Committee on this matter and registered in paras 27-29 of the Committee's report. Policy improvements and/or changes, distribution and market access and rural development may often be instrumental in triggering also an upward trend in production. Moreover agro-history in general and the history of the first green revolution in particular taught us that new technologies could not always be as efficiently utilized as some improved traditional ones. I am sure FAO officers will take due care of this peculiar feature of agricultural production in many countries.

This delegation appreciates indeed the efforts of the Director-General to put new ideas and new solutions forward within the framework of the approved budget. We feel that the reallocations suggested within various budget lines are acceptable and the document has exercised a remarkable self-constraint in doing so. The savings in meeting and publication cost, which are appr. 13 percent making a balance of Annexes 6 and 7, could with no major difficulties be increased. Taking however into account the quite important role FAO publications, guides and other books actually are playing in formal and informal training as well as in extension work in a number of countries we felt that further cuts in these lines will have to carefully be considered on a case-by-case basis.

One last remark I think could be pertinent to this thought. We learned that during the forthcoming two years three major world-level events are planned to take place: Women's World Conference, World Social Summit and World Food Summint may heavily draw on the budget of the Organization.

I would now like to come to a point which is of special interest to Hungary and to other European countries in transition. My delegation noted with delight that the Director-General had proposed a subregional office to be established in Eastern Europe. While I have the privilege to confirm my government's willingness and preparedness to host that suboffice, we fully share the Director-General's view that countries concerned should only decide on its location. In this regard I am happy to inform you that progress has already taken place in favouring the Hungarian capital. I feel it is my duty to bring to your attention, Mr Chairman, some points we feel are pertinent.

Drawing staff from existing offices is not only a cost-conscious way of implementation, but at the same time it may resulting in having well-experienced and skilled officers to deal with the regions and countries to be covered by the suboffice. We feel, however, that regional experts should have a role to play in these offices and be much more utilized for the benefit of the regions.

We are convinced that suboffices in general will contribute without any extra costs to the efficiency of projects and special programmes FAO may assist governments concerned in these areas.

May I, however, call the attention to the fact that the provision to have the FAO country representative automatically heading the suboffice is not applicable in the suboffice for East Europe for obvious reasons. I am sure that a reasonable and satisfactory solution will be found.

I would like hereby to inform you on the statement of the Hungarian Government. The Hungarian Government fully agrees with the Director-General's proposed new policy of progressive decentralization and the establishment of subregional offices so as to mitigate the problems of distance and means of communication. These would permit FAO to ensure that the needs and concerns of some countries, too far away from a Regional Office and which share specific problems, are duly addressed. Thus, the subregional office would facilitate the outreach of the Regional Offices to these countries.

Taking into consideration that the number of new Member States of FAO in the Central-Eastern European region is rapidly increasing, at the 1992 European Regional Conference in Prague, the Hungarian Minister of Agriculture proposed in his speech the establishment of a Central and Eastern European Subregional Office. He also declared "we would be pleased to have this office in Hungary." We would like now to confirm the proposal in this statement repeatedly.

We emphasize that it is the competence of the FAO Director-General to decide on the ways and means of operating such a subregional office, including the redeployment of staff.

I am coming to an end of my intervention. We have read with delight the numerous references to FAO being a "centre of excellence" which was true in the past and no doubt will be even more applicable in the future. I feel this definition has been matched at this Council Session by a "paper of excellence" with which my delegation, with the above slight remarks, is associating itself.

Vernon DOUGLAS (Trinidad and Tobago): Thank you, Mr Chairman, for the opportunity to enter the debate on this important agenda item. As always, my delegation takes the floor on behalf of the fifteen member and associate Member States of the CARICOM subregion of Latin America and the Caribbean.

My delegation listened with interest to the statement made this morning by the Chairman of the Latin American and Caribbean Group, of which we had no prior notice and which contained positions on certain matters on which we had not been consulted. We must therefore, without going into the merits of these points, state unequivocally at the outset that declaration does not reflect the official position of the government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago nor of the 14 other CARICOM Member associated States on whose behalf my delegation is authorized to speak.

Mr Chairman, my delegation and the CARICOM subregion which we represent fully and unequivocally endorse the proposals as contained in the Director-General's Review of the programmes, structures and policies of the Organization. My delegation has had an opportunity to fully analyse and

debate the Director-General's proposals at the 69th Session of the Programme Committee and the Joint Meeting of the Programme and Finance Committees in April. We confirm that the reports truly reflect our deliberations, conclusions and recommendations. We will not repeat our views as expressed in those fora but it is important to underscore a few points.

Firstly, the tenor of the Director-General's response to Conference Resolution 10/93 is truly remarkable in scope and comprehension and must be commended. It clearly demonstrates how well the Director-General has read and interpreted the mood of the membership and his own insight in terms of understanding the development condition - poverty, hunger, rural deprivation - and the mandate and capacity of the Organization to respond in cooperation and collaboration with significant partners, not the least important of whom are the Member Nations themselves.

Secondly, Mr Chairman, my delegation on behalf of the CARICOM fully endorses the proposals for streamlined Secretariat structures and improved organizational planning. The establishment of a Technical Cooperation Department charged with providing a country focus orientation to the organization's work is particularly welcomed. However, we wish to emphasize that in our view, and against the background of our own experience with the existing delivery systems, this country focus orientation must characterize all the divisions of the proposed new department: the Policy Formulation Division, the Investment Centre Division and the Field Operations Division.

The other elements of the streamlined secretariat - Department of Sustainable Development, the Office for Coordination and an Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Division - are equally supported.

The proposals for the revamped field structures aimed at strengthenuing and using effectively national capacities are fully endorsed. They reflect a deep understanding of the development dynamic and will enhance responsiveness and relevance.

The Caricom Sub-region, constitutes 15 Member and Associate Member States which actively and functionally cooperate in agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural development, and which share unique and commun historical, ecological and development characteristics and relationships. We wholeheartedly congratulate the Director-General on the farsightedness of his proposal for establishing a Sub-regional office in the Caribbean. In our view the Director-General has demonstrated an understanding of our circumstances and needs and an uncanny ability to respond. In anticipation of Council's support to these proposals, the Regional Ministers of Agriculture meeting in Grenada, June 5 - 9, i.e. next week, will be deliberating on this matter with a view to facilitating early implementation.

We would wish to underscore the point that in supporting the proposals for establishing Sub-regional Offices in the Sub-regions identified at paragraph 58 of Document CL 106/2, the CARICOM sub-region understands that in dertermining the location of these offices, the principle to be adhered to is consultation between the FAO and the relevant Member Nations of the particular Sub-region. We urge that this principle not be compromised.

We endorse too the sharpened priority focus outlined in:

a) the Special Programme on food production in support of food security in low-income food deficit countries; and

b) the emergency prevention system for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases.

In providing support to these proposals, my delegation notes with satisfaction the additional information provided by the Director-General in Doc. CL 106/2 - Sup.l at the request of the Programme Committee. This further reflects the increasing transparency which has begun to pervade the Organisation. We look forward to this transparency being extended to the entire Programme and Budgeting process.

We urge Council to endorse the proposals before us and so enable the Director-General to proceed to take all the necessary actions to initiate that much sought after transformation of operational systems, structures and procedures such as would facilitate greater efficiency, effectiveness and accountability in the Organization.

Supote DECHATES (Thailand): To follow your guidance strictly is presenting comments to the Council, the delegation of Thailand will confine its comments only to the document under discussion. My delegation wishes to express its appreciation to the Director-General on a timely compliance with the mandate given by the FAO Conference resolution 10/93 as well as on a wide range of activities before formulating his review of the programs, structures and policies of the FAO.

At the outset, my delegation wishes to endorse the statement made by the delegation of Indonesia on behalf of Asia Nations. Moreover, Mr Chairman, please allow me to make more specific comments ob behalf of my country.

I will divide my comments into three parts, namely, the streamlining of secretariat structure, the sharpened priority focus and other measures.

With regard to the first one, my government fully supports the establishment of both a Technical Cooperation Department and a Sustainable Development Department. We are convinced that these two Departments would benefit not only the member nations but also further improve the efficiency of our organization in the years to come. It must be noted that the future role of the Sustainable Development Department is in line with the support of the world's governments in Chapter 14 of Agenda 21, adopted by the Earth Summit. Among other things, as proposed by the Director-General, the Technical Cooperation Programme unit would then be operated within the Department of Technuical Cooperation. I would like to point out that the nature of the Technical Cooperation Programme is of very high value to the developing countries. The Programme normally responds promptly to the needs for technical assistance as well as in emergency cases. Therefore, I strongly hope that the procedures of approving the requested-projects from the member nations would be strengthened, especially the speeding up of the whole process. In relation to the field structures, my delegation welcomes the firm intention of the Director-General to leave unchanged the number and location of the FAO Regional Offices. As stated in the document, the Regional Offices would be strengthened while the Sub-regional Offices are proposed to be located in five more countries. My delegation would greatly appreciate it if the secretariat could illustrate more on the linkage and competence of the Regional Offices, Sub-Regional Offices and FAO Country

Offices. My delegation certainly believes that the delegation of authority in decision making from the headquarters to the field would definitely meet the objectives of decentralization.

Mr Chairman, I will continue my comments on the second part of the document, the sharpened priority focus. My delegation is of the view that the Director-General has outlined correctly his immediate plan to lead this Organization in accordance with the needs of the worrld community. I refer in particular to the Special Programme on Food Production in Support of Food Security in Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries, and Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases. There is no doubt, the target group of world population has been clearly stated to all concerned. May I stress that the consumption of local food products should be encouraged by all means i.e by promotional campaigns and by improving food process through appropriate technology. In addition, the emphasis of food production alone is not the only way out to solve the problems of food security of the poor but rather an integrated means including the creation of purchasing power, the distribution of food and sustainable agricultural production.

Mr Chairman, this is my final point with regard to other measures in the document. My delegation very much welcomes the intention of the Director-General to broaden the external partnership of FAO with UN agencies, international organizations, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. We feel that close cooperation should not only aim at international organizations but the priority should be given to national and regional organizations including NGOs.

Lastly, I would like to inform the Director-General that my country has and continues to attach great importance to the work of the FAO. We can assure him that he can count on my government's sincere support for him to lead this Organization, especially at his particular time, for his Review proposed to this session of the Council.

EL PRESIDENTE: Son las ocho y media, y como les había prometido, a esta hora suspenderemos nuestra reunión. Les agradezco mucho por haber soportado este maratón, pero creo que fue importante. El ejercicio ha valido la pena. Tienen ustedes ahora una visión de conjunto de las posiciones en general de todas las delegaciones. Creo que el señor Director General está también muy satisfecho de haberles escuchado y de tener ya una impresión clara de cuál es la voluntad del Consejo.

El día de mañana comenzaremos a las nueve y media. Le pido que sean puntuales.

The meeting rose at 2 0.30 hours.
La séance est levée à 20 h 30.
Se levanta la sesión a las 20.30 horas.

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