C 99/12 - Sup.1


Thirtieth Session

Rome, 12-23 November 1999

2000 - 2015
Version 4.0

Supplementary Information

This document contains supporting material to facilitate review of Version 4.0 of the Strategic Framework.

Section I is an abridged version of the Secretariat's analysis of external partnerships, with examples presented in tabular form to illustrate the detailed work carried out in the process of formulating the corporate strategies to address Members' needs. The table has been considerably expanded in line with revisions introduced in the text of Version 4.0, and the review by the Council of Version 3.0.

Section II looks at trends in the external environment, the challenges facing countries and the international community in achieving the objectives of the World Food Summit, and the outlook for world food security as well as development of agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It then summarizes the results of the Secretariat's analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), the results of the questionnaire to Members, and the rationale underlying the proposals for corporate strategies. These conclusions represented the results of the Secretariat's analysis at the time they were presented (mid-1998) and, except for updated titles for the strategies and objectives, have not been modified a posteriori.

Section III shows the sequence of events leading to the approval and publication of the Strategic Framework.



1. Selected, and illustrative, examples of the external partnerships foreseen in the implementation of the corporate strategies to address Members' needs are summarized in tabular form below.

2. Against each of the strategy components in the left hand column, the table shows the general areas of collaboration, and for each of these, indicates:

3. As FAO maintains direct and privileged links with a broad range of governmental institutions at country level, these partnerships are generally not highlighted to avoid repetition. The major groups of organizations with which FAO works are indicated as follows:

4. The word agriculture in the tables generally refers to agriculture lato sensu, i.e. including crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry.

(FAO Role: L: lead role; S: primarily supportive role; M: mixed role, L or S depending on the activity)
For list of acronyms see main document C 99/12.

A. Contributing to the eradication of food insecurity and rural poverty

A.1 Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

improving the opportunities available to the rural poor... by taking advantage of potential synergies between farming, fishing, forestry, animal husbandry, including through pre- and post-production income-generating enterprises

· implementation of the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS); technical adaptations in crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry; identification of opportunities and development/dissemination of techniques, information and improvements at farm level; mechanisms devised to enhance resource management;

· identification of opportunities and development and dissemination of information; facilitation of interdisciplinary work; participatory research and learning; analysis of issues facing policy makers and solutions suggested; promotion of information exchange and joint work as mandated by the World Food Summit; sensitizing partners in support of national initiatives and plans.

L - UN organizations, IFIs, CGIAR, IGOs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies, NGOs, CSOs (particularly farmers organizations)

M - UN organizations (incl. members of ACC Network on Rural Development and Food Security), IFIs, IFPRI, institutions networked with FAO on policy issues

supporting efforts to strengthen local institutions and to enact policies and legislation that will provide for more equitable access by both men and women to natural...and related economic and social resources;

· development of policy measures, technological solutions and institutional mechanisms; provision of contextual information for use by decision makers; collaboration on case studies, comparative analysis;

· training support.

M - UN organizations (notably IFAD), IFPRI, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies, CSOs including Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty.

S - same partners as above

improving the efficiency and effectiveness by which the public and private sectors respond to the multiple needs of...disadvantaged rural populations...

· provision of guidance on policies that impinge on food security;

· identification of opportunities, catalyzing action and applied research and dissemination of useful results; collaboration on case studies, comparative analysis, and regional meetings for consultation and planning.

L - UN organizations, IFIs, IGOs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies, NGOs, CSOs (particularly farmers organizations)

M - same partners as above

promoting gender-sensitive, participatory and sustainable development strategies based on self-help, capacity-building ...of the rural poor and local, civil society and rural people's organizations

· ensuring due recognition of roles of rural women through broad-based cooperation in the framework of the Beijing Plan of Action; participation in UNFPA-financed programmes; promoting information exchange and joint work.

M - UN organizations, IFIs, IGOs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies, NGOs, CSOs (particularly women's groups and farmers organizations)

assisting in the targeting of investment... that contributes to food security and poverty eradication.

· identification of investment opportunities; methodologies designed and investment plans formulated; inter alia through SPFS

· improving financial resources; seeking donor support.

M - WB, regional development banks, IFAD, member governments, IGOs, NGOs, CSOs (particularly women's groups) farmers organizations)

S - same partners as above

A.2 Access of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

promoting incorporation of nutrition objectives and considerations into national and sectoral policies and plans

· provision of information and sensitizing partners at policy level in support of national initiatives and plans; guidance on policies that impinge on nutrition and food security; formulation of policy measures, technological solutions and institutional mechanisms.

L - UN organizations (e.g. members of ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition), CSOs, international NGOs, member governments, bilateral agencies

assisting countries in establishing national food insecurity and vulnerability information and mapping systems which facilitate design and implementation of programmes to relieve chronic and transitory food insecurity

· promotion of information exchange and joint work as mandated by the World Food Summit; assessment of implications for resource poor and food insecure;

· serving as reference centre on options;

· participation in round-tables and consultative meetings.

M - UN organizations, IGOs involved in FIVIMS, bilateral agencies, member governments and regional organizations, NGOs

L - same partners as above

S - same partners as above

carrying out conceptual and methodological work on social safety net policies and programmes...

· policy analysis work and field-testing of methodologies; seeking outreach through training; generating interest of IFIs; identification, development and dissemination of information on mechanisms to ensure access; collaboration on case studies, comparative analysis

M - UN organizations and IGOs involved in FIVIMS, IFPRI, IFIs

promoting direct action to improve household food security and nutrition, particularly among the food-insecure ... through community and food-based approaches...and the use of traditional or under-utilized foods...;

· ensuring that programmes are consistent with nutritional and developmental policies and objectives of countries and reach target disadvantaged groups; technical adaptations in crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry that reduce vulnerability;

L - UN organizations, IGOs, NGOs, IFPRI, IFIs, WFP, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies

S - same partners as above

supporting programmes to improve quality and maximize the nutritional benefits to be derived from available food supplies, through proper handling (for hygiene and safety), preservation and preparation, within households and communities, and in the informal commercial sector (street foods)

· advising on best practices and facilitating capacity-building of local producers and vendors and community and women's groups;

· promoting improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, clean water supplies, appropriate local infrastructure.

L - municipal authorities, community associations, WHO, UNICEF, NGOs

S - WHO, UNICEF, municipal authorities, etc..(as above)

A.3 Preparedness for, and effective and sustainable response to, food and agricultural emergencies

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

strengthening disaster preparedness and the ability to mitigate the impact of emergencies, including those arising from animal and plant and pests diseases, which affect food security and the productive capacities of the rural population;

· for disaster prevention and mitigation: technical adaptations in crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry that reduce vulnerability (increase resilience to variability); interdisciplinary work and learning facilitated;

· for disaster prevention and mitigation: sensitizing partners at policy level and more particularly in support of national initiatives and plans at country level about factors to incorporate into planning;

· to support disaster preparedness: formulation of policy measures, technological solutions and institutional mechanisms; guidance on policies that impinge on food security;

· support international programme initiatives aimed at disaster preparedness;

· preventing plant and animal pests and diseases through seeking multiple involvement of partners in research and methodologies.

L - UN organizations, CGIAR, IFIs, IGOs and NGOs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies

M - same partners as above

L - UN organizations, IFPRI, IFIs, IGOs and NGOs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies

M - same partners as above

L - established partners of IPM and EMPRES programmes: IGOs and NGOs, CGIAR, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies

forecasting and early warning of adverse conditions in the food and agriculture sector and of impending food emergencies, including monitoring plant and animal pests and diseases;

· foster exchange of information and monitoring of specific risks; joint work with WFP on crops and food needs assessments;

· monitoring plant and animal pests and diseases through fostering of exchange of information and monitoring of specific risks.

M - Established partners of the GIEWS (UN organizations, donors, CSOs, etc.), regional and national early warning systems, WFP, member governments, bilateral incl. donor agencies

M - same partners as above

assessing needs and formulating and implementing programmes for agricultural relief and rehabilitation and....policies and investment frameworks favouring the transition from emergency relief to reconstruction...

· support to aid coordination in complex emergencies and post-natural disaster intervention; participating in joint appeals; implementation of agricultural relief and rehabilitation;

· planning of agricultural rehabilitation and reconstruction; definition of investment priorities; implementation of investment projects

M - UN organizations (inter-agency standing committee mechanism), WFP, IFIs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies, CSOs, IGOs, NGOs

M - UN organizations, IFIs, CSOs, regional organizations, member governments, bilateral agencies

strengthening local capacities and coping mechanisms guiding the choice of agricultural practices, technologies and support services to reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience


M - UN organizations, WFP, IFIs, CSOs, IGOs, NGOs, member governments, bilateral agencies

B. Promoting, developing and reinforcing policy and regulatory frameworks for food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry

B.1 International instruments concerning food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and the production, safe use and fair exchange of agricultural, fishery and forestry goods


Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

providing a forum for policy debate and negotiations on the international regulatory framework at the global and regional levels, and servicing international instruments, as required
with respect to:


- access to genetic resources for food and agriculture, and the sharing of benefits, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant instruments, and supporting frameworks and plans of action


L - Secretariats of relevant international instruments, UN organizations and IGOs; CGIAR, IPGRI and relevant technical organizations

- prior informed consent (PIC)

· joint secretariat for negotiation and administration of international convention on PIC.


- plant protection, including IPPC and regional plant protection organizations

· development of standards;

· support to implementation of WTO agreements; coordination of activities.

L - WTO, regional organizations, CSOs

M - same partners as above

- the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, including Plans of Action for specific issues

· sharing expertise in elaboration and negotiation of instruments; collaboration in promoting and monitoring implementation of code

L - UN including UNCLOS secretariat, regional fisheries organizations, INGOs, development banks

developing international standards and other measures for the implementation of the international regulatory framework...
with respect to:


- food quality and safety

· joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (Codex Alimentarius Commission);

· implementation of WTO SPS and TBT Agreements

L - WTO, WHO, UN organizations IGOs, CSOs (including both consumer and industry INGOs)

S - same partners as above

- plant protection

· development of phytosanitary standards;

· implementation of the WTO SPS Agreement.

L - WTO, IGOs (regional plant protection organizations), CSOs

S - same partners as above

- distribution and use of pesticides , including pesticide application, quality and maximum residue levels

· development of standards and joint programmes (MRLs, pesticide quality with WHO).


- tropical wood production and trade

· technical support in conservation and sustainable management of tropical forests.


ensuring that the specific needs and concerns of the food, agriculture...sectors are adequately reflected in international instruments...and that policy advice relevant to such sectors is provided to the relevant fora

· direct advice, meetings, technical inputs and studies, facilitation of participation of countries in follow-up mechanisms, support from a food and agriculture perspective, including secondment of support staff, to the secretariats of Conventions and participation in negotiations;

· support on technical aspects of implementation of the right to adequate food.

M - UN (Secretariats to Conventions on Biological Diversity, on Climate Change, to Combat to Desertification, UNCLOS and UNCLOS); UN organizations. Intergovernmental Forum on Forests , inter-agency task force on forests and other international organizations, ITTO, FAO/ECE/ILO committee on forest technology;

M - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UNHCHR

enhancing the contribution of international agricultural trade to food security...

· exchange of information with UN, IFIs and other commodity agencies; participation in commodity development activities.

M - Governmental and semi-governmental agencies, UN, IGOs (international commodity organizations), producer and industry organizations, IFIs.

improving Members' capacities... to participate actively in negotiations in relevant international fora...

· participation in working groups and training seminars with other Organizations.

M - UN system organizations, WTO, WIPO, UPOV, relevant treaty bodies

B.2 National policies, legal instruments and supporting mechanisms which respond to domestic requirements and are consistent with the international policy and regulatory framework

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

assessing, adapting to and implementing the international policy and regulatory framework..., as well as relevant international instruments...; implementing international standards...; developing sound national policies and legislation and relevant supporting measures...developing capacities to respond to... changes in the international trade environment

with respect to:

· general implementation

· dialogue with non-governmental actors

M - governments, relevant intergovernmental organizations, IPU

M - CSOs, private sector

- genetic resources for food and agriculture

· advice and support in national implementation of relevant international instruments, including WTO TRIPS, through development of national legislation;

· national capacity-building, planning and programming for agricultural genetic resources conservation and management, including in the context of global action plans; coordination with UPOV on plant variety protection legislation.

L - UN system, CGIAR (IARC), bilateral programmes, IFIs, WIPO, UPOV, CSOs

M - same partners as above

- plant protection

· Technical contribution from relevant partners in support of improvement of national regulatory frameworks and their implementation. Coordination of national activities with activities of other partners, joint activities (e.g. with relevant UN organizations on the development of the chemical regulatory framework).

M - WTO, WHO, UNEP, UNITAR, regional plant protection organizations, bilateral programmes, CSOs, IFIs, OECD, UNIDO, ILO

- food quality and safety

· technical contribution from relevant partners in support of improvement of national regulatory systems and their implementation; coordination and implementation of national activities with other partners (WHO, CSOs, private sector) on food quality and safety programmes and sharing of experience and provision of training on food quality and safety matters; assistance to countries in the establishment and operation of national Codex Committees (NGOs, CSOs, private sector).

M - WHO, UN, IFIs, CSOs (National Codex Committees), bilateral programmes, private sector

- responsible fisheries

· support to implementation of code of conduct, including sharing of information and experience in the elaboration of policies and associated regulatory framework and in development of institutional capacity for their implementation; direct support to bilateral programmes (e.g. support to Lux-Development in implementation of regional programme of aerial surveillance of fisheries).

M - UN system, regional fisheries organizations, CSOs, IFIs, bilateral programmes (e.g. joint activities such as support from DFID (UK) to the implementation of Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in Africa)

- animal health

· preparation of animal health legislation to support the international regulatory framework (e.g. standards developed by OIE); support to implementation of recommendations of international bodies (e.g. implementation of recommendations of EUFMD); support to programmes of regional organizations and IFIs.

M - OIE, WHO, PAHO, OAU/IBAR, IFIs, industry

- land tenure and rural institutions

· joint execution of programmes (e.g. in formulation of guidelines for leasing of agricultural land); exchange of information (e.g. participation in Negotiated Land Reform Network involving FAO, WB, IFAD and some 40 NGOs);

· support to country programmes of other agencies.

M - IFIs, bilateral programmes, academic institutions, regional organizations, CSOs

S - same partners as above

- water, soil resources and desertification control

· joint execution of resources management projects (e.g. with Sahara-Sahel Observatory in aquifer project; with IFAD in SADC countries on shared water resources);

· contribution to national implementation of Desertification Convention.

M - UN system, ACC Sub-Committee on Water Resources, UNEP, WHO, IFIs, bilateral programmes, CSOs, CILSS, IGAD, Secretariat of Desertification Convention, OSS

S - same partners as above

- forestry, wildlife and protected areas

· joint execution of projects (e.g. with IUCN on forestry and wildlife legislation in Africa); exchange of information and experience; joint capacity-building programmes in national governments and regional organizations.

M - UN, UN system organizations, IFIs, IUCN, WWF, CIFOR, EFI, CSOs, UNEP, GEF, bilateral programmes

- environment protection

· joint execution of activities (e.g. with IUCN on environment protection);

· input to UNEP's programme in environmental legislation in various countries; advice and support on national implementation of relevant international instruments (e.g. carbon sequestration and trading of environment quotas under the clean development mechanism).

M - UN, UNEP, GEF, IUCN, CSOs, IFIs, IPU, CITES, environmental NGOs, IPCC,

M - same partners as above

- international trade in food and agriculture

· sharing of expertise; collaborative support to countries in implementation of agreements (e.g. training for national implementation of WTO Agreements on Agriculture and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights).

M - WTO, international commodity bodies, UNCTAD, WIPO, UPOV, CSOs

C. Creating sustainable increases in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors

C.1 Policy options and institutional measures to improve efficiency and adaptability in production, processing and marketing systems, and meet the changing needs of producers and consumers

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

identifying priority issues, emerging concerns and opportunities...[and] the economic and institutional constraints that may limit the efficiency of production, processing and marketing systems;

· assessing relevant trends, identifying issues drawing lessons from international experience;

· consultation on strategy development, priority setting;

· developing policy analysis methods/tools; joint studies; collaboration in global information systems;

· participatory involvement in identification of issues; exchange of information.

M - UN bodies/organizations, IFIs, bilateral programmes, IFPRI

M - CGIAR (ILRI ...)

M - academic institutions, reference laboratories, laboratory networks

M - CSOs (associations of producers, traders, consumers)

advising on responses to the issues thus identified...to ensure remunerative market conditions which enhance production and availability of supplies, and encourage savings...

· scenario analysis; helping design policy and institutional reform options;

· socio-economic impact assessment; sub-sector analysis;

· harmonization of law and policies, intercountry strategies;

· participatory involvement to ensure that group concerns are taken into account and policies are accepted;

· analysis of financing needs.

M - UN bodies/agencies, IFIs, CGIAR


M - regional IGOs

S - CSOs (associations of producers, traders, consumers)

M - private sector (rural banks)

promoting the diversification and specialization of production to take advantage of new opportunities as well as comparative advantages based on different resource endowments...

· promoting diversification through technical and financial assistance;

· exchange of information, transfer of improved techniques;

· identification and promotion of appropriate diversification schemes suitable to local conditions; dissemination of new techniques.

M - UN bodies and organizations, IFIs, CGIAR, bilateral and multilateral programmes


L - CSOs, private sector (associations of farmers, herders, producers' groups), CGIAR, NARS

helping to strengthen agriculture and rural development support institutions...and facilitate their adaptation to changing conditions, in consultation with users and giving due importance to gender-based and other inequalities in access to services.

· collaborative activities to strengthen services/support institutions suitable to local conditions;

· assistance to the production and quality control of inputs (seeds, vaccines...);

· information exchange, delivery of services;

· participatory involvement in identifying needs for institutional changes;

· joint studies on needs for ways of improving support institutions.

M - UN bodies/organizations, IFIs


M - regional IGOs

M - CSOs

M - private sector (banks, industries...), CSOs

encouraging structural adaptations in production, processing and marketing systems so as to respond to evolving consumption patterns...and to build on complementarities among crop and livestock production, fisheries and forestry

· support for policy generation at national level; strengthening arrangements for supplying appropriate data for policy-making;

· delivery of services, including market information for producers/traders/consumers;

· post-harvest and market analyses;

· broadening civil society involvement in policy making and information exchange;

· studies on policy and information needs.

L - UN bodies/organizations, IFIs

M - regional IGOs


M - CSOs

L - private sector, CSOs

C.2 Adoption of appropriate technology to sustainably intensify production systems and to ensure sufficient supplies of food and agricultural, fisheries and forestry goods and services

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

monitoring advances in technology, including biotechnology, and analyzing their possibilities for enhancing production....

· joint studies;

· joint studies and assessments to ensure that advice is current and science-based;

· information exchange.

M - UN organizations

L - CGIAR, academic institutions, NARS, national governments

L - NGOs

promoting and assisting in the evaluation of promising techniques for the intensification and diversification of production systems capturing opportunities for sub-regional specialization.

· joint missions, assessments, workshops, publications;

· resource mobilization;

· joint missions, assessments, workshops, publications etc.

M - UN technical organizations; bilateral technical cooperation; regional organizations

S - IFIs and bilateral financing agencies

M - CGIAR, academic institutions, NARS, national governments, NGOs, CSOs (association of producers, traders, consumers...)

promoting applied research aimed ...at underpinning the adoption of improved techniques through participatory approaches...

· promotion to ensure that producers and processors, especially in developing countries, have expanded opportunities and solutions to constraints;

· resource mobilization.

M - CGIAR , academic institutions, NARS, national Governments, NGOs

S - IFIs and bilateral funds

encouraging linkages among research and development experts as well as user organizations within and across regions for problem solving, opportunity identification, and enabling producers...to participate in and have access to results of applied research.

· networking and development of linkages;

· resource mobilization.

M - UN organizations, bilateral technical cooperation, regional organizations, CGIAR, academic institutions, NARS, national governments, NGOs, CSOs (association of producers, traders, consumers...)

M - IFIs and bilateral funds

enhancing sustainable production and processing ...reducing differences between research results and actual productivity...

· training, technical assistance in particular through the SPFS and Farmer Field Schools;

· resource mobilization.

M - UN organizations, bilateral technical cooperation,
national governments, NGOs, CSOs (associations of producers, traders, consumers...)

M - IFIs and bilateral programmes

D. Supporting the conservation, improvement and sustainable use of natural resources for food and agriculture

D.1 Integrated management of land, water, fisheries, forestry and genetic resources

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

developing and promoting integrated resource management systems in such areas as:


- watershed and coastal zone management,

· promoting interdisciplinary work on watershed management of land, water, forest and fishery resources

L - IFIs, UNEP, UNDP, bilateral agencies, EC, national and regional research institutions, Global Water Partnership, IPTRID

- transboundary resources

· coordinating cross border components of relevant projects/programmes including the sharing of fishery resources migrating across aquatic boundaries;

· developing conflict resolution and prevention measures among countries sharing common resources.

L - UN organizations, IFIs, GEF, governments, regional commissions and institutions, INGOs, riparian countries, Global Water Partnership, FAO fisheries bodies

M - same partners as above

- management of aquatic and forest resources

· coordination and formulation of plans for the sustainable management of fisheries and forest resources;

L - UN organizations, IFIs, GEF, governments, forestry and fisheries research institutes, regional commissions and institutions, INGOs, and local NGOs, private sector

- biological diversity for food and agriculture

· development and implementation of agreed plans for the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources (eg. GPAPGRFA, GSFAGR);

· development of guidelines.

L - UNEP, IFIs, CSOs, IPGRI and IARCs, NARS, regional networks, private sector

M - same partners as above

promoting cross-sectoral and sub-sectoral policies and collaborative mechanisms...and building institutional and human resource capacity for integrated resource management ...

· providing guidance and policy harmonization among various stakeholders;

· with respect to access rights to protect resources from overexploitation: project identification at local level, provision of training and workshops, preparation and dissemination of guidelines, information and best practices;

· ensuring participatory and gender responsive management of natural resources for rural communities through promotion of participatory approaches, conflict resolution at the community level and training in socio-economic and gender analysis.

M - national ministries and institutions, IFIs, CGIAR, GEF, IPPC, CCD, CSOs

L - national governments, NARS, local communities, private sector, IFIs, UN organizations, CGIAR and INGOs

M - community and farmer's organizations, NGO's, national academic and research institutes, bilateral agencies, IFIs and UN organizations (e.g. UNFPA)

serving as a point of reference and source of knowledge on key issues of natural resources management and facilitating the sharing of experiences at national, regional and global level

· building national capacity for land, water, plant nutrition and integrated pest management (IPM) forest, and fishery resource management information;

· networking to share experience and promote best practices.

L - national, regional, sub-regional, international institutions and networks, research and academic institutions, CGIAR, IPTRID, IARCs, ISTRO, ICIMOD, Mountain Institute, bilateral agencies, WB, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO

M - same partners as above

developing and strengthening monitoring, assessment, and valuation of natural resources to optimize decision making for efficient management and sustainable use of natural resources.

· national, regional and global assessment and monitoring: support to develop national capacity on criteria and indicators for sustainable resource management (e.g. Global Forest Assessment);

· economic valuation of natural resources and environmental impact assessment:
- evaluating impacts of alternative watershed uses on marine and coastal ecosystems
- development of conceptual and methodological frameworks, guidelines, and undertaking case studies;

M - national institutions (forestry, fishery, and agriculture), regional organizations, UNEP, bilateral agencies, INGOs, academic and research institutions

L - WB, IFAD, regional banks, academic and research institutions, and governments
M - same partners as above

D.2 Conservation, rehabilitation and development of environments at greatest risk

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

monitoring and assessing the state of fragile ecosystems, developing criteria and indicators for their sustainable management, and capacity building for environmental impact assessment and risk analysis

· data collection, analysis and dissemination;

· assisting countries in the development of criteria and indicators for sustainable resource management;

· joint undertaking with other institutions in environmental impact assessment of natural resources.

L - UN organizations, WB and regional development banks, national, regional and subregional institutions, WRI, IUCN and other INGOs, IIASA, ISRIC, INGOs, CGIAR, academic and research institutions,

M - same partners as above

S - same partners as above

enhancing institutional and planning capacity at local, national, regional and international level, incorporating social, economic and environmental cost and benefits of natural resource use into polices and programmes ...

· development of policy framework in internalization of environmental costs at the economy wide and project levels; development and implementation of projects for both regulatory and market-based measures that incorporate natural resource scarcity and environmental concerns.

S - national governments, IFIs, UN organizations, NARC, IFPRI, research and academic institutions

promoting the sustainable development, conservation and rehabilitation of fragile eco-systems and areas (dryland, mountain, and coastal and marine ecosystems);

· developing and promoting promoting best practices (marine and coastal resources, mangroves and other resources); provision of policy and technical advice on improved pasture management, land tenure and strengthening capacity in rehabilitation and drought preparedness;

· exchange of information and clearing house function;

· identification, preparation, and implementation of national programs/projects (e.g. dryland, mountain and coastal areas).

L - national governments, UN organizations, regional, subregional and national institutes, research and academic institutes, NGOs, bilateral agencies, IFIs, GEF, INGOs, ISME, ITTO, ICLARM, partners of Forest, Trees, and People Programme, Partners of GPA, CGIAR, private sector

M - same partners as above

S - same partners as above, notably IFAD

assisting in the implementation of Agenda 21 chapters relevant to fragile ecosystems....and

- support to relevant international conventions and agreements

· analysis of issues and provision of solutions to decision makers in the implementation of Chapter 12 and 13;

· support to governments in the implementation of NAPs to combat desertification and specific initiatives on mountain development;

· assist in the implementation other relevant conventions to fragile ecosystem (e.g. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and Ramsar conventions); assist in project implementation of PGRFA and CBD.

L - UNCSD, UNEP, UNDP, UNESCO, IFAD, WB, regional banks, GEF, national focal points for UNCED conventions, bilateral agencies, CCD Secretariat, Global Mechanism of CCD, regional institutions, Inter-Agency group on mountains, UNV, Mountain Forum, ICIMOD, the Mountain Institute, CGIAR, NGOs;

S - same partners as above

M - national governments, IFIs, INGOs, NARs, regional fisheries commission and institutions, NGOs, UN organizations, GEF, CBD, CGIAR (IPGRI)

E. Improving decision-making through provision of information and assessments and fostering of knowledge management for food and agriculture

E.1 An integrated information resource base, with current, relevant and reliable statistics, information and knowledge made accessible to all FAO clients

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

developing norms, definitions, methodologies and tools for the improved collection and use of data and information

· consultation, coordination, cooperation and advice on matters relating to norms, definitions, etc., concerning food, nutrition and agriculture (including, fisheries, forestry and natural resources).

M - national statistical and development planning offices, technical ministries/departments concerned with agriculture/natural resources; UN System organizations/bodies, incl. UNEP, UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, UN Statistics Division, UN Population Division, UN Regional Commissions; World Bank and other IFIs; IGOs, incl. relevant international sectoral bodies; academic institutions, NGOs; CSOs; bilateral programmes

assessing clients' current and new information requirements and adapting information systems...

· consultation and advice to assess needs;

· response to identified needs within FAO and the UN system, and with development banks.

L - national statistical offices, ministries/departments;

M - UN organizations/bodies, WB, IFI;

maintaining and augmenting basic data series on food and agriculture, particularly with regard to its quality and processed outputs...

· FAO basic data series;

· cooperation and facilitation to obtain data and support in its synthesis etc; advice and capacity building to improve data quality.

L - national statistical offices, ministries and departments; UN organizations/bodies;WFP; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs

M - same partners as above

capacity building in data collection, information- and knowledge- management

· consultation, cooperation, advice, capacity building;

· consultation, cooperation, advice, capacity building.

S - national statistical offices, ministries and departments; national academic and research institutions

M - national statistical offices, ministries and departments

promoting the exchange of information among clients...

· catalytic role in the promotion of exchange of data, information and knowledge, including through the development of networks;

· dissemination of data, information and knowledge by appropriate means, including partners in FIVIMS.

L - national statistical offices, ministries and departments as above; UN System organizations/bodies; IGOs, including relevant international sectoral bodies; CGIAR; academic institutions, NGOs; CSOs; bilateral programmes; private sector; media

M - same partners as above

continuing development of WAICENT...

· cooperation and partnership in development of systems; advice, capacity building.

M - national statistical offices, ministries and departments as above; CGIAR, private sector

E.2 Regular assessments, analyses and outlook studies for food and agriculture

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

analyzing and assessing the state... of nutrition, food and agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related natural resources...

· technical studies; exchange of data, information and experience on methods and models, and collaboration in the validation of hypotheses.

M - national statistical offices, ministries and departments; UN organizations; WFP; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs; CGIAR; CSOs and NGOs; private sector

identifying and analyzing current and emerging issues and drawing them to the attention of the international community...

· technical studies; exchange of experience in the development of indicators; calling attention of partners to areas requiring attention or lessons to be learned.

· in collaboration with member countries identify different audiences for the various assessments/analyses, prepare suitable material for dissemination.

M - national statistical offices, ministries and departments; UN organizations/bodies; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs; CGIAR; CSOs and NGOs; private sector

S - national statistical offices, ministries and departments;
UN organizations/bodies ; WFP; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs; CGIAR; ICRC, CSOs and NGOs; private sector; media

facilitating participation of countries in assessments, outlook and perspective studies through regional and global information networks ...providing analytical support to countries to participate fully in carrying out strategic assessments

· cooperation and advice in assessment of needs and development of systems; capacity building;

· cooperation and advice to member countries in assessment of needs and development of systems; capacity building.

L - national statistical offices, ministries and departments

L - same as above

E.3 A central place for food security on the international agenda

Strategy Components

Areas of Collaboration

FAO Role and Main Partners

global reporting and monitoring through the CFS, of national, sub-regional and regional implementation of the World Food Summit Plan of Action ...

· facilitating participation and reporting by the various reporting streams; synthesis, analysis and disssemination of information on implementation of the WFS Plan of Action.

L - UN organizations/bodies such as UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, UN regional commissions; WFP; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs; ICRC, CSOs and NGOs; bilateral donors; private sector

providing regular reports on the state of world food insecurity, and coordinating the international component of FIVIMS

· facilitate and coordinate inputs from partners both to publications and studies on the state of world food security, and to the global FIVIMS programme.

L - UN organizations/bodies such as UNICEF, WHO, UN regional commissions; WFP; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs; ICRC, CSOs and NGOs; bilateral donors; private sector

working with other organizations in the UN System and with civil society to raise the global profile of food security issues...

· strengthen cooperation with partners for more effective advocacy, including by disseminating information through all available means including FAO and other UN fora

L - UN organizations/bodies; WFP; IFAD; World Bank and other IFIs; ICRC, CSOs and NGOs; media



1. This section summarizes the analysis carried out by the Secretariat during the first half of 1998 to prepare the first version of the Strategic Framework for FAO 2000-2015, as well as the rationale for the corporate strategies proposed in the document.

Global Perspectives for Food Security

2. As part of the process of identifying major trends which would need to be taken into account by the Organization in defining its Strategic Framework, the Secretariat reviewed, more specifically, the global perspectives for food security towards 2015. FAO is currently in the process of taking a fresh look at the long-term assessment of its Agriculture: Towards 2010 (AT2010) study, mainly in order to better evaluate the prospects for progress towards the World Food Summit (WFS) target. For this reason, the time horizon of the analysis is being extended to 2015. It is too early to report in detail on this new assessment, but preliminary findings suggest that the broad dimensions of the major food and agriculture variables would not be very different from those depicted in AT2010 and in the technical documentation prepared for the WFS.

Primacy of policy reforms

3. In spite of unprecedented progress in technical and economic potential, the close of this century witnesses a continuing slowdown in the growth of world agricultural production while hundreds of millions of people, in particular children, continue to be chronically hungry and malnourished. The coincidence-incidence of these two tendencies does not, in any way, reflect a lack of capacity of the world as a whole to produce the additional food required to eliminate undernourishment. Rather, the persistence of hunger is due to development failures. In many low-income countries with high dependence on agriculture, this includes in particular lack of promotion of local food production and rural development. With appropriate policy reforms and institutional adjustments and with due attention to social and gender-based equity, incentives can and should be provided to stimulate innovations and investments towards a sustainable path of agricultural development which would ultimately provide enough food for all. What are the prospects that progress may be made during the next 10 to 15 years?

Further improvements in average food and nutrition indicators

4. Population growth is the main determining factor for growth in aggregate food demand. The absolute annual additions to world population, which peaked at nearly 90 million persons in the second half of the 1980s, are now slowly declining, and are at present about 80 million, over 90 percent of which are in the developing countries. In parallel, the latest World Bank assessment of economic growth prospects indicates some improvement in the overall outlook of the developing countries for the next decade, though with considerable differences between countries. These prospects indicate that further improvements may be expected in the average food and nutrition indicators for the world including the developing countries as a whole, but also that the food insecurity and undernourishment problems will persist (possibly at slightly attenuated levels) in many countries.

Modest declines in the numbers of undernourished

5. Per caput food availability, in the developing countries as a whole, is expected to increase. The incidence of undernourishment in the developing countries may decline in relative terms (as a percentage of population) but, given population growth, if past trends continue there would be only modest declines in the numbers of undernourished from the current level of over 800 million persons. High rates of undernourishment may persist in sub-Saharan Africa, and be somewhat reduced in South Asia. Therefore, the efficiency of policies to address the issue of poverty and promote sustainable livelihoods among the vulnerable groups will be a major determining factor in the fight against undernourishment.

Local production as main source of food in developing countries, but imports also expected to rise

6. To meet the growth in effective (i.e. as expressed in the marketplace) food demand, world agricultural production will have to grow at an annual rate of approximately 1.8 percent. Local production will be by far the main source of the increases in the total food supplies of the developing countries. For many of them, agricultural and rural development is not only essential in generating food supplies, but also to the livelihood of large numbers of rural people.

7. Nevertheless, net food imports of developing countries are expected to continue to grow. Net imports of cereals may grow from the 100 -110 million tons of recent years to more than 160 million tons by 2010 and increase further thereafter. Part of these food imports would have to be supplied as food aid.

8. The rest of the world (mainly the major exporting OECD countries) should face no major constraints in generating these additional exports of cereals (and of livestock products), given that (a) their own demand will grow very slowly in volume, and (b) part of the additional exports to developing countries will probably be offset by strongly declining exports to Eastern Europe and countries of the former USSR. This latter region will probably become a modest net exporter of cereals.

9. The group of developing countries (as currently defined) could in the longer term turn from being a net exporter of agricultural primary products into a net importer, with the consequence that they will have to pay for their food imports partly with earnings from exports of non-agricultural goods and services and higher value-added agricultural products.

Lower stocks and firmer but more volatile prices

10. Regarding world market prices for agricultural products, and cereals in particular, there are reasons to expect that the secular decline, in real terms, may not continue in the medium term. There will be less downward pressure on prices as the Uruguay Round Agreements are implemented leading to declining structural surpluses and lesser distorting support to agricultural production and trade. There is also an expectation that lower public stock holdings, together with geographical shifts in global stocks, may enhance the risk of higher volatility in world market prices and of reduced availabilities for food aid.

Sustainable intensification as main source of production growth

11. It is expected that about four-fifths of the projected crop production increases in developing countries will come from intensification of agricultural production with two-thirds in the form of higher yields and the remainder as a result of increased cropping intensity (more multiple cropping, shorter fallows), particularly in countries with appropriate agro-ecological environments and little or no potential to expand land in cultivation. Achievement of this yield growth depends on high priority being accorded to investment in primary agriculture and in agricultural research and extension, making a wide range of modern technologies accessible.

12. Some of the environmental and sustainability implications of the foreseen increase and intensification of agriculture are that (a) the limited agricultural land expansion need not be associated with the rapid rates of tropical deforestation observed in the past provided sustainable land use is achieved; (b) water is rapidly becoming a severe limiting factor and policies need to be introduced for effective water management, including increasing the cost to users; (c) there will be further increases in the use of agrochemicals (fertilizer, pesticides) in developing countries, though at declining rates compared with the past; and, (d) safe use of external inputs (fertilizer, pesticides and improved varieties) is indispensable for sustainable agriculture.

13. The achievement of sustainable agricultural and rural development will be critically dependent on the concerted application of a combination of appropriate policy instruments. Considerable potential exists for the efficient use of existing, and the development of new, technologies for sustainable intensification of production. With appropriate incentives that induce innovations and investments towards the full use of this potential, it should be possible to keep any trade-offs between food production growth and protection of the environment to a minimum.

Halving the number of undernourished no later than 2015 - the major challenge

14. The paragraphs above present the "most likely outcome." However, a number of factors, about which it is not possible to be certain at this stage, may cause future developments to be different. An important departure from foreseen developments would be the successful implementation of the Plan of Action adopted at the World Food Summit, and in particular, achievement of the target of halving the number of hungry by no later than 2015. Present trends point to a further reduction, but not a halving, of the number of chronically undernourished by that year. Hence, a major effort will have to be made if the Summit target is to be achieved. Globally, the additional amounts of food to be produced and traded would be minor. The objective is also feasible at the individual country level provided that those countries experiencing widespread undernourishment accord high priority to their agricultural development and engage in a much more rigorous policy effort to enhance the access of the poor to income earning opportunities. It is also estimated that investment in agriculture in these countries should be 20 to 30 percent above what it would otherwise be.

15. Preliminary analysis suggests that, even assuming exceptionally high rates of income and demand growth as well as feasible combinations of domestic production and imports, meeting the WFS target will be extremely difficult for many countries unless they succeed in achieving significant improvements in their intra-national distribution of food. Typically, such countries currently have high population growth rates (over 2.0 % p.a.), low per caput calorie availability (less than 2000 Kcal per day), and a rather unequal food distribution. Efforts to overcome inequities of access to food through a broad range of poverty alleviation measures, including better access to means of production and employment, will represent a key policy problem for these countries if they are to achieve the WFS target.

16. To conclude, the world food security situation seems, by and large, to be developing along the lines of slow and uneven progress as foreseen in the FAO technical documentation for the WFS. In practice, and as far as can be determined so soon after the WFS, progress is not yet being made at anywhere near the rates required for meeting the WFS target. Unless major efforts are made to improve food supplies as well as to overcome inequities, some countries may still have an incidence of undernourishment ranging from 15 to 30 percent of their populations. It was precisely this kind of outlook, particularly the realization that undernourishment would decline at too slow a rate, that fuelled the WFS debate which led to the adoption of the target of halving undernourishment by 2015.

Major Trends

17. One of the first steps undertaken within the Secretariat in preparing the draft Strategic Framework was an analysis of the external environment in order to identify those political, economic, social and technological trends or factors which were likely to have direct implications for or bearing on the Organization's future work. Twelve major trends were identified; these are summarized very briefly below:

Changes in the role and functions of the state

18. It is expected that governments will continue a progressive disengagement from productive functions, in favour of provision of public goods and of a framework conducive to sustainable economic growth and poverty alleviation. However, policy instruments available to the state will be increasingly conditioned by international agreements. It is expected that public administrations will be downsized and decentralized, with major emphasis being placed on accountability and efficiency, and privatization of some government services. Within public services, increasing reliance on the principle of subsidiarity will also result in devolution of more authority, in many countries, to sub-national, provincial or municipal levels.

Continuing globalization and trade liberalization

19. The growing integration of trade and financial markets is likely to continue, further limiting domestic policy options. Agricultural trade liberalization is expected to continue in line with the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture and international regulatory frameworks, conventions and other legal instruments. The experience of the economic recession following the regional/global instability in 1997/98 has demonstrated that excessive openness and volatility of financial markets may adversely affect employment, agriculture and food security. It is envisaged that lessons will be drawn from this and mechanisms put in place at international and national levels to increase the transparency of financial markets, ensure greater sustainability of investments and recognize the importance of social safety nets for periods of transition. More technology transfer will be made through private investment and trade.

Growth in the number of countries in the middle income group, and increased reliance on regional blocs

20. It is envisaged that there will be further differentiation between countries in the middle income and poorest groups. Middle income countries will experience a rapid evolution from subsistence to commercial agriculture even though pockets of urban and rural poverty may persist. They will also be less reliant on the international community for technical assistance in agricultural development. A strengthening of regional and sub-regional groups, and an increase in their influence in global affairs, may be expected.

Persistence of poverty and mounting inequality -- a widening of the gap between the affluent and the poor

21. Present trends indicate little congruence between stated goals (such as equity in human, social and economic development) and actual results. The disparity between the rich and the poor, both globally and nationally, is being exacerbated. Economic growth, per se, is generally not reducing food insecurity in the poorer segments of societies. Likewise, increasing disparities in access to resources, education and technology are widening the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots". Persistent inequalities, along gender, age and ethnic lines, in access to and control over productive resources, information, employment, public education, technology and decision-making processes, if not corrected, could have a serious effect on household and national food security.

Continued risk of disaster-related and complex emergencies

22. The number of disaster-related and complex emergencies may continue to be high, with the potential for further exacerbating problems of food insecurity, migration, and social, economic and political instability, as well as the continued diversion of scarce resources away from assistance addressing the root causes of these emergencies. Emergencies may have natural or human causes, but in any case the affected countries are often among the poorest and most vulnerable, with predominantly agriculture-based economies. Increased vulnerability to economic/financial crises and over-dependence on a limited range of commodities and technologies present additional risks for many countries.

Changing demands on agriculture in increasingly urbanized societies

23. A rapidly increasing share of the population of developing countries will live in cities, having major implications for the role of agriculture both in rural and peri-urban areas. Access to food will become more complex as an increasing proportion is acquired through market exchange. Agricultural production will become more intensive and commercial, requiring further increases in productivity of agricultural labour and land. The multi-functional role of the agricultural sector, extending beyond economic aspects to include social, cultural and ecological dimensions, may be expected to raise various policy implications. The recognition of the crucial role of women, as producers and consumers, will also entail reorientation of policies to address their special needs, enhance their already considerable contribution to food security and agricultural production, and enlist their support for the responsible use of natural resources. The growing proportion of youth in developing country populations will also require attention in agriculture sector policies and programmes.

Changing consumer perceptions and increasing public awareness of food and environmental issues

24. Changes in consumer preferences and dietary consumption patterns, already evident in developed countries, may continue and become more widespread also in middle income countries. Greater demand may be expressed for fish, fruits and vegetables and non-staple products as well as for "organic" products. Increased consumer awareness, particularly among women, of food safety and environmental issues will give rise to requirements for further science-based standards in national and international trade, and greater attention to questions of food quality and safety at the national and local levels.

Increasing pressure on natural resources and competition for their use

25. The risks arising from pressure on natural resources, in particular water and land, and degradation of the natural resource base are likely to increase as competition for resource use intensifies, particularly where markets fail to ensure efficient management of these resources. The average per caput availability of freshwater will continue to decline. Problems of water quality will continue, causing increased risk of diseases and salinization of irrigated land. Competition for freshwater resources, including across national boundaries, will increase. Degradation of land and competition between agriculture and other sectors, in particular through urbanization, will increase. Land use will become even more intensive. Biological diversity will continue to be threatened as traditional crop cultivars are abandoned, deforestation continues and habitats are lost. Some 30% of livestock breeds are already at the point of extinction while, in fisheries, introduced species threaten to erode natural genetic diversity. An increase in demand for wood products will provide the engine for commercial forestry development although conversion of sub-tropical and tropical forest to agriculture will continue. Widespread depletion of marine and inland fisheries resources is feared. Climatic fluctuations, the main cause of variability of agricultural production, will probably increase. By 2015 it should be possible to have a much clearer picture of climate change and the extent to which it has anthropogenic causes.

Steady progress in research and technological development, and continued inequality in access to its benefits

26. Technological developments will occur in all areas, but will not be equally accessible to all countries, which may influence countries' ability to compete in global markets. Technological advances are likely to be important in the areas of energy, transportation, biotechnology and information technology. Agricultural research will become increasingly globalized with the private sector conducting most biotechnology research. The needs of resource-poor farmers in developing countries are unlikely to be addressed adequately by the private sector, with a need for the public sector, including international institutions, to fill the gap.

Increasing impact of information and communications technology on institutions and societies

27. As the "information and communications revolution" advances and becomes more global, the use of these technologies is likely to become a significant source of wealth. It is expected that inequalities will be exacerbated since developed countries will have at their disposal the bulk of information technology resources. Developing countries will have increasing access to these resources but the amount of investment may be insufficient, due to scarcity of capital, to close the gap relative to developed countries.

Changes in nature and composition of funding for agricultural development

28. The total pool of external assistance resources, excluding IMF support, is not expected to expand significantly and may, in fact, fall. The part of that assistance delivered by private non-profit organizations may grow. Total external assistance to agriculture, both from bilateral and multilateral sources, may continue to fall in real terms. Lending from multilateral financial agencies may, however, be maintained or perhaps expand moderately. There will also be a growing role and competition for foreign direct investment (FDI).

Changing role and public perceptions of the United Nations system

29. It is difficult to predict how the UN system will be perceived in 10-15 years in the light of scepticism in some countries of the developed world. The improvement of the system's image will depend to a large extent on better communication of the results being achieved, as well as on current reforms underway in many UN organizations and on the capacity of the system to forge a coordinated approach based on greater synergies in the work of its component parts. The trend of setting up "parallel" structures involving also non-UN actors, to deal with issues requiring international cooperation and/or global collective action seems set to continue; non-governmental and civil society actors are likely to continue to press for a greater voice in UN affairs.

Values, Mission and Vision

30. Following the methodology adopted for the exercise, it was considered important to define the basic values of the Organization, as well as its mission and vision for the future. This internal reflection constituted the first step in the iterative process which led to the proposals for corporate strategies and strategic objectives as well as strategies to address cross-organizational issues.

Stakeholder Consultations

31. In the light of the conclusions concerning the likely evolution of the external environment, and of FAO's comparative advantages, preparations for the Strategic Framework required an examination of what FAO could and should do to help address the challenges of the future. An important step, at this stage, was to consult FAO's major stakeholders, its Members, on their own goals and on the services which they would wish the Organization to provide.

32. Three "global goals" were identified in the questionnaire sent out to all Members in June, 1998, and respondents were asked to indicate whether they agreed with the goal as stated, agreed with the substance but not as stated, or disagreed. The preliminary analysis of responses received by 27 July 1998 indicated massive support for the substance of these goals, but at the same time concern that the proposed concise formulations might not adequately cover all aspects agreed upon by the international conferences. As the purpose of the Strategic Framework exercise was certainly not to reopen debate on goals already agreed by Members, but rather to guide FAO's response to them, it was judged preferable to refer Members to the texts in question rather than to attempt, in the document, to summarize them. A proposal has nevertheless been made in Part I for a concise formulation of three major global goals to guide the Organization's work.

33. As part of the same questionnaire, Members were asked to rate the priority they accorded to five goal-related areas, or major categories of work, and then to indicate their view of the importance of FAO's role as a supplier of services in that area. The preliminary results of the questionnaire responses were available during July 1998 and drawn upon to further refine the formulation of objectives and strategies, first by individual departments and subsequently at the corporate level. Finally, proposals for corporate strategies both for the major substantive areas of work, and for important issues of a cross-organizational nature, were presented as Version 1.0 of the Strategic Framework for the years 2000 to 2015.

Rationale for Proposals

34. The rationale for the proposals made in the document, based on the external and internal analyses and the results of the questionnaire to Members, is analyzed below.

Strategies to Address Members' Needs

35. Several options were considered before settling on the approach used. One would have been to take as the point of departure the disciplinary base of the Organization, or its ongoing programmes as expressed in the Programme of Work and Budget, and project them into the future. The risk of this approach, however, could have been to close off avenues of reflection and innovation and thus to perpetuate the status quo in a rapidly evolving external environment.

36. Another approach would have been to use as an organizing principle the overall development goals of Members, as expressed, for example, in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. This also could have been misleading. Many of the specific measures called for by the Plan of Action are outside the mandate and competence of the Organization, and defining objectives for which successful achievement depends almost entirely on the contribution of others would have meant that the impact of FAO's own actions might have been too diluted to be measured.

37. It was therefore considered necessary to define major thrusts for FAO's work in the coming years in a manner broad enough to relate them to the real challenges which the international community faces but at the same time sufficiently circumscribed to allow for clear definition of strategies to implement them, and later on for the identification of specific projects and corresponding resource allocations. Each of the five corporate strategies (A through E) was designed to constitute a response by FAO to one such challenge, seen in terms of Members' goals, external factors and internal capacities. Within the five strategies, twelve strategic objectives were formulated, aggregating departmental strategies and indicating in each case the partnerships-internal and external-necessary for implementation.

38. Definition of the challenges started from the analysis of the likely developments in the external environment, used as a mediating principle the Organization's mandate and comparative advantages, and tested the resulting hypotheses against the goals defined and the strategies proposed by the FAO departments. The result was then compared to the responses to the questionnaire to Members.

39. The sequencing proposed for the five Corporate Strategies did not represent an order of priority. If anything, it appeared to represent a logical progression; the sequence begins with the specific response to an urgent problem, identified by the World Food Summit; it proceeds to three Strategies (B, C and D) addressing different facets of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry management and development; it concludes with the strategy to address the global community.

Corporate Strategy A-Contributing to the eradication of food insecurity and rural poverty

40. The World Food Summit Plan of Action recognizes that "extraordinary efforts" will be required to reach the Summit's target of reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present level no later than 2015. Both the Rome Declaration and the Plan of Action state that poverty is a major cause of food insecurity, and that sustainable progress in poverty eradication is critical to improve access to food.

41. Commitment Two calls for policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality, and improving physical and economic access by all, at all times, to sufficient nutritionally adequate and safe food and its effective utilization; it envisages both measures to maximize the incomes of the poor and ensure safe and accessible food supplies, and measures targeted to assist the neediest, most vulnerable and disadvantaged. Commitment Five commits countries to endeavour to prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery, rehabilitation, development and a capacity to satisfy future needs.

42. The analysis of the external environment foresees the persistence of poverty and a widening gap between the affluent and the poor, both among countries and within many societies. It notes that present trends support general economic growth but only a slow reduction in food insecurity. A conclusion of the external analysis is that many of the actions required are made more difficult by a number of trends external to agriculture and rural economies, and that the magnitude of the problems to be addressed justifies a particular focus on assisting the poor countries and vulnerable groups, where the needs are greatest.

43. The internal analysis identified, as a major strength, FAO's authority and status as a neutral global organization able to address such issues, at both the international and national levels, directly and in partnership with other organizations. Also cited were its range of relevant disciplines and technical expertise, and its fifty years of accumulated experience and institutional memory.

44. The external and internal analyses noted the persistence of crises and emergencies, both man-made and natural disaster-related, and a consequent exacerbation of current problems of food insecurity, migration, instability and diversion of scarce resources away from the type of assistance needed to address root causes. FAO's capacity, within its sphere of competence, to address all phases of the emergency cycle, from early warning and disaster preparedness through relief and rehabilitation to development, was seen as a strength and an indication that the Organization should strengthen its partnerships with others to contribute to an increasingly well-targeted and coordinated international emergency preparedness and response system.

45. The questionnaire results indicated the importance Members assign to this area of work, with all but a handful assigning it the highest, or high priority. With regard to FAO's role as a provider of services, the majority of respondents saw it as major if not of central importance. The formulation of the three strategic objectives takes into account comments made by several Members in the questionnaire responses.

46. The strategic objective covering emergencies was included in this Corporate Strategy because, although it addresses problems which are generally caused by specific events and in some cases may be transitory, it nevertheless involves targeted action to assist particular countries and population groups facing food insecurity and loss of livelihoods.

Corporate Strategy B-Promoting, developing and reinforcing policy and regulatory frameworks for food and agriculture

47. The globalization of the market economy, increasing competition for resources and the withdrawal of governments from production and marketing entities all accentuate the need for the development of regulatory frameworks at the international and national levels which are equitable, sustainable, conducive to economic development, and which allow for conflict resolution. This has been amply recognized in the outcomes of global conferences and summits of recent years, and most recently by the World Food Summit, particularly in Commitments One, Three, Four and Seven.

48. The analysis of the external environment confirms that domestic and international trade in agriculture, fisheries and forestry is an important factor of food security. It also underlines the increasing recognition of the relevance of regulatory frameworks both among and within countries. The internal analysis notes that at the international level, FAO can furnish technical, economic and legal expertise and provide a neutral forum for the negotiation and development of international agreements, codes of conduct, technical standards and other instruments, as well as injecting food and agriculture interests into negotiations in other fora, in particular those relating to trade and the environment. It is uniquely well placed to provide support for the adoption of national policies and legislation that meet national needs and international requirements.

49. The responses to the questionnaire indicated the importance attached to this issue by Members, with all but a few according it highest, or high priority. With regard to the role of FAO as a provider of services at the international level, the consensus was equally high. For FAO's role in assisting individual countries, the responses were spread more evenly across the spectrum, reflecting the fact that the extent to which Members will need FAO assistance depends to a great extent on the state of development of their national capacities.

50. Many such countries are or will be in the "middle income" group, which may be less reliant on the international community for traditional forms of technical assistance but will look to FAO for a specific expertise and experience which is not easily available from others and which the Organization is uniquely placed to provide. Because of the specificity of the questions addressed and the approaches required, it was considered desirable to have a separate focussed strategy in this area.

Corporate Strategy C-Creating sustainable increases in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors

51. Commitment Three of the WFS Plan of Action commits countries to "pursue participatory and sustainable food, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and rural development policies and practices in high and low potential areas, which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household, national, regional and global levels, and combat pests, drought and desertification, considering the multifunctional character of agriculture." The very substantial needs for investment, especially in technology generation, rural infrastructure, irrigation and agro-industries, were highlighted in the documentation prepared for the WFS. Furthermore, the need for the optimal allocation and use of such investments was taken up in Commitment Six.

52. The analysis of the external trends and forces indicated that, with the state no longer seen as the main executor of development programmes, but rather as providing the enabling framework, progress in the sector will depend even more on the initiative of producers, the private sector and especially small-scale entrepreneurs. Increasing urbanization and growth in the proportion of the population not involved in agriculture and in food production points to changes in the demands on agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including supply of a different range of products and streamlining of the supply chain.

53. The need for sustainable increases in production, particularly in Low-Income, Food-Deficit Countries, pointed to the importance of capitalizing in the short and medium term on technologies already available, adapted to the extent possible, to expand food output by small farmers. FAO would need to assist in closing the gap between yields in research stations and those in farmers' fields in the promotion of ways and means to increase farmers' net income, as well as in identification, analysis and removal of constraints to adoption of appropriate agriculture practices. FAO could transfer knowledge to countries and assist them in making it widely available to farmers, fisher-folk and other rural entrepreneurs, promoting demonstration of comprehensive approaches through the field programme, including the SPFS, as a catalytic tool.

54. In the initial analysis of questionnaire returns, this work area was regarded by a large majority of Members as of highest or high priority. With regard to FAO's role as a provider of services, Members placed more emphasis on assisting countries in making strategic choices than on facilitating adoption of appropriate packages and solutions. The formulation of the two strategic objectives takes into account comments made by a number of Members.

Corporate Strategy D-Supporting the conservation, improvement and sustainable utilization of natural resources for food and agriculture

55. Much of the impressive increase in food production which has occurred in recent decades is due to an intensification in the use of natural resources, in particular land and water but also forestry and fishery resources. In future, however, technologies which make more efficient - and sustainable - use of land and water resources must be the principal source of incremental food output.

56. While the production enhancing technologies of the future must pass the test of sustainability, safeguarding the sustainability of the world's food production systems remains a much broader issue. There has been an awakening over the past 10 to 20 years to the threats posed by over-exploitation of the world's marine resources, by the wholesale destruction of forests, by the growth in release of greenhouse gases, by the destruction of the ozone layer, by desertification and salinization, and by the erosion of biodiversity, but the full implications of these human-induced processes on world food supplies are not yet well understood and only limited action is being taken to curb them. A major challenge is, therefore, to ensure that adequate monitoring systems are in place to track the extent of destruction, that instruments are created to induce a more responsible use of global resources and that the means are mobilized to allow for the natural resources on which food supplies are dependent to be husbanded in a sustainable manner.

57. The global community committed itself to tackle these issues as part of Agenda 21, adopted at UNCED in 1992. In the World Food Summit Plan of Action it reaffirmed this commitment, recalling also a number of other international agreements and instruments concerned with the conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources (land, water, fishery, forestry and genetic resources), and called upon international institutions to support the actions of governments and civil society. FAO, assigned a responsibility in this regard by its Constitution "to promote and, where appropriate, ...recommend national and international action with respect to... the conservation of natural resources and the adoption of improved methods of agricultural production," cannot fail to accord high priority to assisting members to meet the challenge.

58. In responses to the questionnaire, the two proposed specific "areas of FAO contribution" received strong support, with most countries seeing FAO's role as "central" or "major". Only a handful of countries gave little support. On the basis of written comments attached to the questionnaire, this seemed generally traceable to the fact that for developed country respondents natural resources management was a national matter for which no assistance from FAO was required.

59. In discussions on Version 1.0 of the Strategic Framework, the possibility was discussed of combining this strategy with Strategy C. However, while they address goals which need not be seen as incompatible, the different nature of the work involved, and the different partnerships necessary to achieve the desired results, suggested that separate strategies would permit a more incisive definition of problems and proposed solutions. For fisheries and forestry, in particular, a combination of Strategies C and D might send the wrong signal regarding the Organization's commitment to resource conservation.

Corporate Strategy E-Improving decision-making through provision of information and assessments and fostering of knowledge management for food and agriculture

60. The analysis of external trends and forces identified a number of potential implications for FAO. The demand for information, both existing time series and new data elements, is forecast to continue to grow and to change, with an increasing requirement for information in support of policy advice, and to ensure that crucial emerging issues are authoritatively and forcefully placed upon the international agenda. This is particularly the case for natural resource assessment. Similarly, the growth in importance of regulatory frameworks brings with it a concomitant requirement for accessible information on the related standards and norms.

61. The internal analysis demonstrated that despite the success of the WAICENT project in consolidating FAO data in a single repository using common standards, FAO's ability as an Organization to protect the quality of the incoming statistical data is limited. There appears to be a decline in the quality of country level data collection systems which the Organization has limited capacity to correct. The internal analysis saw information as being one of FAO's greatest strengths: "an unparalleled source" - the risk is that the Organization could lose this important strength if it does not make determined efforts to capitalize on it and further expand and improve the quality of its data. In addition, concern is expressed that the traditional closed environment allowing only FAO approved and generated information on WAICENT and related systems may be excluding FAO from the more innovative information exchange networks now in place.

62. Both the external and internal analyses noted the probable increase in demand for FAO's analytical products and the opportunity this represented for the Organization to render services for which it was uniquely suited. A related, but separate, sphere in which FAO should further focus its efforts was that of global advocacy for food security and the achievement of the Summit's target, promotion of the necessary action and monitoring of progress.

63. The questionnaire results also demonstrate that these areas of work are accorded high priority by Members. Scoring highest was work concerning the analysis and assessment of trends where three-quarters of respondents considered this to be of the highest priority and essential. Next was the maintenance of an accurate and accessible global set of data which scored almost as high. The third area of work, which concerned the promotion of food security on the international agenda, had more balanced support between those who considered it to be of the highest priority and essential and those who rather saw it as being of high priority, to be addressed to the extent that resources permit.

64. FAO's role as a provider of services in the domain of assessments and analyses of trends, was considered of central importance to the global community by nearly 90% of respondents in responses to the questionnaire to date, the single most positive score accorded by Members to any of the questions. Predictably fewer countries seek FAO's assistance to do this work at the national level. FAO's role in the maintenance of an accurate and accessible global set of data also scored very high with three-quarters of Members responding indicating that they considered it to be of central importance, while in the case of promotion of food security on the international agenda, two-thirds considered that FAO's role was of central importance.

65. All three strategic objectives contributing to this corporate strategy received the highest degree of support from Members, and in fact the only question raised has been whether or not the third element-promoting a central place for food security on the international agenda-belongs under E or should be moved to Strategy A because it deals with food security.

66. However, Strategy A has been formulated as an FAO response to the need to assist those countries where extraordinary efforts must be made if the Summit target is to be reached. In different ways, Strategies B, C and D would also contribute to the achievement of various objectives in the World Food Summit Plan of Action, and thus also to food security.

67. On the other hand, it needs to be recalled that the Summit committed all countries to ensuring food security for their peoples, and called upon many actors in addition to FAO to assist in reaching its goals. FAO's main contribution to this broader effort is in information dissemination, facilitation of inter-agency cooperation and monitoring of progress through the CFS. These activities are covered under a Strategic Objective which appeared most amenable to inclusion as E.3 because all work under Strategy E is addressed to the entire membership and to the international community at large, and relies on similar means of action at the global level (information, analysis, advocacy).

Strategies to Address Cross-Organizational Issues

68. While the strategies referred to above are proposed as responses to challenges facing the Members and the international community, the strategies to address cross-organizational issues concentrate on measures to better equip the Secretariat to provide services to its Members. Their rationale derives primarily from the Secretariat's internal analysis, but draws also on the opportunities and hazards for the Organization identified in the analysis of the external environment, as well as on the views of Members. The strategies to address cross-organizational issues should therefore be seen as an integral part of the Strategic Framework, in that they have implications for the successful implementation of all of the strategies to address Members' needs.

Ensuring Excellence

69. The analysis of the external environment pointed to many areas in which FAO may need to strengthen its capacity to meet new needs (e.g. biotechnology) as well as to areas in which its present--often unique--capacity would be in greater demand (e.g. on regulatory and legislative matters, including on land tenure and cadaster, water management and use, commodity and trade support, food quality and safety). These conclusions were taken into account in formulating the elements of the strategies to address Members' needs.

70. The internal analysis highlighted the need to keep technical staff up-to-date with cutting edge developments in their respective disciplines. It also yielded the strong suggestion that the Organization should further sharpen its focus on certain priority areas, in which it could, with recognized authority, take the initiative, propose collective action and exercise leadership (but not exclusivity) in implementing concrete programmes. The need was identified for a strategy focussing on identification of such priority areas and implementation of specific action to maintain and reinforce the Organization's capacity as a centre of excellence.

Enhancing Interdisciplinarity

71. The internal analysis confirmed the need to improve programme planning methodologies. There was strong endorsement of the need to ensure multi-disciplinary approaches, to exploit FAO's comparative advantage in this area to the full. The review of successful activities often highlighted those with a strong inter-disciplinary approach (e.g. AT 2010). As well as greatly increased proactive efforts to carry out joint activities among units, there was the need to ensure adequate application of resources at the proper time, including the appropriate mix of staff and consultants. Often, an additional key to success was to focus on truly innovative approaches.

72. Among the opportunities for FAO identified in the external analysis was the possibility of capitalizing on its multi-disciplinary capacities, within the sphere of its mandate, to help Members deal with trends such as changes in the role and functions of the state, continuing globalization and trade liberalization, changing demands on agriculture in increasingly urbanized societies, changing consumer patterns and perceptions, increasing awareness of food and environmental issues, and increasing pressure on natural resources and competition for their use.

Broadening Partnerships and Alliances

73. The analysis of the external environment stressed the role of an enhanced UN system to effectively address multi-sectoral problems. Global conferences and summits, including the World Food Summit, have had a major impact on the way in which goals, strategies and the development agenda are defined by the international community. UN organizations' action to help countries translate commitments, particularly those taken within the framework of international conventions and follow-up to UNCED, into practical action must capitalize on the wealth of expertise and potential for synergy inherent in the system.

74. In the internal analysis, it was noted that FAO has decades of experience and institutional memory in relations with non-governmental organizations working in its spheres of competence, particularly rural producers' organizations, and strong links with some private sector organizations, notably in the food industry. Importance was given to building on established contacts in member countries and in partner institutions. However, in reinforcing external partnerships, a condition for success was to act on the basis of mutually acknowledged comparative advantage, ensuring that each partner had a stake in the process.

Continuing to Improve the Management Process

75. The internal analysis pointed to a number of areas where there would appear to be a need for further improvement in the near term:

76. As regards systems support to the management process and its impact upon streamlining of procedures and upon the flow of management information, the internal analysis revealed concern about a number of areas:

77. However, it was emphasized that the other side of the same coin was the effectiveness of FAO's financial control and management. The internal analysis also took note of the fact that the Organization has never had its accounts qualified, it has always managed its resources within approved budget limits and has never suffered a serious financial default. Therefore care has to be taken so that, in improving efficiency and streamlining, this great strength - one which is much valued by donors who consign their resources under trust to FAO - is not lost.

Leveraging Resources for FAO and its Members

78. The Secretariat's analysis (external and internal) noted that changes were likely in the nature and composition of funding for agricultural development, and that the trend would probably generate a requirement for more selective targeting of assistance according to emerging priorities, and a need for new partnerships in funding. New directions and approaches for work under the Regular Programme would probably be mirrored in requests for assistance under extra-budgetary programmes (e.g. legal assistance, help with regulatory issues, decentralized rural finance, capacity-building in the areas of policy formulation and monitoring, etc.).

79. Of particular importance would be to help create a policy environment conducive to the sustainable intensification of agricultural production and accelerated rural development, and to mobilization of increased investment in agriculture generally. Other lines which might be explored include shifting from project to institutional and programmatic approaches and managing increasingly complex partnership arrangements. It was noted that FAO traditionally has looked at Official Development Assistance (ODA) more than at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and that information and analysis would be needed to take FDI better into account. Possibilities should also be explored for facilitating private sector capital flows and financial intermediation, and mobilizing private sector resources for development activities.

Communicating FAO's Messages

80. The external analysis concluded that concerted efforts would be required to reverse the present tide of skepticism about the UN system in some parts of the developed world, and that better communication of results achieved would be a crucial component of these efforts. The internal analysis noted that in the past FAO had operated without a coordinated communication policy, and that as a result some key audiences had been neglected and channels for effective communication had not been established or had been allowed to atrophy.

81. The Corporate Communication Policy and Strategy approved in 1998 was designed to respond to several perceived needs, including: coordination of communication and information activities within a well-defined, focussed programme; identification of key target audiences and strategies to reach them; enlistment of FAO's own staff as informed and convinced partners in communication efforts; establishment of mechanisms to define key corporate messages and to inform staff of them; adequate planning and budgeting for information needs related to major technical publications.






Preparation of a Draft Strategic Framework


Jan-July 1998

Report on Progress

Secretariat and PC/FC

April 1998 for PC/FC

May 1998

Issuance of Questionnaire to Member Nations on Strategic Priorities


June 1998

Completion and return of Questionnaire

Member Nations

Early July 1998

Analysis of Questionnaire and incorporation of results


July 1998

First Draft Strategic Framework (Version 1.0)

Secretariat and PC/FC

July 1998 for PC/FC

Sept 1998

Consultation with other partners ( e.g. UN system, IFIs, CGIAR, NGOs, Civil Society, etc.)

Secretariat and Partners

July 1998 to Nov 1998

Consider the Draft Strategic Framework (Version 1.0) and the Reports of the PC and FC


Nov 1998

Amend Strategic Framework to reflect outcome of the Council and consultations with partners


Dec 1998

Draft Strategic Framework (Version 1.0) to CCP for consultation


Jan 1999

Revised Draft Strategic Framework (Versions 1.0 and 2.0) to COAG for consultation


Jan 1999

Revised Draft Strategic Framework (Versions 1.0 and 2.0) to COFI for consultation


Feb 1999

Revised Draft Strategic Framework (Version 2.0) to COFO for consultation


Mar 1999

Amend Strategic Framework to reflect outcome of Technical Committees


April 1999

Revised Strategic Framework (Version 3.0) to PC/FC for consultation


May 1999

Consider the Draft Strategic Framework (Version 3.0) and the Reports of the PC and FC


June 1999

Final Revision of Draft Strategic Framework (Version 4.0) for submission to CL and Conference for approval


Aug 1999

Review by PC/FC


Sept 1999

Review by CL (along with PC/FC Reports)


Nov 1999

Review and approval by Conference (along with CL and PC/FC Reports)


Nov 1999

Publication of Approved FAO 2000 Strategic Framework

(2000-2015) with distribution to members and partners


Jan 2000

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