APRC/00/2


 

TWENTY-FIFTH FAO REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Yokohama, Japan, 28 August - 1 September 2000

ACTIONS TAKEN ON THE MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 24th REGIONAL CONFERENCE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC AND OTHER FAO ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION 1998-99

Table of Contents


Annex 1 - Activities under the FAO Regular Programme

Annex 2 - Summary of Activities of Regional Technical Commissions, Networks and other Bodies

Annex 3 - List of Abbreviations


I. Actions taken on the main recommendations of
the 24th Regional Conference

1. The following is a summary of actions taken on the main recommendations made by the 24th FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific.

The Regional Conference:

recommended that the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries be used as a guideline in formulating and implementing fishery management systems.

2. FAO called upon all users of fishery resources to apply the Code and collaborate with other states and relevant organizations on its implementation. The Code is being translated into four different languages for wide dissemination. National seminars and workshops have been encouraged to promote effective implementation. A ministerial meeting convened in Rome (April 1999) and a meeting of South West Pacific Ministers of Agriculture organized in Tonga (April 1999) recommended its application.

requested that workshops and seminars on the implications and subsequent implementation of the Code be organized at the sub-regional and regional levels.

3. A regional expert consultation on responsible fishing operations was convened in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in November 1998. FAO is collaborating with the Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC) in organizing workshops and seminars on the implementation of the Code. A workshop on the Code will be held for the Pacific in Fiji in 2000 or 2001, in collaboration with the Forum Secretariat and the Forum Fisheries Agency.

4. Four working groups on data collection, stock assessment, biological and environmental research and fishery technology research have been established. Guidelines for tuna research in line with the Code of Conduct and the 1995 UN Agreement on fish stocks will be formulated at an expert consultation in Phuket, Thailand, in March 2000.

recommended that the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC) seek to harmonise national fishery policies with a view towards attaining the sustainability of fishery resources including transboundary and straddling and highly migratory fish stocks.

5. A review of fishery policies of countries bordering the South China Sea has been completed. Similar reviews for countries bordering the Bay of Bengal and the Yellow Sea are in progress. The APFIC will organize a symposium on fishery policies and planning in Cebu, Philippines, in November 2000 to harmonise national fishery policies.

recommended that the APFIC work to accelerate the transfer of technology and capacity building in the fisheries sector.

6. The APFIC is collaborating with the Bay of Bengal project, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and SEAFDEC on technology transfer and strengthening capacity building.

recommended that the APFIC strive to translate research results into effective management options for the region.

7. A regional fishery information system is being developed to facilitate exchange and dissemination of research results in the region. Three working groups have been established to deal with issues relating to capture fishery, data collection, food safety from fish products and rural aquaculture. The APFIC also reviewed the current situation on pathogenic and parasitic infections from fish and fish products. Regional workshops on trematode parasites were held to identify research needs on the incidence and control of human, food-borne trematode infections.

recommended that FAO work to enhance the capacity of member countries to conduct reliable surveys of fish stocks and collect accurate data on harvests to facilitate a sustainable management of resources.

8. FAO provided assistance in the conduct of surveys and data analysis of anchovy fisheries in Thailand, mackerel fisheries in the Malacca Strait and sardine fisheries in Indonesia. To facilitate assessment work, manuals on tropical fish stock assessment were translated into local languages.

9. Guidelines for routine capture fishery data collection were prepared. A working group of experts in capture fishery data collection endorsed the guidelines and identified priorities and common approaches for implementing the guidelines. The FAO Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands (SAPA) is currently evaluating a field study aimed at involving secondary school students in the collection of small-scale fishery data.

requested that FAO assume a leadership role among the large number of regional and sub-regional bodies dealing with fishery resources in Asia and the Pacific to enhance cooperation and coordination and avoid duplication.

10. FAO convened a regional workshop on the review of foreign-assisted fishery projects in Asia in collaboration with the Asian Fisheries Society, other regional bodies as well as donors. Similar arrangements are in progress with SEAFDEC and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). SAPA has likewise worked towards enhancing cooperation and coordination with regional bodies dealing with fisheries.

urged FAO to give due attention to the needs of land-locked and small island countries in developing appropriate fish production strategies and optimising fish yields.

11. Major issues in fisheries and aquaculture in land-locked and small island countries were discussed at the 23rd session of the Committee on Fisheries. FAO convened a regional workshop in Apia, Samoa (September 1998) on economic strengthening of fisheries industries in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the South Pacific and assisted in strengthening fish production in small island countries, particularly through aquaculture development in the South Pacific, a fishery sector study in Tonga and utilisation of fish wastes in Maldives.

requested that FAO work closely with concerned countries in order to analyse the problem of post-harvest food losses and make recommendations on how such losses can be reduced.

12. FAO held an ad hoc meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 1999 to inform post-harvest workers of the programme of the Information Network on Post-harvest Operations (INPhO) on the FAO home page. It also approved a Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) project on post-harvest loss reduction in tropical fruit production in China and conducted the second in-country Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP) training workshop in fisheries in Tonga in October 1998.

recommended that concerted national, regional and international efforts be taken in pursuance of the World Food Summit Plan of Action in the key areas listed below:

  1. mobilising resources to assist Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) in initiating and sustaining their national plans of action

13. FAO assisted in the mobilisation of resources from bilateral and multilateral donors and financial institutions for the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, DPR Korea, Nepal and Samoa. Field manuals on how to effectively mobilise local resources in pursuance of food security objectives were developed under the people's participation project in Pakistan. Implementation of a TCP project in Mongolia resulted in the development of plans to mobilise resources for the establishment of modern wholesale and retail markets in Ulaanbaatar. In the Solomon Islands, assistance was provided in the formulation of a national food production and nutrition policy and a national plan of action for food production and nutrition.

  1. enhancing the role of women in implementing the seven commitments for achieving food security

14. Field manuals were prepared to enhance the role of women in achieving food security. Regional consultations on women focussing on distance education, rural households and technology transfer as well as an expert consultation on participatory research methods and gender database were conducted. TeleFood projects relating to improved food security and incomes are currently being implemented by women's groups and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in several countries.

15. FAO secured the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) funding for a project on the empowerment of women in irrigation and water resources management in Cambodia and Nepal. It also provided assistance to the Committee of Women of Vietnam's Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development as well as to Cambodia's Ministry of Women and Veterans' Affairs in formulating project proposals on capacity building of women to improve household food security and family income.

16. A number of case studies related to agricultural support systems and Women in Development (WID) were prepared and discussed in a global workshop held by FAO. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) programme officers were trained using the Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) framework to address the integration of gender concerns in planning and programme development. Video presentations and publications to be used as reference materials and guidelines for gender-responsive development planning are being prepared.

17. In association with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), FAO organized a regional workshop in Pathumthani, Thailand, in June 1999 on the safe use of agricultural implements and machinery by women. It also assisted women's groups and NGOs in implementing TeleFood projects for improving food security and incomes in the Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Vanuatu.

  1. assisting transition economies with liberalisation and privatisation of food markets and other macro-economic measures

18. Four training seminars on increasing the efficiency of food marketing via privatisation and liberalisation reforms were conducted, with approximately 125 policy makers and senior members of marketing agencies from 12 Asian nations, including countries in transition. Other activities to help transition economies included a training seminar on fruits and vegetables in Port Dickson, Malaysia (August 1999) with participants from China, Myanmar and Vietnam. Also Mongolia was assisted in upgrading its meat industry to international standards and a seminar was organized for Southeast Asian countries in Chiang Mai in November 1998 on raising the standard of halal meat products for export to the Near East.

19. A ministerial policy roundtable meeting, Beyond the Asian crisis: sustainable agricultural development and poverty alleviation in the next millennium, was held in Bangkok in June 1999 to synthesise views, experiences and advice regarding the major concerns and challenges of sustainable agricultural development and poverty alleviation in the new century.

  1. improving preparedness for the new world trading order, especially for the LIFDCs and small Pacific island countries

20. FAO organized a roundtable discussion in Auckland, New Zealand, in September 1998 on the implications of the Uruguay Round Agreements (URA) on agriculture and fisheries in the South Pacific. Participants gained a basic understanding of URA, related World Trade Organization (WTO) matters and the complexities involved. A follow-up meeting was organized in Auckland in March 1999 for the Pacific island countries. Workshops on capacity building in preparation for trade agreements and effective participation in multilateral trade negotiations are planned for 2000. A regional TCP project for Asia and the Pacific to assist and analyse trade-related policy issues in preparation for WTO negotiations has been approved.

21. A meeting of the Sub-group on Tropical Fruits was held in Bangkok in May 1998. This was followed by the first session of the Inter-governmental Group (IGG) on bananas and tropical fruits held in the Gold Coast, Australia, in May 1999, which explored ways and means to expand international trade of these commodities. The FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP) supported the Indian conference on sustainable agricultural exports and participated in the ESCAP expert group meeting on commodity-related issues. In collaboration with the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), FAO organized a workshop on science-based harmonisation of food quality and safety measures.

  1. strengthening national early warning systems and starting the work on Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information Mapping Systems

22. FAO developed a food security information system for the ASEAN, formulated a project on the development of a crop forecasting system in Bangladesh and is providing technical assistance for food security information systems in Sri Lanka, Laos and Vietnam. FAO conducted an expert consultation on the development of agricultural statistics for food policy and a technical meeting on methodology for food crop forecasting, on which a publication is forthcoming.

23. A regional expert consultation on Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information Mapping Systems (FIVIMS) was organized at FAO Bangkok in October 1999 attended by nine countries. Nutrition country profile maps are currently being finalised to facilitate the activities relating to FIVIMS in nine Asian countries. Another regional expert consultation was conducted in Wadduwa, Sri Lanka, in November 1999 on concretising actions for the establishment of FIVIMS with 17 experts from nine countries and representatives of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Food Programme (WFP) in attendance.

24. A mission to Papua New Guinea was carried out within the framework of project GCP/PNG/002/AUL, Project formulation mission in support to the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information Mapping System (FIVIMS) in Papua New Guinea. Implemented by FAO with the support from the Department of Human Geography, Research School of Pacific and Asia, the mission aimed (i) to identify the components and key government establishments that would eventually comprise the Papua New Guinea national FIVIMS; and (ii) to prepare a project supporting the strengthening of FIVIMS in Papua New Guinea.

  1. sharing information and experiences in translating the World Food Summit Plan of Action into national plans of action

25. RAP organized a roundtable meeting in Hua Hin, Thailand, in June 1999 on cost-effective public distribution systems in Asia in pursuance of the World Food Summit Plan of Action (WFS/PoA). It also provided technical support to the conference on food security in Malaysia organized by the Consumers International Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and the conference on the people's response to the food security crisis in Southeast Asia organized by the Southeast Asia Food Security and Fair Trade Council in Kuala Lumpur.

26. SAPA similarly convened a seminar in Apia, Samoa, in April 1999 on sharing information and experiences among Pacific island countries and translating the WFS/PoA into a national plan of action in Apia. The seminar was initiated to follow-up activities and resource mobilisation among the island countries.

  1. strengthening the work on biotechnology for the benefit of small farmers

27. Towards this goal, RAP published a document on gender roles in bio-resource management in Maldives and is in the process of publishing another document tackling case studies on gender dimensions in biodiversity management. It also organized a symposium in Bangkok in December 1999 on the bio-village approach to natural resource management.

recommended that FAO make full use of TCDC/ECDC and other mechanisms for regional cooperation.

28. Measures taken included hiring of experts to conduct research, serve as resource persons or provide training on agricultural technology and sponsorship of study tours for local officials and researchers. The numerous activities undertaken were geared towards increasing agricultural productivity and nurturing efficiency in agricultural markets. Specific Technical/Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC/ECDC) activities included hiring experts to (i) coordinate research on sago starch extraction and utilisation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Thailand; (ii) present a paper on technology transfer for commercialising small farmer agriculture at a roundtable discussion in Thailand; (iii) analyse food production constraints in Papua New Guinea; and (iv) collaborate in producing video materials on nutrition in Samoa as well as in research regarding fruit fly host status of selected Samoan horticulture products. They also served as resource persons in WID technical consultations and in training courses on Training of Trainers (TOT) manual for agricultural cooperatives in the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand, on protein bait spraying of fruit flies in Vietnam, and on agricultural extension work in salt affected coastal areas in the Philippines.

29. Other TCDC/ECDC activities included facilitating the participation at regional consultations, workshops or seminars of TCDC experts from (i) India, Nepal and Malaysia on concretising actions on the establishment of FIVIMS in Sri Lanka, and on exchange of information and experiences in foodgrain marketing policy for food security; (ii) Tonga and Cook Islands on economic strengthening of fisheries industries in small island developing states in the South Pacific; (iii) Samoa on the South Pacific Commission's (SPC) fisheries management in Noumea; and (iv) Fiji on the effects of globalisation and deregulation on marine capture fisheries in Asia and the Pacific in the Republic of Korea. Likewise, another set of activities involved sending study teams from Nepal to Thailand on wholesale markets, from Myanmar to Malaysia and the Philippines on market information systems and from China to Vietnam and the Philippines on grains and oilseeds industries.

requested that FAO assist countries in preparing project documents necessary for full participation in the Special Programme for Food Security.

30. FAO provided assistance in formulating TCP projects in Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Samoa and Sri Lanka. It also assisted in preparing SPFS projects in Laos and Indonesia as well as in organizing a national participatory workshop to review and finalise the SPFS national programme document in Samoa. An exploratory mission to the Solomon Islands has been scheduled to explain the SPFS objectives and modus operandi.

requested that FAO provide support in strengthening preparedness in dealing with the El Niņo phenomenon and other natural disasters.

31. Two FAO/WFP crop and food supply assessment missions were conducted in Laos and Cambodia to prepare for dealing with the adverse impacts of floods and droughts. RAP presented a technical paper, Coping with local food shortages caused by abnormal weather - food supply and demand information exchange systems, at an international symposium on recent food and agricultural issues and future perspective in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) region in Tokyo, Japan, in March 1999.

urged FAO to assist countries in strengthening national and regional early warning systems within the framework of the Global Information and Early Warning System.

32. FAO organized regional expert consultations on the improvement of crop forecasting and the strengthening of national agricultural statistical systems. The Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) also continued to promote control and early warning measures for animal diseases in the region.

requested that FAO, in cooperation with other international organizations, help minimise the adverse impacts of forest fires and assist member countries in developing effective strategies, policies and technologies for preventing, combating and managing forest fires.

33. RAP advised the Government of India on sources of support for dealing with recent forest fires. Assistance in the formulation of a TCP project on preventing forest fires was also provided to Mongolia. RAP facilitated the attendance of Asian participants in the international meeting on public policies affecting forest fires held in Rome in October 1998.

called upon FAO to reinforce and extend its work in implementing the Special Programme for Food Security, supporting the preparation of agricultural strategies for LIFDCs, promoting South-South cooperation, launching FIVIMS, organizing TeleFood, supporting sustainable forest management and assisting in marketing and trade development.

34. A regional expert consultation on concretising actions on the establishment of FIVIMS was held in Sri Lanka in November 1999. As a result, activities to develop effective mechanisms on FIVIMS have been initiated in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Within the context of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Network on Rural Development and Food Security, thematic groups on rural development and food security in six Asian countries have commenced with FIVIMS-related activities.

35. FAO pursued discussions with the Governments of China and Bangladesh on South-South Cooperation (SSC) in the context of the SPFS. The SSC agreement between the two countries was signed in December 1999. The first batch of 15 experts and technicians were expected to be fielded in June 2000. The SSC programmes were also formulated in Papua New Guinea (with the Philippines), Laos (with Vietnam), Cambodia (with Thailand) and Nepal (with Sri Lanka). The SSC agreements were slated to be signed shortly. Technical backstopping in water management, training and extension was fielded for the SPFS project in Pakistan. In addition, RAP provided technical support to two symposia on food security organized by the FAO Liaison Office in Japan (LOJA) and the Government of Japan in Yokohama and Toyama in October 1998 in connection with TeleFood and World Food Day. FAO is also promoting and guiding TeleFood projects in the region.

36. As regards agricultural strategies for LIFDCs where the SPFS is initiated, a National Programme document is prepared as a framework for the SPFS demonstration activities. In addition, regional strategies for agricultural development and food security supplemented by regional programmes for food security were prepared for regional groupings such as the ASEAN, Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and South Pacific Forum (SPF). The SPFS and SSC were incorporated into these regional programmes (see also document APRC/00/3, Annex 1).

37. The Code of Practice for Forest Harvesting in Asia-Pacific has been published and distributed and is now being implemented. This is in addition to studies already undertaken on policies to encourage sustainable forest management and on the identification of "model" and "best-managed" forests. RAP is working with member countries to develop strategies for the implementation of the Code in the region.

38. With support from the Government of Japan, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and MacArthur Foundation, RAP organized a study tour for policy makers and administrators on reduced-impact logging in Malaysia in March 1999 to generate awareness and support for the implementation of the Code. FAO also provided financial and technical support for the development of national codes of practice for forest harvesting in six countries. Assistance was provided to China in developing an action plan for forest management and development in Qing Fang.

39. RAP, in close collaboration with the Forestry Department of Australia, Indonesia and the United States of America, developed a project proposal on improved forest management in key Asian countries for funding by the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). FAO, in collaboration with the Japan Forestry Agency, formulated a regional project to support the development of model forests as well as published and distributed the Asia-Pacific Forestry sector outlook study: towards 2010 in the region. SAPA, in association with SPC and other aid agencies, co-funded participants from selected Pacific island countries to the regional consultation on the Codes of Logging Practices held in Vanuatu in July 1999.

requested that FAO focus on the following food security and production aspects: fertiliser and nutrient management, water management and irrigation, integrated pest management, development of sustainable aquaculture, post-harvest technologies, food quality and safety, emergency management of pests and diseases and development of early warning systems.

40. The SPFS which is operational in 13 countries and under formulation in six countries in the region incorporate a number of food security and production aspects such as fertiliser and nutrition management, water management and irrigation, integrated pest management, development of sustainable aquaculture and post-harvest technologies. FAO provided assistance in identifying and formulating projects on increased crop production for food security in eight countries. For increased food production, various regional expert consultations were held on deciduous fruit development and on maize, avocado and rice production. Information on production technologies from the proceedings was disseminated while a publication on Taro was distributed in Pacific island countries. FAO continued to support field testing and promotional programme in farmers' fields on Integrated Plant Nutrition Management (IPNM) in several eco-regions of India. Technical assistance was given to Pakistan in organizing a symposium in November 1999 on IPNM and in the preparation of a TCP project on IPNM programme. Technical assistance was also given to Laos in the preparation of a TCP project on testing and promotion of organic and biofertilisers.

41. The promotion of plant nutrition management at country level was undertaken through field projects in five countries. Other actions included: an assessment, by a Japan funded-project, on the impact of nitrogen losses in rice cultivation in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines; technical assistance to H.M. The King of Thailand's urban vegetable garden programme; presentation of a paper on urban and peri-urban agriculture at a seminar on rural-urban relations and peri-urban agriculture; and studies to document Indian and Malaysian experience in urban and peri-urban agriculture.

42. FAO's initiative to develop practical diagnostic tools for soil and plant nutrition management through the farmer field school approach resulted in the publication of a manual on integrated soil management and a handbook for training of trainers on integrated soil management highlighting the Philippine experience. Training support was provided to farmer field school activities in Cambodia, China, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. FAO also published a report on Poverty alleviation and food security in Asia - land resources, indicating the potentials, status, issues and strategies relating to sustainable agricultural resource management in the context of food security.

43. FAO organised an international workshop in Aurangabad, India, in October 1999 on modernisation of irrigation systems and subsequently published the report. FAO prepared training curricula and materials on the topic, particularly on procedures for rapid appraisal of irrigation system performance. FAO is also collaborating with ESCAP in preparing guidelines for long-term planning of water resources development and management. Training courses on water harvesting and water conservation techniques were conducted in Myanmar and Laos. Similar courses for Vietnam, China and Mongolia are scheduled in 2000.

44. RAP organized an international symposium in Huhen, China, in October 1998 on biopesticide and a regional awareness-raising workshop on the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent. FAO also continued close observation on plant quarantine measures and disposal of obsolete pesticides in the region.

45. SAPA provided assistance for emergency management of pest and diseases namely, fruit flies and the African snail in the Pacific. It also organized national workshops on the administration of the National Codex Committee in Tonga in November 1998, Fiji in June 1999 and Cook Islands in August 1999. Similar workshops are planned for Samoa (June 2000), Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands (July/August 2000).

requested that FAO give priority attention to agricultural support systems, particularly those relating to gender analysis and the role of women, agricultural cooperatives, research and extension and low-interest farm credit.

46. FAO held an expert consultation in Chiang Mai in October 1998 on the promotion of market-oriented production systems and a roundtable meeting in Bangkok in June 1999 on extension strategies for commercialising small-farmer agriculture. Farmers' organizations and agricultural cooperatives are being strengthened at the national level through a project on technical support to agrarian reform and rural development in the Philippines, where a farming systems development approach to increasing farm productivity and income, in more than 200 agrarian reform communities, is also being implemented.

47. Publications on rainfed farming systems based on case studies were prepared and distributed to agricultural extension workers. RAP collaborated with the World Bank in supervising major research and extension projects and in organizing a regional expert consultation on extension activities. Technical support was also provided to the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) on marketing extension in the region.

48. Activities for agricultural cooperative development included a publication on cooperative legislation in Asia and Pacific countries; a regional workshop on financial viability of agricultural cooperatives held in Bangladesh in May 1998; training workshops on the TOT manual for agricultural cooperative development in Manila, Philippines, and Jakarta, Indonesia, in July 1999; and a study tour involving leaders of cooperatives and decision makers in India in December 1998 and the Philippines in November 1999. A strategy paper on agricultural cooperative development was presented at the Regional Network for the Development of Agricultural Cooperatives (NEDAC) general assembly in Manila in November 1999. Collaboration between FAO and the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) was enhanced with a joint declaration on the promotion of sustainable agriculture and food security through agricultural cooperatives endorsed by the fifth conference of cooperative ministers in Beijing in October 1999.

49. Other activities were technical support to rural development strategy formulation in Vietnam and to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) poverty alleviation programme. Technical support was given also to farmers' organizations to promote sustainable agriculture and income generation at community level; restructuring credit cooperatives in collaboration with ESCAP and the Land Bank of the Philippines; and training courses on data analysis and interpretation designed to improve decision-making skills of cooperatives in the Philippines.

50. FAO provided technical support services to Cambodia on sustainable food security. Assistance was provided in restructuring rural public institutions and strengthening capacities of farmers' organizations and rural institutions.

51. FAO launched a pilot study in India to assess the relationship between rural household income and food security and provided technical assistance to the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) of member countries in agricultural research policy and planning, organization and management and technology transfer. FAO also published a manual on research management training and impact assessment of foreign assistance on NARS.

52. In collaboration with the Association of Food and Agricultural Marketing Agencies in Asia and the Pacific (AFMA), RAP organized training seminars on agricultural marketing in India in August 1999, stocking and storage practices in Pakistan in October 1998 and public distribution systems in Thailand in August 1999. It also provided technical backstopping in agro-processing and marketing. SAPA assisted Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and the Solomon Islands in agricultural marketing and organized a workshop on improved agricultural marketing development in Apia, Samoa in April 1999.

requested that FAO give priority support to member countries in sustaining and enhancing the resource base, particularly in avoiding soil loss and degradation, reforesting degraded lands, developing agro-forestry, managing forests sustainably and protecting forests against damaging wildfires.

53. A report on land use policy issues and the constraints and perspectives of land-use planning for sustainable land resources management in Sri Lanka has been prepared for FAO home page. Information on land, water and plant nutrition for Bangladesh and Malaysia has likewise been processed and posted on the FAO World Agricultural Information Centre (WAICENT) home page. Similar studies were commissioned through TCDC arrangements in China and the Philippines.

54. FAO organized a regional workshop on land vulnerability assessment for food security in Asia using land resources information systems, on which a report has been published. Various technical papers on research and development strategies for the prevention of soil degradation and management of problem upland soils in the Lower Mekong River Basin were also presented at international fora.

55. Assistance was provided to the Asian Soil Conservation Network (ASOCON) for the Humid Tropics through the conduct of a workshop in Vietnam. A paper on land degradation and its control in ASOCON countries was presented at the second international conference on land degradation in Khon Kaen, Thailand, in January 1999. RAP, through the Farmer-centred Agricultural Resource Management Network (FARMNET), held a regional symposium in Bangkok in December 1999 on resource management and conservation. Integrated management of salt-affected coastal soils was initiated in the Philippines through a TCP project.

56. In collaboration with the International Centre for Research on Agro-forestry (ICRAF), FAO published a manual on reforesting degraded temperate grasslands. It also provided technical guidance on the formulation of a project involving the rehabilitation of mine areas and management of critical watersheds in Goa, India, as well as technical backstopping to a similar project in Myanmar. Information on agro-forestry, forest protection against wildfires and sustainable forest management and other such topics were circulated through the newsletters of the Asia-Pacific Agro-forestry Network.

57. SAPA collaborated with SPC and South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) in organizing a workshop which tackled the sustainable use, management and conservation of forest and tree genetic resources in Apia in April 1999. SAPA also supported five workshops on watershed management for Samoa in November 1999. SAPA conducted a baseline survey in Eua Island, Tonga, in November 1999 to determine the status and constraints related to the integrated use and management of natural resources. SAPA is assisting Papua New Guinea in the formulation of a TCP proposal on integrated land use planning.

urged FAO to provide full support to member countries in implementing the Code of Practice for Forest Harvesting in Asia-Pacific and the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.

58. FAO provided support to the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission (APFC) in implementing the Code through the APFC working group on sustainable forest management. Specific activities included printing and distribution of the final Code, development of national codes of practice in seven countries, a training workshop in Malaysia, in March 1999 on reduced-impact logging consistent with the Code and a study tour on reduced-impact logging. See also para 37 above.

requested that FAO focus on necessary adjustment of policies in relation to trade liberalisation and the potential impacts of the new world trade order on food-importing countries.

59. See paras 18-21 above.

urged FAO to enhance its collaboration with bilateral aid agencies and other multilateral organizations and NGOs to improve efficiency and avoid duplication.

60. FAO participated in the multilateral cooperation workshop held in Yokohama for better coordination and collaboration between multilateral and bilateral agencies for sustainable development. The workshop emphasised strong cooperation and collaboration among agencies including NGOs to ensure effective utilisation of scarce resources and avoid duplication of efforts. Information exchange on planned activities between FAO and other agencies and organizations such as ESCAP also served to avoid duplication of efforts.

61. SAPA also enhanced collaboration with bilateral aid agencies, multilateral organizations and NGOs such as in joint funding of roundtable meetings on the implications of WTO agreements for the Pacific region in Auckland in September 1998, March 1999 and April 2000. The same was done also for the HACCP workshop in Va'vau, Tonga, in October 1998 with SPC and the WFS follow-up workshop with the Women in Business Foundation in Samoa in April 1999.

urged FAO to make maximum use of TCDC/ECDC arrangements and to expedite South-South cooperation.

62. TCDC/ECDC experts were recruited in field projects and in regular programme activities of FAO. South-South cooperation is being pursued with the governments of China and Bangladesh. See also paras 28-29 and 35 above.

recommended that FAO retain in the future the practice of reporting separately on activities in Pacific island countries.

63. A separate chapter on SAPA activities in Pacific island countries has been included in this report.

supported FAO in its pursuit of efforts to decentralise resources and authorities to the regional and sub-regional offices and to continue progress in strengthening the capacity and efficiency of these offices.

64. FAO continued to pursue decentralisation and capacity building at the regional and country level. RAP submitted the Programme of Work and Budget 2000-2001 proposals for further strengthening its capacity and improving efficiency. Approximately half of RAP technical resources had been devoted to operational activities for member countries.

recommended that representatives of the region in the CGIAR build close association with the Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (APAARI) and other regional research organizations.

65. The mid-term meeting of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) endorsed close cooperation between CGIAR and APAARI. Representatives of the region in the CGIAR maintained contact with APAARI and other research organizations.

requested that mechanisms for enhancing the interaction of representatives with their constituencies and other members and donors of the CGIAR and procedures for improving the preparedness and participation of representatives in CGIAR meetings be implemented in consultation with the CGIAR Oversight Committee related to the criteria for suitable candidates to serve as regional representatives.

66. The 24th Conference endorsed the FAO proposal with regard to the selection of suitable regional representatives in the CGIAR. FAO included the issue in the Conference Agenda and requested member countries to consider delegating the responsibility of deciding regional representation in the CGIAR to APAARI. However, the Regional Conference decided to simply continue the old procedure under which regional representatives were chosen by the Conference. (See also document APRC/00/INF/5.)

requested assurance that a balance will be struck in the selection of regional representatives to the CGIAR, with one representative coming from an Asian country and another from a Pacific country.

67. Balance was maintained by selecting one representative from Sri Lanka and one representative from Fiji to represent the region in the CGIAR.

II. Other FAO activities in Asia (1998-99)

68. The majority of activities undertaken in 1998-99 has been referred to in the previous paragraphs. Other FAO activities in Asia are as follows:

Natural resources

69. A paper on research and development strategies and their implications for prevention of soil degradation was presented at the regional seminar on land degradation organized by the APO in Tokyo in March 1999. Technical support was provided in agro-ecological zonation and land evaluation to projects in Bangladesh and China, in soil and plant nutrition management to projects in five other countries, in plant nutrition management to a project in ASEAN and in integrated soil management to the Farmer-centred Agricultural Resource Management (FARM) programme.

Crops

70. RAP organized an expert consultation on bridging the rice yield gap in the Asia-Pacific region in Bangkok in October 1999. Hybrid rice was promoted through TCP in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Philippines and Vietnam. The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach for rice was introduced in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Vietnam. Technical assistance was also provided to ASEAN countries through Japan/ASEAN meetings on interchange of agricultural technology information with emphasis on rice between ASEAN countries and Japan. Regional trials were carried out on new safflower and sweet sorghum cultivars from Beijing. Assistance was provided in formulating a horticulture project in Bangladesh, a floriculture project in Vietnam, food legume and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) agriculture projects in Myanmar and forage seed production project in China.

71. FAO published the reports on the third consultation of the tropical Asian Maize Network on increased maize production, expert consultations on bridging the rice yield gap in the region and on cut flower production in Asia and third meeting of the Temperate Pasture and Fodder Network. A publication on modern coconut management was distributed. A technical paper was presented on rice production at the Rice Commission meeting in Cairo in September 1998, vegetable production at the conference on vegetable research and production in India in February 1999 and on livestock and tree crop integration in the sixth meeting of the Network on Grazing and Feed Resources of Southeast Asia.

72. RAP participated in the global conference on potatoes in India in December 1999, seed association meeting in Bangkok, IGG subgroup meeting on tropical fruits in Thailand in May 1999 and APAARI meeting in Bangkok in November 1999. A regional technical meeting on seed policy and programmes for Asia and the Pacific was held in Bangkok to promote food security and sustainable agriculture by increasing the range and quality of seed and planting materials available to farmers. The meeting was attended by government participants from 20 countries and participants from international organizations, donor agencies, international agricultural research centres, NGOs and seed associations and companies involved in the seed industry.

Agricultural support systems

Farming systems development and agricultural extension

73. FAO held a regional workshop in Chiang Mai in October 1998 to promote farming systems development as well as a regional seminar Bangkok in June 1999 on innovative extension strategies for commercialising small farmer agriculture. RAP provided technical backstopping to strengthen provincial capacity in agricultural support services in Vietnam, to a regional farmer-centred agricultural resources management programme and to several national farming systems development and agricultural support services projects.

Agricultural engineering

74. RAP presented a paper at the international agricultural engineering conference held at AIT in Bangkok in December 1998.

Agro-industries and post-harvest technologies

75. FAO organized a roundtable meeting in Bangkok in August 1999 attended by experts from Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Thailand on sustainable small-scale sago starch extraction and utilisation and held a meeting in Bangkok in June 1999 on post-harvest technology. Papers were presented at the ASEAN and APEC seminars on post-harvest technology in Vietnam in November 1999. Technical backstopping was provided to projects on agro-industries and post-harvest technology in China, Mongolia, India and Thailand and to the SPFS projects in Papua New Guinea and Myanmar.

Livestock

76. FAO organized expert consultations and workshops on rinderpest control in South Asia, animal genetic resources in Asia and the implications of the Asian financial crisis on the livestock industry, animal disease contingency plans and humane treatment of slaughter animals. Training courses were likewise conducted on halal meat processing, meat canning technology, diagnostic serology and meat inspection.

77. FAO participated in the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) workshop in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 1999 on animal disease risk analysis, World Health Organization (WHO) meeting in Kuala Lumpur on zoonotic paramyxo viruses, international congress of meat science and technology in Tokyo in August 1999 and a workshop on livestock in mountain/highland production systems in Kathmandu in December 19999. The 23rd session of APHCA and its two executive committee meetings were conducted. A paper Asian livestock in 2000 and beyond was published. Assistance was provided in national training courses on shelf-stable and low-cost meat products in China.

Rural development and agricultural cooperatives

78. FAO participated in the fifth Asian conference of cooperative ministers held in China in October 1999 and provided technical support in institution building, enterprise development and income generation activities to the ESCAP project on poverty alleviation through market generated rural employment. It also organized a regional seminar in Chiang Mai in November 1998 on promoting decentralised rural development and the role of self-help organizations as well as a roundtable meeting in Thailand in August 1999 to discuss national programmes and policies on sustainable rural development and household food security. In Vietnam, technical support was provided in the formulation of operational strategies of new cooperative laws and in building the capacity of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development with regard to training in agricultural cooperative development. FAO provided assistance to the ACC task force on poverty alleviation, food security and rural development in promoting field activities in Thailand and in restructuring the Ministry of Agriculture in the context of decentralised planning in Cambodia.

Women in development

79. FAO organized a number of meetings on technology transfer and rural women; participatory research methods and gender data base; gender roles in household food security; intra-household dynamics and rural household food security; and gender dimensions in bio-diversity management. It prepared fact sheets on rural women in agricultural production and environment protection for ten Asian countries. Publications on the gender database of Pacific island countries, community radio for rural women, gender roles in bioresource management and household food security were also disseminated.

80. FAO provided technical support to the component of various projects in Asia dealing with women's issues and participated in meetings organized by ESCAP and other organizations concerning women in development and household food security. Inter-agency links were maintained through the UN Inter-agency Committees on HIV/AIDS, population and advancement of women.

Nutrition

81. FAO convened a regional seminar on improving the hygienic and sanitary aspects of street food establishments in September 1999 in Thailand. Other activities involved the strengthening of countries' efforts toward improving food quality and safety. These included one sub-regional workshop in India on various aspects of food control and another in Thailand in August 1999 on food control organization and risk assessment. The 12th session of the Codex Coordinating Committee for Asia was held in Chiang Mai in November 1999. Two workshops were held on risk analysis in China and Malaysia (jointly with ILSI), one on food additives and contaminants in Thailand in November 1999 and one on the administration of national Codex Committee in the Philippines. Assistance in formulation and technical backstopping were provided to projects relating to food and nutrition in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

82. FAO participated in the 8th Asian Congress of Nutrition in Seoul in August 1999, particularly in sessions on vitamin A deficiency and household food and nutrition security. FAO also participated in WHO/FAO regional workshops on International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) follow-up in Kuala Lumpur in October 1999 and New Delhi in December 1999. In Thailand, technical support was provided in the preparation of national and regional food composition databases.

83. FAO has actively promoted the development and use of food-based dietary guidelines throughout the region through intercountry workshops and a national seminar in India in December 1998. FAO also co-sponsored with WHO a symposium on promoting household food security and nutrition in countries in transition as part of the above 8th Asian Congress of Nutrition.

Food and agricultural information and analysis

84. FAO activities in strengthening national statistical systems included a meeting on food crop forecasting methodology in Bangkok in December 1999, an expert consultation on development of agricultural statistics on food security in Bangkok in July 1999 and a workshop on the food balance sheet in the Republic of Korea in December 1999. In collaboration with the Statistical Institute of Asia and the Pacific, FAO organized a workshop in Kunming, China, in November 1998 on economic accounts in agriculture. Technical support was provided to a regional seminar in Bangkok in June 1999 on remote sensing for agricultural statistics and to projects on strengthening the national food security system in Vietnam, agricultural census in China and agricultural statistics in Mongolia, DPR Korea and Pakistan.

Food and agricultural policy

Marketing

85. FAO organized a seminar on promoting private enterprise in grains marketing to improve marketing efficiency in China in August 1998 and supported a study tour of Chinese officials around wholesale markets and packing houses in Thailand. In collaboration with AFMA, FAO organized regional seminars on the role of state enterprises in improving stocking, storage and handling of food grains in Pakistan in October 1998, agricultural marketing development planning in India in August 1999 and food marketing policy for food security in Dalian City, China (October 1999). It provided assistance in the formulation of a project on strengthening fruits and vegetables marketing in the northern areas of Pakistan, technical backstopping to marketing projects in Cambodia and Myanmar and technical support to the general assembly session of AFMA.

Fisheries

86. Following the adoption of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries by the FAO Conference, activities in fisheries were adjusted to promote sustainable development of aquaculture and management of capture fisheries and to ensure sustainable exploitation of aquatic living resources.

Marine fisheries

87. To assess the current status of heavily exploited marine living resources in the region, FAO in collaboration with the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) prepared new guidelines for the routine collection of capture fishery data. The APFIC working group of experts in capture fishery data collection endorsed the guidelines for implementation.

Inland fisheries and aquaculture training

88. In collaboration with the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, FAO prepared management guidelines for Asian floodplain river fisheries and issued a manual on the management of freshwater fish culture to promote fish stock and farm management, particularly rural aquaculture.

89. In collaboration with the Support Unit for International Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, FAO organized two regional workshops to identify research needs to address food safety issues associated with sustainable and safe fish production in the region. The workshops discussed research requirements to prevent and control human fish-borne trematode infections. Specific research on pathogens in the aquatic environment and studies on antibiotic resistance of bacteria associated with aquaculture systems were earmarked for further collaboration among research institutions in the region. RAP provided technical backstopping to fisheries and aquaculture projects.

Forestry

Forestry conservation and management

90. The APFC working group on sustainable forest management carried out regional activities related to reduced-impact logging, training, awareness raising and the development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. FAO launched a regional project in support of the development of model forests in China, Myanmar, the Philippines and Thailand and provided technical support to develop and implement criteria and indicators for sustainable management of dry forests in Asia. It intensified efforts to collect and analyse data for forest resources assessment in 2000. Information on wildlife and protected area management was disseminated through the quarterly publication Tigerpaper.

Forest utilisation

91. Activities undertaken to implement the Code of Practice for Forest Harvesting in Asia-Pacific included awareness raising, study tours, training courses, development of national codes and information exchange. Regional studies of non-wood forest products with "best" development potentials and which offered opportunities for increased use of wood residues were initiated under the auspices of the APFC.

92. In collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme, information on wood energy was disseminated through the publication of Wood energy news and Forest energy forum. Information on non-wood forest products and forest harvesting was disseminated through publication of Non-wood news and the Forest harvesting bulletin, respectively.

Forest policy and planning

93. To assess the efficacy of discouraging timber production in natural forests as a strategy for conserving forests, FAO initiated a regional study that included case studies in six countries and a review of regional efforts. It also organized international seminars and facilitated dialogue on the decentralisation and devolution of forest management, strategic planning in forestry, innovative approaches to conserve biodiversity outside protected areas and regional approaches to implement the Intergovernmental Panel of Forests proposals. It continued to support implementation of national forest programmes in the region particularly in China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Mongolia.

94. Meanwhile, training courses, study tours and workshops were conducted through the sub-regional project on support to the reorientation of forestry policies and institutions of countries of Asia in reform market economies to stimulate further development of forest policy and planning in China, Mongolia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Technical backstopping was provided to projects on participatory forest management, watershed management, wood energy, forest policy, reforestation and forestry research. FAO also provided support to a number of regional forest networks, namely the Asia-Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutes (APAFRI), Asia-Pacific Agro-forestry Network (APAN), TEAKNET Asia, Watershed Management Network and Participatory Watershed Management Training in Asia.

Policy assistance activities

95. FAO provided assistance in sector and sub-sector reviews for policy and programme formulation towards sustainable food security and poverty alleviation. Direct support to requesting countries was provided in assessing and periodic monitoring of the socio-economic effects of macroeconomic changes and structural reforms and in strengthening national institutional capacity and training for policy analysis, planning and programming.

96. FAO carried out a regional review of rural growth, food insecurity and poverty issues in developing countries in Asia. Other activities included a review of the agriculture sector in Sichuan, China, livestock sub-sector in Indonesia, agriculture and fisheries sector in the DPR Korea, implications of URA to Bangladesh agriculture, agricultural policies and programmes for poverty alleviation in Cambodia and rural development strategy implementation in Vietnam. Assistance was provided on the formulation of a programme framework for agricultural and rural development with focus on food security and poverty alleviation in the Philippines, assessment of household food insecurity issues in Pakistan and SPFS constraints analysis in several countries.

Field operation activities

97. RAP operated over 200 field projects in crop production and protection, soil and water, agricultural policy and support services, food security, nutrition, fisheries, livestock, forestry, environment and rural development in 27 Asia-Pacific countries. Eighteen projects were operated in support of the SPFS in 12 countries and 55 new projects with total cost of US$9.6 million were approved for operation in 1999. Trust Fund projects accounted for about 53 percent, UNDP funded projects, 29 percent and TCP projects, 18 percent. Total project delivery in 1999 reached about US$43.8 million compared to US$42 million in 1998. Some 150 experts (65 international and 85 national) supported by 435 short-term consultants (287 international and 148 national) were recruited for the above field projects. Technical backstopping and project identification and formulation were carried out in close collaboration with RAP technical officers.

III. Other FAO activities in the Pacific island countries (1998-99)

98. Additional FAO activities undertaken in 1998-99, in the Pacific island countries, are listed below:

Natural resources

99. FAO prepared a report on land resources of Pacific island countries including the country profile on land-use planning and a comprehensive study on soils of Samoa and their sustainable management which is scheduled for publication. Other activities included collecting baseline data on natural resources, land degradation and plant nutrients and organizing youth groups for natural resources management in the Pacific.

Crops

Plant production and protection

100. Assistance was provided in the formulation of a project on integrated control of fruit piercing moth in Samoa. A technical paper on flatworm (Platydemus manokwari), a predator of the giant African snail in Samoa, was prepared for circulation through the South Pacific Agricultural Journal of the University of the South Pacific. FAO also organized a workshop on production and protection of papaya in Apia in February 1999.

Agricultural support systems

Farming systems and marketing

101. Activities included the presentation of a paper, Towards more intensified, diversified and sustainable agriculture: sustainable market-oriented farming systems - an appropriate approach for Pacific island countries, at the conference of agricultural ministers of the South West Pacific held in Tonga (April 1999). It also included and a paper on marketing and processing opportunities for traditional farming systems in the Pacific, at the workshop on the improvement and development of traditional farming systems for South Pacific island countries organized by the Institute for Research, Extension and Training in Agriculture in Samoa in 1999. Technical backstopping was provided to a project on improved farm household food production in the Solomon Islands. SAPA also prepared a technical report on the improvements in market information services in Fiji and provided assistance in the formulation of a UNDP project on fruit tree development in Samoa.

Livestock

102. Major efforts were directed to dairy development, milk processing, promotion of smallholder dairy farms, goat breeding and piggery development. FAO assisted in formulating a project on smallholder forage based dairy production in Tonga. Through a trust fund project, milk processing and dairy products marketing units have been set up in the region to serve as reference and training centres for countries developing their dairy production capacity in difficult island situation. Small holder dairy farmers in Tonga, particularly women, are being trained in dairy husbandry and milk processing. Smallholder dairy farmers in Samoa and Tonga were also assisted and trained in pasture establishment, management and harvesting techniques as well as weed control. Goat breeding for meat production in Cook Islands and piggery development for income generation in Samoa and Fiji were undertaken through TeleFood projects. SAPA published a technical paper on grazing livestock in the South West Pacific and the benefits of improved production.

Women in development

103. Activities covered the preparation of fact sheets on women in agriculture, environment and rural development in Fiji, Vanuatu and Cook Islands to assess policy gaps with regard to integrating WID activities. Technical support was provided to help small women's groups in Samoa start enterprises that can enhance their incomes, particularly through bee keeping.

Nutrition

104. Technical papers were presented at ministerial conferences, workshops and roundtable meetings on the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food trade, Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade agreements, risk analysis and HACCP, and the status of food control systems in the Pacific region.

105. FAO helped conduct the national nutrition survey in Samoa and a survey on hostel foods, food habits and consumption of primary school children in Samoa and Tonga. It also assisted in the preparation of leaflets, video spots and other nutrition education materials to promote consumption of local fruits, better nutritional habits and hygiene in Samoa and Cook Islands and in the current inspection procedures applied to imported food items and statistics on food imports in Fiji and Tonga. Additional assistance was provided to national projects on the Codex Committee in the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Fiji and Cook Islands and in the formulation of a regional project on strengthening food analytical capabilities in the Pacific region. The fifth session of the Codex Coordinating Committee for North America and the South West Pacific was convened in Seattle, USA, in 1998. Three workshops were organized on the administration of national Codex committees in Suva, Fiji (June 1999), Nuku'alofa, Tonga (November 1998) and Auckland in August 1998 (for the Pacific island countries), and one workshop on risk analysis in Seattle, USA in October 1998 for the Pacific island countries.

106. FAO, in cooperation with WHO and UNICEF, co-sponsored the Working group on accelerating progress in preventing and controlling micronutrient malnutrition in the Western Pacific region. The working group included participants from 17 countries and FAO involvement stressed food-based approaches and interventions to increase the availability and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods.

Food and agricultural information and analysis

107. FAO conducted two sub-regional training activities in Fiji: a national demonstration centre/workshop on agricultural census and a workshop on food balance sheet. All member countries of the Pacific sub-region participated in these two fora. Technical support was provided for the establishment of a food and agricultural statistics system in Fiji, and for agricultural census and statistics system in Samoa.

Fisheries

108. FAO provided assistance in the conduct of a survey and the selection of a seaweed site in Vanuatu while a study on costs and returns of marine capture fisheries was conducted in Fiji. It also helped formulate projects on fisheries legislation and seaweed farming development in Tonga, customary marine fishery tenure in Fiji, small island community development in the Cook Islands and seafood quality assurance and fisheries inspection. Cooperation and contact with regional organizations and institutions dealing with fisheries and marine resources management and conservation were further strengthened.

Forestry

109. Activities included the preparation of a document on forest management for low atoll islands, compilation of information on forestry legislation in Vanuatu and liaison work with member countries and regional organizations on forestry issues. SAPA participated in the Pacific heads of forestry meeting in Fiji in 1998, regional consultation on Code of Logging Practices in Vanuatu in 1999, regional workshop on International Panel on Forests (IPF) proposed plan of action in Fiji in 1999, and terminal tripartite meeting of the Pacific islands forests and tree support project in Fiji in 1999.

Policy assistance

110. SAPA assisted in the review of national agricultural training policies in seven countries. A policy paper on agricultural training needs in the region was prepared to assist in policymaking in the Pacific.


Annex 1

Activities under the FAO Regular Programme: training, meetings, direct support to member countries,
Technical backstopping of field projects and number of publications in 1996-97 and 1998-99 biennia for Asia and the Pacific region (RAP)

Major
Programmes

Training courses, workshops
and study tours
1

Meetings, seminars and expert
consultations2

Director support to member
countries3

Technical backstopping of field
projects

Publications,
excluding
working papers
(number)
 

Partnership

Programme4
(number)

Activities

Trainees

Number

National
Participants

FAO staff
(work-months)

Consultants
(work-months)

Experts and
consultants
(number)

FAO
Professional staff
(work-months)

 

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

1996-97

1998-99

2.1 - Agriculture

20

7

597

152

59

24

1654

431

32.5

40.8

16.5

18.7

23

35.5

25.5

25.8

35

27

30

35

2.2 - Food & Agriculture
Policy/Development

4

19

120

556

7

26

134

642

30.4

20.8

43

53.7

42

53

6.4

20.6

7

6

9

26

2.3 - Fisheries

1

4

70

100

6

7

112

140

11.5

31

17.1

21.5

17

19

12

20

13

13

7

5

2.4 - Forestry

10

9

196

373

13

8

553

767

21

12

204

83

4

-

28

27

25

22

4

8

2.5 - Contributions to
Sustainable Development
and Special Programme

2

6

15

120

20

7

127

123

8

8.6

12

97.3

1

5

11

10

7

18

14

16

Total

37

45

998

1 301

105

72

2 580

2 103

103.4

113.2

292.6

274.2

87

112.5

82.9

103.4

87

86

64

90

Increase (+)
or decrease (-)
1998-99 over 1996-97

+21.6%

+30.4%

-31.4%

-18.5%

+9.4%

-6.3%

+29.3%

+24.7%

-1.1%

+40.6%

 

1  Includes all training activities implemented irrespective of the sources of funds except those carried out by field projects.

2  Some meetings were financed partially or entirely from extra-budgetary funds.

3  For FAO staff, the figures refer only to time spent in the field; for consultants, entire duration of assignment.

4  Number includes TCDC/TCCT, Visiting Experts, Retired Experts and Young Professional Officers.

 


Annex 2

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES OF REGIONAL TECHNICAL COMMISSIONS, REGIONAL NETWORKS AND OTHER REGIONAL BODIES

FAO REGIONAL COMMISSIONS

1. The following five FAO Regional Technical Commissions continued to promote activities in pursuance of food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development. Major accomplishments and activities during the period 1998-99 are listed for each commission.

2. Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission (APPPC)

3. Regional Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA)

4. Asia and Pacific Commission on Agricultural Statistics (APCAS)

5. Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC)

6. Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission (APFC)

FAO-SPONSORED REGIONAL BODIES

7. Major accomplishments and activities of regional organizations sponsored by FAO are listed below:

8. Association of Food and Agricultural Marketing Agencies in Asia and the Pacific (AFMA)

9. Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (APAARI)

10. Asia-Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA)

11. Asia-Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutes (APAFRI)

12. Network for Development of Agricultural Cooperatives (NEDAC)

13. Farmer-centred Agricultural Resource Management Network for Asia (FARMNET Asia)

        FARMNET Asia is a network consisting of eight countries that participated in the completed FARM programme. FARMNET members (China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam) have continued to collaborate in institutionalising the FARM approach. Through respective national strategies, the FARM approach is replicated and promoted as the key approach to rural development, in particular, in resource poor rainfed areas.

FAO-SPONSORED REGIONAL NETWORKS

14. FAO also worked with 28 regional networks. The networks and their year of establishment are as follows:

15. Natural resources sector

16. Crop sector

17. Livestock sector

18. Rural development sector

19. Forestry sector

20. Others


Annex 3

List of Abbreviations

ACC Administrative Committee on Coordination
ACIAR Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research
AFMA Association of Food and Agricultural Marketing Agencies in Asia and the Pacific
AIT Asian Institute of Technology
APAARI Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions
APAFRI Asia-Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutes
APAN Asia-Pacific Agro-forestry Network
APCAS Asia and Pacific Commission on Agricultural Statistics
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
APFC Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission
APFIC Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission
APHCA Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific
APO Asian Productivity Organization
APPPC Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission
APRACA Asia-Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASOCON Asian Soil Conservation Network for the Humid Tropics
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CIFOR Centre for International Forestry Research
DANIDA Danish International Development Agency
ECDC Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries
ECO Economic Cooperation Organization
EMPRES Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and
Plant Pests and Diseases
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
FARM Farmer-centred Agricultural Resource Management
FARMNET Farmer-centred Agricultural Resource Management Network
FIVIMS Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information Mapping Systems
GFAR Global Forum on Agricultural Research
HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System
ICA International Cooperative Alliance
ICN International Conference on Nutrition
ICRAF International Centre for Research on Agro-forestry
IGG Inter-governmental Group
ILSI International Life Sciences Institute
INPhO Information Network on Post-harvest Operations
IPF International Panel on Forests
IPM Integrated Pest Management
IPNM Integrated Plant Nutrition Management
ISNAR International Service for National Agricultural Research
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
LIFDCs Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries
LOJA FAO Liaison Office in Japan
NACA Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
NARS National Agricultural Research Systems
NEDAC Regional Network for the Development of Agricultural Cooperatives
NGO Non-governmental Organization
OIE International Office of Epizootics
RAP FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SAPA FAO Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands
SEAFDEC Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Centre
SEAGA Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis
SIDS Small Island Developing States
SPC South Pacific Commission
SPF South Pacific Forum
SPFS Special Programme for Food Security
SPREP South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
SSC South-South Cooperation
TCDC Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries
TOT Training of Trainers
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNFIP United Nations Fund for International Partnerships
URA Uruguay Round Agreements
WAICENT FAO World Agricultural Information Centre
WFS/PoA World Food Summit Plan of Action
WID Women in Development