Forestry filmstrips from FAO
Teak improvement in Indonesia
A Philippine forestry journal
USA burns more wood at home
Chile's forest economy
New forest film
The world of forestry
FAO, in cooperation with ministries of agriculture and forestry and field projects in several regions of the world, has produced more than 150 educational filmstrips to date, including 38 in the area of community forestry and conservation. All filmstrips can be ordered from Distribution and Sales Section. FAO. Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. A catalogue describing the filmstrips available can be obtained from the same address.
The filmstrips, some in colour and some in black and white, sell for US$8.00. This price includes a printed commentary. A filmstrip with a recorded commentary (where available) costs $12.00. Extra copies of the printed commentary arc $1.00 each.
Filmstrips are either single frame (18 x 24 mm), which are projected vertically, or double frame (24 x 36 mm), which are projected horizontally. (Automatic filmstrip projectors can utilize only single frame, whereas manually operated slide projectors, most of which are equipped with detachable filmstrip carriers, can take either.)
VILLAGERS SHARING THE WORK a potential audience for FAO filmstrips
The 38 filmstrips available under the heading of "community forestry and conservation" include 13 on watershed management and upland conservation, 5 each on conservation techniques and community forestry, 4 on fodder species. 3 on useful tree species and 8 on soil improvement and organic recycling.
Filmstrips on watershed management and upland conservation include the following:
1. The chief's message, produced in northern Ghana (3 parts, single frame [SF]. 62 minutes, in English).
2. Comment conserver sa terre, produced in Haiti (SF, c. 15 min., in French).
3. Erosion en Tunisie (SF. c. 10 min., Fr.).
4. A good land forever, produced in Honduras (SF, 26 min., Eng./Fr./Spanish).
5. Gracias a la tierra, produced in Honduras (SF, 20 min., Sp.).
6. If the land dies, produced world-wide (2 parts. SF. 34 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
7. Integrated watershed management, produced worldwide (SF, 21 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
8. Mi aldea, ayer, hoy y mañana, produced in Honduras (SF, 27 min., Sp.).
9. Nuestro bosque, produced in Honduras (SF, c. 21 min., Sp.).
10. Soil conservation: a hard lesson to teach, produced in Ethiopia (SF, 18 min., Eng./Fr.).
11. Una vida mejor, produced in Honduras (2 parts. SF, 52 min., Sp.).
12. Why the forests must be saved, produced in Ethiopia (SF. 14 min., Eng.).
13. Why the soil must be saved, produced in Ethiopia (SF. 15 min., Eng.).
The following are among the titles available on conservation techniques:
1. Brushwood check-dams, produced in Nepal (double frame [DF]. c. 10 min., Eng.).
2. Contour bunds, produced in Ethiopia (SF. 16 min., Eng./Fr.).
3. Protection des ravines par les seuils de pierres sèches (SF. c. 10 min., Fr.).
4. Terracing (part one): terracing for better crops, produced in northern Thailand (DF. 13 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
5. Terracing (part two): constructing and maintaining terraces, also produced in northern Thailand (DF, 13 min., Eng./Sp./Fr.).
On community forestry, these filmstrips are available:
1. The buffalo must eat every day, produced in Nepal (SF. 20 min., Eng.).
2. Establishing a forest nursery, produced in Nepal (DF, c. 10 min., Eng.).
3. Extension in forestry for local community development, produced world-wide but emphasizing the Asia-Pacific region (SF, 21 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
4. Reboisement communautaire sur terrains privés, produced in Haiti (SF. 21 min., Fr.).
5. The women of Monte-alegre, produced in Honduras (2 parts. SF. 42 min., Eng./Sp.).
On the subject of fodder species, filmstrips available are as follows:
1. Fodder shrubs, produced in North Africa (DF, c. 15 min., Eng./Sp./Fr./Arabic).
2. Pigeon pea, rhodes grass and napier for soil conservation, produced in Ethiopia (SF. 17 min., Eng./Fr.).
3. Spineless cactus, produced in Tunisia (DF, c. 8 min., Eng./Fr./Sp./Arab.).
4. Tropical legumes and grasses, produced in northern Thailand (DF, c. 20 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
On useful tree species, there are these titles:
1. Bamboo, produced in China (SF. 15 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
2. Cunninghamia, produced in China (SF, 17 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
3. Leucaena, produced in the Philippines (SF, 21 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
On soil improvement and organic recycling, available are:
1. Biogas in China, produced in China (SF, 21 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
2. Biological nitrogen fixation, produced in Brazil (SF. 19 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
3. Coffee pulp: a good fertilizer, produced in Colombia (SF. 16 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
4. Compost (African version), produced in Zaire (DF. c. 5 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
5. Compost (Thai version), produced in northern Thailand (DF. 11 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
6. Lower costs, higher yields, produced in Brazil (SF, 16 min., Eng./Sp./Fr.).
7. Uses of coffee pulp, produced in Colombia and Costa Rica (SF, 30 min., Eng./Fr./Sp.).
PLANTING TEAK IN JAVA an effort to improve quality
Indonesia is one of the few countries in the world possessing teak forests, and teak wood is the main product of Perum Perhutani, the state-owned timber company. About 500000 m3 of timber is produced annually. Since 1978, the area exploited by Perum Perhutani for teak has been about 8000-10000 ha annually. Generally, the area consists of former clear-felled areas while, before 1978, teak cultivation was also carried out on bare-lands, so that the extent of annual cultivation was about twice that of the present.
Almost all of the teak wood production comes from plantation forests, while natural teak forests are decreasing from year to year as they are replaced by plantation forests.
Javanese teak wood from both natural and plantation forests has stems whose shape and quality are as good as those of Thailand or Burma teak. Teak wood obtained from plantation forests even tends to be smaller in diameter and less productive per hectare than that obtained from natural forests. In addition, the increasing population growth in Java causes increasing demands for agricultural land. The consequence is that the teak forests in Java are rapidly decreasing while people's wood demands are Increasing.
Thus, it is necessary to strive for increasing teak wood production per unit, improving its stem shape and quality and also enhancing its resistance to the attacks of pests and diseases. The way to include all these aspects is tree improvement.
A crucial factor in teak improvement is seed quality. Perum Perhutani, with this in mind, has established a clonal seed orchard. For this purpose it is necessary to select "plus-trees'', namely teak trees having superior characteristics. Although plus-trees can be found in natural and plantation forests. Perhutani selects only from plantation forests because of the certainty of establishing the age difference between the candidate trees and the average comparison trees. Age determination of each tree in natural forests cannot be done easily and quickly.
In 1981, an action programme was set up aiming at:
· assigning and then managing seed production areas in the right way;
· selecting at least 30 teak plus-trees;
· establishing clonal seed orchards which will shift the location of seed production areas in the future;
· more efficient use of seeds in cultivation.
Plus-trees can be found in natural as well as plantation forests, but, in order to facilitate the work, they will be sought in 15 year-old and older plantation forests. In selecting plus-trees by using the North Carolina State University system, the candidate plus-trees will be awarded a score against the five best surrounding trees. One of the conditions is that the age of the candidate plus-tree should not be more than three years greater than the average age of the comparison trees.
A clone bank has been established to store plus-tree genotypes. It is not used for obtaining seeds. Therefore, it is placed on visited locations that are level and safe, with an extent of about l-2 ha. Plant distance is 6 x 6 m, and each plus-tree is planted at least 10 times.
In the future, the clonal seed orchard will be the only seed source. It is estimated that the seeds can be taken after seven to ten years. To some extent, as the clonal seed orchard grows older, more seeds can be taken. According to one estimate, in the first year one seed orchard can produce only 1.3 kg of seeds per hectare per year, in the second. 4.5 kg, and after eight years. 35.7 kg.
Compared with other countries that have teak forests, Indonesia has been left behind in carrying out teak improvement. Considering that teak is Perum Perhutani's main income source and that the condition of its teak forests is threatened by the increasing population density on the island of Java, the execution of the teak improvement becomes more and more urgent.
Condensed from an article by Hartono Wirjodarmodjo and Petrus M. Soebroto which appeared in Duta Rimba. July-August 1983.
FILIPINO FORESTRY WORKERS a new magazine for them
The Philippine Society of Foresters (formerly the Society of Filipino Foresters) has begun publication of a new quarterly forestry journal, entitled Tropical Forests. The first issue. 36 pages long with troth colour and black-and-white photographs, reprints the keynote address given by President Marcos at the First ASEAN Forestry Congress, held from 10 to 15 October 1983. Other articles include "Management of natural forests'', by Edmundo Cortes; "Industrial forest plantations: the future of ASEAN timber", by Dató Muhammad Jabil; "Forestry the Ifugao way", by Ramon Dacawi; "The Ikalahan experience: a forest-dwelling people's journey on the rugged terrain of development", by Delbert Rice; "What does more responsive forest research mean?", by Teodoro Q. Peña; and "Look again, forester, at this thing C they call social forestry, now", by Charlz P. Castro.
The announced goal of the new magazine is to carry "full-length and readable items written by ASEAN specialists on different topics of interest in forest management, social forestry, parks and wildlife, the wood industry, forest products, forestry education, tropical ecology, forest research, people participation in forestry and the conservation movement".
Accompanying the release of the new journal is the change in the name of the organization - from the Society of Filipino Foresters, Inc., to the Philippine Society of Foresters. Inc. This change, writes Society president Edmundo Cortes, was adopted so as not to "discriminate against foresters of neighbour countries who opt to associate with Filipino foresters". Another reason, he says, is "the common desire among Filipino foresters to be more active and relevant in international forestry circles''.
A USDA Forest Service survey confirms that stoves, fireplaces and furnaces in US homes now burn more wood than at any time since the Second World War. In 1981, residential wood-burning required 152.5 million m3 (over 42.5 million standard US "cords"), which is four to five times the amount burned 10 years ago. This is about one-fourth of the quantity of wood used for all other wood products in the United States.
Approximately 5500 US households were surveyed to measure the recent increase in residential wood-burning and analyse sources of fuelwood.
The results show that one-fourth of all US households burned fuelwood in 1981 and that three-fourths of all the fuelwood was cut by home owners who find it within short distances of their homes.
Households that tended to burn large amounts of wood included those where the head of the household was between 35 and 44 years old, those with higher incomes (almost half of the households with an income of over US$40000 burn wood, primarily in fireplaces) and those living in rural areas.
Eight percent of all US households, or one-third of wood-burning households, used wood as their main heating fuel. They burned an average of 12 m3 in one year and used about one-half of all fuelwood. Households using wood as a supplemental heat source burned about 3.6-5.5 m3 each, and those burning wood in a fireplace mainly for enjoyment used about 1.8 m3 each year.
If a single company were responsible for all fuelwood sales, it would rank among the 500 largest in the United States. Nationwide, the sales value of fuelwood was $620 million in 1981. It was purchased in amounts as small as an arm-load or as large as a 62 m3 lorry-load. Prices per cubic metre ranged from about $110 for small amounts to $14 or less for loads larger than 10 m3. The average cost of one delivered cubic metre was $19.56.
Wood-burning provided only 2 to 3 percent of the US home heating requirement in 1981. Although the energy contained in fuelwood was 9 percent of the level of energy contained in other heating fuels, only 30 percent of the energy in wood was converted to useful heat. The conversion rate is low, partly because much of the wood was burned in inefficient fireplaces. The result is that fuelwood displaced only 2 to 3 percent of other heating fuels.
Concern about the impact of harvesting so much fuelwood exists on the pulpwood markets. The survey results suggest that competition for the same resource is not strong in most areas and that three factors limit the effect of fuelwood on pulpwood markets.
First, only one-fourth of the fuelwood was actually purchased. The other three-fourths was cut at zero cost by individuals, half of whom found it within 10 km of their home. Second, more than three-fourths of the fuelwood came from trees that are seldom used for other products. Third, prices for large quantities of delivered fuelwood were not much higher than prices for similar quantities of delivered pulpwood. In addition, hardwoods make up 95 percent of the fuelwood in the eastern United States and 42 percent in the west, while softwoods are preferred for pulping. The complete survey is available from US Department of Commerce, NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road. Springfield, VA 22151. The publication number is ADA 131724, and it costs $16.00 in hardback and $4.50 in microfiche.
Kenneth E. Skog
RADIATA PINE PLANTATION IN CHILE a steady reforestation effort
In the 20 years since its establishment, the Chilean Forest Institute (INFOR) has helped to develop a planted area of one million hectares, according to Executive Director Patricio Valenzuela (Chile Forestal, June 1984).
This means, he says, that the forest industry must have an annual growth rate of 12 percent. Such growth will entail more private investment in factories and more state investment in infrastructures. In addition, he says, "We shall have to seek markets for the new products being planned". To this end INFOR has made exhaustive studies intended to "improve economic information on forestry activity".
The first of these studies "enables us to know energy, infrastructure, population and other needs for different areas of the country", Valenzuela said. A second study, which grew out of the first one, was completed at the end of 1983. This study, concerning economic fulfilment of the forest potential, "not only analyses the investment needed to achieve utilization of all our forests but also discusses the respective infrastructure requirements that would be involved in transport, both internally and abroad".
Coordination of private and state investments, acquisition of foreign markets, and an improvement in product quality are the determining factors which. Mr Valenzuela said, can make Chile's forest sector "one of the pillars on which the country's development must rest".
The Society of American Foresters (SAF) has written and produced a film for lay audiences, entitled To work with the forest. It is 14 minutes long and plays on a 16-mm projector. A non-technical film, it briefly introduces the audience to the work of a professional forester. Picturing foresters at work in various settings - government agencies, corporations, universities and private consultations. It also attempts to explain the rationale behind the land-management practices adopted by foresters.
To work with the forest can be purchased for US$125. It is available only in English but has already been purchased by government agencies and forestry organizations in such non-English-speaking countries as Mexico, the Federal Republic of Germany. Brazil and Japan. Nearly 400 copies of the film have been distributed, primarily to schools, colleges and civic organizations.
Those interested in purchasing the film should contact Philip V. Petersen, Director of Information, SAF, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.