It is not always possible to obtain at the right time the professional studies and expertise that might be desired to plan all of the components of livestock project. It is not unusual that the water specialist has to plan the water resources development component of a livestock project independently of the livestock and rangeland experts. It happens also that a livestock expert has to plan a stock raising project without the help of a water specialist. In both cases the experts must know the basic elements of the field for which they are not specialists.
More generally, anyone who is preparing a livestock development project needs to know all the water related aspects involved in the stock raising activities as well as all the constraints connected with the livestock watering which will affect the water resources development aspects of the project.
This manual was therefore prepared to help the water specialist in understanding the livestock watering problems and the livestock and rangeland specialists in understanding the water resources development and management problems. It is not intended to replace technical literature or professional advice when available at the right time, but to serve as a helpful substitute when those sources of information are unobtainable or as a guide to topics on which further information is needed.
This manual essentially deals with the problems related to the improvement of the traditional migratory systems of animal production through a more adequate water supply to livestock over the rangelands. Very little will then be discussed about the livestock production systems like enclosed farms and ranches, in which the management of animals, range, water and all related resources are, or should be, fully integrated and well coordinated. Very little will be discussed about the watering problems of livestock in the areas where agriculture is the prevailing activity.