Written contributions were received from some participants (see also Annex 3). Where these were relevant to the specific topic of the workshop, excerpts have been provided in this annex:
Sea bream only accounted for 0.64 tons of the 1984 landings of 2 206 tons. The catch of mullets was 8.2 tons. Sea bass landings were not recorded but small quantities were on the market. Fish imports were 2 696 t of fishery products but only 141 t was fresh or chilled whole fish. Total per caput consumption in 1984 was 3.8 kg per year.
Category 'A' fish, which include large sea bream and mullet are US$ 14.1/kg wholesale, US$ 18.7/kg retail. Category 'B' fish, which include sea bass and small sea bream fetch US$ 9.4/kg wholesale and US$ 12.5/kg retail. Grey mullet command US$ 7.8/kg wholesale and US$ 10.9/kg retail.
There are only two commercial on-shore intensive tank farms to date. There is a commercial hatchery which started operations in early 1986. A few sea bream are retained for its own small grow-out unit but most juveniles are exported. This unit expects to expand to meet export demand and to continue to serve as a research and development/demonstration unit for its parent (UK consultancy) company. A government hatchery was under construction and was expected to be operational by late 1987. One other grow-out unit was tentatively planned.
It was estimated that the 1985 consumption of sea bass and sea bream was 2 000 t and 800 t respectively. 5 000 t of mullets and 1 500 t of eels were also consumed. Of these only 26 t of bass was imported. Mean national prices were F.F. 65-80/kg (US$ 9.9-12.2) for bass, F.F. 70/kg (US$ 10.6) for bream, F.F. 18/kg (US$ 2.7) for black mullet, (F.F. 7/kg (US$ 1.1) for white mullet), and F.F. 42/kg (US$ 6.4) for eels. Maximum prices of F.F. 90/kg (US$ 13.7) were achieved for both bass and bream in the Mediterranean area. Bass and bream were exported to Italy. Real tonnage was difficult to estimate because many sales were directed to restaurants and retailers or were included with other species in official statistics.
Aquaculture products were sold direct to restaurants and were directly exported by the producers as well as being sold to wholesalers. Fishery products invariably passed through wholesalers.
Production estimates of the four species from aquaculture have been presented in the report text (Table 3), while information on feed and fry costs is given in section 5. Sea bass and sea bream were produced by extensive (lagoons), semi-intensive (ponds) and intensive (tanks and cages) techniques. An average of 20 kg/m3 was being achieved in cages; 120 t were produced by intensive techniques in 1985. Most mullet and eel culture was extensive, though 10 t per year of eel were produced intensively in one farm and another unit was starting production. Productivity ranged from 40-50 kg/ha/year in extensive systems to 100-150 kg/ha/year in semi-intensive ponds. Up to 40 kg/m3 had been achieved in pump exchanged tanks and in cages.
Increased supply from aquaculture was expected to reduce sale value and farmers would need to reduce costs and increase demand through promotional activities.
One French delegate presented the results of a recent menu survey of 70 restaurants in the Côte d'Azur which showed a link between consumer preference and the total menu cost. At higher menu prices more people selected sea bass and less selected gilthead sea bream. In both cases sea bass was the most favoured species amongst a range of species including salmon, sole and turbot. Sea bass caught by line have a higher value than pelagic fish caught by drag net. Cultured sea bass were usually sold as line caught fish and valued as such.
The total output of fish in Greece in 1985 was 134 000 t of which 79.5% was fresh fish, 13.3% frozen fish, 5.6% mariculture products and 1.6% freshwater fish culture production. Domestic production covered only 70-75% of total consumption. The tonnage of aquaculture products was steady from 1983-85. Average fresh fish prices rose 24% in 1985 over 1984.
Most eel aquaculture production was extensive; the sole intensive unit produced 4 t in 1984 compared with a total production of 776 t of which 737 t were exported, mainly to West Germany, Denmark, Holland, Italy and Ireland.
Extensive farming of marine species had a very low productivity due to lack of infrastructure, poor technology and poor management. There were about 10 intensive (cage) production units and one hatchery, the latter integrated with a grow-out unit. All the other production units suffered from a shortage of fry (two state hatcheries are being planned). Maximum cage productivity was about 20 kg/m3 and a food conversion ratio of 2.5:1 was being achieved. Average on-growing time for sea bass and sea bream was 15 months. The average bream and bass price sold to supermarkets and restaurants was Gr.Dr. 1 600/kg (US$ 11.4). About 10 t of sea bass was exported to Italy in 1986.
Per caput fish consumption in 1983 was 12.5 kg per year, fourth highest in the Mediterranean region after Spain, France and Greece. In that year it was a net importer of 190 000 t of fish. In 1983 (Berger, et al., 1985) the total consumption of sea bass and bream was 2 740 t (1 780 t bass and 960 t bream). Of these totals, 51% of bass and 12% of bream was imported.
In 1986 sea bass and large sea bream in the Venice fish market were about Lit. 25 000/kg (US$ 17.9). Small sea bream and 300-1 000 g eels were smaller eels (7-8/kg) were about Lit. 8 000/kg (US$ 5.7). Over the 21/2 years from January 1984 the wholesale value of small sea bream had fallen. Prices of eels had been steady. The general price trend for large sea bream and for sea bass had been upwards.
Semi-intensive eel culture, dating from the seventies, was producing 2 500-3 000 t per year by 1986. The availability of elvers was an increasing constraint.
Although the total catch increased from 223 486 t in 1983 to 273 681 t in 1985 (40% sardines) the fall from the peaks of around 415 000 t during the early sixties was still evident.
Extensive polyculture systems existed in tidal extensive areas, stocked with wild fry. Most were associated with or converted from salt production units. Only two of the five intensive eel farms set up were still functioning. Productivity in extensive culture was 100-150 kg/ha/y in the north. In the central areas and the south it was 150-300 kg/ha/y and 300-500 kg/ha/y respectively, both with supplementary re-stocking. Wild juveniles cost US$ 0.35 each; there were no hatcheries. In all cases mullets were the dominant extensive species. Eels were the second most prominent species except in the south where they were replaced by gilthead sea bream. In all areas, sea bass were the third most prominent species produced.
A total of over 28 000 ha was suitable for coastal aquaculture; 18% was used for salt production. By 1986, with access to EEC funds, about 3 000 ha had already been devoted to aquaculture. So far expansion had been in extensive systems. However, a commercial sea bass/bream/sole hatchery was expected to be operational by the end of 1987 and two firms aimed to start semi-intensive sea bass/sea bream grow-out operations, projecting 10 t/ha/y.
Fish per caput consumption had risen to 37 kg per year, total consumption being 1 480 000 t. Spain, traditionally an exporter, has been an importer of fish since 1977/8. In 1985 the export/import deficit was 218 t in the case of fresh and live eels and 219 t in the case of sea bream (dorades). Total deficit was 2 210 t.
The principal zones in the south of Spain with aquaculture potential were Cadiz and Huelva, with a total availability of 20 000 ha. Cadiz had 7 000 ha of salinas. A productivity of up to 4 kg/m2 had been achieved in converted salinas with an average depth of 1 m and water replenishment by pump as well as tidally.
Total landings in 1985 of sea bream, sea bass and eels (from the sea) were 878 t, 521 t and 59 t respectively. Medium prices were Pts. 564/kg (US$ 4.2) for sea bream, Pts. 1 176/kg (US$ 8.7) for sea bass and Pts. 505/kg (US$ 3.7) for eels.
Total production of sea bass from all sources in 1986 was estimated to be 370 t. 300 t came from coastal and other fisheries, 40 t from lagoon fisheries and 30 t from aquaculture. The total production of sea bream was also 370 t. Of this 20 t came from aquaculture, 50 t from lagoon fisheries and 300 t from coastal and other fisheries. Only 10 t of mullets were produced by intensive aquaculture, while 250 t came from lagoons and 1 500 t from coastal and other fisheries. No eels were produced by intensive aquaculture but 70 t out of a total of 120 t came from lagoons.
Total exports (from all production sources) in 1986 were 60 t each of sea bass and sea bream and 110 t of eels. No mullets were exported.
In 1986 local wholesale price ranges were US$ 6.3-10.0/kg for sea bass, US$ 4.5-8.0/kg for sea bream, US$ 2.0-5.0/kg for mullets and US$ 2.0-3.0/kg for eels. Export price ranges were US$ 8.0-9.5/kg for sea bass, US$ 5.0-6.0/kg for sea bream and US$ 3.0-3.5/kg for eels.
There was one large-scale commercial aquaculture unit in 1986; two more will commence operations in 1987 and five others were in the technical/economic study phase. In addition, 150 family projects were expected to commence within the next 5 years. Currently the commercial farm imported fry from France but there were three hatcheries and five more in various stages of development.
Per caput fish consumption averaged 10.6 kg per year currently and was greatest in the coastal areas. Consumption, oriented towards fresh fish, rose in the summer; distribution channels were therefore important. Of the prime species, sea bream was the favourite, followed by sea bass and mullet. Eels were almost never consumed, due to religious embargos.
Until 1986, Turkey was an exporter of fish. Fish importing was new but now imported bonito and lobsters, at high prices due to taxes and levies, were found in the market.
Aquaculture was novel in Turkey and enterprises generally small. Mariculture in particular was little known publicly. Fish farming was carried out by cooperatives, the products being marketed by fishmongers, who got the lion's share of profits. Entrepreneurs were interested in aquaculture, particularly carp culture, but fishermen were largely uneducated. Cage culture had been fruitful in increasing aquaculture production. Proper lagoon management systems were required to exploit the potential, as yet untapped. Trained staff for this activity were scarce.
Unskilled labour was plentiful and cheap. Feed was abundant and comparatively cheap. Wild fry were abundant on the Mediterranean coasts.
A barrier to further development was the lack of freezing facilities. Canning factories existed for tuna, anchovies and sardines but facilities for processing lagoon species were almost unknown.