Annex 1 - Some recipes based on roots, tubers, plantains and bananas

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Recipes from various parts of the world are included here to illustrate the diversity of uses of a number of the root crops discussed in the preceding sections. Some of these recipes are already included in national cookery books, others are printed here for the first time as a result of a sponsored recipe competition.

The production of attractive recipe books will greatly encourage consumers to utilize more of these versatile foods.



Cassava envelopes
main dish with fish

Garl surprise
main dish with fish

Cassava pone

Cassava meat balls
main dish with meat

Cassava curry
main dish with vegetables

a main dish with dried salt beef


Potato patchelli
a side dish

Potato pancakes
a snack

Potato and cheese savoury
a savoury cheese dish

Sweet potato and bean pottage
for a child

Sweet potato biscuits
a snack

Sweet potato beverage
a fermented drink

Candled sweet potatoes
a sweet-meat


Cocoyam fritters
a snack

Stuffed cocoyam leaves
a vegetable dish

Cocoyam and fish cakes
main dish with fish

Cocoyam In tomato sauce
a vegetable dish


Curried plantain
a vegetable dish

Green banana kordoh
cold salad with fish

Green plantain pancakes
tortilla, main dish with pork




1. Clean, trim, steam and bone the fish.

2. Peel and dice onion, pepper and garlic. String and boil runner beans.

3. Put cassava flour in a clean dry bowl and add a pinch of salt and mix.

4. Make a well in the flour. Break eggs into the welt one at a time and mix together.

5. Add some water gradually. Mix well to a dropping consistency and leave to stand for 20 minutes.

6. Heat 1 tablespoonful oil in a clean frying pan.

7. Fry fish, onions, pepper and garlic. Add salt to taste.

8. Remove from the heat when cooked, turn into a clean basin and keep covered.

9. Heat the frying pan with sufficient oil to prevent the mixture from sticking when cooking.

10. Pour mixture into the pan about two tablespoonful at a time. Make sure the mixture covers the base of the pan. Cook over a low heat until done.

11. Put a little fish mixture into the middle of each cassava cake and fold gently to look like an envelope.

12. Use a palette knife or flat spoon to remove envelopes from the pan and arrange in a dish. Repeat until the mixture is used up. Gamish with lemon slices, cooked runner beans and parsley.

Ingredients (serves four)

2 cups cassava flour

1/2 pint (285 ml) groundnut oil

1 large onion

1 sprig of parsley

1 pinch of salt

1 handful of runner beans

2 fresh or dried chili peppers

1 medium fresh fish

1 garlic clove

2 lemons (limes)

2 fresh eggs

cold water




1. Sprinkle gari with water, mix well and leave to stand.

2. Clean, wash and cut up meat into pieces and season.

3. Season fish with cloves, garlic, cayenne pepper and salt.

4. Fry meat lightly in oil and simmer till tender. Remove and keep warm.

5. Wash, peel and slice vegetables, fry slowly for five minutes in the oil in which the meat was cooked. Remove and keep warm.

6. Lightly fry fish for five minutes.

7. Add some of the vegetables and the black-eyed beans, cook for five minutes.

8. Remove saucepan from heat. Add gari a little at a time stirring continuously. Return to heat and cook slowly for 10 minutes.

9. Cook greens in a little oil.

10. Serve gari garnished with greens and cooked meat, with remaining vegetables.

Ingredients (serves four)

2 cups fine gari

1 lb (450 9) pork or beef

2 large onions

3 large peppers

1/2 pint (285 ml) coconut oil

2 cups cooked flaked fish

1 large garden egg-plant (aubergine)

1 cup lukewarm water

1/2 lb (200 9) or cup runner beans

1/2 cup cooked black-eyed beans (cowpeas)

1 large sweet potato (orange variety)

2 cups shredded green leaves (spinach, young cabbage or sweet potato leaves)

Seasoning to taste (cayenne pepper, salt, garlic and cloves)


West Indies


1. Mix the dry ingredients together.

2. Add the margarine and lard, melted together.

3. Add the eggs, vanilla essence and milk.

4. Beat well together.

5. Put into a well-greased oven pan.

6. Bake in a moderate oven for 1 1/2 hours.

7. Glaze with sugar and water and cut into squares.

Ingredients (serves six)

3 cups dry cassava flour

1 112 cups sugar

112 tsp nutmeg

1 large coconut, grated

1 112 cups milk

Rind of 112 an orange

2 oz (60 9) margarine (melted)

2 oz (60 9) lard (melted)

112 tsp mixed spice

112 tsp salt

1 tsp vanilla essence

2 eggs (beaten)


Pacific Islands


1. Mix together minced meat, grated cassava, onion, salt and pepper in a bowl.

2. Add one of the seasonings listed above and mix well.

3. Make into balls or small, flattened cakes (1/4" (0.5 cm) thick).

4. Roll or dip into flour.

5. Fry in hot oil until brown on each side.

6. Serve with gravy, soup, or fresh tomato sauce.


250 g (114 kg) minced beef or mutton

1 cup grated sweet cassava (raw)

2 tsp salt

1/2 tsp pepper

1 small onion, finely chopped

Flour and oil

Possible seasonings

114 cup chopped parsley

or 2 tsp soy sauce

or 1 tsp crushed fresh ginger

or 1 tsp mixed herbs

or 2 tsp curry powder




1. Peel the sweet cassava, cut into pieces and soak in fresh water overnight.

2. Drain cassava and squeeze dry. Boil until soft, add salt and mash well.

3. Heat oil and fry mustard, dhals, coconut and seasonings with sufficient turmeric to give a good colour to the dish.

4. Add the cooked cassava, stir well and remove from the fire. Serve hot.

Ingredients (serves four)

2 lb (1 kg) sweet cassava (soaked overnight)

1 oz (30 g) grated coconut

1 oz (25 g) Bengal gram dhal cooked

1 oz (25 9) black gram dhal cooked

Cooking oil

4 green chilies

2 in (5 cm) fresh ginger root

Salt, mustard and turmeric to taste

4 curry leaves


Latin America


1. Cut the meat into small pieces and barely cover with cold water.

2. Add the chopped onions and tomatoes and season to taste.

3. Cook slowly until almost tender.

4. Peel bananas, plantain and cassava and cut into small pieces.

5. Separate the water from the coconut and put it aside. Grate the coconut flesh.

6. In a large cooking pot or oven dish place a layer of cassava, followed by a layer of banana and plantain.

7. Cover with the cooked and seasoned meat and place over this another layer of cassava and plantain.

8. Mix together the meat stock and coconut water and pour it over the layered meat and vegetables.

9. Cook until well done and serve warm.

Ingredients (serves six)

2 lb (900 9) of dried salted beet

1 lb (450 9) of cassava

2 ripe bananas

4 green plantains

1 sweet chili pepper

1 coconut

Onions and tomato to taste




1. Mix together the potatoes, onion, chilies and ginger.

2. Add the thick coconut milk, and stir into the mixture to give a consistency of thick porridge.

3. Add the beaten yoghurt, salt to taste and mix well

4. Put on the fire, bring to the boil and serve.

Note. As a variation, just before serving, you can add a few curry leaves, a little mustard seed and two dried chilies that have been fried and roughly ground.

Ingredients (serves six as a side dish)

4 floury potatoes, boiled, drained and roughly chopped

3 or 4 fresh chilies, seeds removed, and finely chopped

1 large onion, finely chopped

6 fluid oz (180 ml) beaten yoghurt

Thick coconut milk

1 slice green ginger, crushed and chopped

Salt to taste


Southeast Asia


1. Grate the raw potatoes to a fine pulp.

2. Add chopped onion, cornflour, salt and beaten egg.

3. Mix well to give a dropping consistency

4. Drop in spoonfuls into a frying pan coated thinly with hot cooking oil.

5. Fry on each side (2-3 minutes) until brown.

6. Serve with hot, spiced tomato sauce

Ingredients (serves four as a snack)

8 oz (200 9) potatoes

1 small onion, finely chopped

1 1/2 tblsp corn or maize flour

1 egg, beaten

Pinch of salt

Vegetable oil for cooking


Latin America


1. Chop the onion and garlic and try in a little oil until golden.

2. Wash, peel and chop the potatoes, add to the fried onions and garlic, together with water, seasonings and bixin or turmeric, to give a good colour.

3. Boil until the potatoes are well cooked, then add the milk and cheese.

4. Retum to the boil, then remove from the heat and serve, with avocado and salad.

Ingredients (serves four)

3 lb (1 400 9) potatoes

4 oz (110 9) cheese (grated)

1 small white onion

3 cloves of garlic

Oil as required

1 cup of milk

50 fluid oz (1 1/2 litres) of water

Salt and pepper to taste

Bixin paste or turmeric to colour (as required)




1. Soak the beans overnight.

2. Cook the beans until they are soft.

3. Wash, peel and dice the sweet potato.

4. Add sweet potato to the beans with sufficient liquid just to cook the diced sweet potato.

5. Add ground onion, salt and dried fish.

6. Simmer until well cooked, stirring constantly.

7. Add palm oil and serve hot.

Ingredients (serves one, suitable for children)

2 tblsp cowpea or Bambara beans

1 medium sweet potato

1 teasp finely ground onion

1 medium size dried fish

2 tblsp palm oil

Water, as required




1. To prepare sweet potato flour, wash, peel, shred and sun dry sweet potatoes. Then pound and sieve.

2. Sieve flour into a bowl.

3. Add grated orange rind to flavour.

4. Rub fat into flour until the mixture looks like fine breadcrumbs or gari.

5. Add sugar and mix.

6. Beat up egg and add to mixture.

7. Add juice and mix to a stiff consistency that would leave the bowl clean.

8. Roll out pastry on a floured pastry board, to about 1/4" (0.5 cm) thick.

9. Cut into fancy shapes and prick with a fork.

10. Put onto a greased baking tray, glaze with water and sugar and bake.

11. Serve on a cake plate or tray.

Ingredients (serves four)

8 oz (200 9) sweet potato flour

3 oz (85 9) sugar

Juice and rind of 1 orange

3 oz (85 9) margarine

1 egg


West India


1. Peel and grate the potatoes.

2. Wash and squeeze the pulp to remove tree starch.

3. Squeeze lemons or limes and strain the juice.

4. Bring cloves end mace (or nutmeg) to the boil in a little water and strain off the extract.

5. Pack the potato pulp into a large stone jar.

6. Add sugar, lemon or lime juice and spice extract.

7. Add one gallon (4. 5 litres) of cold water and stir until the sugar is completely dissolved.

8. Whisk in the beaten egg white, cover and allow to stand for 8 days.

9. Strain before drinking, if necessary.

Ingredients (for one gallon or4.5 litres)

1 lb (450 9) white sweet potatoes

3 lemons or 4 large limes

3-4 lb (1 350-1 800 9) sugar

1/2 oz (15 9) doves

1/2 oz (15 9) mace or nutmeg

1 egg white, well beaten


West India


1. Cook unpeeled potatoes in boiling water for 20-30 minutes.

2. Drain, peel and slice them.

3. Stir the sugar into the water and heat gently.

4. Add the butter, lime juice and spices.

5. Bring to the boil and stir until the syrup thickens.

6. Add the potato slices and cook for a further five minutes.

Note. Honey may be used in place of brown sugar.

Ingredients (serves tour)

4 medium sweet potatoes

1 lb (450 9) dark brown sugar (jaggery)

1/4 pint (150 ml) (or more) water

1 oz (30 g) butter

Strained juice of one lime

Pinch of grated nutmeg

Pinch of powdered allspice




1. Boil unpeeled cocoyams for 10 minutes.

2. Cool, peel and grate.

3. Mix together wheat flour, baking powder, onion, parsley and seasonings.

4. Add mixed ingredients to grated cocoyam together with beaten egg.

5. Mix well to give a stiff batter.

6. Drop a spoonful at a time into very hot oil and fry until puffed and golden.

7. Drain well and serve hot, with spiced sauce or dip.

Ingredients (serves tour to six as a snack)

4 cocoyams (Xanthosoma)

1 tblsp wheat flour

1/2 tsp baking powder

1 egg, lightly beaten

1 hip chopped onion

1 tsp cropped parsley

Salt and cayenne pepper (to taste)

Deep tat or oil for cooking


Pacific Islands


1. Wash the young leaves and blanch briefly in boiling water.

2. Mix the cassava curry with sufficient cooked rice to absorb excess liquids.

3. Place a spoonful of this stuffing on to each leaf and roll up to form a closed parcel.

4. Pack all of the parcels closely together in a pan or baking dish previously greased with a little oil. Sprinkle with salt.

5. Add thin coconut milk or stock to cover and steam or bake until cooked (40-60 mine).

Ingredients (serves tour)

12 young leaves of cocoyam (Colocasia)

Vegetable stock or thin coconut milk

Cassava curry mixture (see recipe for Cassava curry)

A small quantity (1/2 cup) of cooked rice


Southeast Asia


1. Mix together the cooked fish, cocoyam and chopped onion.

2. Add the seasonings and chopped coriander leaves and bind into a firm paste with the beaten egg.

3. Form into small balls and flatten into round cakes.

4. Coat with flour and fry in hot oil until well browned on both sides.

5. Serve with fresh tomato sauce flavoured with basil.

Ingredients (serves tour)

2 cups cocoyam (Colocasia) cooked and mashed

1 cup cooked white fish, boned and Naked

1 tsp finely chopped onion

2 tsp fresh coriander leaves, finely chopped

Salt and pepper to taste

1 egg, lightly beaten

Flour and cooking oil


Latin America


1. Wash the cocoyams and cook them in their skins in salted water until soft.

2. Drain, peel and cut into pieces.

3. Make a sauce with the garlic, tomato and chopped onion by frying them gently in the oil.

4. Add the cooked cocoyam to the sauce together with two tablespoons of hot water.

5. Season to taste and serve hot.

Ingredients (serves five)

500 g (1/2 kg) cocoyam (Colocasia)

4 tblsp oil

4 tomatoes

2 doves of garlic

1 medium onion

Salt and pepper to taste




1. Fry the ground chilies and curry powder in the oil for one minute.

2. Add the sliced plantain and fry until lightly coloured.

3. Add salt and coconut milk and cook gently over a low fire for 20 to 30 minutes.

4. Remove from the fire and stir in the garam masala and lightly beaten egg.

5. Garnish with fresh chopped coriander leaves and serve with plain boiled rice.

Ingredients (serves tour)

6 plantains, peeled and sliced lengthways

2 tblsp vegetable oil

1 egg, lightly beaten

1 tblsp curry powder

1 tsp garam masala

2 cups coconut milk

Salt and chili pepper to taste




1. Wash and peel bananas.

2. Slice and put in a covered bowl with lemon juice.

3. Roast groundnuts, peel, pound and grind to a smooth paste.

4. Scale fish, clean and remove all bones.

5. Pee I onions, wash and slice, together with fresh chili pepper.

6. Boil some water in a saucepan.

7. Pound bananas and add fish, groundnuts and onions. Continue pounding until a smooth paste is formed.

8. Add salt and more black pepper to taste.

9. Remove the paste and, using wet hands, form it into small egg shapes. Put these into the saucepan to boil.

10. Boil until the paste is well cooked and the water has almost dried up.

11. Serve cold, garnished with sliced tomatoes, spring onions and parsley.

Ingredients (serves four)

12 green bananas

1/2 cup fresh groundouts

3 large tomatoes, sliced

Parsley and spring onions to garnish

4 medium fresh fish

2 onions

Salt and fresh chili pepper to taste Juice of 112 a lemon


Latin America


1. Cook the plantains until tender.

2. Grind or pound the cooked plantains with the crispy pork pieces to make a smooth paste.

3. Prepare some fresh tomato sauce, with salt and pepper to taste, and blend it with the plantain paste.

4. Chop finely the cabbage, chili, sausages and hard-boiled eggs and mix all together with a little oil.

5. Divide the plantain paste into ten pieces and flatten them to form pancakes (tortillas).

6. Spread each tortilla with a little butter, or oil, and fill centre with the chopped mixture, as prepared.

7. Fold over and wrap each tortilla in a plantain leaf.

8. Tie firmly, place in a cooking pot with a little water and steam or boil for 15 minutes.

Ingredients (serves tour to five)

4 medium size green plantain

1/2 lb (114 kg) crispy pork pieces

112 lb (1/4 kg) pork sausages

1 small cabbage

112 lb (1/4 kg) tomatoes

3 hard-boiled eggs

1 sweet chili

3 tblsp cooking oil or butter

Pepper and salt to taste

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