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1. "Aspects of FAO's Policies, Programmes, Budget and Activities Contributing to Sustainable Development" Report of the Director General. FAO, presented to the FAO Council, FAO, Rome, November 1988. Also, see Ch. 2 on Sustainable Development and Natural Resources Management in The State of Food and Agriculture, FAO, Rome, 1989.

2. The IDWG on Environment and Energy was formed in FAO in 1969. The energy activities of the Energy and Environment Centre which works under the guidance of the IDWG are described in an FAO Report, March-April 1990. Recently (in February 1990) a Steering Committee for Environment and Sustainable Development has been formed in FAO to guide the work of the IDWG.

3. Energy 2000. A Global Strategy for Sustainable Development; Report to the World Commission on Environment and Development. See Chapter II, on "The Strategic Choices". The World Commission on Environment and Development, in its final report, has also emphasized the close relationship between energy, environment and development. However, the Commission has clarified that sustainable development is dependent up on the implementation of energy strategies which incorporate environmental needs while at the same time providing for social and economic growth. The Commission has also highlighted the urgency for the satisfaction of the basic material needs for the poorest parts of the world population and has, in that context noted that "living standards that go beyond the basic minimum are sustainable only if consumption standards everywhere have regard for long time sustainability. Yet, many of us live beyond the world's ecological means, for instance in our pattern of energy use...sustainable development requires the promotion of values that encourage consumption standards that are within the bounds of the ecological possible and to which all can reasonably aspire". Thus a key element of sustainability the field of energy, according to the Commission, implies provision of "sufficient growth of energy supplies to meet the needs of the rural people in the developing countries". See also Page 31 on Energy 2000, cited above for a discussion on the fuelwood crisis.

4. Environmental problems caused by the use of non-commercial energy see FAO and Environment, 1983. Also see Chapter page 4 in Household Energy in South Asia, by Gerald Leach. Elsevier Applied Science, 1988.

In fact, developing countries have been able to meet their energy requirements for their fast-growing populations on an extremely modest basis; mainly because the ecological degradation caused by the use of these non-commercial energy sources has provided the cushion. Thus energy is closely linked to environment because of these "non-commercial" fuels. For more discussion on energy and the environment see Primary Resources & Energy in the Third World, 1988, by John Soussan, Routledge, London & New York, (Chapter 5). Also see, Energy and Environment in the Third World, Peter Pearson (Ed.), Dept. of Economics, University of Surrey, UK, 1989.

5. The data on the non-commercial energy consumption in the Asian countries is given in the proceedings of the FAO/ESCAP/UNDP Regional Workshop on a Comprehensive Approach to Energy Assessment and Planning for Rural and Agricultural Development, held in Beijing, China, from 24 - 30 September 1989, currently under publication by FAO, (1990). Also see Ref. 16, Ch. I. The term "noncommercial" energy is used for agriculture and animal wastes, animal power and firewood which is not monetized. But fuelwood that is sold as part of the market system is now being classified as "commercial" energy.

6. Proceedings of the China Workshop, in Ref. 5, give details of the renewable energy programmes in the developing countries of the Asian Region. Also see, Renewable Energy Sources in Developing Countries: success and failures in technology, transfer and diffusion, Federico M. Butera, ENEA, Rome, September, 1989. Also see papers presented at the fifth session of the ACC Inter-Agency Group in New and Renewable Energy Sources, United Nations, New York, March-April 1990.

7. For details see Technological Aspects of Rural Energy Planning by Professor Qiu Da Xiong, Tsinghu University, China, and Implementation Aspects of Rural Energy Planning by Shreshta & Bajracharya, ICIMOD, Nepal, included in the proceedings of the workshop cited at Ref. 5.

8. Tropical Forestry Action Plan, FAO, Rome, 1985. Also, Report of the Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics, Tropical Forestry Action Plan, FAO, Rome 1985.

9. See Chapter IV, in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan, (ref. 9) and also Chapter VI and Leach, Household Energy in South Asia, Ref. 4. Also Evaluation of Social Forestry Programmes in India, Programme Evaluation Organization, Government of India, 1988. For a discussion on the relationship between fuelwood and population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, see Population Growth. Wood Fuel, and Resource Problems in Sub-Saharan Africa, Industry and Energy Department, Report No. 26, World Bank, 1990. FAO has also compiled and analysed data on fuelwood consumption in African countries to bring out the trends in transition from fuelwood to other energy sources in the Report on Wood-based Energy and Substitution among Fuels in Africa: model framework and base data from Eleven Country Reports, Forestry Department, FAO, Rome, July 1987.

10. See Report on Towards Sustainable Energy Development, Nordic UN project, 1989. This report brings out the response of the UN system and development banks to the recommendations of the World Commission on Environment and Development in their energy sector operations. Also see Report on the Inter-relationships between Environment and Energy Policies, prepared by the Economic and Social Council of UN, Economic Commission of Europe, 1989, which brings out the perceptions of the donor countries on environmental implications of production of energy from fossil fuels.

11. The "Tehri Dam" project and the "Narmada" project in India are examples of how environmental agencies and groups are blocking ongoing major power projects eats as a result of increased environmental awareness. Similar examples are available for other Asian and Latin American countries. There is, however, a lack of consensus between industrialized and developing countries on how strongly environmental issues should be integrated into the multilateral system of lending for energy issues. Developing countries are, in fact, expressing strong and growing concern at what they see "as a highly unfair and biased focus on their environmental problems, while little is done to address major environmental challenges in the industrialized countries". Page 6 in the Report on "Towards Sustainable Energy Development" cited in Ref. 10.

12. There is a discrepancy of 1 to 100 in the consumption of commercial energy between, for example, the African and Latin American countries. See World Energy Atlas prepared by CNRS, France, 1989. Also see Towards Sustainable Energy Development, Ref. 11, Chapter I, and Ref. 3, Chapter I.

13. FAO's Activities in the areas of NRSE, irrigation programmes, fuel wood programmes and multilevel planning have brought out the need for integrated energy assessment and planning. See Report on Expert Consultation on Energy Assessment and Planning, FAO, 1988. See also Towards Sustainable Energy Development (Ref. 10) which states "A wider and more integrated approach to energy and environment is needed. National energy planning capacity is to be developed by institutional building and infrastructure development".

14. Rural Energy Planning in China and other Asian Countries, D. Bajracharya (Ed.), FAO Report, 1985.

15. Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme in India, Planning Commission Government of India, New Delhi, 1987. Also see discussion on this programme, the FAO Report on Energy Planning for Agriculture and Rural Development, by S.K. Chopra, FAO, October 1987.

16. For details see Energy Planning for Agriculture and Rural Development given in Ref. 15.

17. See Final Report on the Expert Consultation on Energy Assessment and Planning for Agriculture and Rural Development, FAO, Rome, 1988.

18. Energy Planning for Agricultural and Rural Development (with special reference to Asian countries), S.K. Chopra, FAO, Rome 1989.

19. See proceeding of the FAO meeting on Rural Energy Planning in Latin American countries, AGRE Report, FAO, 1990.

Chapter I

20. See Ref. 3 Energy Report on Energy to the World Commission on Environment and Development. Also see Final Report of the Expert Consultation of FAO on this subject, Ref. 17.

21. See Ref. 3 and Ref. 13, World Energy Atlas, CNRS, France, giving disparities between energy consumption in industrialized and developing countries. The World Commission on Environment and Development has also recommended that increase in per capita energy consumption in developing countries needs to be given the highest priority (Ref. 3).

22. Energy elasticity is less than unity in the 'industrialized countries. The effect of energy conservation programmes in reducing energy consumption in these countries has been attributed to the low energy elasticity in these countries. The developing countries, on the other hand, have limited scope for reducing energy consumption per unit of economic out put because of the present structure of their economies. Nevertheless, energy is often inefficiently used in their industrial and agricultural sectors. For discussion on the reasons for high energy elasticity with respect to GDP in India, see Mid-term Appraisal Document of the Seventh Plan, Government of India, 1987. A similar situation exists in different degrees, in other developing countries in Asia and Latin America.

23. Agriculture here includes forestry and fisheries, as per the FAO definition. Agricultural production accounts for only 4.5% of the total commercial energy use in developing countries. The limited use of commercial energy in developing country agriculture holds down productivity of this land and of labour. See Agriculture: Toward 2000, 1985, Chapter 4, Sustainable Guidelines in Production, FAO, Rome, 1988.

24. See Implementation Aspects of Rural Energy Planning by Shreshta and Bajracharya, Ref. 7 and Ref. 18

25. For a discussion on the people's participation in rural energy programmes planning, see Reports on the Participatory Action Programme sponsored by FAO, Economic and Social Planning Department 1986. Also see Ref. 7, Implementation Aspects of Rural Energy Planning.

26. Disparities in energy consumption within a rural region are as glaring as those between rural and urban regions in a developing country, and between developing and industrialized countries. For more discussions on energy and equity see also Ref. 14 & 15. As stated in the Seventh Plan Document Government of India, 1985 "it is not enough merely to produce energy but also to ensure that the energy so produced is equitably distributed and utilized".

27. A discussion on the linkages of different components of rural development programmes with energy supply programmes, and energy/environment inter-actions are given in the proceedings of the China Workshop given in Ref. 5. Also see Institutional Aspects of Rural Energy Planning by Tata Energy Research Institute, India, March 1989, included in Ref. 5.

Chapter II

28. The size of the planning unit for micro-level rural energy planning will depend on the situation in the country concerned. For example, in India, the block on taluka has been taken as the unit for rural energy planning, while in China it is the municipal county. This issue was discussed in Considerable detail in the China Workshop. See Ref. 5 for details.

29. See Ref. 25 and also Implementation Aspects of Rural Energy Planning (Ref. 7).

30. See Ref. 16 which has a chapter on the role of computer models in rural energy planning. Also see Methodological Aspects of Rural Energy Planning, A Computer-based Appraisal by Paul Raskin, Beijer Institute, Boston, USA, 1989, and Micro-computers: Applications for Energy Planning in Developing Countries, United Nations. New York, 1985.

31. See, for example, Technological Aspects of Rural Energy Planning by Prof. Qiu Da Xiong, (Ref. 7) Chapter II of this report describes the components of energy technology systems for different end-uses and can be utilized to provide guidelines for assessment of technologies as part of the programme. This subject was also discussed in detail in the China Workshop. The country papers in the proceedings of the Workshop (Ref. 5) bring out the various components of the technological systems that should be taken into account for rural energy technologies.

32. See for example, Energy and the Environment. Integration. Evaluation and Measurement, C. W. Hope and J. D. Parker, University of Cambridge, Management Studies Group, Department of Engineering, Cambridge, May 1989, for a discussion on the various methodological approaches for integrating energy with environmental issues. Also see Ecology and Development in the Third World, Avijit Gupta, Routledge, London, 1988, for a discussion on the broad conceptual framework for environment assessment of development programmes in the developing countries. In this context, the trade-offs between local environmental implications versus global environmental concerns may be examined in qualitative and, if possible, in quantitative terms in the micro-level energy plan. For example, the use of kerosene or coal (whose production is carried out outside the micro-region and is a threat to global environment) to replace firewood to check local deforestation. Another useful reference on methodologies for quantification of environmental assessment is "Environmental Accounting for Sustainable Development" ed. Y.J. Ahmad et al., based on UNEP-World Bank Symposium, World Bank, 1989.

33. See report for the Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme in India, Planning Commission Government of India, 1987. Also see report of China's County Level Comprehensive Energy Project in Zunhua Country, Hebei Province, presented in China Workshop, Ref. 5, 1989.

34. The framework combines top down with bottom up planning so as to ensure that rural areas get their due share of commercial energy and also utilize locally available renewable resources to the extent possible. The issue of linking rural energy pricing with pricing of agricultural produce may also be considered as part of this framework, depending on the specific institutional mechanisms existing in the county. For more discussions on linking on micro level planning, see Institutional Aspects of Rural Energy Planning, Tata Energy Research Institute, Ref. 5.

Chapter III

35. See reference 34 for a discussion on institutional constraints in India. A similar situation exists in most other Asian and Latin American countries, although the African situation may not be as complex. However, the problem of sectoral barriers and top down planning is common to most developing countries. For more discussion on the institutional aspects of Rural Energy Planning, see Ref. 34. Also see Energy Planning Asian and Pacific Experiences, K.V. Ramani (Ed.), APDC, Malaysia, 1987; and Institutionalizing Rural Energy Planning, W.H. Hulscher, University of Twente, Netherlands, 1986.

36. Lack Of people's participation in rural energy programmes was a major issue of discussion in the China Workshop see Ref. 5. Also see Implementation Aspects on Rural Energy planning by Shreshta and Bajracharya, Ref. 27.

37. Programmes such as biogas and rural electrification have often ended up ii, exacerbating rural inequalities. Also see Ref. 18 and Ref. 29.

38. The failure of technologies imposed by the commercial organizations from the developing and the industrialized countries especially on the rural poor, was discussed in the China Workshop. See Ref. 5.

39. The lack of trained manpower was found to be a major constraint in the development of the integrated rural energy planning programme in India. See, for example, Chapter II, Section on Rural Energy, Seventh Plan Document, Planning Commission, Government of India, 1985.

40. See Ref. 5, Proceedings of the China Workshop, 1989. It was the consensus in the China Workshop that rural energy should be part of rural development programmes which would require a basic change in the present supply side approach for rural energy to a development driven demand side approach.

41. There has been an increasing trend towards decentralized government in Asian and Latin American countries and this should give an impetus to decentralized rural energy planning programmes. In Nepal for example, the Panchayat can take the responsibility for the rural energy planning implementation. In India, decentralized planning and development is being given a new impetus in the Eighth Plan (1990-1995). The decentralized bodies at the district, block and village levels can assume responsibility for integrated rural energy planning and projects.

Chapter IV

42. The contents of the Approach Paper for the country may be decided by the inter-ministerial group. FAO can provide technical assistance in the design of the contents and the preparation of the Approach Paper. For more details see IREP programme documents on Rural Energy Division, Planning Commission, Government of India, 1987, 1989 and Ref. 16.

43. The components of the project have to be decided on the basis of the specific situation in the country for which FAO may provide technical assistance. Guidelines can be obtained from similar projects prepared in China, and under the IREP programme in India, Ref. 16.

44. The China Centre for Rural Energy, Research and Training (CCRERT) near Beijing provides an example of a national level training and R&D centre for rural energy planning. The Centre for Integrated Rural Energy Planning (CIREP) set-up recently near New Delhi is another example. Also see Ref. 5 for more discussion on (CCRERT) and Ref. 42. Publications of Rural Energy Division, Planning Commission, Government of India.

45. See Ref. 18, Chapter on computer modelling. Also see P. Raskin, Methodological Aspects of Rural Energy Planning. Ref. 30, and Chapter on Computer Modelling for Rural Energy Sector, Training Manual for IREP, Rural Energy Division, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, 1987.

46. Details of how an Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme was conceived and developed into a regular operational programme through the four phases discussed here, may be seen in the Section on Rural Energy, Chapter II, Seventh Plan Document, Government of India, 1985 and also the Report on the IREP Programme, Planning Commission, Government of India, 1987. Also see Ref. 16, 18 and 42.

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