Cover -  TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF EDIBLE FLOURS AND PROTEIN PRODUCTS FROM SOYBEANS TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF EDIBLE FLOURS AND PROTEIN PRODUCTS FROM SOYBEANS


Table of Contents

by
Zeki Berk
Technion, Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa, Israel

FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 97

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 1992

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion what so ever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-81
ISBN 92-5-103118-5

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Contents

FOREWARD

CHAPTER 1: THE SOYBEAN

1.1 Background
1.2 Production
1.3 Marketing
1.4 Agricultural Characteisitcs
1.5 Physical Characteristics and Morphology of the Soybean
1.6 Chemical Composition
      1.6.1 Moisture
      1.6.2 Proteins
      1.6.3 Lipids
      1.6.4 Carbohydrates
      1.6.5 Minerals
References

CHAPTER 2: UTILIZATION OF SOYBEANS

2.1 Utilization Options for Soybeans
2.2 Whole Bean Utilization
2.3 The Oil Mill Route
      2.3.1 Utilization of the oil fraction
      2.3.2 Utilization of the meal fraction
References

CHAPTER 3: OIL-MILL OPERATIONS

3.1 The Expeller (Screw Press) Process
      3.1.1 Operation principles
      3.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of the expeller process
      3.1.3 Equipment
3.2 The Solvent Extraction Process
      3.2.1 Operation principles
      3.2.2 Revieving and storage of soybeans
      3.2.3 Preparation for extraction
      3.2.4 Solvent extraction
      3.2.5 Post-extraction operations
References

CHAPTER 4: EDIBLE, SOYBEAN FLOURS AND GRITS

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Definitions, Composition and Quality Parameters
      4.2.1 Definition and classification of edible soy flours and grits
      4.2.2 Composition
      4.2.3 Quality standards
4.3 Full Fat soy Flour and Grits
      4.3.1 Production processes
      4.3.2 Utilization
4.4 Defatted Soy Flours and Grits
      4.4.1 Production processes
      4.4.2 Utilization
References

CHAPTER 5: SOYBEAN PROTEIN CONCENTRATES (SPC)

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Definition,Composition, Types
5.3 Production Processes
      5.3.1 The aqueous alcohol wash process
      5.3.2 The acid-wash process
      5.3.3 Heat denaturation/water extraction process
5.4 Utilization
      5.4.1 Basic considerations
      5.4.2 Use in bakery products
      5.4.3 Meat products
      5.4.4 Other uses
References

CHAPTER 6: ISOLATED SOYBEAN PROTEIN (ISP)

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Definition, Composition, Types
6.3 Production Processes
      6.3.1 The conventional process
      6.3.2 Problems in conventional processing
      6.3.3 Alternative processes
6.4 Utilization
      6.4.1 Meat products
      6.4.2 Seafood products
      6.4.3 Cereal products
      6.4.4 Dairy-type products
      6.4.5 Infant formulas
      6.4.6 Other uses
References

CHAPTER 7:  TEXTURED SOY PROTEIN PRODUCTS

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Spun-Fibre Based Texturization
7.3 Extrusion Texturization
7.4 Steam Texturization
7.5 Utilization
      7.5.1 Meat extenders
      7.5.2 Meat analogs
      7.5.3 Other applications
References

CHAPTER 8 - SOYMILK AND RELATED PRODUCTS

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Composition and Classification
8.3 Production Processes
      8.3.1 The traditional process
      8.3.2 The Soya Technology System (STS) Process
      8.3.3 The INTSOY (Illinois) process
      8.3.4 The BUHLER Process for soy micro-powder
8.4 Soymilk Related Products
References

CHAPTER 9 - TOFU, TEMPEH, SOYSAUCE AND MISO

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Soy sauce
9.3 Miso
9.4 Tempeh
9.5 Tofu
      9.5.1 Introduction
      9.5.2 Regular and silken tofu
      9.5.3 Kori-tofu
      9.5.4 Deep-Fried tofu
      9.5.5 Fermented tofu
References

APPENDICES

A - APPENDIX II - Organizations and Government Agencies
B - APPENDIX II - Organizations and Government Agencies

APPENDIX III - Manufacturers and Suppliers of Soybean Processing Plants and Equipment
APPENDIX IV - Sample Budget Quotations for Complete Soy Processing or Soybean Related Food manufacturing Plants

LIST OF TABLES

1-1 World Production of Soybeans
1-2 1987 Exports of Soybeans and Soybean Products by Principal Exporting Countries (1000 tons)
1-3 Representative Proximate Composition of Soybeans
1-4 Amino Acid Composition of Soybeans and Wheat
1-5 Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Oil
4-1 Typical Analyses of Soybeans and Soy Flour
5-1 Amino Acid Composition of SCP and Soy Flour
5-2 PER Value of Soy Protein Products
6-1 Typical Composition of ISP
6-2 Effect of Extract Clarification of the Purity of ISP Curd
7-1 Characteristics of Textured Soy Products
8-1 Composition and Nutritional Data for Soymilk

LIST OF FIGURES

1 World Production of Soybeans
2 Share of Different Countries in the World Soybean Production
3 Soybean Prices, 1974-1988
4 Soybean Proteins; Effect of pH on Solubility
5 Main Routes of Soybean Utilization
6 Soybean Utilization Chart

7 Oil Expeller (screw press) with cooker-dryer
8 Solvent extraction of soybean oil; flow diagram
9 Conventional Preparation System for soybeans
10 Seed cleaner with multiaspirator and cylone
11 The BUHLER Hot Dehulling (popping) system
12 LURGI's "Alcon" process of pre-extraction preparation
13 The FRENCH "Enhancer" Press
14 Effect of Flake Thickness on extraction efficiency
15 Principle of counter-current extraction applied to the "Carrousel Extractor"
16 Effect of number of stages on residual oil
17 The FRENCH Stationary basket extractor
18 The DE SMET Extractor
19 Two types of basket (cell) extractors
20 The HLS basket extractor
21 The "Carrousel" extractor
22 The FRENCH Desolventizer-toaster (DT)
23 The DE SMET Desolventizer-toaster (DT)
24 Self-standing dryer-cooler
25 Combined Desolventizer-toaster-dryer cooler
26 Desolventizer-toaster, Nominal capacity 1200 tpd.
27 Effect of heat treatment on Nigrogen Solubility of soybean oil meal
28 Flash desolventizing system
29 SCP production using decanter centrifuges
30 Isolated soybean protein. Production process outline
31 The course of soy protein extraction
32 Distribution of Nigrogen in the three streams of soybean protein isolation, according to NSI of the meal
33 ISP production using decanter centrifuges
34 Production of spun fibres from soy protein
35 Cooker-extruder used for texturing soy flour
36 Pictorial layout of SDS soymilk plant
37 Economic feasibility of adding a second decanter to soymilk production line
38 Economic feasibility of adding a second decanter to soymilk production line
39 Protein balance in soymilk manufacture
40 The BUHLER process for micomilled soya powder
41 Soybean consumption and quantity of residue produced per 1000 litre of soymilk, in various processes
42 Production of "Koikuchi" soy sauce
43 Flow diagram for miso production
44 Flow diagram for tempeh production
45 Tofu manufacturing process diagram
46 Equipment flow diagram of a tofu plant. Part One: preparation of soymilk
47 Equipment flow diagram of a tofu plant. Part Two: curdling and curd handling
48 Equipment flow diagram of a tofu plant. Part Three: making pasteurized silken tofu
49 Layout of a tofu plant