APPENDIX I

Contents - Previous - Next

STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS

Reprinted from the '90 Soya Bluebook , by permission of Soyatech Inc.

A. NATIONAL OILSEED PROCESSORS ASSOCIATION (NOPA)

(The following sections are reprinted from NOPA's Yearbook and Trading Rules).

Section 2: Standard Definitions:

A. Soybean Cake or Soybean Chips is the product after the extraction of part of the oil by pressure or solvents from soybeans. A name description of the process of manufacture, such as expeller, hydraulic, or solvent extracted shall be used in the brand name. It shall be designated and sold according to its protein content.

B. Soybean Meal is ground soybean cake, ground soybean chips, or ground soybean flakes. A name descriptive of the process of manufacture, such as expeller, hydraulic, or solvent extracted shall be used in the brand name. It shall be designated and sold according to in protein content.

C.(1) Soybean Mill Feed is the by-product resulting from the manufacture of soybean flour or grits and is composed of soybean hulls and the offal from the tail of the mill. A typical analysis is 13% crude protein and 32% crude fibre, and 13% moisture.

C.(2) Soybean Mill Run is the product resulting from the manufacture of dehulled soybean meal and is composed of soybean hulls and such bean meats that adhere to the hull in normal milling operations. A typical analysis is 11% crude protein and 35% crude fibre, and 13% moisture.

C.(3) Soybean Extracted Soybean Flakes is the product obtained after extracting part of the oil from soybeans by the use of hexane or homologous hydrocarbon solvents. It shall be designated and sold according to its protein content.

Section 3. Standards Specifications:

A. Soybean Flakes and 44% Protein Soybean Meal are produced by cracking, heating and flaking soybeans and reducing the oil content of the conditioned product by the use of hexane or homologous hydrocarbon solvents. The extracted flakes are cooked and marketed as such or ground into meal. Standard specifications are as follows:

Protein 

Minimum 44.0%
Fat Minimum 0.5%
Fibre Maximum 7.0%
Moisture Maximum 12.0%

B. Soybean Flakes and High Protein or Solvent Extracted Soybean Meal are produced by cracking, heating and flaking dehulled soybeans and reducing the oil content of the conditioned flakes by the use of hexane or homologous hydrocarbon solvents. The extracted flakes are cooked and marketed as such or ground into meal. Standard specifications are as follows:

Protein 

Minimum 47.5% - 49.0%*
Fat Minimum 0.5%
Fibre Maximum 3.3% - 3.5%*
Moisture Maximum 12.0%

(* As determined by Buyer and Seller at time of sale.)

C. Any of the above meal products (listed in Section 3 above) may contain a non-nutritive inert, non-toxic conditioning agent to reduce caking and improve flowability, in an amount not to be exceeded that is necessary to accomplish its intended effect and in no case to exceed 0.5% or 10 lbs. per ton by weight of the total meal product. The name of the conditioning agent must be shown as an added ingredient.

B: ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN FEED CONTROL OFFICIALS, INC.(AAFCO)

(The following section is reprinted from the AAFCO Official Publication 1990.)*

84. SOYBEAN PRODUCTS

a. OFFICIAL

84.1 Ground Soybeans is obtained by grinding whole soybeans without cooking or removing any of the oil. (Adopted 1933). IFN 5-04 -596 soybean seeds, ground.

84.2 Ground Soybeans Hay is the ground soybean plants including the leaves and beans. It must be reasonably free of other crop plants and weeds and must contain no more 33% crude fibre. (Adopted 1944, Amended 1964). IFN 1-04-559 Soybean Hay sun-cured ground.

84.3 Soybeans Hulls consist primarily of the outer covering of the soybean (Adopted 1948). IFN-1-04-560 Soybean seed coats (hulls).

84.4 Soybean Feed, Solvent Extracted, is the product remaining after the partial removal of protein and nitrogen free extract from dehulled solvent extracted soybean flakes. (Adopted 1948, Amended 1960, 1964). IFN 5-04-613 Soybean seeds low protein low carbohydrates meal solvent extracted.

84.5 Soy Grits is the granular material resulting from the screened and graded product after removal of most of the oil from selected, sound, clean and dehulled soybeans by a mechanical or solvent extraction process. Is must contain not more than 4% crude fibre (Proposed 1978, Adopted 1980). IFN 5-12-176 Soybean grits mechanical extracted. IFN 5-04-592 Soybean grits solvent extracted.

84.7 Soybean Meal, Dehulled, Solvent Extracted is obtained by grinding the flakes remaining after removal of most of the oil from dehulled soybeans by a solvent extraction process. It must contain not more than 3.3% crude fibre. It may contain an inert non-toxic conditioning agent either nutritive or non-nutritive or any combination thereof, to reduce caking and improve flowability in an amount not to exceed that necessary to accomplish its intended effect and in no-case to exceed 0.5% . The name of the conditioning agent must be shown as an added ingredient. When listed as an ingredient in a manufactured feed, it may be identified as "dehulled Soybean Meal". (Proposed 1978, Adopted 1980). IFN 5-04-612 Soybean seeds without hulls meal solvent extracted.

84.8 Soybean Mill Feed is composed of soybean hulls and the offal from the tail of the mill which results from the manufacture of soy grits or flour. It must contain not less than 13% crude protein and not more than 32% crude fibre. (Proposed 1960, Adopted 1961, Amended 1964). IFN 4-04-594 Soybean Flour by-product.

84.09 Soybean Mill Run is composed of soybean hulls and such bean meats that adhere to the hulls which results from normal milling operations in the production of dehulled soybean meal. It must contain not less than 11% crude protein and not more than 35% crude fibre. (Proposed 1960, Adopted 1961, Amended 1964). IFN 4-04-595 Soybean mill run.

84.10 Soy Phosphate or Soy Lecithin is the mixed phosphatide product obtained from soybean oil by a degumming process. It contains lecithin, cephalin and inositol phosphatides, together with glycerides of soybean oil and traces of tocopherols, glucosides and pigments. It must be designated and sold according to conventional descriptive grades with respect to consistence and bleaching. (Proposed 1958, Adopted 1961). IFN 4-04-562 Soybean lecithin.

84.11 Heat Processed Soybeans (Dry Roasted Soybeans) is the product resulting from heating whole soybeans without removing any of the component parts. It may be ground, pelleted, flaked or powdered. It must be sold according to its crude protein content. (Proposed 1960, Adopted 1964). IFN 5-04-597 Soybean seeds heat processed.

84.12 Soy Protein Concentrate is prepared from high quality sound, clean, dehulled soybean seeds by removing most of the oil and water soluble non-protein constituents and must contain not less than 70% protein on a moisture-free basis. (Proposed 1965, Adopted 1968). IFN 5-088-038 Soybean protein concentrate more than 70% protein.

84.13 Kibbled Soybean Meals is the product obtained by cooking ground solvent extracted soybean meal, under pressure and extruding from an expeller or other mechanical pressure device. It must be designated and sold according to its protein content and shall contain not more than 7% crude fibre.(Proposed 1969. Adopted 1971). IFN 5-09-343 Soybean seed kibbled solvent extracted.

84.14 Condensed Soybean Solubles is the product obtained by washing Soy Flour or Soybean Flakes with water and acid at a pH of 4.2-4.6. The wash water is then concentrated to a solid content of not less than 60%. (Proposed 1969, Adopted 1971). IFN 5-09-344 Soybean solubles condensed.

84.15 Ground Extruded Whole Soybeans is the meal product resulting from extrusion by friction heat and/or steam, whole soybeans without removing any of the component parts. It must be sold according to its crude protein, fat and fibre content. (Proposed 1974, Adopted 1975). IFN 5-14-005 Soybean seeds extruded ground.

84.16 Protein Modified is a Soybean Product that has been processed to primarily modify the natural protein structure by utilizing acids, alkalies or other chemicals and without removing significant amounts of any nutrient constituent. The defined name under section 84 of the applicable soybean product so modified shall be declared in the product name. (Proposed 1982, Adopted 1983). IFN 5-26-010 Soybean protein product chemically modified.

84.51 Soy Flour is the finely powdered material resulting from the screened and graded product after removal of most of the oil from selected sound cleaned and dehulled soybeans by a mechanical or solvent extraction process. It must contain not more than 4.0% crude fibre. (Proposed 1978, Adopted 1980). IFN 5-12-177 Soybean flour mechanical extracted. IFN 5-04-593 Soybean flour solvent extracted.

84.60 Soybean Meal Mechanical Extracted, is the product obtained by grinding the cake or chips which remain after removal of most of the oil from soybeans by a mechanical extraction process. It must contain not more than 7% crude fibre. It may contain an inert, non-toxic conditioning agent either nutritive or non-nutritive or any combination thereof, to reduce caking and improve flowability in an amount not to exceed that necessary to accomplish its intended effect and in no-case exceed 0.5%. The name of the conditioning agent must be shown as an added ingredient. The words "Mechanical Extracted" are not required when listing as an ingredient in a manufactured feed. (Proposed 1978, Adopted 1980). IFN 5-04-600 Soybean seeds meal mechanical extracted.

84.61 Soybean Meal, Solvent Extracted, is the product obtained by grinding the flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from soybeans by a solvent extraction process. It must contain not more than 7% crude fibre. It may contain and inert non-toxic conditioning agent either nutritive or non-nutritive and any combination thereof, to reduce caking and improve flowability in an amount not to exceed that necessary to accomplish its intended effect and in no-case exceed 0.5%. The name of the conditioning agent must be shown as an added ingredient. The words "Solvent Extracted" are not required when listing an ingredient in a manufactured feed. (Proposed 1978, Adopted 1980). IFN 5-04-604 Soybean seeds meal solvent extracted.

b. TENTATIVE

T84.14 Soybean Solubles, Condensed, the product resulting from the washing of soy flour or soybean flakes with water and acid; water, alkali and acid; or water and alcohol. The wash water is then concentrated to a solids content of not less than 50%. (Proposed 1983). IFN 5-09-344 Soybean solubles condensed.

T84.17 Soybean Solubles, Dried, is the product resulting from the washing of soy flour or soybean flakes with water and acid; water, alkali and acid; or water and alcohol. The wash water is then dried. (Proposed 1983). IFN 5-16-733 Soybean solubles dehydrated.

T84.62 Soy Protein Isolate is the major proteinaceous fraction of soybeans prepared from dehulled soybeans by removing the majority of non-protein components and contains not less than 90% protein on a moisture-free basis. (Proposed 1988). IFN Number _____________IFN Name_________________

T84.12 Soy Protein Concentrate is prepared from high quality sound, dehulled soybean seeds by removing most of the oil and water soluble non-protein constituents and must contain not less than 65% protein on a moisture-free basis. (Proposed 1988). IFN Number ____________ IFN Name ______________

 

C: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
(The following sections are reprinted from the Official United States Standards for Grain*)
UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR SOYBEANS
(Revised Effective May 1, 1988)

Subpart A - General Provisions
Terms Defined

# 810.101 Grains for which standards are established:

Grain refers to barley, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seeds, triticale and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds are established under the United States Grain Standards Act.

# 810.102 Definition of other terms

Unless otherwise stated, the definitions in this section apply to all grains. All other definitions unique to a particular grain are contained in the appropriate subpart for that grain.
(a) Distinctly low quality. Grain that is obviously of inferior quality because it is in an unusual state or condition, and that cannot be graded properly by use of the other grading factors provided in the standards. Distinctly low quality includes the presence of any objects too large to enter the sampling device; i.e., large stone, wreckage or similar objects.
(b) Moisture. Water contained in grain as determined by an approved device according to procedures described in FGIS instructions.
(c) Stones. Concreted earthy or mineral matter and other substances of similar hardness that do not disintegrate in water.
(d) Test weight per bushel. The weight per Winchester bushel (2,150.42 cubic inches) as determined using an approved device according to procedures prescribed in FGIS instructions. Test weight per bushel in the standards for corn, mixed grain, oats, sorghum and soybeans, is determined on the original sample. Test weight per bushel in the standards for barley, flaxseed, rye, sunflower seed, triticale and wheat is determined after mechanically cleaning the original sample. Test weight per bushel is recorded in whole and tenth pounds to the nearest tenth pound for wheat, rye, and triticale. Test weight per bushel for all other grains is recorded in whole or half pounds, with a fraction of a half pound disregarded.
(e) Whole kernels. Grain with 1/4 or less of the kernel removed.

Principles Governing the Application of Standards

# 810.103 Basis of determination

(a) Distinctly low quality. The determination of distinctly low quality is made on the basis of the lot as a whole at the time of sampling when a condition exist that may or may not appear in the representative sample and/or the sample as a whole.
(b) Certain quality determinations. Each determination of rodent pellets, bird droppings, other animal filth, broken glass, castor beans, cockleburs, crotalaria seeds, dockage, garlic, live insect infestations, large stones, moisture, temperature, an unknown foreign substance(s), and a commonly recognized harmful or toxic substance(s) is made on the basis of the sample as a whole. When a condition exists that may not appear in the representative sample, the determination maybe made on the basis of the lot as a whole at the time of sampling according to procedures prescribed in FGIS instructions.
(c) All other determinations. The basis of determination for all other factors is contained in the individual standards.

# 810-104 Percentages

(a) Rounding. Percentages are determined on the basis of weight and are rounded as follows:
1. When the figure to be rounded is followed by a figure greater than or equal to 5, round to the next higher figure; e.g., report 6.36 as 6.4, 0.35 as 0.4 and 2.45 as 2.5.
2. When the figure to be rounded is followed by a figure less than 5, retain the figure; e.g., report 8.34 as 8.3 and 1.22 as 1.2.
(b) Recording. The percentage of splits in soybeans, and the percentage of dockage in barley, flaxseed, rye and sorghum are reported in whole percents with fractions of a percent being disregarded.
Dockage in triticale is reported in whole and half percent with a fraction less than one-half percent being disregarded. Dockage in wheat is reported in whole and tenth percent to the nearest tenth percent. Foreign material in sunflower seed is reported to the nearest one half percent. Ranges of sunflower seed foreign material are reported as follows: 0.0 to 0.24 is reported as 0.0 percent; 0.25 to 0.74 as 0.5 percent; 0.75 to 1.24 as 1.0 percent, and the like. Foreign material and fines in mixed grains is reported in whole percent. The percentage when determining the identity of all grains is reported to the nearest whole percent. Also reported to the nearest whole percent are the classes and subclasses in wheat; flintcorn, flint and dentcorn; waxy corn; classes in barley; and the percentage of each kind of grain in mixed grain. Plump barley shall be expressed in terms of the range in which if falls. Ranges shall be: Below 50 percent 50 to 55 percent; 56 to 60 percent; 61 to 65 percent, and the like. All other percentages are reported in tenths percent.

Grades: Grade Requirements and Grade Designations

# 810-105 Grades and grade requirements

The grades and grade requirements for each grain (except mixed grain) are shown in the grade table(s) of the respective standards . Mixed grain grade requirements are not presented in tabular form.

#810.106 Grade designations:

(a) Grade designations for grain:
The grade designations included in the following order:
(1) The letters "US"
(2) The abbreviation "No" and the number of the grade or the words "Sample grade":
(3) When applicable the subclass;
(4) The class or kind of grain
(5) When applicable the special grade(s) except in the case of bright extra heavy and heavy oats or plump rye the special grades , "bright", "extra heavy", "heavy " and "plump" will precede the word "oats" or "rye" as applicable and
(6) When applicable, the word "dockage" together with the percentage thereof.

When applicable the remarks section of the certificate will include in the order of predominance in the case of a mixed class, the name and approximate percentage of the classes; in the case of sunflower seed, the percentage of admixture; in the case of mixed grain the grain present in excess of 10.0 percent of the mixture and when applicable the words" Others grains" followed by a statement of the percentage of the combined quantity of those kinds of grains each of which is present in a quantity less 10.0 percent. In the case of barley if requested the word "plump" with the percentage range thereof; in the case of wheat if requested the percentage of protein content.

(b) Optional grade designations: In addition to paragraph (a) of this Section grain may be certificated under certain conditions as described in FGIS instructions when supported by official analysis as "US No. 2 or better (type of grain)" "US No. 3 or better (type of grain) and the like.

Special Grades, Grade Requirements and Special Grade Designations

#810.107 Special grades and special grade requirements:

A special grade serves to draw attention to a special factor or condition present in the grain and when applicable is supplemental to the grade assigned under #810.106. Except when the special grades are identified and requirements are established in each respective grain standards.

(a) Infested wheat, rye and triticale: Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested wheat, rye and triticale are defined according to sampling designations as follows:
(1) Representative sample: The representative sample consists of the work portion and the file sample if needed and when available . These grains will be considered infested if the representative samples (other than shiplots) contain two or more live weevils or one live weevil and one or more other insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more other live insects injurious to stored grain.
(2) Lot as a whole (stationary): The lot as a whole is considered infested when two or more live weevils or one live weevil and one or more other injurious to stored grain are found in, on, or about lot (excluding submitted samples and shiplots).
(3) Sample as a whole: (continuous loading/unloading of shiplots and bargelots) The minimum sample size for shiplots and bargelots is 500 grams per each 2,000 bushels of grain. The sample as a whole is considered infested when a component (as defined in FGIS instructions) contains two or more live weevils or one live weevil and one or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or two or more other live insects injurious to stored grain.
(b) Infested barley, corn, oats, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seeds and mixed grain: Tolerances for live insects responsible for infested barley, corn, oats, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed and mixed grain are defined according to sampling designations as follows:
(1) Representative sample: The representative sample consists of the work portion and the file sample if needed and when available. These grains will be considered infested if the representative samples (other than shiplots) contain two or more live weevils, or one live weevil and five or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or ten or more other live insects injurious to stored grain.
(2) Lot as a whole (stationary): The lot as a whole is considered infested when two or more live weevils or one live weevil and five or more other live insects injurious to stored grain or ten or more other live insects injurious to stored grain are found in, on, or about the lot (excluding submitted samples and shiplots).
(3) Sample as a whole (continuous loading/unloading of shiplots and bargelots): The minimum sample for shiplots and bargelots is 500 grams per each 2,000 bushels of grain. The sample as a whole is considered infested when a component (as defined in FGIS instructions) contains two or more live weevils or one live weevil and five or more other live insects injurious to stored grain, or ten or more other insects injurious to stored grain.

# 810.108 Special grade designations

Special grade designations are shown as prescribed in #810.106 . Multiple special grade designations will be listed in alphabetical order. In the case of treated wheat, the official certificate shall show whether the wheat has been scoured, limed, washed, sulphured or otherwise treated.

SUBPART I - UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR SOYBEANS

Terms Defined

#810.1601 Definition of soybeans:

Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L)Merr.) that will not pass through an 8/64 round hole sieve and not more than 10.0 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards Act.

#810.1602 Definition of other terms

(a) Classes: There are two classes for soybeans: Yellow soybeans and Mixed soybeans.
(1) Yellow soybeans: Soybeans that have yellow or green seed coats and which in cross section ,are yellow or have a yellow tinge, and may include not more than 10% of soybeans of other colours.
(2) Mixed soybeans: Soybeans that do not meet the requirements of the class of Yellow Soybeans.
(b) Damaged kernels. Soybeans and pieces of soybeans that are badly ground-damaged,badly weather-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat damaged, insect-bored, mould-damaged, sprout-damaged, stinkbug-stung or otherwise materially damaged. Stinkbug-stung kernels are considered damaged kernels at the rate of one-fourth of the actual percentage of the stung kernels.
(c) Foreign material. All matter that passes through an 8/64 round/hole sieve and all matter other than soybeans remaining in the sieved sample after sieving according to procedures prescribed in FGIS instructions.
(d) Heat damaged kernels. Soybeans and pieces of soybeans that are materially discoloured and damaged by heat.
(e) Purple, mottled or stained. Soybeans that are discoloured by the growth of fungus; or by dirt; or by a dirt-like substance(s) including non-toxic inoculants; or by other nontoxic substances.
(f) Sieve, 8/64 round hole sieve. A metal sieve 0.032 inch thick perforated with round holes 0.125 inch in diameter.
(g) Soybeans of other colours. Soybeans that have green, black, brown or bicoloured seed coats. Soybeans that have green seed coats will also be green in cross section. Bicoloured soybeans will have seed coats of two colours, one of which is brown or black, and the brown or black colour covers 50% of the seed coat. The hilum of the soybean is not considered a part of the seed coat for this determination.
(h) Splits. Soybeans with more than 1/4 of the bean removed and that are not damaged.

Principles governing the application of standards

#810.1063 Basis of determination.

Each determination of class, heat damaged kernels, damaged kernels, splits and soybeans of other colours is made on the basis of the grain when free from foreign material. Other determinations not specifically provided for under the general provisions are made on the basis of the grain as a whole.

Grades and Grade Requirements

#810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans:




Grade



Minimum test weight per Bushel (pounds)
Maximum Limits of:
Damaged Kernels
Foreign Material %

Splits %

Soybeans of other Colours %
Heat Damaged % Total %

U.S. No.1

U.S. No.2 U.S. No.3 1/

U.S. No.4 2/

U.S. Sample grade

56.0

54.0

52.0

49.0

0.2

0.5

1.0

3.0

2.0

3.0

5.0

8.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

5.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

1.0

2.0

5.0

10.0

                                                     U.S. Sample Grade is soybeans that:
                               (a) Do not meet the requirements for U.S. Nos. 1,2,3 or 4, or;

(b) Contain 8 or more stones which have an average weight in excess of 0.2% of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more Crotalaria seeds, 2 or more castor beans, 4 or more particles of an unknown substance(s), 10 or more rodent pellets, bird droppings or equivalent quantity of other abnormal filth per 1,000 grams of soybeans; or

                                       (c) Have a musty, sour or commercially objectionable foreign odour (except garlic odour);or

                                        (d) Are heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality.

1/ Soybeans that are purple mottled or stained are graded not higher than U.S. No.3

                                                     2/ Soybeans that are materially weathered are graded not higher than U.S. No.4.

* Official United States Standards for Grain, Revised May 1, 1988.

Contents - Previous - Next