Spanish salsify (Scolymus hispanicus)

Contents - Previous

Botanical name: Scolymus hispanicus L.
Family: Asteraceae = Compositae
Common names. English: Spanish salsify, Spanish oyster plant, common golden thistle; Spanish: cardillo, cardillo de comer, cardillo de olla, cardillo bravío, cardo lecher, cardón lecher, cardón lechal, lechocino, cardo zafranero; Catalan: cardet, cardelina; Basque: kardaberaiakca; Portuguese: cardo de ouro, cangarinha

Properties and uses

The Spanish salsify plant has been recognized as having antisudorific and diuretic properties. The Greeks knew it and it is mentioned by Theophrastus. Pliny makes reference to it and considers it an antiperspirant. However, it is barely mentioned by Andalusian agronomists. The translator of an anonymous Hispano-Arab document of the eleventh and twelfth century interprets that silyan and adaliq, spiny plants which people collect among wild vegetables, are indeed Spanish salsify, Scolymus hispanicus.

Although it has been cultivated occasionally, at present it is clearly in recession. Most of the Spanish salsify that is eaten comes simply from collecting the wild plant.

Several parts of the plant have a fairly delicate flavour. The young basal leaves are eaten as a vegetable in salads, boiled, in soups, stews, omelettes, etc. The most pleasant part of the leaf is the central rib, a white fleshy part which is obtained by peeling the leaf, with a scraping movement with one hand from the base to the apex, while the other hand holds the base. The young stems are used in a similar way. Font Quer (1990) mentioned that this plant is appreciated in almost all of Spain's provinces and " used widely in stew during the spring". In the sixteenth century in Salamanca, the washed young plants used to be eaten with their root, either raw or in stews with meat. In soup, its roots are prepared with milk, butter and flour.

Botanical description

Spanish salsify is a biennial or perennial plant, which is erect, contains latex and is very spiny. The stems are between 5 and 250 cm long, branched at the top, with discontinuous spiny, dentate wings. The basal leaves are oblonglanceolate, smooth, pinnatisect, with few spines, and a long petiole. The caulinar leaves are rigid, coriaceous and spiny. The capitula have one to three golden-yellow, enveloping leaves; they are about 3 cm long, in a lateral or terminal arrangement and surrounded by an involucre of spiny bracts. The achenes are 2 to 3 mm with a pappus that has a short corona. It flowers from May to July. The plant is propagated from seed, which has a very good germination capacity for several years and does not exhibit any marked dormancy phenomena. It is a diploid plant: 2n = 2x = 20.

Ecology and phytogeography

Spanish salsify is found on waste ground and uncultivated land, among rubble, in ditches and along paths; it is most frequently found in sandy places in temperate zones.

Distributed through southern Europe and North Africa, it extends to northwestern France. Vavilov (1951) pinpoints its origin as the Mediterranean region. In Spain, it grows wild in most of the country but shuns high mountains; it is less common in the north. It is also found in the Canary Islands.

It is occasionally cultivated in Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Greece and the Maghreb; it is practically unknown in the United States.

Genetic diversity

There is considerable variability in the morphological characteristics of Spanish salsify such as hairiness, leaf morphology and involucral bracts, receptacular scales, spininess, etc.

No definite cultivars exist; it is still possible to obtain a few cultigens, although there is a serious risk of losing these materials.

There has been no significant activity in collecting or conserving genetic resources of this species.

Cultivation practices

Spanish salsify is a very hardy plant, is resistant to cold and thrives on all kinds of soil, although it prefers light-textured soils that are rich in organic matter. Its cultivation requires very little care.

Sowing is direct and is carried out in late winter or in spring. A light, well-drained, manured soil should be used. It can be sown in furrows, 30 cm apart with a distance of 30 cm between plants after thinning.

The young white shoots can be pulled up when they reach 20 cm or so in height. The fleshy parts of the leaves need the basal rosette to be well formed. The roots are usually harvested around the end of October or during the winter. If the plant is left until the following year, it goes into flower and develops a sturdy stem, while the basal leaves lose their quality because of toughening. Therefore, although the plant can be kept for several years, it should be cultivated as an annual.

There are no serious phytopathological problems.

Prospects for improvement

The considerably spiny nature of the Spanish salsify plant, and especially of the caulinar leaves which have big, tough spines, is a serious draw-back to its handling and deters attempts to cultivate it. The breeding of less spiny forms would facilitate the plant's handling.

As far as the most widely used portion is concerned - i.e. the fleshy part of the leaves forms will need to be bred that have thick, tender and juicy ribs. Wide collections of material must be made, especially of the old cultigens which can still be recovered, so as to characterize and select them. The areas of greatest interest are the Maghreb, southern Greece and non-horticultural Spanish regions.

If the intention is to use the roots, harvesting should be carried out until the end of the winter. Resistance to flowering will enable root yield to be improved by encouraging rapid root growth at the time of hot weather.


Adachi, T. & Osei-Kofi, F. 1984. Intraspecific and intergeneric fusion of protoplasts among some species of Nicotiana and Portulac. Bull. Fac. Agric. Miyazaki Univ., 31(1): 11-19.

Alonso de Herrera, G. 1513,ed. 1981. Agricultura general. E. Terrón, ed. Madrid, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

Bettencourt, E. & Perret, P.M. 1986. Directory of European institutions holding crop genetic resources collections, 3rd ed. Rome, UNDP/ IBPGR.

Boutelou, C. & Boutelou, E. 1801. Tratado de la huerta. Madrid, Imprenta Villalpando.

Cobo, B. 1662, ed. 1953. Historia del Nuevo Mundo. Madrid, Editorial Atlas.

Columela, L.J.M. 1824. Los doce libros de agricultura (AD 42). Madrid, Imprenta Miguel de Burgos.

Columela, L.J.M.1988. De los trabajos de campo (siglo 1). A. Holgado Redondo, ed. Madrid, Siglo XXI de España Editores, S.A/Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

Cotrina, F.1989. Cultivo de la borraja. Informe del SEA de la Diputación General de Aragón. (unpubl.)

Crecini, F. 1952. Piante erbacee di grande coltura, 3rd ed. Rome, Ramo Editoriale degli Agricoltori.

Dayal, N. 1987. Towards synthesis of x Raphanoeruca. Cruciferae Newsl., 12: 7. de Candolle, A. 1883. Origine des plantes cultivées, 10th ed. Paris, Baillière.

Díaz de la Guardia, C. & Blanca, G. 1987. Karyology of the Scorzonera (Compositae) species from the Iberian Peninsula. Plant systematic and evolution. 156(1-2): 29-42.

Fahleson, J., Rahlen, L. & Glimelius, K.1988. Analysis of plants regenerated from protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Eruca saliva. Theor. Appl. Genet., 76(4): 507512.

FAO. 1983. Development of erucic acid and glucosinolate-free crucifers in Pakistan. In J.C. Holmes & W.M. Tahir, eds. More food from better technology. Rome.

Faulkner, G.J. & Jackson, J.C. 1984. Experimental seed production. Avonresister parsnip. Annul Rep. Natl Vegetable Res. Sta. Wellesbourne, 1983: 60-61.

Fernández de Gorostiza, M. 1991. Control y certificación de semillas de plantas hortícolas. In F. Nuez & L. Rallo, eds. La horticultura española en la Comunidad Europea. Reus, Spain, SECH eds de Horticultural

Font Quer, P. 1990. Plantas medicinales, 12th ed. Barcelona, Spain Editorial Labor, S.A.

Gálvez, C. & Hernández Bermejo, J.E. 1986. Fundamentos pare la domesticación de especies silvestres ibéricas de carduáceas con interés potencial agrícola. Actas del II Congreso Nacional de la SECH, 2: 1173- 1182.

Genders, R. 1988. Plantas silvestres comestibles. Barcelona, Spain, Editorial Blume.

Gil, J. & Varela, C.1984. Carta de particulares a Colón y relaciones coetáneas. Madrid, Alianza Editorial.

Girenko, M.M. 1980. Collection of minor species of vegetable crops as breeding material. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Institute Rastenievodstva Imeni N.I. Vavilova, 101: 14-18. (Plant Breeding Abstr., 1982: 7104)

Government of Spain. 1987. Anuario de Estadística Agraria. Madrid, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

Gupta, A.K. & Dubey, M.M.1988. Field reaction of taramira germplasm to Fusarium wilt. Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol., 17(1): 74.

Hammer, K. & Sabir, A.A.1987. Collecting in Iraq. Plant Genet. Resour. Newsl., 70: 44.

Herrera, A.1539, ed. 1968. Agricultura general, 2nd ed. Madrid, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

Ibn al-Awwam.1988. Libro de agricultura (siglo XII). Translated and annotated by J.A. Banqueri,2 vols. Madrid, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

Ibn al-Baytar. 1991. Traité des simples (siglo XIII). Translation by L. Leclerc,3 vols. Paris, Institut de Monde Arabe.

Ibn Bassal. 1955. Libro de agricultura (siglo XI). Edited, translated and annotated by J.M.

Millas Vallicrosa & M. Aziman. Tétuouan, Morocco, Instituto Muley El-Hasan.

Ibn Luyun.1988. Tratado de agricultura (siglo XIV). Translated and annotated by J. Eguaras Ibáñez. Granada Spain, Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife.

Isidoro de Sevilla. 1982. Etimologías (siglo VI). Latin text, Spanish translation and notes by J. Oroz Reta & M. Marcos Caspuero, 2 vols. Madrid, BAC.

Jackson, W.M., ed. Diccionario enciclopédico hispano-americano, 28 vols. Boston-London, Simmonds.

Kumar, P.R. & Kumar, P. 1989. Genetic improvement of rapeseed-mustard, achievements critical gaps and future priorities. J. Oilseeds Res., 6(2): 211-219.

Kumar, D. & Yadav, I.S. 1986. Genetics of yield and its components in taramira. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 56(3): 167-170.

Laumonnier, R.1963. Cultures maraîchères II. 2nd ed. Paris, Baillière.

López & López, A. 1990. Kitab fi tartib Awqat al Girasa Wa-L-Magrusat. Un tratado agrícola andalusí anónimo. Granada, Spain, CSIC.

Maroto, V. 1983. Horticultura herbácea especial. Madrid, Pub. Mundi Prensa.

Mathon, C. Ch. 1986. Potagères autrefois répandues et aujourd'hui disparues. Suggestions pour une typologie. In Bureau des ressources génétiques. La diversité des plantes legumières (Angers, 17-19 October 1985). Paris, Lavoisier.

Matsuzawa, Y. & Sarashima, M. 1986. Intergenetic hybridization of Eruca, Brassica and Raphanus. Cruciferae Newsl., 11: 17.

Nikitina, A.Y. 1980. Promising cress varieties for the fagestan ASSR. Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Institute Rastenievodstva Imeni N.l. Vavilova, 101: 71-75; (Plant Breeding Abstr., 1982: 7107)

Oguro, H., Hinata, K., Samejina, M., Sugiyama, T. & Tsunoda, S. 1988. Photosynthetic characteristics of the reciprocal interspecific hybrids and their progenies between Atriplex triangularis (C3) and A. rosea (C4). Japanese J. Breeding, 38(1): 53-64.

Plucinska, M. 1981. Investigation of black salsify varieties with regard to yield, quality and suitability for canning and freezing. Biuletyn Warzywniczy, 25: 311-335. (Plant Breeding Abstr., 4009)

Prabhakar, M. & Ramayya, N. 1988. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Portulaca L. protein and non-protein free amino acids of leaf. Indian J. Bot., 11(1):51-58.

Quer, J. 1762-1764. Flora española o historia de las plantas que se crían en España, 4 vols. Madrid, Ibarra.

Quinn, J., Simon, J.E. & Janick, J. 1989. Histology of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis in borage. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 114(3): 516-520.

Rivera Núñez, D. & Obón de Castro, C. 1991. La guía de las plantas útiles y venenosas de la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Madrid INCAFO.

Rohilla, H.R., Singh, H., Kalra, V.K. & Kharub, S.S. 1987. Losses caused by mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.), in different Brassica genotipes. In 7th Int. Rapeseed Congr., Poznán.

Seehuber, R. & Dambroth, M. 1984. Die Potentiale zur Erzeugung von Industrie Grundstoffen aus heimischen Ölpflanzen und die Perspektiven für ihre Nutzbarmachung. Landbauforschung Völkenrode, 34(3).

Sikdar, S.R., Chatterjee, G., Das, S. & Sen, S.K. 1990. "Erussica" the intergeneric fertile somatic hybrid developed through protoplast fusion between Eruca sativa Lam. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Theoret. Appl. Genet., 79(4): 561-567.

Simmonds, N.W., ed. 1976. Evolution of crop plants. London-New York, Longman.

Sodani, S.N., Sastry, E.V.D. & Nehra, M.R. 1990. Divergence analysis in taramira (Eruca sativa Mill.) Indian J. Genet. Plant Breeding, 50(1): 9-12.

Tindall, H.D. & Willams, J.T., eds.1977. Tropical vegetables and their genetic resources. Rome, IBPGR.

Toll, J. & van Sloten, D.H. 1982. Directory of germplasm collections. 4. Vegetables. Rome, IBPGR.

Tutin, T.G., ed. 1967. The Flora Europaea Organization. Vol. II. London, Linnaean Society of London.

Valdés, B., Talavera, S. & Fernández-Galiano, E., eds. 1987. Flora vascular de Andalucía occidental. Barcelona, Spain, Ketres Editora.

Vavilov, N.I. 1951. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. New York, Ronald Press.

Verma, S.C. 1984. Genic male sterility in Eruca sativa Cruciferae, plant cell incompatibility. Newsl., 19: 74-78.

Volodars'ka, A.T. 1986. Breeding evaluation of a salad cress collection. Ovochivnitsvo i Bashtannitovo, 31: 43-45. (Plant Breeding Abstr., 1987, 10277)

Yadav, I.S. & Yadava, T.P. 1987. Identification of parents for hybridization through combining ability analysis in taramira under rainfed conditions. J. Oilseed Res., 4(1): 82-88.

Yamagishi, H., Yui, S. & Yoshikawa, H. 1986. Genetic resources of cruciferous crops collected in Nepal by IBPGR. Cruciferae Newsl., 11: 7.

Zeven, A.C. & Zhukovsky, P.M. 1975. Dictionary of cultivated plants and their centers of diversity. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Pudoc.

Where to purchase FAO publications locally/ points de vente des publications de la FAO/ puntos de yenta de publicaciones de la FAO

Empresa Nacional do Disco e de
Publicaçöes, ENDIPU-U.E.E.
Rua Cirilo da Conceiçäo Silva, N° 7
C.P N° 1314-C

Libreria Agropecuaria
Pasteur 743
1028 Buenos Aires
Oficina del Libro Internacional
Alberti 40
1082 Buenos Aires

Hunter Publications
P.O. Box 404
Abbotsford, Vic. 3067

Gerold Buch & Co.
Weihburggasse 26
1010 Vienna

Association of Development
Agencies in Bangladesh
House N° 1/3, Block F. Lalmatia
Dhaka 1207

M.J. De Lannoy
202, avenue du Roi
1060 Bruxelles,
CCP 000-0808993-13

Los Amigos del Libro
Perú 3712 Casilla 450, Cochabamba
Mercado 1315, La Paz

Botsalo Books (Pty) Ltd
P.O. Box 1532

Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Praia do Botafogo 190, C.P. 9052
Rio de Janeiro

CANADA (See North Americ.)

Libreria - Oficina Regional FAO
Avda. Santa Maria 6700
Casilla 10095, Santiago
Tel. 218 53 23
Fax 218 25 47
Universitaria Textolibros Ltda.
Avda. t. Bernardo O'Higgins 1050, Santiago

China National Publications Import
& Export Corporation
P O. Box 88
100704 Beijing

Banco Ganadero
Revista Carta Ganadera
Carrera 9a N° 72-21, Piso 5,
Bogota D.E.
Tel. 217 0100

Office national des librairies populaires
B. P 577

Libreria, Imprenta y Litografia
Lehmann S.A.
Apartado 10011
San José

Côte D’Ivoire
CEDA - Centre d’édition et
de diffusion africaines
04 B.P. 541
Abidjan 04

Ediciones Cubanas, Empresa de
Comercio Exterior de Publicaciones
Obispo 461, Apartado 605
La Habana

P.O Box 1722

Ve Smeckach 30. P O Box 790
11127 Praha 1
Artia Pegas Press Ltd
Import of Periodicals
Palác Metro, P.O. Box 825
Narodni 25, 11121 Praha 1

Munksgaard, Book and Subscription
P.O Box 2148
DK 1016 Copenhagen K.
Tel 4533128570
Fax 4533129387

Libri Mundi, Libreria Internacional
Juan León Mera 851
Apartado Postal 3029

The Middle East Observer
41 Sherif Street

Mundi Prensa Libros S.A.
Castelló 37
28001 Madrid
Tel. 431 3399
Fax 575 3998
Libreria Agricola
Fernando Vl 2
28004 Madrid
Libreria Internacional AEDOS
Consejo de Ciento 391
08009 Barcelona
Tel. 3018615
Fax 317 0141
Llibreria de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Rambla dels Estudis, 118 (Palau Moja)
08002 Barcelona
Tel. (93) 302 6462
Fax (93) 3021299

Akateeminen Ktrjakauppa
P.O. Box 218
SF-00381 Helsinki

La Maison Rustique
Flammarion 4
26, rue Jacob
75006 Paris
14, rue de Provigny
94236 Cachan Cedex
Librairie de l'Unesco
7, place de Fontenoy
75700 Paris
Editions A. Pedone
13, rue Soufflot
75005 Paris
Librairie du Commerce International
24, boulevard de l’Hôpital
75005 Paris

Alexander Horn Internationale
Kirchgasse 22, Postfach 3340
D-65185 Wiesbaden
Poppelsdorfer Allee 55
D-53115 Bonn 1
S. Toeche-Mittler GmbH
Hindenburgstrasse 33
D-64295 Darmstadt

SEDCO Publishing Ltd
Sedco House, Tabon Street
Off Ring Road Central, North Ridge
P.O. Box 2051

G.C. Eleftheroudakis S.A.
4 Nikis Street g
10563 Athens
John Mihalopoulos & Son S.A.
75 Hermou Street, P O. Box 10073
7511 0 Thessaloniki

Guyana National Trading Corporation Ltd
45-47 Water Street, P.O. Box 308

Librairie "A la Caravelle"
26, rue Bonne Foi, B.P. 111

Escuela Agricola Panamericana,
Libreria RTAC
Zamorano, Apartado 93
Oficina de la Escuela Agricola
Panamericana en Tegucigalpa
Blvd. Morazán, Apts. Glapson - Apartado 93

Swindon Book Co.
13-15 Lock Road

Librotrade Kft.
P.O. Box 126
H-1656 Budapest

EWP Affiliated East-West Press PVT, Ltd
G-I/16 Ansari Road, Darya Gany
New Delhi 110 002
Oxford Book and Stationery Co.
Scindia House, New Delhi 110 001
17 Park Street Calcutta 700 016
Oxford Subscription Agency
Institute for Development Education
1 Anasuya Ave., Kilpauk, Madras 600 010

The FAO Bureau, International and
Regional Specialized
Organizations Affairs
Ministry of Agriculture of the Islamic
Republic of Iran
Keshavarz Bld, M.O.A., 17th floor

Publications Section, Stationery Office
4-5 Harcourt Road
Dublin 2

R.O.Y. International
P.O Box 13056
Tel Aviv 61130

FAO (See last column)
Libreria Scientifica Dott. Lucio de
Biasio "Aeiou "
Via Coronelli 6
20146 Milano
Libreria Concessionaria Sansoni S.p.A.
Via Duca di Calabria 1/1
50125 Firenze
Libreria Internazionale Rizzoli
Galleria Colonna, Largo Chigi
00187 Roma
FAO Bookshop
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Roma

Far Eastern Booksellers
(Kyokuto Shoten Ltd)
12 Kanda-Jimbocho 2 chome
Chiyoda-ku - P.O. Box 72
Tokvo 101-91
Maruzen Company Ltd
P.O. Box 5050
Tokyo International 100-31

Text Book Centre Ltd
Kijabe Street, P.O Box 47540

The Kuwait Bookshops Co. Ltd
P.O. Box 2942

M.J. De Lannoy
202, avenue du Roi
1060 Bruxelles (Belgique)

Electronic products only:
Sendirian Berhad Publishers
9 College Square
10250 Penang

LIbrairie Traore
Rue Soundiata Keita X 115, B.P. 3243

Librairie "Aux Belles Images"
281, avenue Mohammed V

Librería, Universidad Autónoma de
Chapingo 56230 Chapingo Libros y Editoriales S.A.
Av. Progreso N° 202-1° Piso A
Apdo Postal 18922 Col. Escandón
11800 México D F.

Roodveldt Import B.V.
Browersgracht 288
1013 HG Amsterdam

Legislation Services
P.O. Box 12418
Thorndon, Wellington

Libreria Universitaria,
Universidad Centroamericana
Apartado 69

University Bookshop (Nigeria) Ltd
University of Ibadan

4611/F, Assembly Drive
Lanham MD 20706-4391, USA
Toll-free 800 233-0504 (Canada)
800 274-4888 (USA)
Fax 301-459-0056
Ebsco Subscription Services
P.O. Box 1431
Birmingham AL 35201-1431, USA
Tel. (205) 991-6600
Telex 78-2661
Fax (205) 991-1449
The Faxon Company Inc.
15 Southwest Park
Westwood MA 02090, USA
Tel. 6117-329-3350
Telex 95-1980
Cable FW Faxon Wood
Electronic products only:
Winrock International Institute for
Agricultural Development
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 600 Service
Arlington VA 22209

Narvesen Info Center
Bertrand Narvesens vei 2
P.O. Box 6125, Etterstad
0602 Oslo 6

Mirza Book Agency
65 Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam
P.O. Box 729, Lahore 3
Sasi Book Store
Zaibunnisa Street, Karachi

Libreria Distribuidora "Santa Rosa"
Jirón Apurimac 375, Casilla 4937
Lima 1

International Book Center (Phils)
Room 1703 Cityland 10
Condominium Cor. Ayala Avenue &
H.V. dela Costa Extension
Makati, Metro Manila

Ars Polona
Krakowskie Przedmiescie 7
00-950 Warsaw

Livraria Portugal, Dias e Andrade Ltda
Rua do Carmo 70-74. Apartado 2681
1117 Lisboa Codex

Select Books Pte Ltd
03-15 Tanglin Shopping Centre
19 Tanglin Road
Singapore 1024

Cankarjava Zalozba
P.O Box 201 -IV
61001 Ljubljana

P.O. Box 936

M.D. Gunasena & Co. Ltd
217 Olcott Mawatha, P.O. Box 246
Colombo 11

Librairie Payot S.A.
107 Freiestrasse 4000 Basel 10
6, rue Grenus 1200 Genève
Case Postale 3212,1002 Lausanne
Buchhandlung und Antiquariat
Heinimann & Co.
Kirchgasse 17
8001 Zurich
UN Bookshop
Palais des Nations
CH-1211 Genéve 1
Van Diermen Editions Techniques
Case Postale 465
CH-1211 Genève 19

Vaco n.v. in Suriname
Domineestraat 26, P.O. Box 1841

Books and documents
C.E. Fritzes
P.O Box 16356
103 27 Stockholm
Vennergren-Williams AB
P.O. Box 30004
104 25 Stockholm

Suksapan Panit
Mansion 9, Rajdamnern Avenue

Librairie du Bon Pasteur
B.P. 1164

Société tunisienne de diffusion
5, avenue de Carthage

Kultur Yayiniari is - Turk Ltd Sti
Ataturk Bulvari No. 191, Kat. 21
Bookshops in Istambul and Izmir

HMSO Publications Centre
51 Nine Elms Lane
London SW8 SDR
Tel. (071) 873 9090 (orders)
(071 ) 873 0011 (inquiries)
Fax (071 ) 873 8463
and through HMSO Bookshops
Electronic products only: Microinfo Ltd
P.O. Box 3, Omega Road, Alton Hampshire
GU342PG Tel. (0420) 86848
Fax (0420) 89889

Libreria Agropecuaria S.R.L.
Buenos Aires 335
Casilla 1755
Montevideo C P. 11000

USA (See North America)

Tecni-Ciencia Libros S.A.
Torre Phelps-Mezzanina, Plaza Venezuela
Tel. 782 8697-781 9945-781 9954
Tamanaco Libros Técnicos S.R.L.
Centro Comercial Ciudad Tamanaco
Nivel C-2
Tel. 261 3344-261 3335-959 0016
Tecni-Ciencia Libros, S.A
Centro Comercial, Shopping Center
Av. Andrés Eloy Urb. El Prebo
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo
Tel. 222 724
Fudeco, Libreria
Avenida Libertador-Este, Ed Fudeco
Apartado 254
Barquisimeto C.P. 3002, Ed Lara
Tel. (051 ) 538 022
Fax (051) 544 394
Telex(051) 51314 FUDEC VC

Jugoslovenska Knjiga, Trg.
Republike 5/8 P.O. Box 36
11001 Belgrade
Terazije 16/1

Grassroots Books
100 Jason Moyo Avenue
P.O. Box A 267, Avondale
61a Fort Street

Other countries / Autres pays / Otros países
Distribution and Sales Section, FAO
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy
Tel (39-6) 52251
Fax 52253152
Telex 625852/625853/610181 FAO


Contents - Previous