Previous Page Table of Contents


Annex 1 - A short case study
Annex 2 - Multiple uses of coastal resources
Annex 3 - Short description and discussion of some strategies in marine pollution control
Annex 4 - Overview of aquaculture-specific monitoring parameters and characteristics for which data may be collected:
Annex 5 - Overview of socio-economic parameters which may need to be considered in coastal aquaculture development (based on Schmidt, 1982)
Annex 6 - Some examples of EIA sequences
Annex 7 - Some considerations in the formulation of programmes for ICAM (adapted from Clark, 1991)
Annex 8 - Some principal types of information needed for ICAM (adapted from Clark, 1991)
Annex 9 - Premises and considerations for a management strategy in ICAM (adapted from Clark, 1991)
Annex 10 - A proposed code of practice for the use of inhibitory compounds in aquaculture (from GESAMP. 1991c)
Annex 11 - A checklist on projects for coastal aquaculture development (modified from Burbridge et al., 1988)

Annex 1 - A short case study


What went wrong?

by C. Kwei Lin

C. Kwei Lin is with the Agricultural and Food Engineering Division, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand.

In 1987, Taiwan produced 80,000 mt of Penaeus monodon. A year later the industry collapsed to 20,000 mt because of the onslaught of virulent diseases. It now appears that these diseases were a direct result of ecosystem mismanagement resulting from poor farming practices, and that the disaster should be considered a model for aquatic farmers everywhere.

Taiwan was once known as the "Mecca of Black Tiger Prawn Aquaculture." Production of farmed shrimp (Penaeus monodon) increased from a few thousand tonnes in the early 1980s to 80,000 tonnes in 1987. Like many other developing aquaculture ventures, black tiger prawn farming in Taiwan grew rapidly and then collapsed. In 1988, production dropped to less than 20,000 tonnes, 25% of the 1987 level, due to a disease caused by Monodon baculovirus (MBV) that struck prawns on 40-80% of the farms throughout the island.

In retrospect, it appears that the unprecedented increase in production doomed the shrimp industry in Taiwan. The expanding industry mobilized virtually all available resources on the island and directed them toward shrimp culture: suitable coastal land, salt and freshwater supply, formulated feeds, spawners and seed production, and trained personnel. Expansion soon exceeded the carrying capacity of existing resources, and environmental deterioration commenced. This resulted from pollution from shrimp farms as well as from the heavy industry that is concentrated in the region. This report summarizes the underlying causes of mass mortality of shrimp on farms in Taiwan during 1988.


Larval Rearing Conditions.

Under normal conditions healthy larvae are produced by the first couple of spawns from naturally matured spawners, and larval development to postlarva takes approximately 24 days at a water temperature of 28°C. However, the rapid expansion of shrimp culture during the 1980s caused a dramatic increase in demand for shrimp seedstock, which prompted the seedstock producers to use multiple spawnings and increase the rearing temperature to as high as 35°C to enhance larval development and growth and reduce the rearing period by about 7 days. In addition, a variety of antibiotics and nutritional additives were applied to increase the larval survival rate from the usual 30% to as much as 70-90%. The larvae reared under such intensive conditions in an almost sterile environment had little resistance to latent pathogens and readily succumbed to diseases.

Pond Aging

The carrying capacity of shrimp ponds decreases with use because of the accumulation of organic matter in the mud on the bottom of the pond. The heavy use of ground water in most Taiwanese shrimp ponds may have increased the intrusion of organic matter into the deeper layers of the substrate, making it difficult to remove by ordinary leaching or scraping of the pond bottom. Water quality deteriorates rapidly when the substrate conditions are poor.


The normal stocking density for tiger prawns in intensive pond culture is 20-30 shrimp/m2, but in the last two years it has been increased to 60, 80, even 100 shrimp/m2. Such high density stresses the shrimp, enhances pond aging due to low feed conversion efficiency, and increases the probability of disease.

The use of drugs in shrimp aquaculture was widespread

Feed Quality

Shrimp feed production increased from 800 tonnes by 3 producers in 1978 to 100,000 tonnes by 56 producers in 1986. Although the general quality of formulated shrimp feed improved, it was inconsistent, and the use of antibiotics by the shrimp farmers was considered problematical. In addition, many of the feed products and additives on the market were unregistered.


The use of chemicals in shrimp aquaculture was widespread because no legal registration was required for their use. Furthermore, most drug distributors were trained as livestock veterinarians, unable to provide advice on the use of drugs on aquatic animals. Vendors who sold drugs to farmers were even less aware of the chemical implications, and this abuse of drugs damaged shrimp health and water quality, and increased the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics.

Pathogens were transmitted rapidly along the coast from one farm to another.

Water Pollution

In recent years the coastal water in Taiwan has become seriously polluted by industrial wastes, particularly organic chemicals and heavy metals, which are highly toxic to shrimp. In addition, waste water rich in organic and phytoplankton nutrients has been discharged at will into the public waters which also served as the source of seawater for the ponds. Although farmers were prudent in site selection and secured their own sources of water, little attention was paid to the public waterways that received the discharge from the farms. This waste water, which included diseased shrimp, fish and refuse, was distributed along the coast in the vicinity of the water intakes for the shrimp farms, and pathogens were therefore transmitted rapidly from one farm to another.


No licenses or special qualifications are required for shrimp farming, so many growers who were attracted by the profit potential lacked the necessary knowledge for shrimp culture. Inappropriate husbandry practices combined with unsound advice resulted in an unbalanced pond environment and poor shrimp growth, and growers caught in that situation were often willing to try anything that might remedy their problems.


Viral, bacterial and protozoal infections are causing mortality among Taiwanese farmed shrimp. Monodon baculovirus (MBV) is a viral disease that is most common (80%) in juvenile shrimp and was responsible for the recent mass shrimp mortality in pond culture.

In addition, bacterial infections of the hepatopancreas are caused by species of the Vibrio bacterium, including Vibrio vulnificus, V. flavialis, and V. alginolyticus. There are also external bacterial and protozoa infections, and a combination of external protozoa and bacteria in the hepatopancreas.


As a result of their investigations into the causes of shrimp mortality, Taiwanese scientists have made the following recommendations to the shrimp farmers and to the government:

To shrimp Farmers:

· Be thorough in the preparation of ponds, including the drying and removal of aged bottom soils;

· Select healthy seedstock and avoid those that are raised at a temperature higher than 32°C;

· Introduce rigid control over the use of drugs in the hatcheries;

· Stock post larvae into the ponds during the early morning or evening and keep the stocking density below 30/m2;

· Maintain good water quality and a healthful pond bottom by using a carefully monitored feeding regime;

· Use a feeding net to observe shrimp feeding behavior and health. If the shrimp show signs of abnormality or disease, consult with experts before applying drugs;

· Eliminate MBV infections by improving water and bottom quality and increasing protein content in the diet;

· If MBV infection occurs, prevent its spread by collecting and burning infected shrimp and sterilizing pond water before it is discharged;

· Assist in documenting disease information by reporting and discussing disease occurrences with local fisheries officers;

· Diversify pond culture by including finfish, clams and other species of shellfish.

To Government and the Public:

· Legislate stricter regulations governing aquaculture in order to prevent irresponsible practices;

· Require registration and an operational license for all commercial farms, including on-farm certification by the government;

· Upgrade the qualifications and capability of personnel in public research institutions and local extension systems involved in fish disease work;

· Legislate a pharmaceutical policy pertaining to aquacultural applications, including legal punishment for violators;

· Modernize aquacultural infrastructures to facilitate management and supervision of shrimp farms;

· Try to minimize the damage to aquaculture morale that is caused by inaccurate or irresponsible reporting by the public media;

· Improve the quality of extension services;

· Provide assistance and supervision to the commercial feed producers to ensure that they maintain feed quality and market responsibility.


The mass mortality among black tiger prawns caused by virulent diseases in Taiwan was unprecedented in intensive shrimp aquaculture. Analysis of the fundamental causes of the diseases revealed that most of the factors were man-made and could be averted. It is essential that hi-tech aquaculture systems be regarded as an integral part of the natural environment and that their quality be ensured. The disastrous experiences of the Taiwanese shrimp farmers was a valuable lesson for shrimp farmers, related industries and government officials in Taiwan and elsewhere in the world.

Annex 2 - Multiple uses of coastal resources

Multiple uses of coastal resources: potential environmental changes and impacts of social concern (modified from Sorensen and McCreary, 1990).

Note: this table is only an indicative list of sketchily described impact chains, and is not intended to explain cause and effect relationships.




A. Estuary, harbor and inshore water duality impacts

domestic and industrial sewage and waste disposal

estuary pollution, particularly adjacent to urban areas

decreased fish yields, contamination of fish, shellfish and water contact areas

tourism sewage disposal

estuary pollution

decreased fish yields

domestic and/or tourism sewage disposal

estuary and beach pollution

decreased tourism and recreation attraction

flood control and/or agricultural development, impoundments or diversions of coastal rivers

increased estuary salinity, decreased estuary circulation

decreased field yields

coastal oil development, chronic release of oil and/or large oil spills from accidents

oil pollution of estuarine and inshore waters

decreased fish yields, tainted fish and shellfish, decreased recreation or tourism quality

port development and shipping and/or offshore shipping of oil, chronic release of oil and/or large oil spills from accidents

oil pollution of estuarine and inshore waters

decreased fish yields, decreased recreation or tourism quality

agricultural pesticides

toxic pollution of estuaries and inshore waters

decreased fish yields, fish kills

agricultural development and fertilizer

increased amount of nutrients entering estuaries, eutrophication, pollution

decreased fish yields, fish kills

crop, grazing, mining or forestry practices in coastal watersheds

watershed erosion, estuary sedimentation and increased turbidity, watershed erosion, floodplain deposition

decreased fish yieds, increased flood hazard

crop, grazing or forestry practices in coastal watersheds

watershed erosion, increased sedimentation, changed deposition of sedimens in bays, deltas and inshore waters

beaches covered with unattractive sediment, decreased recreation and tourism attraction

crop, grazing or forestry practices in coastal watersheds and inshore areas

watershed erosion, increased sedimentation of bays, deltas, and port areas

sedimentation of navigation channels and berths

coastal mining

increased sedimentation and turbidity, change in composition of bottom sediments

decreased fish yields

B. Groundwater quality and quantity

agricultural development, tourism and residential development

withdrawal of groundwater at rate greater than natural recharge, salt water intrusion of aquifer

contamination of groundwater for domestic and/or agricultural use

C. Filling of wetlands (including mangroves)

port development

filling of wetlands

decreased fish yields

port development

filling of wetlands

decreased fishing or mariculture areas

mining and soil disposal, tourism development, residential development

filling of wetlands

decreased fish yields

D. Mangrove impacts

agricultural, maricultural or salt evaporation development

draining or diking of mangroves

decreased fish yields, reduction or loss of rare or endangered species

mangrove harvesting for wood chips, fuelwood and building materials

harvesting at rate greater than sustainable yields, decreased productivity

decreased fish yields, decreased timber yield of successive harvests

mangrove harvesting for wood chips, fuelwood and building materials

harvesting at rate greater than sustainable yield, loss of habitat

reduction or loss of rare or endangered species

mining (usually tin)

local removal of mangrove forest

decreased fish yields

E. Coral reef and atoll impacts

municipal and/or industrial sewage disposal

coral reef pollution

decreased fish yields, decreased tourism and recreation attraction

coral mining

coral reef destruction

decreased fish yields, decreased tourism and recreation attraction, increased shoreline erosion

coastal or offshore mining

sediment and turbidity, pollution of coral reefs

decreased fish yields, decreased tourism and recreation attraction

oil shipping along offshore international routes

oil pollution of offshore waters

decreased growth of coral reef, increased beach erosion, decreased tourism attraction

dredging for construction materials

sediment and turbidity, pollution of coral reefs

decreased fish yields, decreased tourism and recreation attraction

crop, grazing or forestry practices in coastal watersheds

watershed erosion, sediment and turbidity pollution of coral reefs

decreased fish yields, decreased tourism and recreation attraction

fishing with dynamite

coral reef destruction

decreased fish yields, decreased tourism and recreation attraction

intensive, localized fishing effort

harvesting at rate greater than sustainable yield

decreased coral reef associated fish yields

F. Beach, dune and delta impacts

recreation and/or tourism development

trampling of beach and dune vegetation

initiation or increase of shoreline erosion, increased hazard, decreased tourism and recreation attraction

grazing of livestock

trampling and/or overgrazing of beach and dune stabilizing vegetation

initiation or increase of dune migration onto agricultural areas or infrastructure

mining beach sand

removal at rate greater than natural accretion

initiation or increase of beach shoreline erosion, increased hazard, loss of native vegetation, wildlife habitat and natural amenities, decreased tourism atraction

flood control and/or agricultural development and impoundment or diversions of coastal rivers

decreased suply of beach material to shoreline

initiation or increase of shoreline erosion, increased hazard

G. Fishing effort

intensive and extensive fishing effort

harvesting at rate greater than sustainable yield

decreased fish yields

competition between onshore and offshore fishermen for same stocks

harvesting at rate greater than sustainable yield

decreased fish yields, social conflicts between groups

H. Access to the shorelines and subtidal areas

residential development on the shoreline, tourism development of shoreline

blocked or impaired public access to the shore

resentment among local inhabitants, increased recreation pressure on accessible areas, site deterioration, decreased recreational quality

I. Visual quality

residential development, tourism development

decreased visual quality of rural or natural landscape

decreased recreation and tourism quality

J. Employment and cultural values

tourism development

increased salaries in tourism sector relative to other sectors, erosion of local customs and cultural values

loss of agricultural workers, decreased agricultural productivity, resentment and social problems among nationals

Annex 3 - Short description and discussion of some strategies in marine pollution control

Water quality standards

In general, regulatory standards on the water quality of effluents and the recipient water bodies have been adopted to meet scientifically derived water quality criteria. Both standards and criteria are determined according to the choice of water quality objectives formulated. The main advantage of the water quality objectives approach is that standards can be set according to the particular uses of water resources. Water quality standards are mainly based on short-term bioassays of acute or lethal effects on test organisms that reside in the water column. The implied assumption is that the major compartment of the aquatic system in which a given substance will accumulate is the water column.

However, when designing or applying pollution control based on water quality standards, it is important to consider that water quality standards:

- are often not up-to-date, since many standards were first established decades ago;

- do not take into account the biogeochemical behaviour of many substances, which primarily accumulate in aquatic sediments;

- do not necessarily apply to species which are most sensitive to a given substance;

- do not reflect risk/effect of a substance accumulated throughout a food chain;

- are often applied ubiquitously to drastically different ecosystems, neglecting a) biogeochemical and ecological differences, b) impact of multiple sources (i.e. overall load), and c) impact of substance in the areas of medium and long-term residence;

- imply analysis of potentially harmful substances in the water column which may be difficult to perform precisely and accurately. Improvements in analytical capacities required can be very costly.

Uniform emission standards (UES)

The UES approach sets limits on the effluent concentrations of particular substances concerned. Same limits are applied to all discharges of the substance in question or all processes of a particular type. The limits are usually set in terms of the concentrations allowed in the effluent and, in the case of a particular process, in terms of the amount of product produced. In applying this approach in marine pollution control, black and grey lists of harmful substances are set up and/or requirements for effluent treatment technology are specified.

Black and grey lists

Black and grey lists divide substances into two groups according to the degree of their risk/effect characteristics in terms of - either high or low - persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation potential. Black-listed substances would not be allowed to enter the aquatic environment whereas the less dangerous grey-listed substances may be discharged, subject to certain precautions, which in most cases include effluent treatment requirements. Regarding this approach it is to be considered that:

- there is no clear dividing line between groups;

- local conditions and biogeochemical behaviour are not taken into account (degree of persistence depends on prevailing environmental conditions; significance of both toxicity and bioaccumulation differs according to the target species);

- it ignores particular circumstances that influence the risk the substances actually pose in a real situation.

Best available technology (BAT)

This is a strategy for restricting dissemination of substances and reducing environmental impacts through source reduction using the most refined and effective technology currently available. In many cases, this approach is applied to effluent treatment requirements which would include maximum removal of a given substance, regardless of costs. If economic factors are taken into consideration the level of treatment called for may be less; - an option which is often described as using the "best practicable means available" (BPMA). However, it should be recognized that this approach:

- is not designed for environmental protection on a site-specific basis;
- takes no account either of other sources or the level of environmental protection actually required;
- does not assess whether protection is actually achieved;
- may prove to be totally inadequate or overly protective.

Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle states that precautionary action (e.g., discharge control) should be taken, even without scientific evidence of cause and effect relationships, if the substance is suspected of having detrimental effects on the marine environment. The precautionary principle is frequently being interpreted as a requirement to proceed towards zero discharge for all materials excepting uncontaminated natural substances.

In scientific terms, acceptance of this principle poses fundamental problems. A major criticism of this principle is the acceptance of suspicion of effects rather than scientific evidence as sufficient to introduce discharge controls. As it stands, this principle can be invoked by simply arguing that at some future date a given chemical is likely to have an effect and discharge to the sea should be banned. Since the introduction of most substances to the marine environment will cause at least local disturbances and because effect is not defined, this argument can and is being invoked in relation to most sources of direct inputs to the marine environment. A second problem is that it lacks qualitative and quantitative definitions of the terms persistent, toxic and bioaccumulatable.

Precautionary attitudes should however be adopted in cases where only little is known about a given chemical or its biogeochemical behaviour and ecological risks as well as where concentrations are approaching established environmental quality standards and/or critical loads.

Some remarks

As for the aquaculture - environment context, evidence will grow that aquaculture development planners will have to also be able to advocate, if not select, certain environmental policy approaches in order to meet specific requirements/needs of the very diverse aquaculture practices and the people involved herein. This is not an easy task considering the variety of existing concepts and methodologies for environmental protection all of which have advantages and limitations in their application.

Economic considerations will certainly determine the adoption of an environmental protection strategy. Traditionally-used strategies have the advantage of being relatively easy to organize, administer and monitor, and, often, they do not require detailed investigation of environmental variables, which inevitably vary form site to site. However, it must be recognized, that rigid application of traditional approaches may - in the long-term - not prove to be economic, because they do not take account of the extent to which the environment can assimilate wastes.

Last, an example is given for an adaptive and flexible approach, which would combine advantages of some strategies. As for pollution control of African waters, for which ecotoxicological data are scarce, Biney et al. (1987) list following strategy options for the management of polluting discharges.

1) Limitation of the effluent by means of rigid effluent standards, both with chemical concentration limits and/or with a toxicological limit derived by simple acute toxicity tests on effluents. However, the specific characteristics of the receiving waterbody are not considered.

2) Limitation of the effluent by flexible standards. Here, the limits are calculated in order to maintain water quality criteria in a specific waterbody. Also, in this case, the limit can be defined as a threshold of the chemical and/or its toxic effects.

3) For some chemical substances it is scientifically unsound, and insufficient for environmental protection to set up objectives, criteria and regulations for water alone. The classical case is mercury (Moore and Ramamoorthy, 1984). In such cases, it is necessary to indicate objectives or criteria for another environmental compartment (e.g. sediments and/or fish).

4) In some cases, where a species is shown to be particularly sensitive to certain substances (e.g. crustaceans to pesticides), an "indicator-species" -oriented management strategy has to be preferred to the water quality criteria approach (Hellawell, 1986).

5) The classification of chemical substances in use in a country into "black", "grey" and "white" lists can be of help (Hellawell, 1986), especially in the framework of a Hazard Assessment approach to water quality control, i.e. the comparison of predicted environmental exposure with available toxicity data. This does not necessarily mean that black-listed chemicals are to be totally banned, but that they should be used only under certain conditions and strict controls.

Annex 4 - Overview of aquaculture-specific monitoring parameters and characteristics for which data may be collected:

- hydrographic and topographic conditions of coastal water bodies in terms of current directions and speeds, tide dynamics, wave actions, winds, retention times of water masses in embayments, stratification patterns, estuarine mixing of marine and fresh water masses, fluctuations in river flows, depth and slope of ground water table; sills, depths, slopes, seabed types, sedimentation and erosion patterns, etc.;

- ecological characteristics of "undisturbed" benthic and pelagic communities as well as of littoral/riparian fauna and flora;

- patterns, extent and consequences of aquatic contamination and physical degradation by coastal activities other than aquaculture;

- location, lifetime and layout of the aquafarm, including size, design/construction of holding units, water supply channels, tubing, pre- and post- water treatment facilities, quality of water supply, water exchange requirements (salt water/fresh water), properties of pond soils, etc.;

- cultured organisms, including type and number of species/strains, size/age, stocking density, growth, (if possible biomass), yield per production cycle; time of stocking and harvesting; disease problems (type, onset, duration), losses (predation, escapements, fall-off, mortalities), etc.;

- inputs, including feeds, fertilizers, chemicals, in terms of type, quantity, composition (if possible, content of water, inorganic and organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) consistency, food particle size; methods, schedule and frequency of feeding, fertilizing and chemical usage;

- spatial and temporal changes in the water column within and/or around the farm, in terms of water circulation/current speeds, salinity, turbidity, colour, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic nutrients, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended and settleable paniculate matter, BOD, seston, (chlorophyll, pheopigments), etc.

- spatial and temporal changes in and on the seabed (and pond bottoms) in terms of sediment colour, thickness, consistency, pH, redox potential, organic matter content, BOD, COD, total carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, methane, drug residuals, etc.

- spatial and temporal changes in benthic and pelagic organisms (partly including cultured organisms) in terms of responses at biochemical and cellular level, responses at the level of individual organisms (morphological anomalies, reduced reproduction, growth and survival, accumulation of chemicals in tissues), responses at population and community level (abundance of indicator species, species richness, abundance, biomass, diversity), energy flow in food webs, etc.

Annex 5 - Overview of socio-economic parameters which may need to be considered in coastal aquaculture development (based on Schmidt, 1982)

A) The need to determine social feasibility of coastal aquaculture.

According to Smith and Pestano-Smith (1985) there is a need to determine social feasibility of coastal aquaculture because of several factors (slightly modified):

- the considerable pace of technological development in some coastal aquaculture systems,

- the expansion of potential export markets for the products of coastal aquaculture and the economic pressure that this potential creates for increased production,

- the need to add to the supply of aquatic protein available domestically,

- the sometimes fragile nature of the coastal areas and the potential effects of increased competition for coastal resources, and

- the lack of institutional preparedness to deal with such extreme competition.

B) Three basic questions.

Following three basic questions may be relevant when considering the socio-economic circumstances in areas of existing and future coastal aquaculture development:

- Which are the technical and economic parameters which determine the feasibility of coastal aquaculture?

- Which are the actual needs of the people and/or requirements for a structural improvement of their communities?

- Which is the potential impact of the innovation of coastal aquaculture with respect to those needs and requirements?

C) Parameters.

i) Demographic and economic parameters

1) Demography

- population, population densities, growth rates;
- distribution of age groups, male-female ratio;
- economically active number of people, male-female ratio;
- average of households, typical composition;
- migration trends;
- ratio of urban/rural population;
- ethnic composition.

2) Infrastructure

- transport and communications within the area, transport and communication links with other areas, and transport and communication centres;

- availability of electricity and water;

- existing market channels;

- services such as schools, dispensaries, hospitals, etc.

3) Sector analysis of the local economy

The analysis will investigate the different sectors of an economy, usually dividing it into: (a) a primary sector as agriculture, fisheries, forestry, mining, etc., (b) a secondary sector as industry and manufacture, and (c) a tertiary sector as services, trade, tourism, etc. For each sector, the analysis will briefly examine the following:

- production structure and magnitude;
- demand, supply price structure;
- input-output dynamics;
- ownership of means of production;
- employment structure and relative wages;
- investment trends and potentials;
- marketing;
- constraints to expansion and growth.

4) Income distribution

- income per household and per caput in cash and kind;
- seasonality of incomes;
- ratio of income earners/dependent household members;
- percentages of income generated by subsistence production, market production, wage labour;
- relation of incomes to the national average and the GDP per caput.

5) Household expenditures and consumption patterns

- percentage and items acquired by purchase, barter, or self-production;
- expenditure by items;
- seasonal variations of expenditures.

ii) Social dynamics and variables

- legal and normative structures;
- traditional and modern institutions, their role and function;
- structure of leadership: traditional and religious, political and economic, their interdependence;
- social sub-organizations, their status, interactions and transparency;
- decision-making on the community level;
- social control mechanisms, norms and values.

iii) Socio-cultural variables

- cultural and religious identity of the individual and nucleus-groups;
- self-assessment, expectations;
- mobility (occupational, geographical, vertical) and participation;
- value patterns and attitudinal preconceptions;
- role and status of individuals and nucleus groups;
- socialization and its determinants;
- decision-making at the family level.

Annex 6 - Some examples of EIA sequences

1. ODA (1 988):

- initial screening (IS)

- registers danger signals
- avoids unnecessary investigations where impacts likely to be minimal

- environmental appraisal (EA)

- predicts main impacts
- assesses importance of effects
- indicates key mitigating actions required
- presents implications to decision-makers

- environmental impact assessment (EIA)

- predicts in detail likely impacts, including cost implications
- identifies specific measures necessary to avoid, mitigate or compensate for damage
- presents predictions and options to decision-makers

- monitoring & evaluation (feedback mechanism)

- indicates additional mitigating actions required
- improves IS, EA and EIA
- increases knowledge base of environmental effects

2. UNEP (1988):

- screening
- preliminary assessment
- organisation of EIA study
- scoping
- EIA study


- using the results: decision-maker: plan for reducing conflicts; allocating institutional responsibilities; post-auditing

3. Ahmad and Sammy (1985):

- preliminary activities
- impact identification (scoping)
- baseline study
- impact evaluation (quantification)
- mitigation measures
- assessment (comparison of alternatives)
- documentation
- decision-making
- post auditing

4. Bisset (1983):

- impact identification
- impact prediction and measurement
- impact interpretation or evaluation
- identification of monitoring requirements and mitigating measures
- communication of impact information to users (decision-makers; public)

5. Lohani and Halim (1983):

- identification

- description of the existing environmental system
- determination of the components of the project

- prediction

- identification of the environmental modification that may be significant
- forecasting of the quantity and/or spatial dimension of change in the environment identified

- evaluation

- determination of the incidence of cost and benefit to user groups and population affected by the project

- specification and comparison of the trade-offs (costs or effects being balanced) between various alternatives

Annex 7 - Some considerations in the formulation of programmes for ICAM (adapted from Clark, 1991)

1. Recognize and treat the coastal area as a dynamic system, and the demands on the coastal area as dynamic.

2. The planning horizon must be longer than the five years typically used, perhaps several decades or more, for example, for issues of shoreline erosion and sea level rise. Economic and technological developments should be projected, under alternative scenarios, for 10-20 years.

3. The principal functions of ecosystems should be sustained.

4. Use an environmental and resource assessment as the basis for comprehensive land use planning, describe functions that must be served. Do environmental and resource assessment up front. Make a series of forecasts.

5. Fit coastal land and water uses in where they make sense. Weigh existing development and its attendant demands for liquid and solid wastes disposal and hence pollution impacts; identify and develop means for managing point and non-point sources of pollution.

6. Tailor guidelines to the existing level of development.

7. Establish a working definition of "environmental quality" beyond pollution abatement.

8. Emphasize occurrence of natural processes. Recognize that current status of any given natural system is not fixed; it may represent a dynamic equilibrium or a transitional system.

9. Encourage enhancement and restoration of ecosystems; take advantage of natural processes; encourage proper siting.

10. Examples of functions (outputs) for ICAM include, but are not limited to:

- Production function (fish, seagrass, drinking water, sand and shells, nutrients, water for cooling systems)

- Support functions (physical space: areas for settlement, beaches, recreation, shipping routes, harbors)

- Regulation functions (organic matter, storm water, erosion buffering)

- Information functions (scientific studies, bird watching, genetic functions)

- Ethical and aesthetic (existence value)

11. As a rule, short-term economic considerations fuel political priorities.

12. Analytical techniques of economic valuation are being improved. Although not providing the final answers, these techniques do provide information useful for resource management decisions.

13. No ICAM programme yet exists as a working model. The information needs and concepts required for defining the objectives of ICAM are still being developed. The subject matter is extremely diverse and the framework for training and education is being developed.

Annex 8 - Some principal types of information needed for ICAM (adapted from Clark, 1991)

1. Physical environment:

terrain data (including history), erosional processes, storm surge, winds, tides, air-sea interaction, sediment transport, geological setting, subsidence, sediment supply, meteorology, climate.

2. Biological environment:

primary and secondary production, distribution and extent of living coastal resources, major habitats and ecosystems, ecological relationships that determine productivity, presence of rare, threatened or endangered species; indicator species.

3. Sociological information:

resource dependency, historic use patterns including methods, factors determining historic use patterns, current use patterns, identify whether current use patterns are sustainable, demography, socio-cultural information, land and sea tenure.

4. Economics:

resource and resource use patterns should be given economic values. Qualitative values - resource and resource use patterns that cannot be economically valued should be considered. Some specific economic pursuits that should be included in data collection are: fisheries, aquaculture, forestry, agriculture, settlements, tourism, extractive and manufacturing industries, energy, waste disposal and treatment, transportation, ports, traditional practices.

5. Issues:

it is necessary to identify the groups with a stake in the use and management of coastal resources and potential conflicts among them.

6. Institutional mechanisms:

(national, state, and local) ministries, departments with division of responsibility, organization and hierarchy; interagency councils, advisory panels, standing agreements with private parties; legislation on zoning, pollution, resources, utilization; permitting and other administrative processes to carry out legislation.

Annex 9 - Premises and considerations for a management strategy in ICAM (adapted from Clark, 1991)

- Not all countries need ICAM in the formal sense.

- While conservation of renewable resources may be a main purpose of ICAM, economic development is the theme.

- Specially protected areas may be an integral part of an ICAM programme.

- There is not a generic working model of ICAM presently known.

- Access to information must be assured.

- A linkage to key policy-makers must be established.

- There should be linkages between complementary government offices and agencies.

- Attempts to bring together diverse interest groups must be made.

- Tools must be devised to translate technical information into workable management information.

- Information should be disseminated to policy-makers, various parties at interest, and the public.

- A constituency for ICAM must be built to sustain the management activity.

Annex 10 - A proposed code of practice for the use of inhibitory compounds in aquaculture (from GESAMP. 1991c)

1. Medically important inhibitory coumpounds should be banned from use in aquaculture. However, some medically important compounds may need to be used in exceptional circumstances for certain specified diseases.

2. The availability of inhibitory compounds should be restricted to qualified individuals, such as veterinarians.

3. Access to inhibitory compounds should be denied to all laymen and inexperienced personnel.

4. The storage of inhibitory compounds should be in the manner recommended by manufacturers/suppliers.

5. The use of inhibitory compounds should be strictly in accordance with the written instructions from the manufacturer/supplier.

6. The use of pharmaceutical compounds should be by rotation. Thus, the repeated use of single compounds should be avoided.

7. The use of suitable withdrawal periods, after the use of pharmaceutical compounds, is necessary before animals are removed from the aquacultural facility.

8. The deliberate or accidental release of inhibitory compounds into the aquatic environment must be avoided.

9. Unused inhibitory compounds must be disposed off safely.

10. A surveillance programme must be adopted to ensure that the code of practice is carried out.

Annex 11 - A checklist on projects for coastal aquaculture development (modified from Burbridge et al., 1988)


Important issues

Quality of information:











What is the principle method of culture proposed (ponds, floating cage or raft, bottom culture, pens)? Specify reasons for method(s) selected.


Will this be based upon extensive or intensive production? Assess availability/affordability of resources required.


If the proposal is for extensive production, has the improvement of the efficiency of existing aquaculture been explored as an alternative means of supporting increased coastal population and increased fishery production?


Will the land or water areas required involve the clearance of mangrove, tidal swamp forest, agricultural land or other uses? Describe alternatives for project location.


Has the impact on these areas and/or uses been examined? Specify publics or communities interested or affected by the project.


Is the proposed location for the project capable of sustaining aquaculture on a long term basis? Specify limitations/constraints.


Will the development affect resources which form the basis of other fishery activities (for example-quality of water entering adjacent mangrove areas, sea grass beds, coral reefs)? Specify extent and severity of potential effects.


Will the development affect resources which form the basis of other activities inland (for example will the creation of brackish water ponds increase soil salinity in adjacent agricultural areas)? Specify extent and severity of potential effects.


Will the project be located in an area subject to natural hazards including riverine flooding tsunami (tidal waves), hurricanes, typhoons or storm surges?


Is the location subject to potential man made hazards including industrial, thermal or agricultural pollution? Specify risks involved.


Are there human health hazards associated with the proposed location?


Will the project increase the occurrence of water-borne diseases?

The figures and tables as well as annex 1, as listed below, were included in this document with kind permission, as required, by following publishers and institutions:

Figures 5 and 6. From Gowen and Bradbury, 1987. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., 25:563-575. (Figure 1 on page 566; Figure 2 on page 569).
© Aberdeen University Press Ltd.

Figure 7. From Chua et al., 1989. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 20(7):335-343. (Figure 3 on page 339).
© Maxwell Pergamon Macmillan plc.

Figure 9. From Gowen et al., 1990. In Aquaculture Europe '89 - Business joins science, edited by N. De Pauw and R. Billard, Bredene, European Aquaculture Society. EAS Special Publication No. 12, pp.257-283. (Figure 2 on page 260).
© European Aquaculture Society.

Figure 11. From Wallin and Hakanson, 1991. In Marine Aquaculture and Environment, edited by T. Makinen. Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers. Nord 1991(22): pp.39-55. (Figure 3 on page 45).
© Nordic Council of Ministers.

Figure 12. From Gowen et al., 1989. In Aquaculture - A biotechnology in progress. Proceedings of the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '87, held 2-5 June 1987 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, edited by N. De Pauw, E. Jaspers, H. Ackefors and N. Wilkins. Bredene, European Aquaculture Society. Vol.2, pp.1071-1080. (Figure 2 on page 1074).
© European Aquaculture Society.

Figure 13. From Weston, 1991. In Aquaculture and water quality, edited by D.E. Brune and J.R. Tomasso. Baton Rouge, World Aquaculture Society. Advances in World Aquaculture, (3), pp.534-567. (Figure 1 on page 539).
© World Aquaculture Society.

Figure 14. From Bailly, 1989. In Aquaculture: A review of recent experience. Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), pp.314-327. (Figure 2 on page 318).
© Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Figures 15 and 16. From Driver and Bisset, 1989. In Report of workshops on environmental impact assessment, held in Pakistan, 16 September - 2 October 1989. Environment and Urban Affairs Division of the Government of Pakistan and IUCN-The World Conservation Union. Karachi, JRC-IUCN Pakistan, pp.5-11. (Figure 1 on page 7; Annex IV: Visual Aids; Figure on page 45).
© JRC - IUCN Pakistan.

Table 9. From Beveridge et al., 1991. In Aquaculture and water quality, edited by D.E. Brune and J.R. Tomasso. Baton Rouge, World Aquaculture Society. Advances in World Aquaculture, (3), pp.506-533. (Table 6 on page 518).
© World Aquaculture Society.

Tables 12 and 13. From Huguenin and Colt, 1989. Design and operating guide for aquaculture seawater systems. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, (20), 264p. (Table 2.3 on page 14; Table 3.1 on page 32).
© Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.

Table 14. From Carpenter and Maragos, 1989. How to assess environmental impacts on tropical islands and coastal areas. A training manual prepared for the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Honolulu, East-West Center, 345p. (Table 1.2. on page 12).
© Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center.

Annex 1. From Lin, 1989. World Aquacult., 20(2): 19-20. (Article on pages 19-20).
© World Aquaculture Society.

ISBN 92-5-103264-5
ISSN 0429-9345

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