Cover - PLANT TISSUE CULTURE: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRODUCTION OF USEFUL METABOLITE PLANT TISSUE CULTURE: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRODUCTION OF USEFUL METABOLITE


Table of Contents

by
Dr. Masanaru Misawa
Bio Inernational Inc.
Toronto, Canada

FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 108

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 1994

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion what so ever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-06
ISBN 92-5-103391-9

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Contents

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1.  INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

CHAPTER 3. COST ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1. Materials
       4.1.1. Plants
       4.1.2. Media
                 4.1.2.1. Inorganic Salts
                 4.1.2.2. Carbon Sources
                 4.1.2.3. Vitamins
                 4.1.2.4. Phytohormones
                 4.1.2.5. Organic Supplements
4.2. Methods
       4.2.1. Preparation of Media
       4.2.2. Callus Induction
       4.2.3. Suspension Culture
       4.2.4. Scaling-up

CHAPTER 5. EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES

5.1. Laboratory
5.2. Fermentors or Bioreactors

CHAPTER 6. APPROACHES TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY

6.1. Optimization of Culture Conditions
       6.1.1. Medium
       6.1.2. Temperature, pH, Light and Oxygen
       6.1.3. High Cell Density Culture
       6.1.4. Absorption of Products
6.2 Selection of High-Producing Strains
6.3 Addition of Precursors and Biotransformation
       6.3.1 Addition of Precursors
       6.3.2 Biotransformation
6.4 Elicitor Treatment
6.5 Application of Immobilized Cells
6.6 Product Secretion

6.7 Mutagenesis
6.8 Morphological Differentiation
       6.8.1 Organ Culture
       6.8.2 Hairy Root Culture

CHAPTER 7. PRODUCTS OF INTEREST TO INDUSTRY

7.1 Pharmaceuticals and Biologically Active Compounds
        7.1.1 Alkaloids
                  7.1.1.1. Morphinan alkaloids
                  7.1.1.2. Berbeirine
                  7.1.1.3. Tropane Alkaloids
        7.1.2 Cardinolides
        7.1.3 L-DOPA
        7.1.4 Valeportriates
        7.1.5 Antitumor Compounds
                  7.1.5.1 Camptothecin
                  7.1.5.2 Homoharringtonine
                  7.1.5.3 Podophyllotoxin                        
                  7.1.5.4 Vinca Alkaloids
                  7.1.5.5 Taxol
         7.1.6 Ginseng
         7.1.7 Rosmarinic Acid
         7.1.8 Arbutin
7.2 Agricultural Drugs
        7.2.1 Plant Virus Inhibitors
7.3 Food Additives
       7.3.1 Pigments
                 7.3.1.1 Shikonin Compounds
                 7.3.1.2 Anthocyanins
                 7.3.1.3 Safflower Yellow
                 7.3.1.4 Saffron
                 7.3.1.5 Madder Colorants
       7.3.2 Miscellaneous
                 7.3.2.1 Chicle
                 7.3.2.2 Mucilage
                 7.3.2.3 Hernandulcin

CHAPTER 8. CONCLUSION

REFERENCES