The state of food and agriculture 1994

Table of contents

FAO Agriculture Series, No. 27
ISSN 0081-4539

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 1994

The statistical material in this publication has been prepared from the information available to FAO up to August 1994.

The designations employed and the presentation do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. in some tables, the designations "developed" and "developing" economies are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.

David Lubin Memorial Library
Cataloguing in Publication Data

FAO, Rome (Italy)
The state of food and agriculture 1994.
(FAO Agriculture Series, no. 27)
ISBN 92-5-103550-4

1. Agriculture.
2. Forestry development.
3. Food production.
4. Trade.

I. Title
II. Series

FAO code: 70
AGRIS: E16 E70 K01

(c) FAO 1994
Printed in Italy




Explanatory note

Part I World review

I. Current agricultural situation - facts and figures

1. Crop and livestock production in 1993
2. Per caput food production
3. Food shortages and emergencies
4. Current cereal supply, utilization and stocks
5. External assistance to agriculture
6. Food aid flows in 1993/94
7. International agricultural prices
8. Agricultural terms of trade
9. Fisheries: catch, disposition and trade
10. Forestry production and trade

II. Overall economic environment and agriculture

Economic overview

Economic outlook for developing countries' agriculture
Outlook for developing country economies highly dependent on agricultural exports

III. Select issues

AIDS - the price of an epidemic

The economic impacts of AIDS
A note on statistics
Regional overviews
Patterns of transmission and risk factors

A global greenhouse

Global warming linkages to agriculture, forestry and fisheries
Contribution to GHGs from agriculture, forestry and fisheries
The overall policy approach
Short-term responses and no-regrets policies
Policy linkages to agriculture, forestry and fisheries
Longer-term responses

Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations

Provisions of the Final Act
Effects on agricultural markets
Policy implications

North American Free Trade Agreement

Canada-Mexico-United States linkages
An enlarged NAFTA?

Current issues in fisheries

Food security and economic development in small island countries
Compliance with international conservation and management on the high seas

Part II Regional review

I. Developing country regions

Sub-Saharan Africa

Regional overview

Changes in the international economic environment
Political events and intraregional cooperation
The GATT agreement and Africa
Regional cooperation
Country policies

Devaluation of the CFA franc

Effects on agriculture


General characteristics and economic setting
Macroeconomic policies before 1983
Policies for the agricultural sector
Overall and agriculture-specific effects of pre-1983 policies
Economic decline: the critical role of agriculture
Post-1983 policies
From adjustment to growth: constraints, prospects and the role of agriculture

Asia and the Pacific

Regional overview

Public and private sector roles under policy reforms
Growing importance of intraregional trade, investment flows and growth triangles
Implications of the Uruguay Round Agreement for Asian agriculture
Growth, poverty alleviation and regional development


Economic overview
China's agricultural sector in transition
Rural reforms and agricultural development
Rural enterprise development and agriculture
Future directions in farm organization and agriculture

Latin America and the Caribbean

Regional overview

The agricultural sector
Trade arrangements in Latin America and the Caribbean


The economy
Stabilization and adjustment programmes since the 1980s
Role and performance of agriculture
Sectoral policies in the context of macroeconomic adjustment
Government intervention in marketing
Foreign exchange policies and agricultural markets
Financial markets, inflation and agriculture

Near east and north Africa

Regional overview

Economic and agricultural performance in 1993
Policy reforms and issues
Water issues


Agriculture's role in the economy
Government intervention
Changes in rural and urban consumer demand
Production outlook
Resource and environmental issues

II. Developed country regions

Central and eastern Europe

Regional overview
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

The agricultural sector
Economic reforms
Main policy issues and outlook


The agricultural sector
Economic reforms
Prospects for food and agriculture

OECD countries

Agricultural policy developments in Canada

Slow-growth high-deficit economy
Structural adjustment in the primary sector
Agriculture is highly dependent on world trade
High levels of government assistance for the sector
Policy process
Current policy issues
Impact of policies

The European Union

Part III Forest development and policy dilemmas

I. Forests in transition

The policy challenge
Purpose and scope
The state of forest resources
Temperate and boreal forests: resources and issues

The tropical forest zone

II. Forests and national development

Forests in early development strategies

Forests in national economies
Forests as a source of national development
Forests as a consequence of national development
The economic contributions of forests

III. Forests in national policy

Policy choices and forests

Domestic policies and forest management

IV. Forests, trade and the environment

World trade patterns in forest products
Trade policies and forest management

Export restrictions
Import restrictions
Tropical timber import bans

Forest trade and environmental policies

Trade liberalization and the environment
Environmental labelling, certification and sustainable management
Balancing trade and the environment


V. Forests and future directions

Community forestry

Capacity development

The international dimensions

Special chapters

FAO economic and social development papers

Policy reform and the agricultural sector
Environment and sustainable development studies
FAO forestry publications