4.1 Manpower training in aquaculture technologies
4.2 Manpower training in management
4.3 Aquaculture research in the region
4.4 Management of credit
4.5 Associations of professionals in the region
4.6 Information for professionals
Because of the developed nature of both sub-regions, there are many opportunities for undergraduate and post-graduate education. Aquaculture courses may be part of general programmes in fisheries, or related fields, such as marine biology and ecology. Some academic institutions now conduct individual programmes in aquaculture, particularly at the post-graduate level. Several of these same institutions hold short and long-term technical training courses at an advanced level.
In Belgium the Free University of Brussels includes courses in its undergraduate programme in marine ecology, and the State University of Ghent conducts training courses at the Artemia Reference Center.
In Czechoslovakia aquaculture is included in post-graduate studies at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
In Denmark programmes in aquaculture and training courses are conducted by the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research, and training courses are held at Horsens Technical College.
The University of Agricultural Sciences in Hungary has undergraduate programmes in aquaculture, and both the Fish Culture Research Institute and the Szazhalombatta Fisheries Training Center conduct training.
In Ireland the Galway Regional Technical College offers undergraduate programmes and vocational training; and Cork University and Galway University both offer post-graduate programmes and vocational training. The Irish Sea Fisheries Board conducts training.
Wageningen Agricultural University in the Netherlands offers post-graduate programmes in aquaculture, and conducts training.
In Norway the University of Bergen includes aspects of aquaculture in its post-graduate programme in fisheries.
In the UK and undergraduate degree in aquaculture is offered only at the University of Stirling, Scotland. Courses in aquaculture as parts of other degree programmes in fisheries, marine and biological sciences, water resources management, etc., are available at Hatfield Polytechnic, Leicester Polytechnic, Sheffield City Polytechnic, Sunderland Polytechnic, Trent Polytechnic, Wolverhampton Polytechnic, University of Buckingham, University of Hull, University of Liverpool, University College of North Wales, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, University of St. Andrews, and the University of Swansea. Many of these institutions offer vacational training and training courses, in addition to Barony Agricultural College, Hampshire College of Agriculture, Inverness Technical College, Reading University, Sparsholt College, and the Sea Fisheries Industry Authority. Post-graduate programmes are available at Aston University, North East London Polytechnic, Plymouth Polytechnic, the University of Stirling, and the University College of North Wales.
Undergraduate and post-graduate education in aquaculture is often influenced by the strengths of the particular national sectors, the geographic location of the universities toward sub-sectoral components, and the backgrounds and interests of faculty members. Agricultural universities frequently offer programmes on both animal husbandry, aquaculture, and water resources management, and veterinary institutes offer programmes in fish diseases as well as farm and domestic animals. Most universities give courses in aquaculture with a secondary focus, such as ecological aspects of aquaculture, engineering and technology, economics, environment, etc.
In addition to the institutes of education, many organizations offer training at a high level. These have been described in section 3.2.
Few of the institutions noted in section 4.1 offer training courses in non-biotechnical aspects of the industry, such as management, legislation, planning, and economics. In 1988 the Humberside International Fisheries Institute at the University of Hull (UK) included an aquaculture component in its annual course on Fisheries Planning and Management, and is offering a complete course for aquaculture in 1990. The programme has been developed in association with FAO/ADCP.
A number of private companies have begun to offer training courses for managers. The Aquacultural Insurance Service and its affiliate AWMACS (UK) offer a regular course in risk management for aquaculture.
A considerable amount of research and development has been carried out throughout the region in the many biotechnical fields of aquaculture, predominantly building on the long-established infrastructure for fisheries biology, general aquatic biology, and the marine sciences.
The number of principal institutes and universities undertaking research and development in aquaculture in the region, as described, is probably about 100. There are between 80-90 of these in the Northwestern sub-region, and 20-30 in the Eastern sub-region and USSR.
Research in the Northwestern countries is very diversified. The two countries with the largest research budgets for aquaculture are Norway and the UK. The former spends about N.Kr. 190 million (US$ 32 million) on research annually, and the latter £.Stg. 3.7 million (US$ 7 million). This does not include private research.
In Austria research on traditional freshwater fisheries is carried out at the Institut für Zoologie, Innsbruck.
In Belgium there are research interests in all aspects of brine shrimp, and topics of tropical fisheries biology and aquaculture carried out in support of bilateral projects, particularly in Africa. Among the research institutes are the State University of Ghent, the Catholic University of Luvain, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Unité d'Ecologie des Eaux Douces, Namur, the University of Liège, Institut Provincial d'Enseignement Technique, Waremme, and the Laboratoire de Morphologie Animale, Louvain-la-Neuve.
In Denmark most of the research is oriented toward the management and farming of important commercial species, particularly trout and marine fish. Leading institutions are the Vandkvalitets Institute, Hörsholm, the Danish Aquaculture Institute, Hörsholm, the Danish Institute for Fisheries and Marine Research, Charlottenlund and Hirtshals, Forsøgsdamburget Brøns, Skaerbaek, and Ferskvandsfiskerilaboratoriet, Silkeborg.
In Finland there are the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institutes at Valkola and Helsinki. Research in the country is mostly on the indigenous salmon species, and the freshwater crayfish.
In the FRG there are several research areas, particularly on the culture of carps, eels, and other freshwater species, and also on engineering of aquaculture systems. Leading institutions are the University of Heidelberg, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg, Universität Hamburg, Institut für Seenforschung und Fischereiwesen, Langenargen, the Institut für Küsten- und Birmenfischerei, Hamburg and the Institut für Meereskunde, Hamburg.
In Iceland there are the Institute of Freshwater Fisheries and the Marine Research Institute at Reykjavik which are concerned with research on salmon, halibut, abalone, and production systems, including geothermal use.
In Ireland the University College Cork, and the Shellfish Research Laboratory, University College Galway, conduct research on important commercial species such as the salmonids and molluscs, particularly oysters and mussels.
In the Netherlands research is carried out on mussels and species of indigenous marine fish, together with programmes on African catfish and other tropical species in support of the country's bilateral programmes in Africa and Asia. Leading institutions are the Netherlands Institute for Fishery Investigations, Ijmuiden, the Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Den Haag, Trouw International BV, Boxmeer, the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, the Organization for the Improvement of Inland Fisheries, Mieuwegein, Aquafish, Venhorst, and Wageningen Agricultural University.
In Norway research is directed toward support of the salmon industry, with some recent activities in cod, halibut, turbot, wolf fish (Anarchicas lupus) and lobster. This work is carried out by several public institutions and private companies, among which are the Flødevigen Biological Station, Arendel, the Veterinary College of Norway, Oslo, the Norwegian Institute of Water Research, Oslo, NTH-SINTEF, Trondheim, Marintek A/S, Trondheim, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, the Institute of Marine Research, Austevoll, Mowi A/S, Fyllingsdalen, Nordland Research Institute, Mörkued, Directorate for Nature Management, Trondheim, University of Oslo, Aquateam, Rodeløkka, Oslo, Noraqua A/S, Oslo, Institute of Aquaculture Research, Sunndalsøra, University of Tromsø, Finnmark Akvakultur-senter A/S, Hammerfast, Nordland College, Bodö, Norsk Biotech A/S, Sandnes, and Akvaforsk NLH, A/S.
In Sweden research is carried out in support of the salmon industry, including the offshore salmon fishery in the Baltic Sea. In addition there are interests in other native marine and freshwater species, including the crayfish. Among the leading institutions are the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea and Uppsala, the Universities of Stockholm, Uppsala and Göteborg; Tjärnö Marine Biology Laboratory, Strömstad, Kristineberg Marinbiological Station, Fiskebäckskil, Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, the Salmon Research Institute, Alokarleby, the Swedish Hydropower Board, Stockholm, the National Environment Protection Board, Stockholm, and the Fishery Board of Sweden, Göteborg. The International Foundation of Science, Stockholm, has a major programme of supporting aquaculture research in developing countries through individual fellowships.
In the UK there are many institutions active in aquaculture research, including the Plymouth Polytechnic, the University of Stirling, the University of Aston at Birmingham, University College of North Wales, Bangor, the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, University College of Swansea, University of Southampton, Aquaculture Engineering Research Group, Edinburgh, Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory, Pitlochry, Glasgow University, the Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, and the Institute of Marine Biochemistry, Aberdeen. Most of them work in support of the national industries for the salmonids, but there are also interests in indigenous marine fish, particularly flatfish, lobster and molluscs, together with engineering of production systems. Several of the institutions are involved in research in support of national bilateral programmes in Africa, Asia, and Latin America on tropical fish.
In the Eastern countries the investment in research is much less. This is justified to a large extent as the opportunities for useful research and development are less. Many of the countries are landlocked, or only have freshwater resources. Aquaculture activities are traditional and much fundamental research in support of the sector has already been carried out. The main emphasis is now reproduction of key species, genetics, pathology, and nutrition. The sub-region is also beginning to direct more research toward intensifying its existing production systems, probably influenced by its geographic affinity with Asia.
In Bulgaria research on the main warmwater species is carried out at the Fisheries Institute, Burgas.
In Czechoslovakia most of the work is on inland fisheries which have been traditional for many centuries. Among the leading institutions are the Agriculture Universities at Bratislava, Brno, Budejovice, Ceske, Kassa, Nitra, and Prague.
In the GDR the Institut für Meereskunde, Rostock-Warnemunde, University of Potzdam, University of Rostock, University of Köningswartha, and the University of Storkow carry out research in support of national programmes for the production of freshwater species, particularly carps.
In Hungary the principal research centre is the Fish Culture Research Institute, Szarvas, and its associated laboratories. The main research focus is on prime freshwater species, such as carps, and integrated farming systems with fish and poultry. Recently the centre began research on sturgeon, and the use of geothermal waters for culture. Research is also carried out on national recreational fisheries and commercial lake fisheries which are culture-based. The Institute also conducts research in support of bilateral projects in Latin America and Asia.
In Poland most of the research is directed toward traditional freshwater farming practices for carp species. This is carried out at the Inland Fisheries Institute, Zukowo, Institute of Aquaculture, Szczecin, University of Olstyn, University of Krakow, and the University of Szczecin.
There are many research institutions in the USSR active in support of salmon fisheries in the northern seas, and sturgeon fisheries of the Black and Caspian Seas. There is also interest in other freshwater fishes which have been cultured traditionally. Among the leading institutions are the All-Union Research Institute, Moscow, University of Astrahany, University of Vladivostock, and the University of Kaliningrad.
There are many similarities in national research and development activities throughout the region. This is because of common interest in a few prime marketable species, specifically Atlantic salmon and trout, followed by marine finfish species like turbot, halibut, sole, and cod. Important molluscs are clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops; and there are a few crustaceans, such as freshwater crayfish, lobster, and some penaeid prawns. Specific research may cover all biotechnical areas for some species, but for the most part there are priorities which currently include non-biotechnical areas such as economics, and the growing concern for environmental impacts of aquaculture.
These priorities may be summarized as follows, particularly for the Northwestern countries.
(i) For salmonids, of particular concern are on-growing facilities, smolt production units, improving methods for controlling disease and parasites (especially furunculosis, pancreatic disease, and sea lice), overcoming early sexual maturity at sea, the environmental impact of cage farming, husbandry and production techniques, improving the genetic potential of stocks, and market research.
(ii) For other migratory freshwater fish species, including eels, controlling growth variability, utilizing low-cost sources of warm water for on-growing, and improving rearing systems.
(iii) For marine finfish, particularly flatfish, developing techniques for rearing strains or species at lower temperatures, improving rearing systems and techniques, the design of hatchery and nursery facilities, and the use of low-cost sources of warm water for on-growing.
(iv) For marine shellfish, developing hatchery, nursery, and on-growing facilities, diversification of species under production, efficient methods of intensive cultivation (including protection against predation), and increasing production from culture to above that from natural harvests.
In the Northwestern countries, because of their advanced economic development, almost all credit is channelled through the principal national banks and local banks. Countries which are members of the EEC have additional access to subsidies, loans, and grants. The credit patterns have been described in sections 2.6 and 3.7.
The principal association for professionals in the region is the EAS. The EAS has members in most European countries, in addition Co members in other regions. It has national representatives in 17 countries, and the Secretariat is in Belgium. The EAS arranges biennial meetings (the Netherlands in 1987, and France in 1989). Through its network of national representatives and affiliated national societies, the EAS dissiminates information about aquaculture development in Europe and also world-wide. It issues a quarterly newsletter, with information about new literature, publications, meetings, courses, and technical data. The EAS issues special publications on biotechnical topics, and proceedings of the biennial conferences. In 1984 it published a European Trade Directory, and an International Aquaculture Trade Directory will be issued in 1989.
There are many national associations which promote aquaculture within their own countries, and which influence development in the region. In some countries there are several associations oriented around particular genera or species. For example, in Denmark there are the Danish Aquaculture Society, the Danish Eel Farmers' Association, and the Danish Marine Fish Farmers' Association; in the FGR there is the German Fisheries Association; in Ireland there is the Irish Aquaculture Association; in the Netherlands there are the Aquaculture Association of the Netherlands, the Dutch Aquaculture Society, and the Zeeland Molluscan Shellfish Growers; in Norway there are the Norwegian Aquaculture Society and the Association for Aquaculture Research; and in the UK there is the Shellfish Association of Great Britain.
In the Northwestern countries there are many meetings and/or trade shows for professionals. Among the most regular annual meetings are the 'Two Lakes' Fish Farming Conference at Sparsholt (UK), and Aqua Nor in Norway. EAS holds a biennial meeting which changes venue.
In the Eastern sub-region there are also conferences and exhibitions for professionals, among which are events in Szarvas (Hungary), Vroclav (Poland), and Baku and Leningrad (USSR).
Outside the region, but close enough to be attended widely by professionals, is the biennial conference and trade show at Verona (Italy) which has taken place regularly since 1982.
At the regional level there are many sources of general aquaculture information for professionals, mostly in English.
There are a number of trade magazines directed at professionals as well as producers. One is the monthly trade paper Fish Farming International, published in the UK. The paper aims at a world-wide aquaculture audience, but still focuses on Northwestern European aquaculture. Similarly from the UK is Fish Farmer, which is also directed at producers but has technical articles of interest to professionals, and which recently introduced an international section.
From outside the region there is Aquaculture Magazine (USA). This is mostly directed toward the sector in the USA, but also has articles of wider interest. From France there is the two-monthly "Aquarevue", for distribution throughout the French-speaking countries world-wide. It devotes most of its attention to aquaculture in mainland France and French overseas territories.
For scientific information, in addition to seminars, symposia, and congresses, professionals in the region can consult a number of publications obtained on subscription. In the region these include Diseases of Aquatic Organisms (FRG); Aquaculture (the Netherlands); Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Aquaculture Engineering, Journal of Fish Biology, and Journal of Fish Diseases (all UK). Seven journals are published in Norway, all in Norwegian.
From outside the region there are Bamidgeh/Journal of Aquaculture (Israel); Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture (France); Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Canada); Progressive Fish Culturist and Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (USA); Rivista Italiana de Piscicoltura e Ittiopatologia (the journal of the Freshwater Fish Culture Association), Corriere della Pesca e dell'Acquacoltura (the two-monthly publication of the Federation of Fishermen's Cooperatives), and Il Pesce, all published in Italy in Italian.
Scientific publications on aquaculture are available in the journals and collected reprints of the major aquaculture institutions and professional societies (see section 4.3). For example, the EAS publishes a regular newsletter for members which also contains the contents of some abstracts of the more important aquaculture journals. It also publishes special volumes on aquaculture technology available at reduced rates to members. The WAS produces the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society and World Aquaculture which are free to members.
The largest resource of information for scientists and technical professionals in the sector is FAO in Rome, Italy. FAO produces a series of publications many of which are specific to aquaculture. These are FAO Fisheries Reports, FAO Fisheries Technical Papers, and FAO Fisheries Synopses. All titles are categorized and lists are regularly produced. Some documents are free and others are sold at cost. It maintains a large serial collection on all subjects related to fish and fisheries received from fisheries institutes, government departments, and commercial publishers throughout the world, together with a special collection of documents on a country basis, and subject files.
FAO maintains a database in which aquaculture information can be found. Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) is an international bibliographic database providing comprehensive coverage of publications on the science, technology, and management of marine and freshwater environments. The database can be searched via terminals and personal computers to retrieval systems in Europe and North America; the database is also available on compact disc. Aquaculture Abstracts from ASFA are available in printed form through subscription.
In the Eastern countries there are also many aquaculture and fisheries oriented publications. Although information is difficult to obtain there is evidence that the USSR publishes about 15 relevant journals, magazines, and information papers; the GDR publishes 5; Hungary 16; Czechoslovakia 6; Bulgaria 3; Romania 1; arid Poland 4.