Community Forestry Field Manual 1

prepared by Stephen Joseph, edited and designed by Carla R.S. Koppell
FAO, Rome 1990


Appendix 1: A flow chart of stove programme development


Appendix 2: Indicators for use in stove programmes

Indicators that measure level of participation:

a) number of groups formed to help implement the programme
b) number of meetings, data gathering exercises, group production activities that take place over a certain period of time
c) amount of money/time that the stove group has spent to assist families who do not have the resources to get a stove
d) number of promotion /demonstration meetings held by a stove group
e) amount of stove group's time spent communicating with project staff
f) time/money spent helping to organise training programmes

Indicators to assess the effectiveness of an extension programme:

g) time and number of visits of extension workers to households
h) number of maintenance or repair operations carried out by householders after they have received training
i) the number of people who have heard about the stove from extension workers

Other indicators to assess whether the stove has reduced the amount of fuel used in the household:

j) amount of money spent on fuel
k) the amount of fuel sold by fuel sellers before and after the introduction of the stove

Other indicators to assess the impact on the household:

l) the amount of time and/or money spent on kitchen improvements before and after the introduction of the stove
m) the number of times people visited the health clinic for treatment of burns, eye and/or lung infection before and after the introduction of the stove


Appendix 3: Information for monitoring and evaluating a programme

Certain questions need to be asked to provide the basis for this monitoring and evaluation. During the programme's implementation, participants have to examine and discuss a range of issues related to the energy, health employment and housing needs, the design of the stove, its acceptability and its dissemination. They need baseline information, before the initiation of a project, as a basis for comparison . Questions that need to be asked are:

  1. Do people feel that improvement in the kitchen environment, reduction in fuel consumption and increase in fuel supply are high priority?
  2. Are people dissatisfied with their current stove and if so why? What features do they like about their existing stove?
  3. What is the performance of the existing stoves?
  4. What resources and skills are locally available to build the stoves?
  5. What social, cultural, economic and geographical factors other than stove design are likely to influence adoption of a new stove?

To answer all of these questions in some depth it is necessary to collect the information that is listed below. The answers to question 1 will indicate who wants to be involved in stove programmes and why. The answers to questions 2, 3 and 4 will help to establish design criteria and the answers to question 5 will assist in the development of the plan of action to carry out the field test programme.

Information to construct a community profile, determine if stove programmes are viable and develop design guidelines.

a) Environmental, Demographic, and Geographical weather patterns, altitude, land use patterns, extent and type of forest, population density, family size distribution, transport system, local government facilities, range of skills and level of education, patterns of eye and lung disease.
b) Economic patterns of employment and land ownership, type and extent of cash cropping, distribution of income, nature of exploitation, methods for marketing locally, type, size and number of local businesses and their link with the larger market, type and extent of management skills, priority of economic needs, fuel and stove costs in relation to income.
c) Social ethnic/ religious composition of the area/community, type and interaction of local government and non government organizations, type and nature of informal groupings, cultural and religious activities/practices, methods of communication/decision making and resolution of disputes, gender roles and relationships, assessment of patterns of innovation, priority of social needs.
d) Kitchens, Management and Stoves fuel types and size, amount used, who collects, time spent collecting, amount spent purchasing, how much and where stored, variations in patterns and costs throughout the year, kitchen size and layout, ventilation/pollution, position of kitchen in house and stove, kitchen and stove needs, ritual significance of kitchen stove, type and size of stoves, cooking functions performed by stoves, type and size of pots, type of food cooked.
e) Resources availability and quality of local clay, sand, metal, cement; who owns materials and what is their price, what are the transport problems, number and type of local businesses that can make stoves, social and financial organization of these enterprises.

These different types of information needs can be broken down more specifically to form the Initial Needs Identification Survey.

  1. Environment
    What is the:
  2. Socio-economic
  3. Community structure
  4. Assessment of extension and local community development organizations
  5. Patterns of fuel collection/purchase
  6. Characteristics and functions of the fireplace
  7. Pots and utensils
  8. Kitchen economics
  9. Kitchen layout
  10. Needs
  11. Resource materials
  12. Manufacturers


Appendix 4 Information needs

The information that is gathered through the Initial Needs Identification Survey is used at different times throughout the life of the programme. Different types of information can be used in a variety of ways.

a) The initial field test phase:

  1. reasons why users accepted the stove in the first place;
  2. who is using the stove, how often, for what cooking and heating functions, and what advantages and disadvantages are perceived by the household;
  3. the changing patterns of usage;
  4. the initial performance of the new stove (as compared with the existing stove) and how it changes with time; performance measured in terms of amount of fuel required to cook a given quantity of food, cooking time, levels of smoke and carbon dioxide emission, lifetime, and ease of ignition and operation;
  5. the design improvements that would make the stove more acceptable to users;
  6. the required repair and maintenance schedule and the time taken by users in this activity;
  7. the changes to the kitchen layout, level of soot on the walls, reported incidence of lung and eye disease, changes in women's perception of their status, mental and physical well being, changes in the level of local development activity;
  8. users' perceptions of the role/performance of the local stove group and of extension workers

b) The extended field test phase:

  1. the number of production units established or stove builders trained and the number of stoves produced (and installed for the case of ceramic inserts or cement stoves);
  2. the class and caste of the people who are buying/ building stoves; their reasons for adopting the stove;
  3. the number of people using the stove for most cooking operations and the reasons why they are/are not using the stove;
  4. the number of production units established or stove builders trained;
  5. level of quality/reject rate amongst the stoves produced;
  6. the percent of the local population that is aware of the existence of the stove and the source of the information;
  7. the degree of participation by users and other organizations in the promotion, distribution and building of the stoves;
  8. the number of visits to households by extension workers and the information passed on during those visits;
  9. the number of promotional activities carried out by the extension workers or marketing personnel;
  10. the number of distribution outlets or organizations disseminating the technology;
  11. the number and type of training sessions held, and the percentage of trainees who then use the skills that they have been taught;
  12. the number of follow up visits to the trainees and the number of retraining sessions and type of retraining that was necessary to ensure they carried out their job effectively;
  13. the fuelwood and cooking time savings, levels of pollution and changes in kitchen management practice and how these compare to similar observation and measurements taken in the field test phase;
  14. the impact of any firewood conservation programme on fuel consumption (e.g. has the promotion of wood savings led to a decrease in the amount of fuel that people are using irrespective of whether they have a new stove or not);
  15. the personnel changes that have occurred to the people involved in the promotion, building and monitoring the stove;
  16. fixed and variable costs of the production units, changes in profitability and management practices since producing the new stoves.


Appendix 5 Example pages: log book, minutes book, new stove monitoring form

Log book

Name of household ..................................... Date of installation ....................
Location ................................................... Type of stove ....................
Income earning activities ................................ Type of kitchen ....................
No. people installing/building stove ....................
Time taken for the meeting
Problems encountered
Food provided
Time spent by household in preparation
Money contributed by household
Where was the stove placed?
Who made the decision to install/build stove?
Why was this household chosen?
Description of kitchen
Follow-up visit Data
Name of interviewer
Is the stove hot?
Is the stove cracked? Where?
Are the passages blocked?
What changes have been made to the stove (diagram if necessary)
Users comments
Bad features
Good features
Any comment on the fuel savings?
By whom?
General comments made on needs related to domestic tasks - to ascertain relative priorities
1. Fuel
2. Health
3. Water
4. Shelter
5. Employment
Observers' comments

Minutes book

Date Recorder
Place where meeting held
Names of attendees
  • Members
  • Non-members
Reasons for non-members attending
Check list: actions decided at last meeting
Action Carried out -- Yes -- No -- by whom?
Matters discussed
Actions to be undertaken by whom
Money spent

Improved stove monitoring form

(Division of Community Forestry, Nepal 1984)

The numbers correlate with the questions.

First visit after installation
Name of household Village Date
Name of installer Date of installation
  1. Does the first pot seat fit exactly into the second pot seat? You should not be able to see or feel the rim of the connecting plate.

  2. Does the chimney fit exactly into the second pot seat? If you can see the rim of the chimney it is incorrectly installed.

  3. Is the distance between the baffle and the top of the stove 3.5 cm?

  4. Is the thickness of the mud greater than 2 cm?

  5. Is the distance between the bottom of the firebox and the top of the pot seat l8 cm?

  6. Can the two largest pots that are regularly used be placed side by side in pot seats 1 and 2?

  7. Does smoke go out of the chimney?

  8. Is the chimney placed 10 cm away from the wall and 1.5 m below the thatch roof?

If any of the dimensions or the installation was incorrect,when were the errors corrected?
Three months after first monitoring
Date of return Time
  1. Are people still using the stove everyday ......, some days ....., not at all ....?

  2. Does smoke go out of the chimney after you have lit a fire?

  3. If the smoke does not come out of the chimney, determine if ash and soot are blocking it by inspecting:
    1. Connecting tunnel chimney
    2. Chimney pipe inside house
    3. Chimney pipe outside the house

  4. Have the users cleaned the stove?

  5. What complaints do the users have?


Appendix 6: Monitoring questionnaire

(Sri Lanka 1982)

  1. Village

  2. Observer

  3. Household's name

  4. Number of people:

  5. Stove type

  6. Age of stove, when built

  7. Builder: stove project staff, hired worker, neighbour, owner?

  8. Cleaning and repairing
    External cracks:
    Firebox tunnel cracks:
    Door cracks:

  9. Stove warm or cold

  10. Use of stove:
    cooking all meals and tea
    cooking most meals and tea
    cooking meals only
    cooking some meals and tea
    cooking few meals or tea
    no use

  11. User acceptance:
    totally satisfied
    satisfied with minor problems

  12. Measurements
    Air vents:


Appendix 7: New stove use survey

(Division of Community Forestry, Nepal 1984)

V Name Value/Code
1. Household name.............................Ward No.........
Village name...............................
Household Characteristics:.................................
01 HH _ _ _ _ _
2. District............................. 02 DIST _ _*
3. Panchayat..........................
Date (Roman).................................
Main Cook's name...............................
03 PAN _ _ _+
4. New stove type: (1) Insert (2) Double wall (3) Modified Magan Chulo (4) Other................ 04 NETO _
5. Months installed..................... 05 AGE _
6. Floor installed:
(1) Ground
(2) 1st Floor
(3) 2nd Floor
(4) 3rd Floor

7. Installer........................... 07 INST _ _+
8. Ethnic/group/caste (see code) 08 ETH _ _*
9. Regular number of household members............................. 09 HPOP _ _
10. Number of children less than 10 yrs old.............................. 10 CPOP _ _

Stove Use
11. Present use of new stove:
(0) Used at present......... (1) not used...........
11 STOU _
12. (If not used at present ) Number of months previously used.................. 12 MUSE _ _
13. (If not used at present) why is stove not being used?......................................................................Skip to question No. 25 13 NOTU _+
14-18 Number of times new stove used for the following purposes in last week:
14. Main meals per week 14 MEAL _ _
15. Snacks and tea per week 15 STEA _ _
16. Livestock feed per week 16 FEED _ _
17. Room heating 17 HEAT _ _
18. Other (specify) 18 OTH _ _
19. Type of traditional stove previously used by household (1) mud stove (2) tripod (3) both (4) other 19 TYPE _
20-24 Number of times old stove used for the following purposes last week:
20. Main meals per week 20 TMEA _ _
21. Snacks and tea per week 21 TSTE _ _
22. Livestock feed per week 22 TPEE _ _
23. Room heating 23 THEA _ _
24. Other (specify) 24 TOTH _ _

Condition of Improved Stove
25. Firebox: (0) not cracked (1) cracked (2) broken 25 FIRE _
26. Front arch: (0) not cracked (1) cracked (2) broken 26 ARCH _
27. Baffle: (0) not cracked (1) cracked (2) broken 27 BAF _
28. Chimney: (0) not cracked (1) cracked (2) broken 28 CHIM _
29. Repaired: (0) not required (1) not repaired (2) partially (3) completely 26 REP _
30. Inside chimney: (0) clean (1) soot accum. (2) ash (3) both ash & soot 28 ASHC _
31. Is there ash in firebox or connecting pipe:
(0) no (1) yes
28 ASBP _
32. Number of times chimney cleaned by installer 32 CLNI _
33. Number of times chimney cleaned by household 33 CLNH _

Stove installation
34. Measurements: (0) within tolerance limits (1) slightly exceeds limits (2) greatly exceeds limits 34 MEAS _
35. Chimney installation: (0) good (1) minor problems (2) major problems 35 CHIM _
36. Stove and chimney location: (0) good (1) bad 36 LOCA _
37. Frequently used pots fit holes: (0) good (1) fair (2) poor 37 PFIT _
38. Has user modified stove? (0) No (1) Yes if yes describe under comments 38 MOD _

Fuel use per week (in kg)
39. Estimated percentage fuelwood saving 38 FUEL _ _
40. Amount of fuelwood used per week before new stove 40 FUF _ _ _
41. Amount of fuelwood used per week 41 FUP _ _ _
42. Present price of wood per kg 42 FURS _ _ _
43. Average amount purchased per week before new stove 43 FUFR _ _ _
44. Average amount presently purchased per week 44 FUPR _ _ _
45. Straw/Agriculture residue used per week before 45 AGRS _ _ _
46. Straw/Agriculture residue presently used per week 46 AGRP _ _ _
47. Dung burned per week before 47 DUB _ _ _
48. Dung presently burned per week 48 DUP _ _ _

User's attitudes
49. Meal cooking time: (0) decreased (1) same (2) increased 49 TIME _
50. Comparative convenience: (0) better (1) same or worse (2) worse 50 COMC _
51. Reduction in smoke: (0) like (1) mixed opinion (2) dislike 51 SMOK
52. Heat in second pot hole: (0) sufficient (1) not sufficient 52 POT2 _
53. Size of wood inlet: (0) ok (1) too small (2) too big 53 SIZE _
54. How did you know about the new stove:
(1) neighbours
(2) promoter/installer
(3) village leader
(4) saw demo model
(5) extension booklet
(6) poster
(7) other
(8) extension agent.
(9) other (specify)
54 KNOW _
55. Would you be willing to purchase replacement part for stove? (0) yes (1) yes if cheap (2) no (3) don't know 55 PURC _
56. Number of visits by promoter since installation 56 VIST _
57. Estimated economic status of household (1) high (2) average (3) low 57 ECON _


If the new stove is not frequently being used for some purpose, why isn't it being used?

What suggestion for improving the stove design or installation does the respondent have?

Other comments:

Question notes

3. Main cook's name usually refers to the woman of the household who does most of the actual cooking and uses the stove most. She is the one to whom the questions should be addressed.

5. Months installed refers to the total time elapsed since the new stove was installed, e.g. 1.6 years = 18 months.

9. "Regular number of household members" refers to the total number of people for whom food is regularly cooked in the household including servants.

11. "Present use of new stoves" refers to whether the new stove is being used at all. If it is presently being used, even if very little, then code (0) should be answered. Later questions will determine the amount of use.

12 and 13.These questions should only be asked of households in which the new stove is not currently being used, i.e. where the answers to Q. 11 was (1). After answering these questions, skip to Q. 25 and continue the questionnaire from there. If the new stove has been totally removed, write "IMPROVED STOVE REMOVED" near Q.25 and skip to Q. 49.

14-24 These are the most important variables to be measured in the survey. The answers should be carefully obtained and, if possible, cross checked with other members of the household. If the last week was unusual (i.e. wedding, festival, etc.) then the last normal week should be used to answer this question. Note that if the traditional stove has been removed (9) code should be put in box 20-24

34 This question requires checking the measurements of the stove and comparing it to the ordered standard. For the 1983 insert stove this standard is given in the drawings in the stove installation manual. Deviations of up to 1 cm. can be considered within tolerance limits and coded in "(0) within tolerance limits". Differences of 1 to 2 cm should be coded as "(1) slightly exceeds limits". Any errors in stove dimensions (unless properly modified by the user -- see question 38) should be coded as "(2) greatly exceeds limits".

36 "Good or bad stove and chimney location" refers to both social and physical factors. Bad location (code 1) includes stoves installed in the wrong room or the wrong location within a room as well as chimney placement into the wind etc.

38 If the household has modified or rebuilt the stove, code "(19) yes" and describe what the changes were and why there was a change on the last page - with drawing if possible.

39 - 48 All the answers for these questions should be estimated in kg per week. Since these estimates are difficult to obtain and subject to considerable error, the surveyor should be careful to write down the user's best estimate. The purpose is not to measure exactly how much fuelwood is being used, but to obtain the user's perceptions of fuel use. Usually the question will have to be asked in two or three different ways using local units of measurements and then converted into percentages and kg per week. (Note 1 dharni =2.2 kg)

49-55 As with the previous questions on fuel use, all of these questions seek to find out the new stove user's attitudes towards and perceptions of the new stove - even if the surveyor may disagree. It is important that these questions be asked of the main cook/stove user.

57 The surveyor should not ask this question, but estimate the economic status of the household by the presence or absence of physical indicators such as size of house, number of cooking utensils, ownership of radio, bicycle, number of livestock, salaried employment, etc..


Note all comments that may help the programme design a better stove or have a better extension/distribution system. Especially note any ideas from the user on how to improve the stove.


Appendix 8: Questionnaire on stove use

(Dian Desa Programme 1983)

Number of respondent ......................................
Name of respondent .........................................
Category of respondent :

  1. traditional stove user
  2. sae pottery stove user
  3. traditional and Sae stove user
  4. ex-Sae pottery stove user.

Village :...................................
District :......................................
When interviewed : ...............................
Interviewer notes : ................................................................................................

Name of interviewer...................................
Approved by.....................................

I. Identity of respondent:

  1. Position in the family:
    1. wife
    2. head of family
    3. children
    4. others (specify...)
  2. Educational level of respondent:
    1. illiterate / never going to school
    2. primary school, not finished (or equal)
    3. primary school, finished (or equal)
    4. secondary school, not finished (or equal)
    5. secondary school, finished (or equal)
    6. high school, not finished (or equal)
    7. high school, finished (or equal)
    8. academy/university, not finished(or equal)
    9. academy/university, finished (or equal)
    10. others (specify....)
  3. Total number of family members...............
  4. Profession of

    main profession others
    1. head of family

    2. wife (respondent)

    Codes: 1.labourer / worker 2.farmer

    3. skilled worker 4.merchant

    5. teacher 6. gov't official / army (except head of village)

    7. village official 8.religious leader

II. Economic condition of family

  1. Status of the house they live in:
    1. 'ngindung', use / live in other people's house without paying / freely in special condition. This system is based on traditional Jawanese culture.
    2. rent
    3. owned by their parent(s)
    4. their own house
  2. Kind of material used for the wall of the house
    1. bamboo weave
    2. half brick wall
    3. wood
    4. brick wall
  3. Kind of material used for the floor:
    1. soil
    2. cement
    3. floor tile
    4. wood
  4. Lighting:
    1. small kerosine lamp
    2. big kerosine lamp
    3. pressure kerosine
    4. electricity
  5. Goods:
    1. set of table and chair
    2. radio
    3. tape recorder
    4. bicycle
    5. television
    6. motorcycle
    7. car
  6. Total area of the house..............
  7. Total amount of land they own:
    1. .............................yard m2/ha
    2. .............................dry field m2/ha
    3. .............................paddy field m2/ha

III. Kitchen situation

  1. Kind of stove(s) used (answer could be more than one)
    1. kerosine stove
    2. charcoal stove
    3. traditional wood pottery single stove
    4. traditional stone stove
    5. traditional mud stove
    6. Sae pottery stove
  2. Types of kitchen utensils used everyday

    whistling pot ...............
    aluminium pot ...............
    pottery pot ...............
    wok ...............
    copper steam rice pot ...............
    boiling rice pot ...............
    aluminium steam rice pot ...............
  3. Has respondent ever:

    yes no
    a.heard about Sae stove.

    b. seen a Sae stove.

    c. used a Sae stove.

  4. If yes, from whom?
    1. neighbour
    2. village official
    3. village cadre
    4. training / demonstration / promotion
    5. others (specify ........)
  5. If respondent has ever used a Sae stove, does he/she still use it now .
    1. yes
    2. no

III Questions for both user and non-user respondents
(If they have used both Sae and traditional stoves, all questions apply to the Sae stove)

  1. Name, type and model of the stove used.
  2. How did respondent obtain the stove ?
    1. made it
    2. bought
    3. received it free (from whom ....)
  3. If respondent made the stove, please specify:
    1. who made the stove .....
    2. kind of material used ..
    3. were the materials easy to get
    4. how much money was spent
    5. how long did it take to build.
  4. If respondent bought the stove, where was it bought?

    1. price
      1. market
      2. local shop
      3. retailer
      4. producer

    2. Who decided to buy the stove?
      1. wife .
      2. husband
      3. others (specify......)
  5. How far is it from your house to the location of the stove ...........m / km (choose one)
  6. Is it easy to get a Sae stove in the village ?
    1. easy
    2. difficult
  7. If it is easy, where can people can get one when they need one?

    place .........., distance ...........m / km

  8. If it is difficult, where can one be bought when the stove is broken ?

    place ........., distance ............m / km

    Perception of the stove being used.

  9. Price
    1. How much does the stove cost .......?
    2. The stove was :
      1. very cheap.
      2. cheap.
      3. fairly cheap.
      4. expensive.
      5. very expensive.
  10. Durability
    1. When did you start using that stove,..months/years ago?
    2. How durable does the stove seem?
      1. very durable
      2. durable
      3. fairly durable
      4. not durable
      5. very easy to break
    3. If it is not durable enough, how is it made more durable ?..................
    4. What is the stove's condition at the moment?
      1. good
      2. broken, but still working and being used
  11. Fuel consumption
    1. wood used each day for cooking,.........bundle/kg
      (or equal with the money of Rp........)
    2. In the respondent's opinion, the level of wood consumption indicates:
      1. high efficiency.
      2. efficiency.
      3. fair efficiency.
      4. inefficiency.
      5. completely inefficiency.
  12. Smoke
    1. Is the stove producing a lot of smoke ?
      1. no, just a little
      2. yes, a lot.
    2. Is the smoke disturbing you?
      1. not at all
      2. a bit
      3. fairly disturbing
      4. disturbing
      5. very disturbing
    3. Is the smoke used?
      1. yes (for what purpose.......)
      2. no
  13. Which stove is more convenient for the respondent- a single hole stove or a two hole stove?
    Please explain.

  14. Does the stove that is being used meet the respondent's needs ?

  15. If not, why not. What kind of stove is needed ?

  16. Why doesn't the respondent have/use the preferred type of stove?

  17. How many times a day is the stove used? What is cooked?

    morning noon afternoon evening
    kind of food

  18. Has respondent ever used another kind of stove?
    1. no (go to No. 41)
    2. yes, specify .....
    3. kind of shiftment:
      1. change stove type(the old stove is. not in use anymore)
      2. added a new stove(still use another stove as well)
  19. Why was a new stove added/substituted?

  20. When was it substituted/added? .........months/years ago.
  21. What are the differences between the old and new stoves ?

    old new


    fuel consumption


    speed of cooking

  22. Which stove does the respondent prefer/find more beneficial?
    1. the old stove
    2. the new stove
    3. same.
  23. What shape of wood is usually used?
    1. split wood
    2. twigs / shrubs
    3. mixed
    4. others (specify...)
  24. What kind of wood is used most often (ie.acacia, caliandra,...)?
  25. Where is the wood from?
    1. collect
    2. buy
    3. sometimes buy, sometimes collect.
  26. If wood is collected:
    1. Is there
      1. a special time to collect?
      2. a special amount of time needed to collect .............hours/day?
    2. How often is wood collected?
      1. everyday
      2. every two days
      3. every three days
      4. other, specify ..
    3. What distance is travelled to collect the wood? ...................m/ km?
    4. How much wood is collected each time?........bundle / hook / kg(choose one), value in Rp......
  27. If wood is bought:
    1. Where is it usually purchased?
      1. shop Rp................/...
      2. market Rp............./...
      3. retailer Rp............/...
    2. How often is wood bought?
      1. every day
      2. every 2 day
      3. every 3 day
      4. every week
      5. every month
      6. depend on the need.
    3. What distance is travelled to buy wood, .........m /km?
    4. How much is bought each time .........bundle/kg?
    5. How many hours does it take to buy....?

IV Questions for non-user respondents

  1. Has respondent ever used Sae pottery stove?
    1. no
    2. yes (go to No.49)
  2. If no, why not? (could be more than one answer)
    1. didn't know about Sae stove
    2. nobody sells Sae stoves
    3. didn't know where to buy one
    4. difficult to get
    5. easy to break
    6. does not fit with my kitchenware
    7. expensive
    8. others (specify)
  3. Does respondent know people in this village that use Sae stoves?
    1. yes
    2. nobody uses one in this village
    3. respondent doesn't know

V Questions for ex-users respondents

  1. Why did respondent stop using the Sae stove ?
    1. nobody sells them
    2. didn't know where to get a replacement
    3. difficult to get
    4. easy to break
    5. did not fit with kitchenware
    6. expensive
    7. others (specify)
  2. If someone begins to sell the Sae stove, will respondent want to buy one?
    1. yes
    2. no
  3. If no, what is the reason?
  4. In respondent's opinion, does the shape and measurement of the Sae stove fit his/her needs?
    1. yes it fits
    2. no
  5. If no, have respondent explain and suggest improvements.

VI Questions for Sae stove user respondents

  1. The Sae stove that is being used at the moment, is number ...............
  2. Is this Sae stove used everyday / everytime things are cooked ?
    1. yes
    2. no
  3. If no, what are the reasons. When is it used and for what ?
  4. Has the respondent's Sae stove been modified (i.e. plastered with mud.......)?
    1. yes
    2. no
  5. If the Sae stove has been modified, what kind of modifications have been done ?
  6. Why were these modifications made?
  7. In respondent's opinion, which one is better, the Sae stove or some other common type of stove?
    1. common stove
    2. Sae stove
    3. same (no opinion)
  8. Does respondent think that Sae stove meets the respondent's needs ?
    1. yes
    2. no
  9. If no, have respondent explain.


Appendix 9: Kitchen performance test

The Kitchen Performance Test (KTP) measures the relative rate of fuelwood consumption by two stoves as they are used in the normal household environment. It is a prolonged test conducted with the willing cooperation of individual families. Compared with the previously described tests, the results of the KTP can provide the most reliable indication of stove performance under actual household conditions. However, because of the large effort involved, it is normally conducted only after the more controlled tests have been completed.

The primary objectives of the KPT are:

  1. to study the impact of a new stove on overall household energy use (Procedural Note 1); and
  2. to demonstrate the fuel-saving potential of a new stove in the household, and to suggest correct operating practices.

Variations of the Kitchen Performance Test may also be used in conjunction with a stove dissemination program (Procedural Note 2) or as part of a survey of household energy use (Procedural Note 3).

Kitchen Performance Tests should be carried out by an investigator who is trained to follow instructions, is motivated to do so, and has certain basic numeric skills.

A balance for measuring fuelwood.
Forms for recording data and calculations
Pots, etc., to be supplied by household
  1. Select the households that are to participate in the test (Procedural Note 4). Explain to family members the purpose of the test, and arrange to measure their fuelwood each day. Encourage the family to use only a single stove throughout the test.
  2. Gather any needed information about each participating household. For example, determine the sex and age of each person who is served meals. Use this information to calculate the number of standard adults served (Procedural Note 5). Ask about the approximate cost of the fuelwood used, in terms of either money spent or time needed to collect it. Finally, collect any other information that may help interpret the final data (Procedural Note 6).
  3. Define an inventory area for fuel consumption measurement. Any fuel entering or leaving this area must be accounted for (Procedural Note 7). Weigh each different type of wood and other fuels in the inventory area. Estimate or measure the moisture content of the wood (Technical Note 4).
  4. Define a testing period of seven consecutive days. If it is not possible to measure for seven days, measure for at least five days. Stop and start at the same hour each day (Procedural Note 8).
  5. Visit the household at least daily, if possible, without being intrusive. Weigh wood remaining in the inventory area, and add to it if necessary. Inquire about the number of people being served each day, and confirm that the stove is operating properly.
  6. Compile the results at the end of eight days. Calculate specific daily consumption for each household, and the mean and standard deviation. Compare the results with those from households using other stoves.
  7. Inform participating families of the results, and thank them for their cooperation.

Figure 1: Data and calculation form

Household No. ___________ Family name_____________________________________
Location ________________________________________


Number Standard Adult
Other Household Information
Children 0-14 years ___________x 0.5 = __________ _________________________
Women over 14 years ___________x 0.8= __________ _________________________
Men aged 15-59 years ___________x 1.0= __________ _________________________
Men over 59 years ___________x 0.8= __________ _________________________
Species (botanic name) Approx % total (by weight) Mean length Mean diameter

________cm ________cm

________cm ________cm

________cm ________cm
Condition of fuelwood: (dry / damp / wet / green)
Fuelwood cost per kg:
= $

estimated collection time
local currency US dollars
Alternate Fules/Stoves

Description Function
Other fuels in use: _________________________ _________________________
Other stoves in use: _________________________ _________________________

Total wood remaining
in inventory area
Wood added
to inventory area
Day 0 ___________(none)
Day 1 kg kg
Day 2 kg kg
Day 3 kg kg
Day 4 kg kg
Day 5 kg kg
Day 6 kg kg
Day 7 kg kg
Day 1 kg (none)_________


(C) Total wood added to inventory:___kg
(D) Total wood consumed: C-B = ______kg
(E) Test duraton: _______days
Specific daily consumption: D/A/E = ________

* This is an example of a form to be used for each participating household.

Figure 2: Test series reporting form

Organisation conduction tests_________________________________________
Names of stoves compared: (1)_______________________(2)_______________________
Testing location___________________________________________________________
Testing period________(months)______________(year) Name of test supervisor_______________

Stove No. 1
Standard adult equivalents Specific daily consumption Fuelwood cost / kg
Arithmetic mean:

Standard deviation:

Coefficient of variation:

Standard error:

95% confidence interval:

(Total No. of tests__________ )
Stove No. 2
Standard adult equivalents Specific daily consumption Fuelwood cost / kg
Arithmetic mean:

Standard deviation:

Coefficient of variation:

Standard error:

95% confidence interval:

(Total No. of tests__________ )

Specific daily consumption: t-value =____________at __________% level of confidence and ___________ degrees of freedom.
(Attach a full description of both stove models tested)
* This is an example of a form used to summarise and report results from a series of two stoves being compared.

Procedural notes for the kitchen performance test

  1. The introduction of new stove may alter the amount and type of cooking done in the household. For example, the result may be a substantial improvement in the well-being of the family, but make little change in overall fuel use. Or it may be that a fire enclosed within the stove provides so little light that it becomes necessary to use a kerosene lamp.
  2. It may be tempting to use the results of the KPT to estimate the fuel saving potential of a new stove before it is widely accepted and used. For this purpose, however, the test would have to be greatly expanded to include:
  3. A survey of cooking practices to determine current local cooking procedures, foods cooked and eaten, types of stoves used etc., is a useful starting point for the development of improved cookstoves. The survey may be accompanied in a number of households by a measurement of all the fuel that is used for cooking, such as is involved in the KPT.

    Later, new stoves can be built in these same households, and another KPT may be carried out after the households have had an opportunity to get acquainted with the new stoves. At that time the KPT may be accompanied by a user survey to determine how well the stoves are being received with later surveys to evaluate other parameters such as stove durability. Later KPTs may be performed to evaluate whether the fuel savings have remained the same and if other factors have had a positive or negative influence on the stove's long term acceptability.

  4. For meaningful results:
    Table 1
    Minimum number of households necessary in the KPT relative to expected differences in fuel use
    Expected percent difference in fuel use Minimum number of households*
    10 54
    20 14
    30 7
    40 5
    *Corresponds to COV = 0.4; 10% level of significance
  5. For the purposes of this test the "standard adult" will be defined according to a simplified version of the widely used League of Nations formula as shown in Table 2. (Guidelines for Woodfuel Surveys. F.A.O, Keith Openshaw.)
    Table 2
    "Standard adult" defined in terms of sex and age
    Sex and age Fraction of standard adult
    Child, 0-14 years 0.5
    Female, over 14 years 0.8
    Male, 15-59 years 1.0
    Male, over 59 years 0.8
  6. Other information gathered for each family may include:
  7. It is recommended that no more fuel be in the inventory area than is likely to be consumed during the one-week test period. If much more fuel is stored than will be used, define a smaller inventory area from which all fuel for the test can be taken. Stress to household members that only wood from the small area be used during the test, and that if more wood is needed, the investigator needs to be present when it is added to the pile. The number of visits the investigator must make to the household to weigh the wood will depend on the size and adequacy of the initial inventory.
  8. The recommended seven consecutive day test period recognises that many family activities are conducted according to a weekly routine. Seven days is the shortest time likely to include market days, work days, and any weekly religious observances in their proper proportion. It often happens that the person conducting the test is unwilling to work on the day of weekly religious observance. In such a case, advance provision should be made for a substitute on that day. Note that a seven day test usually requires eight days of measurement (see Data and Calculating Reporting Form below). Similarly, if only a five day test is planned, measurement will he taken for six days.


The KPT is the most complicated test described in these guidelines in a logistic sense. The Procedural Notes indicate several types of factors that influence the per capita fuel consumption for cooking in a community. At this moment the extent of influences is unclear we therefore can do no more than urge the user of this test procedure to exercise a great deal of caution. A long term programme of stove introduction is a prerequisite for undertaking the Kitchen Performance Test.


Appendix 10: Sample training programme outlines

The following is excerpted from a consultant report on the Community Forestry Development Project in Nepal. It provides an example of a training programme and the rationale behind its development.

Training and extension

The organizational structure called for a comprehensive training and extension programme which would standardize production, installation and maintenance of the ceramic insert stoves throughout Nepal.

Separate courses and programmes have been developed for all the four parties involved in the production, dissemination and use of the stoves. They are the

  1. producers,
  2. promoters,
  3. installers, and
  4. users.

The training and extension programmes developed so far follow to a large extent some of the basic premises on field level training used in the forestry component of the project. They are:

  1. the project has been established to serve the rural people of Nepal and field staff should carefully listen to their needs;
  2. the quality of work determines the success and acceptability of the programme, whether they are trees or stoves;
  3. the technical and functional knowledge about stoves should be spread as much as possible to the grassroots level, both to the individual households and at panchayat level.

Separate training courses had to be designed so as to suit each group's particular task and relation to HMG. They are described in Field Document No.9, "Training Course for Stove Promoters, Stove Installers and Stove Producers of Ceramic Insert Stoves in Nepal." Their positions are as follows:

  1. stove producers - Small cottage industries of traditional potters;
  2. stove installers - Panchayat level workers who install the stoves on a piece-work basis;
  3. stove promoters - HMG staff, responsible for the overall administration and follow-up.

Stove Producers

The main objective in the training of the stove producers is to make them completely familiar with the special requirements of ceramic insert stoves. Depending on which location the stoves are being made in this may be relatively easy or very difficult. For example, in many parts of Nepal the pottery wheel is not in use and training in its use may be needed before the actual training in stove production starts. Particular attention has to be given to the quality of the clay and how to make it suitable for the production of thermal resistant stoves.

The great advantage of the Nepal stove design is that the efficiency of the stove is determined by the degree of accuracy with which they are made by the potters. If all the components are properly made, even a mediocre stove installer cannot affect the efficiency of the stove unless the chimney is incorrectly installed. However, if the baffle is placed with the wrong slope or the chimney pipes are of too small a diameter, even the best stove installer cannot make the stove work properly. A five-day training course for stove producers has been developed, which consists of at least 75% practical work.

The lessons follow a certain sequence. They begin by explaining why the new type of stove can be more efficient and how it works. The participants then examine stoves that are well built and well installed and stoves that are poorly built and poorly installed. This is to emphasize the need for quality control. They are then taught how stoves are developed and tested at RECAST.

The emphasis of the practical work is placed on "learning by doing". No certificate should be issued until the potters makes accurate stoves. They should also be encouraged to examine how they can improve the quality of the clay mixes as well as ensuring quality control.

The course ends with information on administrative issues, e.g., ordering, payment, etc. The basic features of the training course are shown below.

Training course for stove producers

Day Subject
1 Examination of stove features. Visit to RECAST. field trip to village to see installed stoves.
2 Clay mixing, throwing of main pots, drying, dimensional accuracy.
3 Cutting holes, connecting pipes, throwing of chimneys.
4 Each trainee constructs two stoves. Firing and dimensional accuracy are checked.
5 Administrative issues, certificate distribution.

Stove Installers

Stove installers are usually recruited from the panchayats where the stoves are being installed. This ensures that local knowledge about the stoves is retained in the panchayat for future support with repairs, replacement and maintenance. The training of the stove installers should therefore also be relevant to the on-going post-installation activities of the installer. So far three training courses have been held. The principle objectives of the stove installers training are to ensure that the installers can:

  1. correctly install the insert stove;
  2. maintain and repair the stove.

Secondary objectives are to teach the installers about:

  • the need for community forestry in Nepal;
  • the need for reducing fuelwood consumption in the home;
  • the advantages of improved stoves;
  • how an improved stove works;
  • how to identify why an improved stove does not work; if it is wrongly installed or not maintained regularly.

    A five-day training course has been designed, which consists of at least 50% practical work.

    The lessons begin with an explanation of the factors that affect the design and acceptance of a new stove. This is followed by a careful examination of the good and bad features of the existing stoves/fire places and the new stoves.

    To help understand why a new stove is more fuel-efficient, an elementary theory of wood burning and heat transfer is introduced. This is followed by a discussion of the reasons why a new stove does not work if not properly installed. During this time the participants will learn how to use the stove.

    Participants then learn how to install the stoves. Emphasis is placed on chimney construction. Once they are proficient in this skill they will visit houses where stoves have already been installed. They will evaluate how well they have been installed. Houses will then be visited that want a new stove. The participants will explain the good and bad features of the stoves to the users, determine where they want the stove to be installed and explain why the stove should not be installed on the windward side of the house.

    Having installed the stoves the participants will demonstrate how to use and maintain the stove.

    This programme emphasizes "learning by doing". Participants are encouraged to determine what problems they may encounter in their own panchayat. The participants should be continuously asked:

    "what happens if you don't install a stove correctly;"

    "what happens if you or users don't regularly clean the stove;"

    "what makes a stove work properly?"

    These questions are used to re-emphasize the need to correctly install the stove and carry out regular maintenance.

    All practicals are carried out under the supervision of either the stove promoter or a member of the RECAST/CFDP stove improvement unit.

    The basic features of this training course are shown below.

    Training course for stove installers

    Day Subject
    1 Review of kitchen and stove types, cooking practices in Nepal. Good and bad features of traditional and improved stoves.
    2 Theory of wood burning and heat transfer. Stove installation techniques.
    3 Field visit to learn how to determine where the stove is to be built.
    4 Installation of 2 stoves per installer. Evaluation of stoves installed.
    5 Maintenance of stoves. Job description of stove installers. Administrative procedures. Test certificate distribution.

    Stove Promoters

    Of the three groups being trained, the stove promoters are the only staff employed by HMG. They are the permanent link between the stoves and the HMG administration; both with the District Forest Office on administrative issues and with the central CFAD office on the technical and socio-economic issues.

    As the stove promoters are locally recruited, their training will have a continuing effect in their district and will facilitate local administration. The key to the success of the stove improvement programme will be its decentralized implementation and the stove promoter will play an important role in that. The training of stove promoters should therefore be comprehensive and be repeated every year. To provide the stove promoter with all the practical aspects of stove installation, he/she should first follow the stove installation training course.

    The principle objectives of the additional training course for district stove promoters are that they will be capable to:

    1. plan stove distribution;
    2. implement stove installation;
    3. monitor stove use;
    4. promote the increased acceptance of stoves and their proper use.

    The lessons follow a certain sequence.

    It begins with a thorough review of the job description of the stove promoters and their role in relation to the community forestry programme. This is followed by a discussion of the whole range of factors affecting the design and acceptability of improved stoves.

    To make the promoter familiar with the advantages of the new stoves and to increase his/her ability to talk knowledgeably about the stove, a full day is devoted to stove testing. Participants then learn how to plan and implement a district level programme of stove promotion and dissemination. Particular attention will be paid to monitoring the installation and to provide assistance to users if there are complaints.

    With a relatively new programme such as the stove improvement programme it is extremely important that the stove promoter is familiar with the basic concepts of surveying and in particular how to conduct an improved stove use survey. One and a half days are devoted to this subject. This is to allow the promoter to understand the different needs of different groups and help improve his/her problem solving ability.

    At the end of the course the administration of the programme is taught, with particular emphasis on budget accounting and procurement procedures. The promoters are also taught how to work with the potters, installers and the other field staff of the community forestry project, in particular the CFAs, Panchayat Forest Foremen and Panchayat Forest Watchers.

    The basic features of the training course are shown in Figure 8.

    Training course for stove promoters

    Day Subject
    1 Job description. CFDP and role of stoves. Range of factors affecting design and acceptability of stoves.
    2 Stove design and testing.
    3 Planning, Promotion, Dissemination, Monitoring.
    4 Art and Science of surveying. Improved stove use survey.
    5 Survey results.

    Administration of local programme, working with other forestry personnel, potters, installers. Test. Certificate distribution.

    Stove Users

    Despite a shortage of trained manpower at the professional level, HMG has established a system through which substantial numbers of stoves can be distributed and installed. Attempts have been made to organize follow-up inspection and advice to stove users by stove promoters. Even with the present number of stove promoters, the percentage of houses visited remains rather low. While the training of stove promoters and stove installers may improve this level to some extent in the near future, in the long term the transfer of knowledge about repairs and maintenance should not be organized solely by continuing and individual support from the stove promoter. At present each recipient of an improved stove also receives a wall chart, which indicates the major problems which can occur with a stove and the necessary action to be taken. A reduced version of this wallchart is shown in Figure 9.

    As indicated in Chapter 2.4, the best system for stove users may well be to have commercial access to spare parts and to professional installation advice from an installer. If the latter is not available and/or people start buying stoves on the open market it may well be necessary to provide do-it-yourself guidelines for installing or repairing stoves. Other communication techniques, e.g. through filmstrips (which reach large numbers of people in a short time) may be an additional method for bringing knowledge directly to the users.

    Future Training Requirements

    For a long period the types of training extension described earlier will be necessary. Eventually there will be a need to develop local innovations and design changes to suit local pots, fuel and cooking habits. This will require additional training and follow-up of all the parties involved, in particular the stove promoter.



    Campbell J.G. and Bhattarai T.N. 1984. Introduction of improved stoves for domestic cooking in Nepal HMG/UNDP/FAO Community Forestry Development Project, Nepal.

    Joseph S. and Shanahan Y. 1985. Stove Project Manual Planning and Implementation. IT Publications, London, Great Britain.

    Smith K.R., Agarwal A.C., Dave R.M. 1983. Air pollution and rural biomass fuel in developing countries: a pilot study in India and implications for research and policy, Atmosphere and Environment 17(11): 2343-2362.

    VITA, 1982. Testing the efficiency of wood burning cookstoves: provisional international standards. VITA, Mt Rainier, Maryland, USA.