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2.3. Phases in campaign planning*

Phases in campaign planning*

* This section is largely taken from Chapter 4 of R. Adhikarya's book Motivating Farmers for Action (1987) published by GTZ, Eschborn, Germany. While some of the illustrations in this Chapter are not agriculture-related, they represent clear examples of important processes/principles which can be applied in agriculture extension campaigns.

Phase-1: Technology & problems identification and information needs assessment

The planning of a comprehensive extension campaign strategy requires an adequate and accurate set of baseline data including information on recommended technology(ies), identified problems, and information needs. Many types of baseline data need to be collected and analysed. Without such information, a feasible, efficient and cost-effective extension campaign cannot be planned and developed properly. In particular, such information is critical for formulating campaign objectives, developing strategies, selecting and prioritizing extension/educational contents, positioning and designing messages, and evaluating the effectiveness of campaign activities.

Extension planners and practitioners are often forced to make programming or management decisions guided mainly by assumptions or personal experience which might be invalid, and could waste programme resources. Such counter-productive decisions may stem from inadequate planning and/or lack of baseline data and other relevant "feed-forward" information (i.e., data about target beneficiaries' problems, needs or interests on which campaign messages should focus).

(r) KAP survey: a tool for participatory strategic planning and evaluation

As the Strategic Extension Campaign (SEC) method follows a participatory and demand-driven or needs-based approach, target beneficiaries need to be consulted in the process of identifying problems and/or needs regarding their requirements or acceptability of a given technology. A suggested procedure for conducting a participatory assessment of problems and needs is through a baseline survey of target beneficiaries' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) on specific and critical elements of a recommended technology. Unlike other baseline surveys which are often macro in scope and exploratory in orientation, KAP survey is problem-solving oriented and it operates at a micro-level, with a focus on determining at least three distinct conceptual categories: knowledge, attitudes and practice levels of target audiences vis-a-vis the critical elements of a given technology recommendation. The KAP survey also seeks qualitative information from respondents through focus group interviews (FGI), such as on the reasons or causes of their negative attitudes and non-adoption or inappropriate practice with regard to the recommended technologies. Information provided by KAP surveys is very useful, especially for campaign objectives or goals formulation and strategy development as described in the discussion on Phases 2 and 3 of campaign planning.

In many developing countries, extension resources (i.e., funds, facilities, staff, and time) are limited and thus the effective and efficient use of such resources is imperative. A strategic planning approach can help in identifying critical extension/education intervention areas which are important and likely to create a significant impact. Results of a KAP survey can be utilized to analyze which specific elements of the technology package are not known to the majority of target beneficiaries, what are the reasons for their negative attitudes, how and why they have practiced recommended technologies inappropriately, etc. Therefore, in most instances, it is unnecessary to provide all target beneficiaries with a complete set of technology recommendations as some of them may already have known, agreed with, and/or acted on, the necessary information. Problem-solving and strategic extension planning basically follows the principle of "start with what they know, and build on what they have".

KAP survey results can also be utilized for audience analysis and segmentation purposes to determine who needs which types of information/messages through what combination of multi-media materials and channels. In addition relevant findings from surveys on media consumption patterns and habits, media availability and reach, and other socio-psychological and anthropological research studies are useful inputs to the exercise of extension strategy planning and message development.

Likewise, a meaningful evaluation of extension campaign activities is dependent on the availability of baseline data such as those obtained through a KAP survey. It is very difficult to make any summative evaluation judgement if there is no basis for comparison (e.g. pre-test vs. post-test measures; control vs. treatment groups). Baseline data can provide the necessary benchmark for comparison of impact or summative evaluation. Even for formative evaluation, availability of baseline data can help in testing and improving campaign process including the soundness of its strategies, and the appropriateness of its messages and multi-media materials as perceived by the target beneficiaries.

Baseline data collection is usually associated with a research activity. The word "research" is often viewed negatively by many programme planners, project managers/administrators, and decision-makers because it is perceived as an undertaking that requires a lot of money, time and specialized personnel. This perception is incorrect as what is needed is an "applied-oriented" or "problem-solving oriented" survey for programme or strategy decision-making rather than pure or experimental research for theory- or hypothesis-testing. A KAP survey is basically a "quick and cheap" way of consulting target beneficiaries and requesting them to provide information on certain trends or an indication of specific directions regarding their problems and information needs rather than elaborate research findings with statistical tests of significance, etc. As described later, most strategic extension campaign programmes which utilized baseline data effectively spent relatively little of their resources or time in acquiring the necessary data or information.

(r) KAP survey: examples of results utilization

As shown in Fig. 2-5 (see page 40), the audience's KAP level can be used as a basis to consider, in general or broad terms, the type and direction of an extension campaign strategy. While the specifics and details of the strategy still need to be developed further using other types of information and data, the KAP survey is an essential first step in providing information for the logic and rationale for campaign planning and strategy development. For a brief overview on how KAP survey findings have been used in the formulation of specific campaign objectives and in message positioning, design and development, some sample worksheets of a planning exercise of a rat control campaign for the State of Penang, Malaysia, have been included in the following pages. The campaign planning exercise was part of the workshop activities conducted by the author for the FAO Intercountry Programme for Integrated Pest Control in Rice in South and Southeast Asia and the Department of Agriculture, Government of Malaysia, in 1985.

Identified Problems in Rat Control in Penang, Malaysia
Based on findings of a KAP survey of farmers in Penang State


Low knowledge of the value of physical methods and cultural practices regarding rat control


Low knowledge of different functions and characteristics of different rodenticides


Misconception that rats are "intelligent", and thus unlikely to be successfully controlled


Lack of group and collaborative efforts to control rats


No action to control rats until damages are visible


Inappropriate application of rodenticides in different situations


Most farmers have more than one job and thus do not have enough time to control rats


Superstition that rats would take revenge on behalf of their dead "friends" by causing worse damages


Simultaneous planting is not practiced, thus providing continuous food supply for rats

Source: R. Adhikarya (1985) "Planning and Development of Rat Control Campaign Objectives and Strategies for the State of Penang, Malaysia".

Note: KAP refers to knowledge, attitudes and practice of the target audience.

Specific and Measurable Campaign Objectives for Rat Control Campaign in Penang State, Malaysia

Identified Problems among Farmers

Formulated Extension Campaign Objectives (based on KAP survey results)

1. Inadequate knowledge of the value of physical methods and cultural practices regarding rat control

To raise the proportion of rice farmers' level of knowledge/appreciation concerning the value and benefits of cultural practices from 67% to 75%, and physical rat control practices from 31% to 45%

2. Little knowlege of the different functions and characteristics of different rodenticides

To raise the proportion of rice farmers' level of awareness and knowledge by improving their understanding regarding the different functions and characteristics of two types of rodenticides:
a) chronic poison baits from 61 % to 70%
b) chronic poison dust from 22% to 40%

3. Misconception that rats are "intelligent" and thus unlikely to be successfully controlled

To reduce the proportion of rice farmers' misconception that rats are unlikely to be controlled successfully because they are "intelligent" from 52% to 35%

4. Lack of group and collaborative efforts in controlling rats

To encourage greater participation of rice farmers in group and/or collaborative efforts in controlling rats, by increasing the proportion of rice farmers' level of favourable attitudes towards such efforts from 60% to 70%

5. Farmers normally do not take voluntary action to control rats until crop damages are visible

To increase the proportion of rice farmers who believe that rat control is not a waste time from 55% to 65% in order to encourage them to take action before their crops are damaged

6. Inapproppriate application of different rodenticides in different situations/stages

a) To increase the proportion of rice farmers' knowledge on the correct application of rodenticides with regard to:
1. Rate of application of acute poison from 11 % to 40 %; chronic poison (baits) from 23% to 40%; and chronic poison (dust) from 67% to 75%
2. Time of application of acute poison from 47% to 60%; chronic poison (baits) from 39% to 50%; and chronic poison (dust) from 41% to 55%
3. Location to place acute poison from 43% to 55%; chronic poison (baits) from 43% to 55%; and chronic poison (dust) from 78% to 80%
b) To increase the proportion of rice farmers' level of appropriate practice in rodenticides application with regard to:
1. Rate of application of acute poison from 12% to 24%; chronic poison (baits) from 23% to 40%; chronic poison (dust) from 32% to 40%
2 Time of application of acute poison from 28% to 35%; chronic poison (baits) from 28% to 35%; chronic poison (dust) from 43% to 50%

7. Lack of motivation of most farmers who have more than one job, to spend more time and effort to control rats in order to increase their yields and income

To motivate and encourage rice farmers to spend more time and efforts to control rats in order to increase their crop yields and income, by increasing their perception that controlling rats is more beneficial than doing other jobs; from 37% to 50%

8. Superstition that rats will take revenge on behalf of their "dead friends" by causing worse damages

To reduce the proportion of rice farmers' misconception regarding their superstitious belief that rats take revenge on behalf of their "dead friends" by causing worse damages from 54% to 50%

9. Non-practice of simultaneous planting which could disrupt food supply for rats during part of the year

To encourage more rice farmers to engage in simultaneous planting in order to reduce time for rats to have continuous food supply by enhancing positive attitudes towards that practice; from 79% to 85%

Source: Adapted from R. Adhikarya (1985)

Example of a Worksheet for: Extension Planning and Strategy Development Process Exercise


Reasons or causes for problem

Problem solving strategy or approach

Information positioning approach

Farmers' misconception that rats take revenge on behalf of their "dead friends" by causing worse damages

Superstitious belief

As a Moslem, it is sinful to believe in superstitions. Other specific citation from the Holy Book (Quran or Hadith) regarding the above

Religious disincentive

Not enough time to control rats

70% of farmers have more than one job

"Rat control method of using wax and dust poison is simple and easy. Even your wife and children can do it if you are busy".

Task delegation

Inappropriate application of rodenticides at different crop growing stages

Unclear and complicated rodenticide application recommendations

Simplification of technology recommendations and easy-to-remember application procedures


Inefficient use (too strong a dosage) of rodenticides since they are distributed free to farmers

Arouse guilt feeling of farmers by stressing the waste of their community funds due to inefficient and ineffective use of the free rodenticides

Guilt feeling creation

Farmers' misconception that rats are "intelligent", thus control unlikely to succeed

Failure of zinc phosphide (e.g. bait shyness effect) which is used by the majority of farmers

De-emphasize the use of acute poison (zinc phosphide) and encourage the use of wax poison before booting stage and dust poison after booting stage.

Down-playing the competitor. Easy-to-remember action.

Stress the need for group and collaborative efforts instead of the individual approach if the battle to fight "smart" rats is to be won

Need for group efforts

Source: Adapted from R. Adhikarya (1985)

Example of a Worksheet for: Message Design Process Exercise

Problem solving strategy

Message appeals

Examples of message appeals

Channel of message-delivery

Counter-attack farmers' superstitious belief that rats take revenge on behalf of "dead friends" by causing worse damage

Fear arousal

"Its is sinful for a Moslem to believe in superstition"

Religious leaders' sermons during Friday prayers; leaflet; radio spots


"The more rats you kill, the more you will be rewarded in heaven" (Citation from the Holy Book of Islam)

Discourage the use of zinc phosphide and encourage the wax and dust poison (chronic rodenticides)

Safety, convenient/simplicity

"Wax poison and dust poison are much safer, easier and more effective than zinc phosphide"

Instructional poster; radio spots; pamphlet; portable flipchart; pictorial booklet


Use testimony from satisfied wax and dust poison adopters about its simplicity of use and effectiveness

Motivating farmers to conduct group/collaborative action in controlling rats (e.g. simultaneous planting, applying physical control methods, or conducting simultaneous rat control)


"Since rats are 'intelligent' if you fight them alone you might lose and thus be a victim, let's do it together"

Motivational poster; leaflet; pictorial booklet; slide-sound

Cultural/traditional value

" Gotong-Royong (working together and helping each other in a community) is a virtue and the most effective means to control rats"


"Bersatu kita teguh, bercerai kita roboh" (united we stand, divided we fall)

Educating farmers on the appropriate use/application of rodenticides

Guilt feeling, civic responsibility

"Don't you feel guilty wasting community funds if you are not using the free rodenticides properly"

Instructional poster; radio spots; group discussions; portable flipchart

Easy to remember

"Use wax poison weekly before booting stage and dust poison after booting stage"

Source: Adapted from R. Adhikarya (1985)

Phase 2: Campaign objectives formulation

In order to be effective, strategic extension campaign should be an integral part of a given agricultural extension system or programme and its function should be to support such extension activities. The specific campaign objectives should reflect the extension system or programme goals, respond to the needs of the programme and its target audience and help in solving the problems encountered in achieving such goals. It should be pointed out, however, that strategic extension campaign objectives are not necessarily the same as the agricultural extension system or programme goals which are expected to be the ultimate results of the whole extension undertaking. The achievement of the campaign objectives is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for achieving extension system or programme goals.

An extension programme goal should be explicit in specifying what is to be accomplished. For instance, the following two inadequate goal statements give only the general or operational elements to be achieved:

"To provide irrigation for rural people".
"To drill 4,000 ring wells and 2,000 tube wells by August 1994".

Those descriptions of goals can be made more comprehensive and specific, as well as made to reflect the actual scope of the programme, as follows:

"To increase the number of small farmers in districts X, Y and Z using water from the wells to irrigate their farmland from the present 100,000 to 175,000 small farmers within two years".

With such a goal, the extension programme could not be considered successful if it had only drilled 4,000 new ring wells and 2,000 new tube wells within two years although such an operation or activity was important and essential. It might well be that the water from the wells could not be used for irrigating farmers' land but, perhaps only for household purposes, or not at all. Even when the water might serve irrigation purposes, perhaps it would be mostly the large farmers who were using it rather than small farmers.

The ultimate goal of the above programme or project is not only to drill new wells but to persuade small farmers to utilize water from the wells in irrigating their farmland. Since a campaign activity is an important support component of the extension programme, the chances for success in meeting the programme goal are increased if the campaign objectives of the programme or project are accomplished.

It is thus also useful and important to distinguish extension campaign objectives from the broader extension programme objectives. Strategic extension campaign objectives are usually very specific and aimed at increasing knowledge, influencing attitudes, and/or changing practices (or behaviour) of intended beneficiaries with regard to a particular action recommendation or technology.

Campaign objectives should specify some important elements or characteristics of the extension activities which could help to provide a clear operational direction, and facilitate a meaningful evaluation of the campaign. Some of those elements are, at least, the following:


the target beneficiaries;


the outcome or behaviour to be observed or measured;


the type and amount/percentage of change from a certain baseline figure expected from the target beneficiaries;


the time-frame;


the location of the target beneficiaries.

It should also be pointed out that if the time frame and/or location of target beneficiaries are not explicitly mentioned in a extension campaign objective, it is usually understood that they follow the time-frame or duration and the target location/area of the campaign itself.

In the case of the above-mentioned irrigation programme, examples of strategic extension campaign objectives which would help in achieving general extension programme goals could include the following:


to inform within one year at least 65 percent of the small farmers in X, Y and Z districts about the procedures and benefits of an irrigation system using ring and tube wells;


to reduce the proportion of small farmers in districts X, Y and Z who have misunderstandings and misconceptions about the cost and technical requirements of drilling and building ring or tube wells, from the present 54 to 20 percent in one year;


to increase the proportion of small farmers in districts X, Y and Z regarding their positive attitude towards the practical and simple use of the irrigation system to water their farmland, from the present 32 to 50 percent within two years.


to persuade small farmers in districts X, Y and Z to use water from the wells to irrigate their farmland, and to increase the level of such a practice by them from the present 20 to 35 percent in two years.

It should be noted that campaign objective (d) above is very similar to the stated extension programme goal. While this objective may be considered and included as one of the campaign objectives, it should be realised that the accomplishment of this objective is not entirely dependent on effective campaign strategies or activities. There are other "non-extension" factors which might influence the accomplishment of this objective, such as availability of inputs or funds, type of seeds utilized and land conditions. A campaign is only one of the many factors which can contribute to the successful achievement of a programme or project.

Phase 3: Strategy development and information positioning

A systematic and strategic campaign plan is essential to the efficient achievement of campaign objectives. The first step in a strategic extension campaign (SEC) planning exercise is to identify clearly the problems which may impede or obstruct adoption of the suggested idea, innovation or technology. Data from baseline/KAP surveys, including problem identification and needs assessments results should be analysed carefully. The central issue(s) or problem(s) which might impede progress in achieving the extension goal should be identified. The following two actual cases illustrate the importance of problem identification and analysis:

In a coconut replanting and rehabilitation programme in one South-East Asian country, it was discovered during the planning analysis phase that many coconut farmers were not adopting the recommended new and improved MAWA seed (a hybrid of yellow Malaysian Dwarf and West African Tall species of coconuts). Their unresponsiveness was initially the main concern of the extension activity. It was found that a large number of coconut farmers were already well-informed about this type of seed and they were favourably disposed towards using it. However, many coconut farmers reported that they felt there was no need to increase their coconut yields because the price of copra was very low. After further study and analysis, it was found that the low copra price was attributed to the poor copra quality, which was due to the ineffective method of drying the coconut. Thus, one of the main emphases of the campaign on this coconut replanting and rehabilitation programme should have been on informing or educating coconut farmers on new or improved coconut-drying techniques and methods rather than on promoting the improved MAWA seeds. If such appropriate (i.e. simple and inexpensive) technology for effective coconut drying is not available, then it is also the task of extension planners to sensitize and encourage researchers, technicians, decision-makers or administrators involved in coconut production to resolve that problem. Thus the target audience of extension campaign activities do not always have to be the "farmers" or "rural" population; when necessary, they can also include the "big bosses".

In one South Asian country, a programme of voluntary female sterilization (ligation) was launched. Before a systematic baseline/KAP survey was conducted almost all of the programme's decision-makers, planners and managers thought (or assumed) that the main problem of the programme was that most couples, especially the husbands, were afraid that their sex-life might be affected after sterilization. However, KAP survey results revealed that the programme organizers' perception of the problem was incorrect. Almost two-thirds of the respondents reported that the main reason for not having sterilization was due to their "fear of operation" (the first-ranking reason) and only 26.5 percent cited "sex-life might be affected after the operation" (ranking fourth). Had the KAP survey not been conducted, the programme thrust in terms of campaign strategy and message positioning would have been mainly on counter-attacking "the negative effects on sex-life" rather than the "fear of operation" issue.

The foregoing two simple illustrations, and also the examples provided earlier on the planning process of the rat control campaign in Malaysia, indicate the need to analyse and identify specific and main issue(s) or problem(s) which an extension programme has to resolve. Once such problems have been identified, specific campaign strategies need to be developed to solve each of the problems encountered by the programme. Figure 2-5 provides simplified guidelines on how to determine the general campaign strategy direction and/or priority on the basis of KAP survey findings. These general strategies need to be made more specific in Phases 4, 5 and 6 of the campaign planning process, which is discussed in greater detail later. It should be mentioned that the general and simplified guidelines should not be applied rigidly in all situations. Rather, it should be utilized as a tool to conceptualize and systematize a campaign planning and strategy development process.

FIGURE 2-5 General and Simplified Guidelines on Utilizing Results of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Survey for Planning and Development of Extension Campaign Strategies.

Source: Adhikarya, (1985).

Note: The classification of KAP levels (high, medium, low) depends on the type of innovation/idea promoted, size of population, cost/effort required, etc. It's a rather arbitrary judgement as to what criteria to use to classify these levels, but normally low level is 0-30%, medium level is 31-60%, and high level is above 60% for knowledge or attitude, and 0-20% (low), 21-40% (medium), and 40% (high) for practice.

Phase 4: Audience analysis and segmentation

One of the most important elements in a campaign is the target audience or beneficiaries: who they are, where they are located, why they are chosen as target beneficiaries and what information contents or messages should be communicated to them. Analysis of a target audience is an integral part of designing and planning a campaign strategy. In such an analysis, certain types of information or data are needed; for instance, the size and location of the target audience, their socio-economic profile (including age group, income, occupation, education, among other data) and their socio-cultural profile (including religion, language, family life patterns, traditional belief systems, norms, values, information sources, communication and interaction practices, among others). Characteristics, interests and information needs of the target audience might be different, so audience segmentation into several different target groupings is usually necessary. For each target group, a specific campaign strategy may be required. In this phase, it is also important to prioritize the target beneficiaries as to which group(s) should be reached first or be given the most intensive campaign treatment.

Tables 2-6 and 2-7 are examples of the results of a KAP survey on weed management conducted in 1988 among farmers in Malaysia's Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA). Based on these data, useful strategies for campaign planning, including priority target group, location, type/nature of information needed, etc. can be developed. Table 2-6 revealed that most farmers surveyed did not use the correct amount of Arrosolo, while among those farmers using Rumputox only about half of them applied the recommended amount. In the use of Ronstar, about 81 percent of farmers who were located in Districts III and IV of the MADA scheme used the correct amount, while the majority (84.4 percent) of those in Districts I and II did not use the recommended amount. If one follows a strategic planning principle, one possible option is to concentrate the SEC activities on providing information, motivation and education to farmers in all districts on the correct amount of Arrosolo use, and the correct amount of Ronstar use only to farmers in Districts I and II.


Amount of herbicide applied by farmers in the Muda irrigation scheme, Malaysia (1988)

Type of herbicide

Amount of herbicide used for each relong

Percentage of farmers in

District I and II

District III and IV


< 250


10.1 %

11.1 %



310 %

23.4 %







46.1 %

49.1 %

> 1000


12.2 %





100.0 %

72.7 %



18.2 %



9.1 %

> 2000



< 5


60.8 %

42.1 %







21.7 %

24.6 %

> 10





< 1000


5.4 %

3.0 %



10.8 %

5.5 %



15.6 %

80.7 %





* the correct/recommended amount
** For Ronstar, we use simulated data for illustration only

Source: R. Mohamed and Y. L. Khor, "Survey Report of Farmers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) on Weed Management in the Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA)", Malaysia (March 1988).


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