Flavours and fragances of plant origin


Table of contents


NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS 1

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-37
ISBN 92-5-103648-9

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale dells Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

(c) FAO 1995


Table of contents


FOREWORD

ABBREVIATIONS

Chapter 1
FLAVOURS AND FRAGRANCES OF PLANT ORIGIN

INTRODUCTION
FORMAT OF THE REPORT
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT
OF NEW OR IMPROVED SOURCES OF FLAVOURS AND
FRAGRANCES
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 2
CINNAMOMUM OILS (INCLUDING CINNAMON AND CASSIA)

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
OILS FROM OTHER CINNAMOMUM SPECIES
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 3
SASSAFRAS OIL

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
PIPER SPECIES AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF SAFROLE
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 4
ROSEWOOD OIL

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 5
EUCALYPTUS OIL

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 6
SANDALWOOD OIL

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 7
LITSEA CUBEBA OIL

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 8
TURPENTINE FROM PINE RESIN

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN TURPENTINE/RESIN
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 9
OLIBANUM (FRANKINCENSE), MYRRH AND
OPOPANAX RESINS AND OILS

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN RESIN
DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter 10
CEDARWOOD OILS

DESCRIPTION AND USES
WORLD SUPPLY AND DEMAND TRENDS
PLANT SOURCES
HARVESTING/PRIMARY PROCESSING
VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
PRODUCTS OTHER THAN OIL
DEVELOPMENTAL POTENTIAL
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1: Basic principles of steam distillation



TABLES Table 1: Exports of cinnamon bark oil from Sri Lanka, and destinations,1987-92
Table 2: Exports of cinnamon leaf oil from Sri Lanka, and destinations,1987-92
Table 3: Imports of cassia oil into the United States, and sources,1987-93
Table 4: Cinnamomum species with actual or potential use as sources ofchemical isolates
Table 5: Exports of sassafras oil from Brazil, and destinations, 1986-90
Table 6: Exports of rosewood oil from Brazil, and destinations, 1986-92
Table 7: Imports of eucalyptus oil into the European Community, andsources, 1984-90
Table 8: Imports of eucalyptus oil into the United States, 1984-90
Table 9: World production and exports (excluding re-exports) ofcineole-type eucalyptus oil estimated for 1991
Table 10: Exports of sandalwood oil from India, and destinations,1987/88-1992/93
Table 11: Exports of sandalwood oil from Indonesia, and destinations,1987-92
Table 12: Principal producers and production volumes of gum turpentine(and rosin)
Table 13: Exports of gum turpentine from Indonesia, and destinations,1988-92
Table 14: Exports of incense gum from Somalia, and destinations, 1975-80
Table 15: Exports of myrrh from Somalia, and destinations, 1976-79
Table 16: Exports of incense gum from Ethiopia, and destinations, 1981-83
Table 17: Exports of olibanum/frankincense from India, and destinations,1987/88-1992/93
Table 18: Principal sources of olibanum, myrrh and opopanax andstimated world trade, 1987
Table 19: Imports of cedarwood oil into the United States, and sources,1989-93
Table 20: Imports of cedar oil into Japan, and sources, 1989-93



PHOTOGRAPHS

1. Wild Piper hispidenervium growing on forest verge, Acre state,Brazil [C. Green, NRI].
2. Field trials: Coppiced Piper hispidenervium awaiting its fourthharvest, Brazil [D. Baker, NRI].
3. Rosewood logs (Aniba rosaeodora) being transported by river to thedistillery, Brazil [FCAP].
4. Propagation trials: Seedling of Aniba rosaedora growing in partialshade, Brazil [FCAP].
5. Propagation trials: Branch method of developing juvenile stems ofAniba rosaeodora for clonal propagation, Brazil [FCAP].
6. Eucalyptus leaves awaiting distillation. Eucalyptus globulus,showing juvenile and adult leaves, Portugal [J. Coppen, NRI].
7. Harvesting Eucalyptus smithii, Swaziland. First cut at about 24months [J. Coppen, NRI].
8. Eucalyptus leaves being loaded into stills for distillation.Eucalyptus smithii, Swaziland [J. Coppen, NRI].
9. Regularly coppiced natural stands of Eucalyptus polybracteaawaiting harvesting, Australia [J. Coppen, NRI].
10. Traditional form of tapping practised in Indonesia,Pinus merkusii [J. Coppen, NRI].
11. Tapping Pinus merkusii in Thailand, which also involvesremoval of wood from the tree [J. Coppen, NRI].
12. Tapped face of Pinus elliottii showing bark removal (wide face),South Africa [J. Coppen, NRI].
13. Tapped face of Pinus elliottii showing bark removal (narrow face),South Africa [J. Coppen, NRI].
14. Tapping Pinus elliottii in Brazil illustrating use of plastic bags forresin collection [J. Coppen, NRI].
15. Pinus caribaea in third year of tapping, South Africa[J. Coppen, NRI].
16. Quality assessment: Collection of a sample of resin from Pinusmerkusii, Thailand [J. Coppen, NRI].
17. Olibanum ("beyo") collected from Boswellia sacra,Somalia [J. Coulter, NRI].
18. Boswellia sacra, Somalia [J. Coulter, NRI].