Publications of interest

Anon. 1993. Sea buckthorn in China. Beijing, China, Sea Buckthorn Office of the Yellow River Conservancy Committee.

Arden-Clarke, C. 1994. Green protectionism. WWF Discussion Paper. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International.

Arvigo, R. & Balick, M. 1994. Rainforest remedies. One hundred healing herbs of Belize. Twin Lakes, Wisconsin, USA, Lotus.

Aumeeruddy, Y. 1994. Représentations et gestion paysannes des agroforêts en périphérie du Parc National Kerinci Seblat à Sumatra, Indonésie. People and Plants Working Paper No. 3. Paris, Unesco.

Barrett, D.R. & Fox, J.E.D. 1994. Geographical distribution of Santalaceae and botanical characteristics of species in the genus Santalum. Sandalwood Workshop, New Caledonia, August 1994. Contribution No. 6. Canberra, ACIAR.

Basu, S.K. 1993. Rattans (canes) in India: a monographic revision. Howrah, India, Indian Botanic Garden.

Bennett, B.C. Alarcon, R. 1994. Osterphoeum platyspermum and Virola ducked (Myristicaceae): newly reported as hallucinogens from Amazonian Ecuador. Econ. Bot., 48(2).

Bills, G.F. 1993. Book review of "Methods for research on soilborne phytopathogenic fungi". Mycologia, 85: 140-141.

Bills, G.F. 1994. Isolation and analysis of endophytic fungal communities from woody plants. In S.C. Redlin, ed. Systematics, ecology and evolution of endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants. St Paul, Minnesota, USA, American Phytopathological Press.

Bills, G.F. & Polishook, J.D. 1994. Abundance and diversity of microfungi in leaf litter of a lowland rain forest in Costa Rica. Mycologia, 86: 187-198.

Blake, S. 1994. Ethnobotany of California Indians. Vol. 2. Aboriginal uses of California's indigenous plants. Campaign, Illinois, USA, Koeltz Scientific Books.

Blicher-Mathiesen, U. 1994. Borneo illipe. a fat from different Shorea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae). Econ. Bot., 48(3): 231-242.

Campbell, B. & Mangono, J.J. 1994. Working towards a biomass energy strategy for Zimbabwe. Harare, University of Zimbabwe Press.

Chhabra, C.S. & Mahunnah, R.L.A. 1994. Plants used in traditional medicine by Hayas of the Kagera region, Tanzania. Econ. Bot., 48(2).

Cunningham, A.B. 1993. Ethics, ethnobiological research and biodiversity. Gland. Switzerland, WWF International.

de Beer, J., Polsena, K., Bergmans, W., Chinh, P.H., Ketphanh, S. & Ottens, B.J. 1994. Our life depends on nature: non-timber forest products in conservation and community development in Lao, PDR. A preparatory study. The Netherlands, Profound.

De Coursey, M.A. 1994. Healing forest and ailing economies: non-timber forest products in Nepal. TRI News, 13(2): 46-49.

Dharia, S.K., Sawani, A.G. & Toro, V.A. 1993. Potential of Gliricidia as a fodder tree. Indian Dairyman, 45(4): 152-155.

Dominguez, J.L. 1994. The economics of sustainability: distribution of production costs of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. and Bonpl.) in Peru and Bolivia. J. Trop. Resour. Inst., 13(1). New Haven, Connecticut, USA, Yale University Press.

Dove, M.R. 1993a. Para rubber and swidden agriculture in Borneo: an exemplary adaptation to the ecology and economy of the tropical forest. Econ. Bot., 47(2): 136-147.

Dove, M.R. 1993b. The responses of dayak and bearded pig to mast-fruiting in Kalimantan: an analysis of nature-culture analogies. In Tropical forests, people and food. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 15, p.113-123. Unesco/Parthenon Publishing.

Dove, M.R. 1993c. A revisionist view of tropical deforestation and development. Environ. Conserv., 20(1): 17-24. Honolulu, East-West Center.

Dove, M.R. 1994a. The survival of culture and the culture of survival: review article. Borneo Res. Bull., 25: 168-181.

Dove, M.R. 1994b. Agroforestry that works for people, rubber and swidden cultivation in Kalimantan. Int. Ag-Sieve, VI(3): 1-3.

Dove, M.R. 1994c. Rainforest marketing: green panacea or red herring? Issues Paper No.11. Honolulu, East-West Center.

Downing, J., Hyman, E., Granima, D. & Johnson, G. 1994. Rural oilseed processing activities in Sofala Province, Mozambique: feasibility, recommendations and conclusions. Washington, DC, ATI.

Dransfield, J., Rao, A.N., Dransfield, S., Widjaja, E., Renuka, C. & Mohamad, A. 1994. Priority species of bamboo and rattan. INBAR and IBPGR Technical Report No.1. New Delhi, India.

Duke, J.A. 1993. Tropical botanical extractives. Caderno de Farmacia, 9(1): 7-16.

Duke, J.A. & Vasquez Martinez, R. 1994. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. Boca Raton, Florida, USA, CRC Press.

Dwivedi, A.P. 1993. Forests: the non-wood resources. Dehra Dun, India, International Book Distributors.

Eisner, T. 1994. Chemical prospecting: a global imperative. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 138(3): 385393.

Emerton, L. 1994. Valuing household use of non-timber forest products. Paper for IUCN Workshop on Extractivism and Potentialities of Multiple-Use Forest Reserves in Africa. Naro Moro, Kenya.

FAO. 1993. Breeding and improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants in Asia. RAPA Publication No. 12. Bangkok.

FAO. 1994a. Non-wood forest products in Asia. RAPA Publication 1994/28. Bangkok.


The series of Unesco Environment and Development Briefs is intended to improve the communication to decision-makers of scientific information about environment and development. The series is addressed primarily to decision-makers in government who need a quick, authoritative and readable overview of topics presented in a policy perspective and including possible strategies for action. Each 16-page brief focuses on a single issue related to the overall quest for sustainable development. Topics addressed in Briefs 1-7 are debt-for-nature swaps, ground water, new technologies of remote sensing and geographic information systems, reshaping education towards sustainable development, disaster reduction, coping with natural hazard, and coasts: managing complex systems and biodiversity.

For inquiries, please contact Bureau for Coordination of Environmental Programmes, Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris 07 SP, France. Fax +33 1 45669096.

FAO. 1994b. Nutmeg and derivatives. Working Paper MISC/7/1994. Rome.

FAO. 1994c. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin. NWFP Monograph No.1. Rome.

FAO. 1995. Consulta de expertos sobre productos forestales no madereros pare América Latina y el Caribe. Santiago.

FAO/APAN. 1994. Proc. Regional Expert Consultation on Farmer to Farmer Adaptive Agroforestry Research, 4-10 October 1992, Cebu, the Philippines. APAN Report No. 12. Bogor.

FAO/FORSPA/IDRC. 1993. Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific. Proc. IVth International Bamboo Workshop. New Delhi, IDRC.

FAO/FORSPA. 1994a. Study on beedi leaf collection and utilization in India. Bangkok.

FAO/FORSPA. 1994b. Non-wood forest products of Papua New Guinea. Bangkok.

FAO/FORSPA. 1994c. Non-wood forest products of Himachal Pradesh, India. Bangkok.

Fichtl, R. & Addi, A. 1994. Ethiopian honeybee flora: some 500 common herbs, shrubs and trees. Germany, Margraf Verlag.

Finol-Urdaneta, H. 1993. Planificación silvicultural de los bosques ricos en palma maraca, Euterpe oleracea en el Delta del Rio Orinoco. Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales.

Flores Negrón. 1994. Harvesting Geonoma deversa (Poiteau) in southeast Peru: toward sustainable management. TRI News, 13(2): 3537.

Fox, J., ed. 1994. Spatial information and ethnoecology: case studies from Indonesia, Nepal and Thailand. East-West Center Working Papers. Environment Series No. 38. Honolulu, East-West Center.

Garrod, G.D. & Willis, K.G. 1994. Valuing biodiversity and nature conservation at a local level. Biodivers. Conserv., 3(6). London, Chapman and Hall.

Goel, C.L. 1993. Conservation of medicinal plant resources in Himalayas (India). Indian Forester, 119(12).

Gorden, A. & Coppen, J.J.W. 1993. Trends in demand for Amazonian gums, resins and rotenoid insecticides and an assessment of their developmental potential with particular reference to Brazil. Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute.

Govil, J.N. et al., eds. 1993. Medicinal plants: new vistas of research. New Delhi, Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers.

Hegde, N.G. & Daniel, J.N. 1993. Promotion of non-wood forest produce through social forestry. Pune, India, Development Research Foundation.

Henderson, A. 1994. The palms of the Amazon. New York, Oxford University Press.

USDA FOREST SERVICE. 1993. Income opportunities in special forest products. Self-help suggestions for rural entrepreneurs. Bulletin No. 666. Washington, DC.

Income opportunities in special forest products

This publication describes special forest products that represent opportunities for rural entrepreneurs to supplement their incomes. The types of products discussed Include aromatics, berries and wild fruits, cones and seeds, forest botanicals, honey, mushrooms, nuts, syrup, and weaving and dyeing materials. Each chapter describes market and competition considerations, distribution and packaging, equipment needs, and resource conservation considerations, and presents a profile of a rural business marketing the products. In general, products suitable for very small or part-time operations are described. A suggested role for each type of microenterprise within a broader rural economic development framework is also mentioned.

Hladik et al., eds. 1993. Tropical forests, people and food: biocultural interactions and applications to development. MAB Vol.13. Unesco/Parthenon Publishing.

Jahnige, P.J., Loomis, S.J. & Grimes, A.P. 1993. Valuing non-timber forest products. TRI Working Paper No. 62.

Joshi, K.C., Roychowdhury, N., Kulkarni, N., Kalia, S. & Meshram, P.B. 1993. Insects as tribal food. J. Trop. For., 9: 264.

Joyce, C. 1994. Earthly goods: medicine hunting in the rain forest. London, Little, Brown.

Krattiger, A.F., McNeely, J.A., Lesser, W.H., Miller, K.R., St. Hill, Y. & Senanayake, R., eds. 1994. Widening perspectives of biodiversity. Geneva/IUCN. International Academy of the Environment.

Lafleur, J. 1993. Markets and marketing in agroforestry and community forestry systems. Brazil, Tropic International Ltd.

La Frankie, J.V. 1994. Population dynamics of some tropical species that yield non-timber forest products. Econ. Bot., 48(3): 301309.

Leakey, R.R.B. 1994. "Cinderella" tree species... the clock strikes eleven. Agroforestry Today, 6(2): 1 -3.

Leakey, R.R.B. & Newton, A.C., eds. 1994a. Tropical trees: the potential for domestication and the rebuilding of forest resources. London, HMSO Books.

Leakey, R.R.B. & Newton, A.C., eds. 1994b. Domestication of tropical trees for timber and non-timber products. MAB Digest 17. Paris, Unesco.

Lemieux, G. 1994. La protection de l'environnement par le système humique: un rôle que l'on découvre peu à peu. Université Laval.

Lentz, D.L. 1993. Medicinal and other economic plants of the Paya of Honduras. Econ. Bot., 47(4).

Maghembe, J.A. 1994. Out of the forest: indigenous fruit trees in southern Africa. Agroforestry Today, 6(2): 4-6.

Malla, S.B. 1994. Medicinal herbs in the Bagmati zone, Nepal. Kathmandu, ICIMOD.

Martin, G.J. 1994. Ethnobotany, a methods manual. London, Chapman and Hall.

Mattsson, L.& Chuan-Zhong Li. 1994. How do different forest management practices affect the non-timber value of forests; an economic analysis. J. Environ. Manage., 41: 79-88.

Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia. 1993. Conservation of forest genetic resources: conservation in-situ and ex-situ of medicinal plants in Meru Betiri National Park. Jakarta.

Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Nepal. 1993. Focus on Jaributi. FRSC Occasional Paper No. 2.

Morakinyo, A. 1994. The commercial trade in Nigeria. Forests, Trees and People Newsletter, 25: 22-30.


As a way of disseminating information and responding to requests, the WWF-Unesco-RBG Kew "People and Plants Initiative" will publish a handbook that can later be made available on computerized networks and updated on a regular basis.

As a companion volume to the People and Plants conservation manuals, the handbook will be a valuable aid to park managers, foresters, cultural promoters, members of NGOs and other people interested in pursuing an ethnobotanical approach. In addition to giving general advice and a philosophical orientation to readers, it will provide specific answers to many of the practical questions posed by participants in basic or applied ethnobotanical projects.

For more information, please contact Gary J. Martin, Handbook Editor, People and Plants Initiative, Division of Ecological Sciences, MAB/Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris Cedex 07 SP, France. Fax: +33 1 40659897.

Morton, J.F. 1994. Pito (Erythrina berteroana) and chipilin (Crotalaria lonirostrata), (Fabaceae), two soporific vegetables of Central America. Econ. Bot., 48(2).

Mutangah, J.G. 1994. Development of a database for non-timber products and its role in forest conservation in Kenya. Paper for IUCN Workshop on Extractivism and Potentialities of Multiple-Use Forest Reserves in Africa, Naro Moro, Kenya.

Negi, S.S. 1993. Minor forest products of India. Delhi, India, Periodical Experts Book Agency.

Nobel, P. 1994. Remarkable agaves and cacti. New York, Oxford University Press.

Ocampo Sanchez, R.A. 1994. Situación actual de los productos no maderables del bosque en Costa Rica. Consulta de expertos sobre productos forestales no madereros pare América Latina y el Caribe. Santiago.

O'Hara, J.L. 1994. The ecology of bayleaf palm (Sabal morrisiana) and implications for its sustainable management in the Rio Bravo conservation and management area, Belize. J. Trop. Resour. Inst., 13(1). New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press.

Paterson, R.T. 1994a. Use of trees by livestock: 8, Calliandra. Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute.

Paterson, R.T. 1994b. Use of trees by livestock: 9, Erythrina. Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute.

Paterson, R.T. & Clinch, N.J.L. 1994. Use of trees by livestock: 7, Ficus. Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute.

Pedersen, H.B. 1994. Mocora palm-fibres: use and management of Astrocaryum standleyanum (Arecaceae) in Ecuador. Econ. Bot., 48(3): 310-325.

Pelaez, F., Polishook, J.D., Validosera, M. & Guarro, J. 1994. A new species of Delitschia from West Africa. Mycotaxon., 50: 115122.

Perevolotsky, A., Brosh, A., Ehrlich, O., Gutman, M., Henkin, Z. & Holzer, Z. 1993. Nutritional value of common oak (Quercus calliprinos) browse as fodder for goats: experimental results in ecological perspective. Small Ruminant Research (1993), 11 (2): 95-106. Israel, The Volcani Centre.

Peters, C.M. 1994. Sustainable harvest of non-lumber resources in tropical moist forest: an ecological primer. WWF-USA, The Biodiversity Support Programme.

Petit Aldana, J. 1994. Arboles y arbustos forrajeros. Merida, Venezuela, Instituto Forestal Latinoamericano.

Prance, G. & A. 1993. Bark: the formation, characteristics and uses of bark around the world. USA Timber Press.

Raintree, J.B. & Francisco H.A., eds. 1994. Marketing of multipurpose tree products in Asia. Multipurpose Tree Species Research Network for Asia.

Reid, W.V., Laird, S.A., Meyer, C.A., Gamez, R., Sittenfeld, A., Janzen, D.H., Gollin, M.A. & Juma, C. 1993. Biodiversity prospecting: using genetic resources for sustainable development. USA, WRI; Costa Rica, INBio; USA, Rainforest Alliance; Kenya, ACTS.

UNESCO/MAB. 1993. Tropical forests, people and food: biocultural interactions and applications to development. Man and the Biosphere Series, Vol. 13. Paris.

Tropical forests, people and food

In this book, scientists from disciplines spanning the nature/and social sciences have focused on the biocultural interactions between tropical forest food resources and the communities they sustain. The 74 chapters are organized into six major sections dealing with: evolution and history of tropical forests in relation to food availability; food production and nutritional value of wild and semi-cultivated species; adaptive aspects of food consumption and energy expenditure; feeding strategies in relation to environmental variation; cultural factors in food choices; and management alternatives for the rational use of tropical forests in years to come.

The book's interdisciplinary approach makes it a valuable source of ideas and data upon which nature/and social scientists can draw for discussion and analysis. It will also assist managers, planners, development agencies and concerned individuals in making the right decisions about the future of tropical forests and the people who live in them.

Renuka, C. & Mohamad, A. 1994. Priority species of bamboo and rattan. INBAR and IBPGR.

Richards, E.M. 1993. Commercialization of non-timber forest products in Amazonia. NRI Socio-Economic Series No. 2. Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute.

Ricker, M., Quinlan, M., Sinta Velasco, M.C. & Sinaca Colin, M.A. 1993a. Valuation of a tropical rainforest in Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz, Mexico). TRI Working Paper No. 66a.

Ricker, M., Quinlan, M., Sinta Velasco, M.C. & Sinaca Colin, M.A. 1993b. Tropical rainforest management: the potential of enriching natural forest in Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz, Mexico). TRI Working Paper No. 66b.

Rivera, D., Obon, C. & Cano, F. 1994. The botany, history and traditional uses of three-lobed sage (Salvia fruticosa Miller) (Labiatae). Econ. Bot., 48(2).

Ruiz Murrieta, J. 1993a. Alimentos del bosque amazónico. MAB/Unesco.

Ruiz Murrieta, J. 1993b. Alimentos del bosque amazónico; una alternativa pare la protección de los bosques tropicales. Montevideo, Unesco/ORCYT.

Ruiz Perez, M. 1993. El extractivismo en América Latina. UICN.

Russell, S. 1994. Wetlands. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International.

Russell, S. & Mills, J. 1993. Traffic: trade records analysis of flora and fauna in commerce. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International.

Russell, S., Pimbert, M. & Barkow, B. 1993. The diversity of life. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International.

Saulei, S.M. & Aruga, J.A. 1994. The status and prospects of non-timber forest products development in Papua New Guinea. Commonwealth For. Rev., 73(2).

Schmeda-Hirschmann, G. 1994. Plant resources used by the Ayoreo of the Paraguayan Chaco. Econ. Bot., 48(3): 243-251.

Seiler, G.J. 1994. Oil concentration and fatty acid composition of Achenes of North American Helianthus (Asteraceae) species. Econ. Bot., 48(3): 271-279.

Sheng, F. 1993. Integrating economic development with conservation. WWF Discussion Paper. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International.

Sittenfeld, A. & Lovejoy, A. 1994. Biodiversity prospecting frameworks: the INBio experience in Costa Rica. Conference on Biological Diversity Exploring the Complexities, 25-27 March 1994, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

Tangley, L. 1993. The Tagua Initiative -marketing biodiversity products. Lessons from the Field II. Washington, DC, Conservation International.

Tewari, D.N. 1993a. Non-timber forest produce in poverty alleviation. Indian Forester, 119(12).

Tewari, D.N. 1993b. A monograph on bamboo. Dehra Dun, India, International Book Distributors.

Torres, H., Borel, R., Bustamente, N. & Centeno, M.l. 1993. Traditional uses of native shrubs in the south of Puno. In ODI Network Paper No. 16e.

Traffic-USA. 1994. Prescription for extinction: endangered species and patented oriental medicines in trade. Washington, DC, WWF-USA.

Tropical International Ltd. 1993. Markets and marketing in agroforestry and community forestry systems. Pernambuco 500300, Brazil.

Tucker, A.O. et al. 1994. Spicebush [Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume var. Benzoin, Lauraceae]: a tea, spice and medicine. Econ. Bot., 48(3): 310-325.

Tydeman, C. & Wilson, A. 1993. Promoting wise use of wetlands. WWF Special Report.

Walters, M. & Hamilton, A. 1993. The vital wealth of plants. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International.

Wan Mohd, W.R., Dransfield, J. & Manokaran, N., eds. 1994. Nursery techniques for rattan. INBAR and FRIM Technical Report No. 2.

WHO. 1993. Research guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. Regional Office for Western Pacific, Manila.

WHO/IUCN/WWF. 1993. Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants. Geneva.

Williams, D.E. 1993. Lycianthes moziniana (Solanaceae): an underutilized Mexican food plant with "new" crop potential. Econ. Bot., 47(4).

Williams, J.T., Dransfield, J., Ganapathy, P.M., Liese, W., Nor, S.M. & Sastry, C.B. 1994. Research needs for bamboo and rattan to the year 2000. New Delhi, INBAR.

Williams, J.T. & Ramanatha Rao, V., eds. 1994. Priority species of bamboo and rattan. INBAR/IPGRI.

WWF International. 1993. Sustainable use of natural resources: concepts, issues and criteria.




Arnold, J.E.M. Socio-economic benefits and issues in non-wood forest products use.

Chandrasekharan, C. Terminology, definition and classification of forest products other than wood.

Chipeta, M. Making non-wood forest products programme succeed: what lessons from the small-scale forest-based enterprises world?

Clay, J. An overview on harvesting, forest processing and transport of non-wood forest products.

Coppen, J.J.W. & Green, C. Markets and the public/private sector interface: their importance in the successful development of non-wood forest products.

De Silva, T. & Atal. Processing, refinement and value addition on non-wood products.

Doran, J.C. Non-wood forest products research at CSIRO Division of Forestry, Australia.

FAO/ESN. Non-wood forest products in nutrition.

Haeruman, H. Environmental dimensions of non-wood forest products.

Lintu, L. Trade and marketing of non-wood forest products.

Nair, C.T.S. Status of research on non-wood forest products: the Asia-Pacific situation.

Nair, P.K.R. & Merry, F.D. Development of non-wood forest products through agroforestry: issues and strategies.

Padovani, F. Statistical information on non-wood forest products.

Pswarayi-Riddihough, I. & Jones, N. Some marketing problems faced by agroforestry farmers in Asia.

Reis, M. Resource development for non-wood forest products.

Sène, E.H. Non-wood forest products: the institutional aspects.

Sharma, P. Non-wood forest products and integrated mountain development: observations from Nepal.

Vantomme, P. Information requirements and planning principles for managing non-wood forest resources in mangrove forests.

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