FAO model code of forest harvesting practice


Table of contents


By
Dennis P. Dykstra
Center for International Forestry Research
Bogor, Indonesia

and
Rudolf Heinrich
Forest Harvesting, Trade and Marketing
Branch (FOPH)
FAO Forestry Department

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1996

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the introduction of environmentally sound forest harvesting practices in many parts of the world. Nonetheless, much remains to be done. There is a continuing need to refine harvesting system and techniques so that they become fully compatible with the objectives of sustainable forest management, allowing them to contribute in an important way to the economic and social aims of sustainable development. This document is one response to this need. Its primary objective is to promote forest harvesting practices that improve standards of utilization and reduce environmental impacts, thereby contributing to the conservation of forests through their wise use.

The information provided in this model code of forest harvesting practice has been compiled with the intend of highlighting the wide range of environmentally sound harvesting practices that are available to forest managers, especially those requiring only a modest level of investment in training and technology. This will permit policy-makers to develop national, regional or local codes of practice which will best serve the particular needs of government agencies, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and other constituents.

Reprinted 1997

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

David Lubin Memorial Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Dykstra, D.P.
FAO model code of forest harvesting practice.
ISBN 92-5-103690-X

1. Forests 2. Harvesting 3. Models
I. Heinrich, R. II. Title III. FAO. Rome (Italy)

FAO code: 33 AGRIS: K10 U10

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

FAO 1996


Contents


Foreword

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Introduction

Forest harvesting and multiresource forestry
The legacy of UNCED

Rio Declaration
Forest Principles
International Framework Convention on Climate Change
International Framework Convention on Biological Diversity
Agenda 21

Purpose
Scope
Approach
How to write a code of practice

Chapter 2 Harvest planning

What it is
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of inadequate planning
Recommended practices

Strategic planning
Tactical planning

Chapter 3 Forest road engineering

What it is
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of improper road design, construction and maintenance
Recommended practices

Chapter 4 Cutting

What it is
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of improper cutting operations
Recommended practices

Chapter 5 Extraction

What it is
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of improper extraction operations
Recommended practices for extraction with ground-skidding equipment
Recommended practices for extraction with forwarders
Cable extraction systems
Recommended practices for extraction with cable systems
Aerial extraction systems

Balloon extraction systems
Helicopter extraction systems

Recommended practices for helicopter extraction
Recommended practices for extraction with draught animals
Other extraction systems

Manual extraction
Pit sawing
Extraction by chute
Extraction by winch truck
Extraction by water

Chapter 6 Landing operations

What they are
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of improper landing operations
Recommended practices

Chapter 7 Transport operations

What they are
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of improper transport operations
Recommended practices

Chapter 8 Harvesting assessment

What it is
Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of inadequate harvesting assessment
Recommended practices

Chapter 9 The forest harvesting workforce

What it is

Management
Labour

Guiding principles
Objectives
Potential consequences of an inadequate workforce
Potential consequences of an inadequate workforce
Recommended practices

Appendix: Workshop participants and reviewers

Participants at the Expert Consultation on Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Forest Operations
Participants at the International Meeting of Experts on Forest Practices
Reviewers who provided written comments and suggestions on the draft FAO model code of forest harvesting practice

Glossary

Bibliography

References on codes of forest practice and similar guidelines
Other references