The state of food and agriculture 1995


Contents


FAO Agriculture Series
No. 28

The statistical material in this publication has been prepared from the information available to FAO up to June 1995.

The designations employed and the presentation do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In some tables, the designations "developed" and "developing" economies are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.

David Lubin Memorial Library
Cataloguing in Publication Data

FAO, Rome (Italy)
The state of food and agriculture 1995.
(FAO Agriculture Series, no. 28)
ISBN 92-5-103700-0

1. Agriculture. 2. Food production.
3. Trade

I. Title II. Series

FAO code: 70 AGRIS:E16 E70 K01
FAO 1995

Printed in Italy


Contents


Foreword
Acknowledgements
Explanatory note
World review

I. Current agricultural situation - facts and figures

1. Crop and livestock production in 1994
2. Food shortages and emergencies
3. Current cereal supply, utilization and stocks
4. External assistance to agriculture
5. Food aid flows in 1994/95
6. International agricultural prices
7. Fisheries: catch disposition and trade
8. Forestry production and trade

II. Overall economic environment and agriculture

Agricultural outlook
Outlook for developing country economies highly dependent on agricultural trade

III. Selected issues

Introduction
The evolution and structure of food imports
Origin of imports
Export structure and agricultural exports
Sustainability of high food import dependence
Food consumers in the policy process
Whither policy reform?
Food consumption and the demand for food
Policy reform and food prices
Protecting vulnerable groups of consumers
In conclusion

Regional review

I. Developing country regions

Sub-Saharan Africa
The Republic of South Africa
Asia and the Pacific
India
Latin America and the Caribbean
Central America
Near east and North Africa
Jordan

II. Developed country regions

Central and Eastern Europe and the new independent states of the former USSR
A profile of Kazakhstan's agricultural reforms

Agricultural trade: entering a new era?

Introduction
I. Agricultural trade - changing trends and patterns

Declining importance of agriculture in world trade
Expanding agricultural markets and contracting developing country share
Will the developing countries remain net exporters?
Diversifying markets and intensifying intraregional exchanges
Falling agricultural prices, increasing shipment volumes and dwindling purchasing capacity of agricultural exports
Shifting from primary to processed exports

II. A changing world environment for agricultural trade

The deregulation of the world economy
The transformation of centrally planned economies
The years to come
The collapse of the CMEA
The case of China

III. The evolution of international trade rules

The Uruguay round
The agricultural agreement
Import protection
Export competition
Domestic policies
The peace clause
The committee on agriculture
The sanitary and phytosanitary agreement
The impact of the Uruguay round on world trade and commodity prices

IV. The development of regional trade arrangements

The extent of regional trade associations
Rationale for RTAs
The treatment of agriculture in RTAs

V. International trade, the environment and sustainable agricultural development

How trade is linked to the environment
The effects of trade on the environment and their measurement
Trade liberalization and the environment
Policy implications
Concluding remarks

Special chapters
FAO economic and social development papers
Time series for SOFA'95 diskette