Dimensions and determinants of rural poverty
Male migration has created many female-headed households with a shortage of adult labour, often resulting in a decline of food productivity and ability to earn cash income. Female-headed households, which account for 42.9% of rural households, also support more dependents and thus are particularly affected by malnutrition. Rising unemployment has shrunk remittances and cash income. The natural resource base is declining due to drought, erosion, deforestation, and increasing population pressure. Subsistence farmers engage in unsustainable farming practices in the absence of alternatives. Even in good years, agricultural production is inadequate to meet basic food needs.