Non-wood forest products for rural income and sustainable forestry


Table of contents


 

NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS 7

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-30
ISBN 92-5-103765-5

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale dells Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

(c) FAO 1995


Table of contents


Foreword

Acronyms

Summary

1. Introduction

Why are non-wood forest products important?
Who uses non-wood forest products?
A basis for sustainable forest management
A range of options
References

2. Resource assessment and development

Determining tenure and access
The resource inventory

Advance planning
Inventory methods
Importance of wildlife
Analyzing the results
Reducing inventory costs

Other factors in resource assessment
Species selection
Sustainable harvest levels

Yield studies
Regeneration studies
Harvest assessments

Scope for domestication of species

Advantages and disadvantages
Agroforestry

Summary
References
For further reading

3. Assessing local use of the resource

Why assess local use?
Local importance of non-wood forest products

Cultural values
Household subsistence
Food and nutrition
Fodder and grazing
Medicinal uses
Local trade

How to study local resource use

What information to collect
How to collect the information

Identifying target and indicator groups

The importance of women's concerns
Other indicator groups

Subsector analysis for marketed products
Learning about local forest management
Summary
References
For further reading

4. Opportunities for improved management

Improving resource productivity
Improving harvesting methods

Pre-harvest preparations
Harvest techniques

Post-harvest technologies
Multiple-use management for wood and non-wood harvests
Strategies for domestication

Community forests
Household-based agroforestry
Selection and breeding for farmers' preferences
Genetic conservation
Commercial plantations

Innovative options in the use of medicinal plants

Biological and chemical compounds
Ethnobotanical research

Ecotourism
Local wildlife management
Farmer-led initiatives
Summary
References
For further reading

5. Exploring commercial options

Characteristics of successful small enterprises
Elements of a successful enterprise strategy
Problems commonly faced by small enterprises

An example from Indonesia: Rattan

Planning NWFP enterprises
Managing risk
Building entrepreneurial and management skills

Entrepreneurial training for producers
Marketing training for producers, extension workers and policy-makers

Credit support for small enterprises
Overview of processing options
Summary
References
For further reading

6. Processing ventures

Simple-technology processing: foods and handicrafts

Foods
Handicrafts

Intermediate processing: medicines, vegetable oils, food colorants, tannins and gum naval stores

Medicinal plant products
Vegetable oils
Dyes and food colorants
Tannins
Turpentine and other naval stores

Complex processing: essential oils, waxes and other products

Essential oils
Waxes and other products

Steps in processing
Quality standards
New product development and research support
Summary
References
For further reading

7. Markets, marketing and trade

Markets
Key factors in marketing non-wood products

Product
Place and the role of intermediaries
Promotion
Price
Placing a value on sustainable supply

Market information systems

National and regional systems
Local market systems
Information on international markets
Green marketing

The trade environment

National and local trade
Regional and international trade
Trends in international NWFP trade
International trade agreements

Summary
References
For further reading

8. Organizing producer groups

Factors in successful organization

The user group
The natural resource

Some tools for organizing

Community meetings
Land-use mapping
Community education

Organizing producers for marketing and processing
Organizing for conflict management
Summary
References
For further reading

9. Research and extension

Involving producers in problem-solving research
National research efforts
National extension services
Consortiums for research and training
Scope for regional and international research
Some priority research areas

Asia-Pacific
Latin America
Africa

Gender-sensitive research and extension
Summary
References
For further reading

10. Institutional and policy support

Public education
Patterns of economic change and implications for policy

Changes in local and urban markets
Boom-bust patterns in international and export markets
Implications for policy-making

Better national accounting

Definition
Classification
Economic valuation of environmental functions

Intellectual property rights
Direct support from national-level institutions

Information, training and education
Credit

Support for NGOs

Consortiums of government, private sector, and NGOs

Regional and international support
Summary
References
For further reading

Appendix 1. Contacts for further information

FAO technical papers