1. Participation Analysis
2. Problem Analysis
3. Objectives Analysis
4. Summary of Workshop Recommendations
The instrument of participation analysis is used to shed light on the various groups and parties concerned with the project, whether directly or indirectly, who may benefit from, support or even oppose the project activities. It is important that in planning a project, one should know all those who are significant to the success of the project. The reason for this is their interests and expectations have to be considered otherwise they would not participate fully in the project. In the beginning a general listing is made showing the most important and relevant institutions, individuals or persons, interest groups, and target group(s) related to the project and its activities.
1.1 BRAINSTORMING AND CLASSIFICATION OF INTEREST GROUPS
Through a brainstorming exercise in plenum, using the visualization cards, participants were asked to make a general listing of all those they felt were involved with the African Forest Pest Management Network. From this listing a cluster was made under the following categories:
· Forest Services
· Research Institutions
· Training Institutions
· International Institutions
· Government Institutions
1.2 DETAILED ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUPS
A detailed analysis of the following selected groups was carried out:
· FD - Uganda
· CABI - IIBC
· Forestry Research Ethiopia
· Forest and Wildlife
· Forests National Corporation - Sudan
· Forests Training Institutes
· FD - Kenya/DFOB - Tanzania
· Existing networks
· PPRI South Africa
In groupwork the selected stakeholders were analysed in depth under the following headings:
· How should they be considered
The results of the group analysis were visualized on cards and presented in plenum and checked for validity.
The full analysis is given in Appendix III.
During the presentations intensive discussions took place. The following are some of the highlights from the discussions:
A common weakness among all the forest departments of the participating countries was identified as insufficient funds, inadequate infrastructure and poorly trained personnel. They are not self supporting. Paradoxically, the forest sector earns the countries substantial amounts of money. As one way of making the network sustainable, a pitch should be made for part of this money. The South African participant informed the group that his country has already a levy system and the wood industry pays for research. Participants suggested that forest departments should be able to pay for research. Mrs. Pat Ciesla gave an elaborate account of how a newsletter can be provided with almost no budget to show that a network can indeed be run on a minimum budget.
For the stakeholder IIBC it was noted that information was one of its strengths in that it had good access to relevant information and it was very good at disseminating it. Mr. Abdulrahman Gorashi informed the participants that 90% of the entire forest sector in Sudan is administered by Sudan National Corporation which he felt is also competent to undertake research. ICRAF was said to be strong in its ability to attract donor funds. However this was contested by a participant who felt that ICRAF, like any other donor funded organization, was compelled to compete for funds. Yes, the group presenter said, but ICRAF had a leading edge over many others due to its standing. The group felt that NGOs would make useful partners because of their ability to obtain donor funds, their proximity to the grassroots and their lack of red tape. However, these strengths were tampered with the NGOs instability, their propensity to jump form one programme to another depending on what is in vogue, their inability to focus and the ever present danger of disappearing from the scene altogether especially when they cannot raise money. Participants felt that some NGOs could not fit this description and some indeed could be donors and could also provide extensive technical know-how borne of years of experience. Examples of the latter category of NGOs were Care International and the Ford Foundation.
Having carried out a detailed analysis of the key actors, participants were able to look into the problem area.
Problem Analysis facilitates the identification of problems. The analysis begins by finding a core problem which is not necessarily the most important problem but serves as a starting point and allows for an indepth analysis.
In plenum, using the visualization cards, each participant had an opportunity to write down a proposal suggesting the core problem.
Through a brainstorming exercise and discussions on suggested problems, the core problem was identified as:
TREES, FORESTS AND WOOD PRODUCTS ARE BEING DAMAGED BY PESTS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE COUNTRY IN AFRICA
The immediate effects of the core problem are tree defects, tree mortality and environmental degradation.
The immediate causes of the core problem were identified as:
· Inadequate flow of information
· Inadequate resources
· Inadequate pest management
· Introduction of new pests
· Inadequate policies
In group work using the nominal group process participants analysed the above problems in depth and identified their causes. The results of group analysis were presented in plenum.
A full analysis of the problems is per Appendix IV - Problem Tree.
During the presentations, intensive discussions were held. Following are some of the highlights from the discussions:
An observation was made that the existence of an infrastructure does not necessarily constitute adequate resources. For example, the presence of a toilet building does not necessarily include the availability of running water or functioning electricity in it. One participant felt the need to de-emphasize the importance of big infrastructure for things to get done. Using the above example, he said the inverse could also serve a given purpose well, that is, adequate amenities/facilities such as water and electricity being in place could greatly help to get work done without necessarily having big infrastructure.
Inadequate pest management:
The issue of trained manpower was discussed. It was observed that it is one thing to train people and quite another to retain them. There was consensus that one of the risks of any programme aimed at strengthening an institution is the retention of trained personnel.
Introduction of new pests:
A participant said that one of the objectives of the network should be to stop the introduction of new pests in the countries of its operation. But he was faced with the question of whether the network can realistically achieve that objective. It was thought unlikely. The network could manage the pests but could not stop their introduction altogether.
The objectives analysis describes a future situation that would exist if all the problems were solved. The instrument of objectives analysis calls for conversion of negatively stated problems into positive statements or objectives. It must be noted that not all problems can be transformed into positively formulated objectives.
In groupwork, the statements of the tree were turned into positive statements which are desirable and realistically achievable.
The core problem,
Trees, forests and wood products are being damaged by pests common to more than one country in Africa
was translated into the objective
Damage to trees and forest products by pests contained within economically, socially and environmentally acceptable levels
Results of analysis are as per Appendix V - Objectives Tree.
The Objectives Analysis described above constitutes the summary of recommendations as to what needs to be done in order to "contain damage to trees and forest products within economically, environmentally and socially acceptable levels". There should be an improved flow of information in terms of access to literature, communication between countries, regular formal meetings and improved awareness of existing pest outbreaks. The access to resources for pest control should be improved on through more committed research, improved facilities and training opportunities, pest control policies should be formulated and harmonised such that long term protection of forests from pests is fully integrated into forest management plans. The risks of transboundary spread of destructive forest pests should be recognised at all levels. Policies should be translated into proper quarantine regulations and mechanisms for regional development of standards and monitoring systems for transboundary movements of plant materials. They should also take into consideration other sources of high risk, like use of exotic monoculture in forest plantations.
These recommendations however do not give a strategy of how all this could be done. The planning team then went on to develop a strategy that was deemed adequate to achieve the stated objectives above. This strategy had three major components ie.
1. An action plan in form of a Project Planning Matrix (PPM)
2. A Charter for the Network
3. An organizational structure to implement the above
The PPM and the organizational structure were then discussed and the various goals, objectives and responsibilities concluded. It was then possible to draw up a charter for the Network (results are given on page 60). Since the organizational set-up is not yet in place, a task force was appointed with the following roles:
- to finalize the Charter
- to finalise the project document (PPM)
- pursue funding
- convene the 1st Steering Committee meeting
- establish the Secretariat
- publicise the Network
Members of the Task Force are mentioned on page 56.