9. 13.12 Lipsticks and glosses

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Lipstick

In general, lipsticks are composed of variable proportions of the following ingredients (in parts by weight):

15-30 Plant and mineral waxes
3-8 Beeswax
2-5 Fatty alcohols (C16-C18)
5-10 Liquid, branched chain alcohols/esters
15-30 Mineral oil (white petrolatum)
5-10 Rosin methyl ester
1-3 Honey
q.s. Perfume
q.s. Antioxidant
q.s. Sunscreen (micronized Ti02)
q.s. to 100 Castor oil

 

are base formulations for lipsticks:

 

Ingredients

F1
(in parts by weight)

F2
(in parts by weight)

F3
(in parts by weight)

Beeswax
Carnauba wax
Candelille wax
Ozocerite
Lanolin
Acetylated lanolin
Lanolin alcohols ricinoleate
Isopropyl lanolate
Lanolin alcohols ethers (2 OP)
Lanolin alcohols
Cetyl alcohol
Isopropyl palmitate
Miristyl lactate
Castor oil
Pigments
Perfume
Antiodisants and preservative

15
10
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
65
q.s.
q.s.
q.s.

10
3
8
4
-
-
5
10
-
5
-
-
-
55
q.s.
q.s.
q.s.

6
3
7
5
-
5
-
-
5
-
-
25
5
28
11
q.s.
q.s.


The waxes, alcohols and oil are mixed together one after the other into the melted beeswax, at a temperature of about 700C. Depending on the pigments and antioxidants used, they' can be added at this stage (hot) or once the mix has cooled. The pigments may have to be premixed in the castor oil. Pe~mes are added at approximately 400C or before the mass becomes too viscous. The final mix is poured into forms, or extruded for large scale production.

Lipstick

Ingredients

Lipstick
(parts by weight)

Lucid lipstick
(parts by weight)

Beeswax
Carnauba wax
Candelilla wax
Cacao butter
Hydrogenated lanolin
Ricinus oil
Sweeteners and aromas

7.5
12.5
2.5
15
12
50
0.5

7
8
5
10
30
39.5
0.5


Both formulations are after Proserpio (1981). If the sweetener is honey, its quantity should be increased. Melt the ingredients and mix them well. Pour into forms before hardening. This is a more protective type of lipstick (rather than a fashion, coloured one) but some pigments or a Uvfilter can be added.

Simple lipstick

Ingredients (in parts by weight) modified from Brown (1981):

3 Beeswax 6 White petrolatum (Vaseline)
6 Ceresin 2 Liquid paraffin
1 Lanolin 1 Cetyl alcohol
2 Pigments* q.s. Essential oila*
q.s. Honey*

* optional

Prepare moulds of small diameter, similar to wax candles, using plastic tubing, PVC or metal pipes and metal foil tubes. Clean plastic syringes of the right diameter work very well. Leave the plunger, but the tip of the syringe should be cut off. The plunger will also help in removing the stick.

Melt the wax and stir in the other products. If so desired, pigments can be predispersed in the liquid paraffin and essential oils and honey should only be added below 500C. Pour into the moulds when almost cool. Once hardened, place into the lipstick holders and pass the tip quickly through a low flame to give it a glossy finish.

Protective lipstick

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

25 Beeswax
5 Cetyl alcohol
30 Oleic alcohol
25 Mineral or ricinus (castor) oil
15 Paraffin
q.s. Aromatic oils and sweetener (honey)

Heat wax in a water bath (70 – 75C) add other ingredients and mix well. Before hardening, add aromatic oil and pour into forms. Sweetner can be honey and, for some applications, a UVfilter and some pigments can be added as well.

Moisturizing lipstick

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Cosmetics and Toiletries (1992):

A) 14 Lanolin (an hydrous Lanolin P95)
5 Lanolin oil (Argonol 50)
40 Mineral oil
6 Cetyl alcohol
2 Ozocerite
8 Candelilla wax
q.s. Preservative
  1. Pigments dispersed in castor oil:
10 Titanium oxide
8 Mica (and) titanium dioxide (Timica Pearl White)
6 D&C red 6 barium lake
C) q.s. Fragrance/flavour

Heat the ingredients listed under A and mix until clear. Add premixed B and mix well. Adjust the temperature to 600C and add C. Pour into moulds. This formulation makes an elegant glossy lipstick, which spreads easily and conditions the lips.

Anhydrous (waterless) lip ointment

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

2-5 Beeswax
2-5 Hydrogenated castor oil
10-20 Polydecene
20-40 PEG 22 dodecylglycol copolymer
5-10 Mineral oil (white petrolatum)
5-15 Honey
q.s. Sunscreen
q.s. Fragrance
q.s. to 100 POE 20 castor oil

Mix like any other ointment.

Lucid lip ointment

Ingredients (in parts by weight) after Proserpio (1981):

5 Beeswax 10 Hydrogenated lanolin
10 Honey 5 Hydrogenated ricinus oil
60 Ricinus oil q.s. Fragrances
10 Cacao butter

Mix like other ointments in section 9.13.3.

A very simple lip gloss can be made by melting 12 parts of cocoa butter with 1 part beeswax (Krochmal, 1973).

Tinted lip gloss

Ingredients (in parts by volume) after Krochmal (1973):

12 Beeswax
24 Almond oil
0.25 Carmine
0.05 Oil of rose

Melt the wax over a low heat in a water bath and stir in the carmine. Gradually add the almond oil and the oil of rose

9.13.13 Depilatory waxes

Depilatory waxes are made using various proportions of resins, beeswax and oils. To obtain a low melting point near 40 to 45 0C, honey is sometimes included. No other ingredients are essential for this mixture. The liquified waxes are applied in a thin film on the skin and covered with a strip of muslin cloth pressed firmly to the skin. When cooled, the skin is pulled taut and the cloth strip is pulled against the direction of hair growth.

A French patent describes aromatic oils and resins added to beeswax as analgesics or perfumes and triethanolamine as an emulsifier. The final mixture is spread on a siliconized paper. According to Anon (1965) it consists of the following (in parts by weight):

20 Beeswax 1 Benzoin
170 Resin 0.5 Lemongrass oil
90 Vegetable oil 1 Butyl p-aminobenzoate
10 Triethanolamine 0.5 Jaborandi alcohol
1 Tolu balsam

Depilatory cream

Ingredients (in parts by volume):

42 Rosin
37 Beeswax
6 Carnauba wax
15 Mineral oil (white petrolatum)
q.s. Preservatives, antioxidants and perfume

Melt the beeswax and the carnauba wax and mix in the resins and oil. When cooled to below 400C add the other ingredients. If preservatives and antioxidants are heat stable, they can also be mixed earlier

9.13 14 Shaving preparations

Shaving cream (o/w)

Ingredients (in parts by volume) after Krochmal (1973):

4 Stearic acid
4 Mineral oil
6 Beeswax
4 Soap flakes
16 Water (clean)

Heat the water to 700C and dissolve the soap. Melt the stearic acid and beeswax in a water bath to 75 0C and stir this into the soapy water Oand emulsift. Stir and mix well. When homogeneous, stir in the mineral oil. The mix might also be scented with 0.1 part of an essential oil.

After shave lotion


Ingredients

I
(parts by weight)

II
(parts by weight)

Ethanol (96% volume)
Sorbitol
Fragrance (aromatic oil)
Menthol
Methyl paraben (preservative)
Witch hazel extract
Propolis extract (10% EEP)
Water

50
2.5
0.5
0.1
0.2
5
1
q.s. to 100

50
-
0.5
0.1
-
5
1
q.s. to 100


Dissolve all the ingredients completely in the alcohol and dilute with the water, mixing thoroughly. Leave to stand for 1 to 2 days with adequate chilling or 1 week without chilling, then filter to clear and bottle.

After shave cream (o/w)

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

3.0 Glyceryl monostearate
0.5 Beeswax
1.5 Stearyl alcohol
2.5 Sorbitol
2.5 Lapyrium chloride (Emcol 607 Witco)
1.0 Steapyrium chloride (Emcol E 607 S Witco)
0.1 Sodium benzoate
0.3 Fragrances
q.s. to 100 Water

Heat the first three ingredients together to 70C. In another vessel dissolve the next four ingredients in water and heat to 70C. Add the oil phase to the aqueous phase with good agitation and continue stirring while cooling. Add the fragrances, at or below 40C. Continue stirring slowly until the mix reaches 25C. Bottle after 24 hours.

After shave gel

Ingredients (in parts by weight):

0.25 Carbomer 941
q.s. to 100 Water
2.0 Glycerol
50.0 Ethyl alcohol
2.5 TEA 10% aqueous
0.1 Menthol
0.1 Propolis extract (EEP)

Under rapid stirring, slowly add the carbomer resin to the water - glycerol mix. Continue mixing until free of undispersed particles. Dissolve menthol and propolis in alcohol. Mix the two phases (aqueous and alcohol). Add the TEA slowly, with good agitation.

For simpler production the resin and gel agent may be replaced with locally available gel forming substances (pectin or agar), but compatibility with the alcohol has to be tried first and different ratios tested. The final consistency will be different. Propolis content can be increased considerably.

 

3 Dr Luigi Rigano assisted in the preparation of this Chapter with technical advice and provision of formulations.

4Beeswax is completely non-allergenic, but possible contamination with pollen may cause allergic reactions in extremely sensitive persons. Such effects are reduced or eliminated by bleaching (almost all cosmetically used beeswax is bleached) and otherwise freeing beeswax from pollen by filtering.

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