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Appendix 5. Activities and Expenditure Of FAO's Field Programme in Forest Genetic Resources

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Appendix 5. Activities and Expenditure Of FAO's Field Programme in Forest Genetic Resources

GENERAL

FAO's works fall into two categories. The Regular Programme (RP) is financed through assessed contributions of FAO's 171 members. It covers the functions of FAO as an international secretariat in forestry, fisheries and agriculture, as a forum for discussion among nations and a source of technical, legal and policy level expertise in these fields (see Appendix 4). Through its Field Programme, FAO provides assistance to governments and helps them in the development and implementation of national and regional strategies aimed at sustainable rural development.

The field programme is based on requests for technical assistance from member countries. The basic principle of FAO's technical development assistance is to support national institutions and to help build national and local capacities in the areas covered by the project. The five main objectives for the FAO Forestry Department apply equally to work at FAO's regular programme and to the forestry field programme. According to the Medium-Term Plan of FAO 1992-1997 they are as follows:

- to assist countries enhance the productivity and sustained use of forest and tree resources, with a view to maximize their contribution to rural and socio-economic development;

- to promote the conservation of forest ecosystems and the integration of forests and trees into land-use systems;

- to assist in increasing the value of forest production - both wood and non-wood;

- to support full participation in and equitable sharing of benefits among all people dependent on forestry activities, particulary the most vulnerable groups;

- to provide policy and planning advice to national forestry administrations.

By the end of 1995, there were 228 on-going and approved forestry field programmes, while the corresponding number for 1995 was 219. The composition of the field programme for the years 1994 and 1995, by the categories of the Programme of Work and Budget, is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Composition of FAO's Forestry Field Programme by Number of Projects, Expenditures and by Categories of the Programme of Work and Budget

PROGRAMMES AND SUBPROGRAMMES

1994

1995

No. of projects

%

Expend.
000$

%

No. of projects

%

Budget
000$

%

Forest Resources and Environment

162

71

36 852

64.6

152

69.4

42088

62.3

Forest Products

14

6.1

2321

4.1

9

4.1

3 574

5.3

Forest Institutions, Training

52

22.9

17 694

31.3

58

26.5

21 866

32.4

TOTAL

228

100

56597

100

219

100

67 528

100

Note: A large number of projects are cross-sectoral, i.e. cover several disciplines. In the above classification the projects are categorized according to their main activity.

Table 2. Regional distribution of the forestry field programme by categories of the Programme of Work and Budget

REGION

Forest Resources and Environment

Forest Products

Forest Institutions

TOTAL by region

No of projects

000 $

No of projects

000 $

No of projects

000 $

No of projects

000 $

% of total expenditure/budget for 94-95

Africa

103

23 561

8

2 892

30

8 775

141

35 228

28

Asia-Pacific

121

30 379

8

2 799

26

7 940

155

41 118

33

Latin America and Caribbean

33

8 621

1

22

41

17 653

75

26 296

21

Near East

47

16 109

6

182

13

5 192

66

21 483

17

Since 1995, the Operations Service of the Forestry Department (FODO), which operated the FAO forestry field projects, has been absorbed in the newly established Technical Cooperation Department. Forestry projects are technically backstopped by the technical divisions in the Forestry Department, i.e. projects in the field of forest genetic resources and biological diversity in forest ecosystems are technically backstopped by the Forest Resources Division.

SIZE AND ACTIVITIES OF FAO's FIELD PROGRAMME IN FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES

An overview of FAO's field programme in forest genetic resources is given in Tables 3 and 4. The tables are based on the "FAO Forestry Department Project Catalogue" of December 1994. Projects included in the tables have main activities in one or more of the following four categories: (i) tree seed procurement; (ii) tree improvement and conservation of forest genetic resources; (iii) nature conservation and nature protection; and (iv) forest management. The judgement and selection of which projects to include in the tables, based on relative importance in them of components in the field of forest genetic resources, has been made by the Secretariat of the present Panel; the tables should thus only be used as a general indicator of the size of the field programme in forest genetic resources.

A total of 61 projects have activities falling in this field (see Table 3). The total external funding, over the whole duration of the projects (which generally ranges from 1 to 5 years) is of some $US 120 million10 FAO forest genetic resources projects are found in all regions, with a majority of projects in Africa and the Asia/Pacific region in regard to both number of projects and total expenditure.

10 Note that the national contributions of host governments, which covers local costs, is not included in this figure.

As far as the ecological coverage is concerned, the humid and dry tropics are fairly equally represented. The majority of projects in the dry tropics is located in Africa with only a few projects in dry-zone Asia/Pacific, whereas on the other hand most of the projects in the humid zone are situated in the Asia/Pacific region.

Table 4 lists the forest genetic resources projects divided by region and by main activity. It is interesting to note the importance, in all regions, of projects on in situ conservation and sustainable use of forests, and on ecosystem conservation. Their increase has shown a common trend in recent years, especially in Africa and Latin America. In Asia, the proportion of projects focused on seed procurement and tree breeding is relatively high. In addition to the main activities listed in the table, all projects also include components of support to national institutions, training and dissemination and exchange of information.

Table 3. Regional and Ecological Distribution of FAO Field Projects in the Field of Forest Genetic Resources

REGION

Total no. of projects

Approx. Total expenditure US$ million

Dry tropics expend, in US$ million

Humid tropics expend, in US$ million

Temperate expend, in US$ million

Africa

18

41.1

15 (34.6)

3 (6.5)

0

Asia & Pacific

26

40.9

4* (7.1)

20* (26.1)

4 (7.7)

Latin America & the Caribbean

8

18.4

0

8' (17.4)

1* (1.0)

Near East & Europe

9

18.9

6* (16.5)

0

4* (2.4)

TOTAL

61

119,3

25* (58.2)

31* (50)

9* (11.1)

* Including a Regional project covering more than one ecological zone

Table 4. Number of projects in the regions by main activities

MAIN ACTIVITY

Africa

Asia and Pacific

Latin America and Caribbean

Near East and Europe

TOTAL

Seed collection, production, storage and exchange

7

8

1

4

20

Testing/breeding

6

7

-

2

14

In situ conservation of forest genetic resources and forest management

13

14

7

5

40

Protected areas and ecosystem conservation

5

10

5

4

24


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