Alexiades, M.N. & Wood Sheldon J. 1996. Selected guidelines for ethnobotanical research: a field manual. Advances in Economic Botany vol 10. The New York Botanical Garden, New York. 306 pp.

Amend, S. & Amend, T. 1995. National parks: with or without people?. The South American experience. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Parques Nacionales y Conservación Ambiental. pp. 480.

Anon. 1996. German trade in medicinal plants revealed. Plant Talk 4: 11. (largest importer of plant drugs in Europe: 1560 different species).

Artuso, A. in press. Prospecting on the biomedical frontier. An economic policy analysis of the search, development and marketing of drugs of natural origin. The Haworth Press, New York. 250 pp.

Arvidsson, M. 1996. Non-timber forest products - A resource in conservation of the Samoan rainforests. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Balick, M. 1996. Transforming ethnobotany for the new millennium. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83(1): 58-66.

Barnes, R.D., Filer D.L. & Milton, S.J. 1996. Acacia karroo: monograph and annotated bibliography. Tropical Forestry Papers 32.Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford.

Bierer, D. E. 1996. Shaman Pharmaceuticals: integrating indigenous knowledge, tropical medicinal plants, medicine, modern science and reciprocity into a novel drug discovery approach. NetScience 2, No 5.

THE ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF NON-TIMBER FOREST RESOURCES Tropical forests contain an incredible diversity of fruits, nuts, oil seeds, latexes, resins, gums, spices, and medicinal plants of great economic value. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the ecology of these non-timber resources and outlines a series of management recommendations for their sustainable harvest.

Chapter I summarizes the basic characteristics of tropical plant populations that limit the intensity of resource exploitation.

Chapter II discussed the potential long-term ecological impacts resulting from the selective harvesting of different plant parts.

Chapter III outlines the basic inventory and yield data needed to develop a program of sustainable resource use. Two different methodologies for defining a sustainable level of harvest are discussed.

Chapter IV provides an overview of conventional and indigenous forms of forest management and proposes a general sequence of silvicultural operations for non-timber forest resources.

A glosssary and extensive bibliography are also provided.

Bindon, P. 1996. Growing bamboo shoots as vegetables. Australian Bamboo Network, Freemantle, Australia.

Boffa, J-M., Yaméogo, G., Nikiéma, P. & Taonda J-B. 1996. What future for the shea tree? Agroforestry Today (3):5-9.

Borges, A.E. & Almeida V.C. V. 1996. As plantas medicinais e condimentares. Análise das potencialidade de uma região alentejana. Silva Lusitana.

Borgtoft Pedersen, H. 1996. Production and harvest of fibers from Aphandra natalia (Palmae) in Ecuador. Forest Ecology and Management. 80: (1-3), 155-162.

Bouamrane, M. 1996. A season of gold - putting a value on harvests from Indonesian agroforests. Agroforestry Today, 8 (1): 8-10.

Broekhoven, G. 1996. Non-timber forest products: Ecological and economic aspects of exploitation in Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. pp vi + 126.

Broekhoven, G. in press. Non-timber forest products in Africa. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. c. 126 pp.

Brush, S.B & Stabinsky D. 1996. Valuing local knowledge. Indigenous people and intellectual property rights. Island Press, Covelo CA, USA.

Caldecott, J. 1996. Designing conservation projects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

Carter, J. 1996. Recent approaches to participatory forest resources assessment. ODI Rural Development Forestry Study Guide N.2. ODI, London.

Ceballos, Lascuráin (ed.). 1996. Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. pp. xiv + 301.

Chandrasekharan. C. Frisk, T. & Campos Roasio J. 1996. Desarrollo de productos forestales no madereros en América Latina y el Caribe. FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile. 61 pp.

Chestin, I. 1996. Wildlife trade in the Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union. Russian Conservation News 7: 24-26.

Cobbinah, J. R. undated. "Snail Farming in West Africa". Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Ede-Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Cook, F. 1995. Economic botany data collection standard. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. x + 146 pp.

Csillag, C. 1996. Patent law closes drug loophole. Science, vol 272, Editorial May 17, 1996.

De Beer, J. & McDermott M. 1996. The economic value of non-timber forest products in Southeast Asia. Netherlands Committe for IUCN. Amsterdam. 200pp + maps, tables, photographs.

De Silva, T. (ed.) 1995. A manual on the essential oil industry. United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria. 232 pp.

Dransfield, S. 1996. The bamboos of Sabah. Natural History Publications, Sdn.Bhd. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Drauchoussoff, V., Focan, A. & Hecq J. 1993. Rural Development in Central Africa: 1908-1960/1962, 1164 pg., Brussels,
Belgium. (Available in English and in French)
From 1885 to 1962, many generations of engineers, researchers, technicians and managers worked in Central Africa, accumulating an unrivalled amount of scientific data and wide operational experience in all areas of rural development. With the passing of time, the information they assembled has been scattered. Some is irretrievable, and most can be reconstituted only with difficulty. Such were the facts motivating the King Baudouin Foundation to evaluate and record into this two-volume document the impressive work of rural development, carried out up to 1960 in Zaire, Ruanda and Burundi.
First the geographical, historical and institutional backgrounds of the three countries are outlined, as are the main agricultural and land policies applied. Next the many rural development activities carried out by the institutions and research stations are described and evaluated. Forest and NWFP-related experiences, some of which were initiated almost a century ago, are reviewed mainly in the sections: "VII. Forests and forest policy"; "VIII. Nature conservation"; "IX. The private sector"; and especially in "X. The lessons of experience". The work is completed by a comprehensive bibliography.

King Baudouin Foundation,
Brederodestraat, 21
B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
Fax: +32-2-511 5221

Dubois, J.C.L. 1996. Use of wood and non-wood forest products by Amazon forest dwellers. Unasylva 47 (186): 8-15.

Emerton, L. 1996. Valuing the subsistence use of forest products in Oldonyo Orok Forest, Kenya. Rural Development Forestry Network. Summer 1996. ODI, London.

FAO Forestry Department. 1996. Marketing in forestry and agroforestry by rural people. FAO, Bangkok. pp.51

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 1996. Non-wood forest products of Bhutan. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok, Thailand.

FAO. 1995. Pequeñas industrias forestales: metodología y estudios de caso. Serie Validaciones. Proyecto FAO-Holanda "Desarrollo Forestal Participativo en los Andes". Quito. pp 217.

FAO. 1995. Validación de Pequeñas Industrias Forestales, La Industria del Mimbre en la VI Region de Chile. La Serena, Chile. Serie Documentos Técnicos N°10.

Feinsilver, J. & Chapela, I. 1996. Will biodiversity prospecting for pharmaceuticals strike gold?. Diversity 12 (2):20-21.

Fox, C., Yonzon, P. & Podger, N. 1996. Mapping conflicts between biodiversity and human needs in Langtang National Park, Nepal. Conservation Biology 10(2):562-569.

Fox, J. (ed.) 1995. Society and non-timber forest products in tropical Asia. East-West Center Occasional Papers.Environmental Series N. 19. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Franzel, S. Jaenicke, H. & Janssen, W. 1996. Choosing the right trees: setting priorities for multipurpose tree improvement. ISNAR Research Report N.8. The Hague: International Service for National Agricultural Research. 87 pp.

Grifo, F. (ed.) 1996. Biodiversity and human health. National Institue of Health, NSF and Smithsonian Institute joint conference. Island Press, Washington, DC.

GTZ. 1995. Plant Oil, A Contribution to Energy Issues and Sustainable Development. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) Gmbh. Eschborn, Germany.

GTZ. 1995/1996. Productos Forestales No Madereros, Proyecto Desarrollo Agroforestal en Comunidades Rurales del Noroeste Argentino. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) Gmbh. Salta, Argentina. Cuadernos Agroforestales 1. Revista Proyecto, Año 4 - Número 20.

Guijt, I., Hinchcliffe, F. & Melnyk M. 1995. The Hidden Harvest: the value of wild resources in agricultural systems. International Institute for Environment and Development. London. 24 pp.

Gujral G.S. & Virinder Sharma, (eds). 1996. Changing perspectives of biodiversity status in the Himalaya. British Council Division, British High Commission, 17 Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110 001 India.

Halladay, P. & Gilmour D. A. 1995. Conserving biodiversity outside protected areas: the role of traditional agro-ecosystems. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. pp viii + 229, tables, figures, maps.

Harcourt, C. & Sayer J. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. IUCN The World Conservation Union, Gland Switzerland.

Heinen, J. 1996. Human behavior, incentives and protected area management. Conservation Biology. 10(2): 681-684.

Hobley, M. 1996. Participatory forest management in South Asia.ODI Rural Development Forestry Study Guide N.3. ODI, London.

Hobley, M.& K.Shah. 1996. What makes a local organization robust? Evidence from India and Nepal. Natural Resources Perspectives. N 11, July 1996. ODI, London.

House, P.R. & Lagos-Witte, S. & Ochao, L. & Torres, C. & Mejia, T. & Rivas, M., 1995. Plantas Medicinales Comunes de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Editorial Guaymuras. 134 p.

Howard, S. 1996. Autonomía y derechos terrritoriales de los sumos en BOSAWAS: el caso de Sikilta. Wani (Revista del Caribe Nicaraguense) 18: 3-18.

International Alliance of Indigenous Tribal People of the Tropical Forests. 1996. Indigenous peoples, forest and biodiversity. International Alliance of Indigenous Tribal People of the Tropical Forests, London, England

Iwu, M.M. 1996. Biodiversity prospecting in Nigeria: seeking equity and reciprocity in intellectual property rights through partnership arrangements and capacity building. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol 51, pp. 209-219.


"The Economic Value of Non Timber Forest Products in Southeast Asia" is a fully revised and extended version of a report with the same title, which was first published by the Netherlands Committee for IUCN in 1989.

The book deals with an important but long-neglected aspect of the use and management of tropical forests, analyzing the role of the vast array of non-timber forest products in the local and national economies of Southeast Asia.

The approach to the subject of non-timber forest products in the book has appealed to NGO's, policy makers and scientists alike, especially in Southeast Asia, but it also received wide appreciation in Africa and Latin America. The book has served as an eye-opener and an example to many.

This second edition by Jenne de Beer, is a valuable successor to the first one. Updates and revisions have been made throughout the book. Among the important additions are a chapter on developments and discussions on non-timber forest products since 1989, a section on forest bee products, and many new references.

The book can be ordered from:
IUCN Publications service
181a Huntingdon Road
Cambridge, CB3 0DJ, UK
Tel: +44-1223-277894
Fax: +44-1223-277136
P.O. Box 18169
1001 ZB Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Tel: +31-20-6244989
Fax: +31-20- 6235203

Jensen, M. 1995. Trees commonly cultivated in Southeast Asia - An illustrated field guide. FAO regional Office for Asia and Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand

Johnson, D. (ed.) & IUCN/SSC Palm Specialist Group. 1996 . Palms: their conservation and sustained utilization. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 116+viii pp.

Journal of Non-timber Forest Products. April 1996. Proceedings of the international seminar of management on NTFPs, 13-15 November 1994, sponsored by Ford Foundation, SIDA and FAO. Dehra Dun, India.

King, S. Carlson, T. & Moran K. 1996. Biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, drug discovery and intellectual property rights. in S. Brush & D. Stabinsky (eds.)Valuing local knowledge: indigenous people and intellectual property rights. Island Press. pp 167-185.

King, S.R. 1996. Conservation and tropical medicinal plant research. in M. Balick, E. Elisabetsky, S. Laird (eds.) Medicinal resources of the tropical forest: biodiversity and its importance to human health. Columbia University Press, New York. pp 63-74.

Knowler, D & J. Lovett. 1996. Training manual for environmental assessment in forestry. FAO Regional Office for Asia and Pacific, Bangkok.

Koppel, C. 1995. Marketing information systems for non-timber forest products. Community Forestry Field Manual 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Krell, R. 1996. Value-added products from beekeeping. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 124, Rome, Italy. 409 pp.

Laird, S. 1995. The natural management of tropical forests for timber and non-timber products. OFI Occasional Papers No.49. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford.

Langholz, J. 1996. Economic, objectives and success of private nature reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Conservation Biology 10(1): 271-280.

Lawrence, D.C. 1996. Trade-offs between rubber production and maintenance of diversity: the structure of rubber gardens in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems 34(1):83-100.

Lay-Chen Tan, Ruiz Pérez, M., & M. Ibach. 1996. Non-timber forest products databases. Centre for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia. 94 pp.

Leakey, RRB & Ladipo DO. 1996. Trading on genetic variation - fruits of Dacryodes edulis. Agroforestry Today 8(2): 16-17.

Lindall, M. & Helles, F. 1995. Non-wood goods and services: a forest policy approach. Forest and Landscape Research. 1(3): 275-289.

Little, J. 1996. Fungi and ferns: market thriving for non timber products. American Forests 102(3): 20.

Lewis, C. (ed.) 1996. Managing conflicts in protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Malla, S.B., Shakya, P.R., Rajbhandari, K.R., Subedi, M.N. & Shrestha, B.L. 1996. Identification manual fo some non-timber forest products of Nepal. Forest Resource Information System Project Paper No. 8, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Mejía, Kember & Reng, Elsa. 1995. Plantas Medicinales de Uso en la Amazonia Peruana. Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional. Lima, Peru. 249p.

Moran, K. 1996. Compensating forest-dwelling communities for drug discovery: the work of the Healing Forest Conservancy. Unasylva 47(186): 40-46.

Moran, K. 1996. Returning benefits from ethnobotanical drug discovery to native communities. In Proceedings of Biodiversity and Human Health. NIH, NSF and Smithsonian Institute joint conference. Island Press, Washington DC.

Morrison, B.J., Gold, M.A. & Lantagne, D.O. 1996. Incorporating indigenous knowledge of fodder trees into small-scale silvopastoral systems in Jamaica. Agroforestry Systems 34(1):101-117.

Namgyel, P. 1996. Beyond timber: what value of the forest? A Rapid Rural Appraisal study of non-timber forest products in the Nahi Gewog Wangdue Phodrang Dzongkhag, Western Bhutan. Forest Research Centre, REID, MoA and Bhutan-German Intergrated Forest Management Project, GTZ Timphu. 59 pp.

Neptune-Rouzier, M. 1996. Enquête ethnobotanique a Terrier-Rouge. Project "Médecine Traditionnelle". Service Oecuménique d'Entr'aide. Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Neuwinger, H-D. 1996. African Ethnobotany. Poisons and drugs. Chapman & Hall, Weinheim, Germany. 850 pp.

Ngulube, M. Hall, J. & J.A. Maghembe. 1996. A review of the silviculture and resource potential of a miombo fruit tree: Uapaca kirkiana (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 8(3): 395-411. O'Brien, T. & Kinnaird, M. 1996. Effect of harvest on leaf development of the Asian palm Livistona rotundifolia. Conservation Biology 10(1): 99-109.

Peters, C. 1996. The ecology ad management of non-timber forest resources. World Bank Technical Paper 322. The World Bank, Washington D.C.

Pierce Colfer, C. J., Peluso N, & C.S. Chung. in press. Beyond slash and burn: building on indigenous management of Borneo's tropical rain forests. Advances in Economic Botany vol 11. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Poffenberger, M. (ed.) 1996. Communities and forest management. A report of the IUCN Working Group on community involvement in forest management. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.

Posey, D.A. 1996. Traditional resource rights. International instruments for protection and compensation for indigenous peoples and local communities. IUCN, Cambridge.

Prescott-Allen, R. & Prescott-Allen, C. (eds.) 1996. Assessing the sustainability of uses of wild species: Case studies and initial assessment procedures. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge. pp. iv + 135.

Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT). 1996. Cultivation of pijuayo (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) for palm hearts in the Amazon Region. Lima, Peru. 153 p.

Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT). 1996. El cultivo del camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) en la Amazonia Peruana. Lima, Peru. 95 p.

Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT). 1996. Inventory of institutions and projects operating in the Amazon Region of Suriname. Lima, Peru. 106 p.

Quevedo, Américo. 1995. Silvicultura de la Uña de Gato, Alternativa para su Conservación. CRI-IIAP-Ucayali, Centro Regional de Investigación, Pucallpa, Peru.

Ratna Rao, A & B.P. Singh. 1996. Non-wood forest products contribution in tribal economy. The Indian Forester. 122(4). 337-342.

Raychaudhuri S.P. & Karl Maramorosch (eds). 1996. Forest Trees and Palms: Diseases and Control. Science Publishers, Inc. USA.

Redford, K.H., & Mansour J.A.(eds) 1996. Traditional peoples and biodiversity conservation in large tropical landscapes. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, USA.

Richards, M. 1996. Stabilising the Amazon frontier, technology, institutions and policies. Natural Resources Perspectives. N 10, July 1996. ODI, London.

Schackleton, C. 1996. Potential stimulation of local rural economies by harvesting secondary products: a case study from the Transvaal Lowveld, South Africa. Ambio 25(1):33-38.

Schreckenberg, K. 1996. Forests, fields and markets: a study of indigenous tree products in the woody savannas of the Bassila region, Benin. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London.

Scrivastava, J. Lambert, J. & Vietmeyer N. 1996. Medicinal plants: an expanding role in development. Technical Paper 320. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Sekar C., R.S. Vinaya Rai & C. Ramasamy. 1996. Role of minor forest products in tribal economy of India: a case study. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 8(3): 280-288.

Shiva, M.P. & Mathur, R.B. 1996. Management of minor forest produce for sustainability. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD, New Delhi.

Sidibé, M., Scheuring JF., Tembley, D., Sidibé, MM., Hofman, P. & M. Frigg. 1996. Baobab - homegrown vitamin C for Africa. Agroforestry Today 8(2): 13-15.

Srivastav P.K., Priya Ranjan & S.S. Sinha. 1996. Conservation of Terminalia genetic resources: the principal source of non-wood forest products in India. Forest Genetic Resources N. 24. FAO, Rome.

Stevens, M.L., Bourke, R.M. & Evans B.R. (eds). 1996. South Pacific Indigenous Nuts. Proceedings of a workshop held from 31 October - 4 November 1994 at Le Lagon Resort, Port Vila, Vanuatu. ACIAR Proceedings No 69, 176 pp.


Promising fruits and vegetables from the Amazon region is a publication without precedent in the aim to spread useful information about the Amazon region, carried out by the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation treaty (ACT) with the technical support of the FAO/Netherlands project and FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. This publication was also made possible through funding by ICRAF, IFAD, UNDP, UNEP, IICA, GTZ and UNAMAZ.

The book presents magnificently illustrated information on 52 species of native fruits and vegetables from the Amazon region. For each of the 52 species selected there is a summary of its potential development in the region. The genetic and botanical characteristics of each species are described, together with their present and potential utilization, nutritional composition and value, ecology and adptability, availability as a genetic resource, methods of propagation and agronomical handling, harvesting and post-harvesting methods, possibilities of industrialization and potential markets. Contact addresses of specialized persons and institutions are given in the publication.

Taylor, D. 1996. Herbal Medicine at a Crossroad. Environmental Health Perspectives. 104(9), 924-928, September 1996.

Taylor, D. 1996. Income generation from non-wood forest products in upland conservation. FAO Conservation Guide 30. FAO, Rome.

Vabi, M. 1996. Eliciting community knowledge about uses of trees through participatory rural appraisal methods: examples from Cameroon and the Central African Republic. Rural Development Forestry Network. Summer 1996. ODI, London.

Van Seters, A.P. 1996. A remedial treasure in our tropical timber yard? Medicine & Global Survival; vol.2:248-251.

Viana V., Ervin J., Donovan R., Elliott C. & Gholz H. 1996. Certification of forest products: issues and perspectives. Island Press, Washington D.C. and Covelo, California.

Villachica, H. (ed.) 1996. Promising fruits and vegetables from the Amazon Region. PTS-ACT No 44. 450 p. Pro Tempore Secretariat of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (ACT), Lima, Peru.

Wass, P. (ed.) 1995. Kenya's indigenous forests: status, management and conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. pp xii + 205.

Webb, G. 1996. Scientists calculate at least 328 new drugs could be developed from tropical rain forests. HerbalGram 36: 2-3

Williams, V.L. 1996. The Witwaterstrand muti trade, Veld & Flora 82(1):12-14.

Wood Sheldon, J., Balick M.J. & S. Laird. in press. Medicinal plants: can utilization and conservation coexist? Advances in Economic Botany vol 12. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1996. Assessing biodiversity status and sustainability. WCMC, Cambridge.

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