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Forestry as seen by the foresters

L. Roche

Lawrence Roche, Professor Emeritus, university of Wales, is based in Madaboy, Ireland.

A world view of forestry as reflected in the voluntary papers submitted to the Eleventh World Forestry Congress.

Can China's forestry resources meat escalating demand?

As in previous congresses, voluntary papers are a rich source of ideas and innovative practices, and more than 1 300 have been submitted under 39 topics to the Eleventh World Forestry Congress. In addition, many of these papers often exhibit a freshness and immediacy which are a consequence of the writer's direct experience with practice and decision-making. In short, they collectively provide a worldwide view of forestry as it is actually practiced and provide the context within which the position and special papers find their relevance and significance.

A considerable number of the voluntary papers of the Eleventh World Forestry Congress confirm the view that practice and trends in forestry, as in all other professions, are a consequence of progressive changes in demand as societies develop from purely agrarian economies to highly urbanized industrial economies. But they also provide confirmation of the forester's historic preoccupation with sustained yield, a concept which in recent years has been rediscovered by other agencies and institutions concerned with the relationships between conservation and development and between equity in the distribution of benefits of forest resources and the sustainability of these resources.

The three previous congresses brought these issues to the attention of the world at large and opened up discussion of the broader contributions of forestry in social and economic development and in environmental conservation: Jakarta, 1978, "Forests for people"; Mexico, 1985, "Forest resources in the integral development of society"; and Paris, 1991, "Forests, a heritage for the future". Since the concept of sustainability lies at the heart of all three themes it is, perhaps, inevitable that the Eleventh World Forestry Congress should return to the central concept of classical forestry at its best and address directly the theme of "Forestry and sustainable development: towards the twenty-first century". In responding to the challenges of this theme the voluntary papers referred to here provide a measure of the continuing growth and development of the forestry sectors in both developing and developed economies. They also underline the extent to which trends, problems and opportunities of the sector are now shared in a diversity of ways by nations at various stages of economic development.

While the principal thrust of the forestry sector will vary from country to country, almost all countries with a significant forest estate will have as their main objective the sustained production of wood, and this is not surprising. The demand for industrial wood continues to grow globally. As a consequence of increasing consumption of pulp, paper, solid wood and panels, the demand for industrial roundwood is forecast to rise from the present 1.3 billion to 1.7 billion m³ per annum by the year 2000. Compared with an average growth of 1.6 percent per annum, world demand for roundwood and pulpwood will increase by 2.3 percent per annum (Pihlajamaki, 1997).

To some extent, this central task of wood production, processing and marketing has been obscured in international discussions on forestry in recent years as a consequence of worldwide concerns about deforestation and environmental degradation. However, it reasserts itself in the voluntary papers, such as the one referred to above, which provide data on supply and demand for wood fibre and present diverse models as to how that product may be produced sustainably and with due regard for environmental conservation and the needs of people living in or close to the forest estate.

In the interests of coherence, the subject matter of this sample of voluntary papers is presented under a number of headings which do not represent the full spectrum of Congress topics nor necessarily the titles of these topics. These headings have been chosen solely for the purpose of this article and to facilitate the reader in gaining an appreciation of the rich store of information, technology and ideas contained in the voluntary papers.

Given the need for fuelwood, why are there not more fuelwood plantations In Latin America?

Forest resources and their utilization

There are a large number of papers from several different Congress topics which could fall under this heading and which provide factual information on forest resources and their utilization for regions and countries throughout the world. For example, there are 73 papers in Topic 1, which covers assessment and monitoring of forest resources, and 19 in Topic 20 which deals with industrialization strategies and employment. Similarly, there are papers on other topics relevant to this section. However, of these papers two are of particular interest and illustrative of the size of the task and of the problems and opportunities in fibre production facing two of the world's largest countries, now seeking entry into the global economy as we approach the next millennium. These are: "China: is it a lucrative timber market?" (Hong Yang and Xiaomei Jiang, 1997) and "Trends in production and consumption of forest products in Russia" (Burdin, 1997).

The fourth National Forest Inventory for China (1989-1993) gives the area of land for forestry as 262 million ha covering 28 percent of the country's total land area. Nearly 14 percent of this area ( 133 million ha) is currently forested. Total standing volume is estimated at nearly 11 billion m³ of which 7.5 billion m³ represent commercial forests. By the end of 1994 the total area of plantations in China reached 33 million ha, the world's largest area of planted forests. Seventy-two percent of the national forest estate is in the public sector and 28 percent is collectively or individually owned. The nation has more than 2 800 tree species, of which about 1 000 are used industrially and approximately half of them are used intensively. Yet, despite its massive forest resources, both natural and planted, national demand for wood and wood products outstrips supply in China and in recent years import costs of roundwood, sawnwood, plywood and veneer have escalated. The paper gives details of imports of wood products and outlines a strategy for the future development of the sector.

A further paper from China relevant to this section, and a measure of the advances made in modernization of the sector, is that by Zhao Chen (1997) entitled "Computer-aided instruction (CAI) of logging engineering", the specific topics of which are:

(a) Simulation and demonstration of forest terrain, geographic elements, forest resources and harvesting and regeneration cycles.
(b) Felling methods by chainsaw, analysis of cutting with chainsaw and saw vibration, optimum bucking analysis and simulation of skidding.
(c) Cable catenary analysis, mechanical analysis of slackline systems, demonstration of skyline running and inhaul simulation of skyline.
(d) Analysis of truck travel, truck hauling planning and logging network analysis.

The authors consider that computer-aided instruction in logging engineering is an important supplement to conventional and practical instruction in this field.

As emphasized by Burdin (1997) in his paper entitled "Trends in production and consumption of forest products in Russia", the forestry sector occupies a special position in the economy of that country. The latest forest resources survey gives a growing stock of nearly 81 billion m³ or more than one-fifth of the world's standing volume. Mature and overmature standing volume is 44 billion m³, of which 35 billion m³ are coniferous species. Annual allowable cut (scientifically justified harvesting volume with due regard for silvicultural requirements) is 509 million m³. It is believed that the forest potential of the nation can satisfy domestic needs and allow a considerable increase in the export of forest products.

At present all the basic elements of a market economy operate within the sector. At the end of 1996 only 5 percent of logging and wood processing enterprises remained in state ownership; the rest are in private, mixed ownership or are the property of joint stock companies. However, forest protection and all silvicultural activities remain under state control and to date have not been subjected to privatization.

During the period of transition to a market economy (1990-1995), domestic consumption of all types of forest products declined markedly. However, in spite of the difficult domestic situation in the forestry sector, there has been a dynamic development of exports of forest products. In 1995 roundwood exports increased by 37 percent over 1994, 95 percent being softwoods. The share of broad-leaved pulpwood, mainly birch, is growing and the main importing countries of roundwood are Japan, Finland, Sweden, Norway, China and the Republic of Korea. Exports of plywood in 1995 were double those of 1990. A strategy of further development of the sector is outlined (Burdin, 1997).

The conservation and management of natural forest ecosystems

The conservation and management of forests requires, first, a recognition by political authorities of the desirability of such objectives and the need to incorporate these objectives in national development plans. Second, there is a need for the development of appropriate policies and practices and the allocation of resources to achieve these objectives. A thorough knowledge of the forest resources that need conservation and management is, of course, a prerequisite to any national strategy of conservation l and management, and if nations do not have an accurate knowledge of their forest resources they are not in a very good position to conserve and manage them. The developed world has on the whole gone beyond the excesses of unsustainable exploitation of forest resources and has a sound knowledge of the resources still available. This is not so in the developing world and much remains to be done there.

Most of the above considerations feature in one way or another in the voluntary papers which fall generally under this heading. The papers referred to below are a small but representative sample of the many papers submitted under these and related topics and which fall under the general heading of this section.

The paper by Sumantri and Santoso (1997), entitled "Forest gazettment for sustainable forest management in Indonesia: policies and progress", describes the categories of forests demarcated for different purposes in Indonesia. There are 140 million ha of public forest land of which 113.8 million ha are designated as permanent forest, 26.6 million ha as convertible production forest areas. The permanent forest estate is composed of protection forest (30.7 million ha) conservation forest (18.8 million ha), limited production forest (31.3 million ha) and permanent production forest (33 million ha). Forest gazettment and boundary marking of these state forests are described in the paper. A related paper by Mulyadi and Fraser (1997) outlines the Indonesian experience in establishing forest management units within the gazetted forest estate. This paper also points out that the Government of Indonesia subscribes to the criteria identified by the International Timber Trade Organization (ITTO) for successful sustained yield management of tropical forests by issuing appropriate Ministry of Forestry decrees which provide for the secure management of a permanent forest estate.

Further papers, complementary to those already referred to in this section, include "A prototype expert system model for assessing sustainable forest management policy" (Sukadri, 1997) and "Remote sensing in the evaluation and monitoring of secondary succession stages in humid tropical forest areas in Brazilian Amazonia" (dos Santos, Lacruz and Sassagaw, 1997).

While it is not often made explicit in international discussions on tropical forestry, it is certainly implicit in many of these discussions that the principles and practices of classical forestry, as it has evolved through the centuries in Europe, are not relevant to tropical conditions or even those of North America. It has to be said, however, that there is little or no support for such a view in the voluntary papers submitted to the Eleventh Congress. On the contrary, ample evidence is presented illustrating the extent to which the problems and opportunities in forestry in both developing and developed countries are in principle similar, are subject to very similar socio-economic forces, and are susceptible to similar action in resolving problems and availing themselves of opportunities. The paper by Schabel and Pecore (1997), entitled "Silviculture on Wisconsin's Menominee Indian Reservation: is it a Dauerwald?", is a case in point.

These authors introduce their paper with the following comment:

"Forestry worldwide is presently undergoing unprecedented change. In this far-reaching transition, traditional forestry is being challenged by various, often controversial proposals for a New Forestry. In concept and practice New Forestry is not entirely new, having long-established precedents here and there, among them Central Europe's Dauerwald (DW) or perpetual forest, and the forest on the Menominee Indian Reservation in Wisconsin, United States. In the present search for solutions in sustainable forest management existing models deserve scrutiny. This paper attempts to compare the DW and the Menominee Forest, which, despite great differences in the cultural, historic and geographic setting, appear to share a similar long-term vision compatible with New Forestry" (Schabel and Pecore, 1997).

The Menominee Indian Reservation dates from 1854 and retains an area of indigenous natural forest acclaimed for its high value and volume as well as its environmental and aesthetic quality. It has met the needs of its indigenous owners for at least 150 years and the authors of this paper conclude that the Menominee forest exemplifies the premise of the DW as an ecologically healthy, productive, profitable and aesthetic forest. Despite a harvest of more than 2 billion board feet of sawntimber since 1865, when the allowable cut was first recorded, the Memominee forest retains about 1.5 billion board feet of sawntimber growing stock, i.e. as much as is estimated to have existed in 1854. Furthermore, the contemporary comparison of the forest largely reflects its original appearance.

Two other papers which appropriately fall into this section are those by Catinot ( 1997) and Barthod end Wermann (1997), respectively entitled "Sustainable management of tropical moist forests is not foreseeable without significant participation of the private sector" and "Sustained management of the temperate forests of Europe: reflections on German and French experience". These two papers are major contributions to the debate on the importance of the private sector in forestry in both developing and developed countries.

Industrial plantations

Thirty years ago FAO published the proceedings of a World Symposium on "Manmade forests and their industrial importance" (FAO, 1967). That document was for many years a major source of data on this topic. The exercise has not been repeated and the subject of plantation forests and their industrial importance has not received the attention it deserves at international symposia in recent years. Yet industrial plantations remain an important part of the forestry sector in both developed and developing countries and in a significant number of countries that are the principal and expanding source of wood fibre. When good silvicultural and management practices prevail they play a major role in meeting world demand for this product in a sustainable manner and with due regard for social and ecological imperatives. There are many examples of such plantations but one in particular which, if not unique, is at least the best documented so far as sustainability of production is concerned (Evans, 1997).

Referring, inter alia, to data from an intensively managed 60 000 ha plantation of Pinus patula in Swaziland, Evans ( 1997), in his paper entitled "The sustainability of wood production in plantation forestry", comes to the conclusion that "These plantations are managed as intensively as any example that can be found and. so far, over three rotations there is no evidence that these practices are leading to yield decline as measured by crop productivity. At least in the narrow sense the plantation silviculture carried out is demonstrably sustainable" (Evans, 1997). The plantations are managed on a 15-17 rotation without thinning and have not been subjected to genetic improvement or fertilizer treatment.

Despite such sound data derived from the Swaziland plantations, the long-term ecological effects of large monocultures in forestry continue to be the subject of concern to foresters, ecologists and environmentalists. An example of this concern is provided by the paper entitled "Wither goest Myanmar teak plantation establishment" (Keh, 1997). This interesting and valuable paper draws on past and present experience to question the wisdom of continuing to establish teak monoculture and quotes with telling effect the words of the great past masters of forestry practice in the region: "Teak is a bad forester; it does not improve the soil and its leaves do not readily form humus" (Baden- Powell, 1874). "The aim of the Forest Department [in Burma] is not to grow pure teak forests as the tree thrives best if associated with bamboos and other trees and it will be well to follow the indications of nature" (Brandis, 1881). "Nature has to be studied closely, imitated and never coerced" (Troup, 1917). Keh ( 1997) points out that pure or nearly pure natural teak forests are rare and where they are found their condition is not satisfactory, and he goes on to propose an alternative strategy to current silvicultural practices for this species and which involves the use of complementary species such as Xlia dolabriformis and Perocerpus macrocarpus.

Two other papers which are relevant to this section are "Protecting Africa's trees: status and actions for pest management in African forests" (Murphy, 1997) and "Some important pests and diseases of forest plantations in Indonesia" (Suharti and Sitepu, 1997).

Conserving forest gene resources in a field gene bank in the United States

Tree crops and farm-forest interface

There are many topics of the Congress which are embraced by the title of this section and to which more than 200 papers have been submitted. Those referred to here may give some idea of the scope, quality and relevance of these contributions and the search for sustainability in this field. In the paper entitled "Creating sustainable rural livelihood opportunities through community forestry in South Africa", Erskine (1997) states two major objectives:

(a) "... the development of impoverished rural dwellers into forestry entrepreneurs with the people concerned making use of individual land holdings. (unsuitable for annual cropping or grazing of domestic livestock) to plant trees on fragile steep lands for the purpose of generating an income from the sale of wood to a timber company that provides support and credit during the growing cycle as well as a guaranteed market for the mature trees.
(b) A community forestry initiative presently under way, in which opportunities are being created for impoverished rural dwellers, living adjacent to large-scale commercial forest lands, to form mutually beneficial links with the company owning those lands, these links include provision being made by the company for the local community to make use, in a suitable way, of some forest lands for intercropping and beekeeping, and some land adjacent to the forests for farming activities, to provide food security and a source of income" (Erskine, 1997).

The author states that experience in the field demonstrates that both of these objectives are obtainable given that there is appropriate, local institutional development and there is an effective programme to deliver the results of integrated research through extension and training services.

The diversity and importance of on-farm indigenous food plants and tree crops are outlined by Kigomo (1997) in his paper entitled "The role of indigenous food and tree crops in combating deforestation and land degradation: a case study in Kenya". Results from investigation in Tharaka-Nithi district in Kenya indicate that indigenous food crops comprise 50 percent of all farm crops while 63 and 77 percent of farm trees are indigenous in high- and low-potential areas, respectively.

Furthermore, the composition of nitrogen-fixing crops and trees is 50 percent for the drier area and 30 percent for high potential farm holdings. The author concludes that "there is a need to intensify production of indigenous food

Conserving forest gene resources in a field gene bank in the United States crops through improved linkages between research, extension and farmers, formulating firm policies on the crops, while still addressing the negative attitude of the young generation on indigenous food crops. Popularizing and developing an effective marketing strategy for indigenous food crops would also help to promote the crops" (Kigomo, 1997).

Thijssen and Kamondo (1997), whose paper is entitled "Policies for tree propagative materials for agroforestry", give two major reasons why farmers grow trees in the high production areas of Kenya: first, "forestry products are not freely available outside of their farm area or on the market so they have to grow trees on their own farms" and, second, "private ownership of agricultural land is a dominant feature in the highlands of Kenya, increasing the motivation to invest in tree growing and soil and water conservation". The authors conclude that the major constraints to the continued development of tree crops on farms are: i) a not well-developed seed delivery system; ii) an inadequate seed quality control, certification and storage system; and iii) inadequate access by farmers to good seed sources. Finally, the authors identify the need to shift to full cost seed production. This, however, is proving difficult as "a number of donor agencies are not willing to make such a move" (Thijssen and Kamondo, 1997).

In his paper, entitled "Forest replacement: an effective model to achieve sustainability by fuelwood consumers", de Miranda Carneiro (1997) provides cogent reasons why fuelwood plantations are the best source of sustainably produced wood in situations where wood waste or managed natural forests are not alternatives, and goes on to ask why there are not more examples of fuelwood plantations in Latin America. His answer is that small fuelwood-using industries such as bakeries, tobacco producers, lime producers and brick factories simply cannot afford to buy land or invest in a full forest operation. It would be very expensive fuelwood even if they could afford the capital investment.

The resolution of this problem lies in what the author terms forest replacement associations (FRAs). The FRA model shares the costs equitably between consumer industries and resource-poor farmers. The industry provides the initial capital but since they lack the land and labour they provide incentives to farmers to participate.

In Brazil, FRAs have been successfully operating for over a decade. From 1985 to 1995, in the state of São Paulo alone, 13 FRAs were created, with more than 20 000 ha of fuelwood plantations established involving more than 3 000 farmers. Recently, the states of Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso have also adapted the FRA model. The author concludes that FRAs are successful because: i) they hold commercial consumers of wood responsible for environmental impacts of their business (reversing the traditional business concept of privatizing profits and socializing costs); ii) they reduce dependence on the public sector and foreign aid to finance reforestation; and iii) they guarantee a commercial market and fair price for farmers.

It is a common assumption that significant trade in non-wood forest products is confined to tropical environments. However, the paper by Özhatay and Atay ( 1997), entitled "Keky in trade in Turkey", shows that this assumption is not well founded. The paper points out that Turkey has an exceptionally large trade in wild plant material usually harvested in forest areas by local farming communities. Each year many thousands of tonnes of roots, leaves, flowers and seeds of a very wide range of native plant species are collected and traded locally and abroad. Reports of annual harvests of 500 tonnes of roots of Gypsophila and the related genus Ankopetalum and 90 tonnes of seed of Colchium speciosum indicate that the trade is large. To ensure sustainability and improvement of this trade the authors recommend:

· the establishment of tighter legislation controlling trade in endangered species;
· the monitoring of wild populations deemed vulnerable to the effects of collection;
· the establishment of a network of given management zones/protected areas for habitats, exhibiting assemblages of rare "Keky" species;
· undertaking an education and public awareness programme, detailing safe and sustainable means of harvesting wild plant material.

Forest influences

This is a subject that traditionally featured strongly in the curricula of the older forestry schools of Europe. For a time it was displaced in importance by an array of other topics temporarily in vogue. It has now, however, reappeared and is being given increased emphasis as a consequence of perceived climatic changes caused by increased industrialization, deforestation and catastrophic events such as flooding, massive erosion and siltation of rivers and dams.

The role of the forests of the world in carbon sequestration now looms large under the heading of forest influences and is highlighted in a number of voluntary papers, e.g. "Forests for carbon sequestration or fossil fuel substitution? A sensitivity analysis" (Marland and Schlamadinger, 1997), "Climate changes and the role of forests as carbon sinks in Indonesia" (Retnowati, 1997) and "Forest carbon pools and flux in Korea" (Lee, 1 997).

Marland and Schlamadinger point out that among the proposals for mitigating the increase of CO are the possibility of reforesting degraded forest land to sequester carbon and/or using sustainable forest harvests to displace fossil fuels. They conclude that when sustainably produced forest products are used inefficiently to displace fossil fuels the greater carbon benefit is achieved through reforestation and protection of standing forests and that increasing stand growth yields little gain.

However, when forest products are used efficiently to displace fossil fuels, sustainable harvests produce the greater net benefit and the benefit increases rapidly with increasing productivity (Marland and Schlamadinger, 1997).

The forest history of Europe confirms that management for sustained production of wood need not be incompatible with other important objectives such as the conservation of biodiversity, torrent and erosion control, and with the protection and management of catchment areas. In her paper, entitled "From over-utilization to sustainable management regulations: a case study of long-term historical changes in the forest resources of Austria", Johann ( 1997) underlines the importance of a historical perspective in forestry practice. As early as the thirteenth century, forest yield regulations were established by local administrations to meet the different demands of rural populations. As a consequence, well-managed woodlands at high altitudes protected settlements and people against avalanches and floods. Johann concludes that "the over-utilization of the past has not had any irreversible effect on the productive potential of the region" (Johann, 1997).

In a related paper, Özyuvac, Özhan and Görcelioalu (1997) outline the historical sequence of cumulative environmental degradation in the eastern Mediterranean from the third century BC to the present day and provide a strategy for integrated watershed management allowing development and sustainable utilization of the renewable resources of the region.

The conservation of biodiversity

Historically, forestry has played a major role in the conservation of biodiversity. Many of the world's forest reserves, initially gazetted for the purposes of timber production, are now often the principal protected areas for many species of plants and animals whose habitats outside the reserves have been destroyed. There is now increasing awareness within the sector of the importance of sustaining biodiversity within managed forests, although the incorporation of conservation methodologies in management plans is not an entirely new concept in forestry, and many of the older established forest reserves in Asia and Africa contained inviolable areas which were not subject to logging and which provided data of importance in the development of viable management and silvicultural systems for selectively logged areas.

There are a significant number of voluntary papers which in a variety of ways deal with the subject-matter of this section. Sixty-six papers have been submitted under the topic "Conservation of ecosystems" and 69 under the topic "Conservation and utilization of forest genetic resources". Most of these papers confirm the continuing evolution of both interest and competence within the sector in the principles and practices of conservation in forest management. Douhéret's ( 1997) paper, entitled "Forest management and silviculture; fundamental elements of a strategy for the conservation of topical forest ecosystems in French Guinea", is a modern, up-to-date contribution to this older tradition.

The basic premise underlying the paper by Zuomin, Ruimei and Youzu (1997), "Study on methods for regional ecosystems biodiversity assessment" is that ecosystem conservation is often a feasible procedure in the conservation of genetic resources when objective criteria are available in selecting and earmarking ecosystems for conservation purposes. The authors present a set of indices on which selection is based, e.g. diversity, peculiarity, representativeness, rarity, stability, naturalness, conservation value, accessibility and human interference and outline the methods whereby these indices are weighted in the selection process.

Two other papers relevant to this section are those by Negi and Stimm (1997) and Auer and Freiberg (1997), respectively entitled "Forest biodiversity conservation in India and Germany: a comparative analysis" and "The clearing house mechanism (CHM) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): a global information platform to support scientific and technological cooperation".

Concluding comments

As has already been pointed out, more than 1 300 voluntary papers under a total of 38 topics have been submitted to the Congress. To do justice to all of these in a short article is clearly an impossible task and one which has not been attempted. Of necessity, therefore, many topics of importance have not been referred to directly; for example, those on research and human resources development, on processing and forest industries, on the role of non-governmental agencies and on wildlife and tourism, and so on. Papers of an interest and quality comparable to those directly referred to here have been submitted under all 38 topics of the Congress and it has been the purpose of this article to give something of the quality, scope and importance of all the papers through presentation of this representative sample.


Baden-Powell, B.H. 1874. Forest Systems of British India. Cited in Keh (1997)

Brandis, D. 1881. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration In British Burma. Cited in Keh (1997).

FAO. 1967. Man-made forests and their industrial importance. Rome.

Troup, R.S. 1917. The work of the Forest Department in India (Burma). Cited in Keh (1997).

Voluntary papers prepared for the Eleventh World Forestry Congress:

Auer, M. &: Freiberg, H. 1997. The clearinghouse mechanism (CHM) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): a global information platform to support scientific and technological cooperation.

Barthod, C. & Wermann, E. 1997. La gestion durable des forêts tempérées européennes. Réflexions sur les experiences francaise et allemande.

Burdin, N.A. 1997. Trends in production and consumption of forest products in Russia.

Catinot, R. 1997. La gestion durable des forêts tropicales humides n'est pas envisageable sans une participation déterminante du secteur privé.

de Miranda Carneiro, R. 1997. Forest replacement: an effective model to achieve sustainability by fuelwood consumers.

dos Santos, J.R, Lacruz, MAP. & Sassagaw, H.S.Y. 1997. Remote sensing in the evaluation and monitoring of secondary succession stages in humid tropical forest areas in Brazilian Amazonia.

Douhéret, J. 1997. Aménagement forestier et sylviculture: elements fondamentaux d'une strategic de conservation des écosystèms forestiers tropicaux de Guyane française.

Erskine, J.M. 1997. Creating sustainable rural livelihood opportunities through community forestry in South Africa.

Evans, J. 1997. The sustainability of wood production in plantation forestry.

Hong Yang & Xisomei Jiang. 1997. China -Is it a lucrative timber market?

Johann, E. 1997. From overutilization to sustainable management regulations; a case study of long-term historical changes in the forest resource of Austria.

Keh, S.K. 1997. Wither goest Myanmar teak plantation establishment?

Kigomo, B.N. 1997. The role of indigenous food and tree crops in combating deforestation and land degradation - a case study in Kenya.

Lee, K.-H. 1997. Forest carbon pools and flux in Korea.

Marland, G. & Schlamadinger, B. 1997. Forests for carbon sequestration or fossil fuel substitution? A sensitivity analysis.

Mulyadi, A.T. & Fraser, A.L. 1997. Indonesian experience with establishing permanent forest management units (KPHPs) as a prerequisite for sustainable forest management.

Murphy, S.T. 1997. Protecting Africa's trees. Status and actions for pest management in African forestry.

Negi, S.S & Stimm, B. 1997. Forest biodiversity conservation in India and Germany: a comparative analysis.

Özhatay, N. & Atay, S. 1997. "Kekyk" in trade in Turkey.

Özyuvac, N., Özhan, S. & Gürcelioalu, E. 1997. Integrated watershed management for sustainable development of renewable natural resources.

Pihlajamaki, P. 1997. Pacific rim wood fibre demand and supply prospects - will there be a shortage of wood?

Retnowati, E. 1997. Climate change and the role of forest as carbon sinks in Indonesia.

Schabel, H.G. & Pecore, M. 1997. Silviculture on Wisconsin's Menominee Indian Reservation is it a Dauerwald?

Suharti, M. & Sitepu, I. 1997. Some important pests and diseases of forest plantation in Indonesia.

Sukadri, D.S. 1997. A prototype expert system model for assessing sustainable forest management policy.

Sumantri, I. & Santoso, H. 1997. Forest gazettment for sustainable forest management in Indonesia: policies and progress.

Thijssen, R. & Kamondo, B. 1997. Policies for tree propagative materials for agroforestry.

Zhao Chen. 1997. Computer-aided education of logging engineering.

Zuomin Shi, Ruimei, C. & Youzu, J. 1997. Study on methods for regional ecosystem biodiversity assessment.

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