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Summary of findings of missions in selected countries in East and Southern Africa, A. Kandiah

A. Kandiah
Senior Officer Water Resources, Development and Management Service
Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome


The importance of irrigation for increased food production and food security needs no emphasis. Thirty to 40 percent of the world's food comes from the irrigated 16% (about 250 million hectares) of the total cultivated land. There are wide regional variations in the proportion of irrigated agricultural land: 38% in Asia, 15% in Latin America; and 4% in sub-Saharan Africa. Total irrigated land on the African continent is estimated to be about 12.2 million ha. Six countries (Egypt, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Sudan) account for nearly 75% of the total irrigated land in Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, water control has, in the past, played a relatively minor part in agricultural development. However, this is now changing. Many sub-Saharan countries have realized the critical role of irrigation in food production. In these countries it is believed that a major part of new irrigation developments should be "small-scale", if they are to meet the household, local and national food security objectives, ensure equity and usher sustainable rural development.

Many reasons have been cited for the relatively low rate of irrigation development in sub-Saharan Africa. Some important ones are:

· relatively high cost of irrigation development;
· inadequate physical infrastructure and markets;
· poor investments in irrigation;
· lack of access to improved irrigation technologies; and
· lack of cheap and readily available water supplies.

A number of studies carried out on irrigation development in sub-Saharan Africa during the last two decades indicated that, among others, lack of access to affordable and water saving irrigation technologies, particularly by small-scale farmers, was a major constraint to irrigation development. The studies showed that lack of local capacity for manufacturing irrigation equipment and providing services had severely handicapped small-scale irrigation development. In general, imported equipment was frequently overpriced and not adapted to local conditions. Furthermore, equipment components did not match and spare parts were difficult to obtain. These studies concluded that there is an urgent need to solve the problem of "lack of access to improved irrigation technologies by small-scale farmers" in sub-Saharan Africa in order to promote increased food production and food security.


FAO, in collaboration with the International Programme for Technology Research on Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID) launched a series of missions to evaluate the status of irrigation technologies being practised by small-scale farmers in selected countries in East and Southern Africa. These missions also assessed the potential of improved and water-saving technologies to be transferred to and adopted by these farmers. The long-term objective of the missions was to promote sustainable low-cost irrigation technologies by: (a) enhancing the role of private sector in local manufacture of irrigation equipment, support services and marketing; and (b) testing and demonstrating locally manufactured equipment and improved technologies. The specific objectives were to:

· assess current status and trends of irrigation technologies (both modern and traditional technologies) with particular reference to small-scale farmers in public and private irrigation schemes;

· evaluate national capacity, with special reference to the private sector, for manufacturing, supplying and servicing of irrigation equipment, which are affordable (low-cost) and water efficient;

· assess the appropriateness of and opportunity for transferring the experience in manufacture, servicing and testing of irrigation equipment from the newly industrialized developing countries such as India and China;

· examine the possibilities for establishing regional and/or national centers to demonstrate and disseminate improved irrigation technologies; and

· prepare appropriate reports containing the findings of the missions and recommendations, including elements for national action programmes.

The following table presents further information concerning the missions.


Date and duration of mission

Composition of mission team


June 96, 5 weeks

3 international consultants + 1 national consultant


June/July 96, 3 weeks

3 international consultants + 1 national consultant + 1 FAO staff member


July 96, 3 weeks

3 international consultants + 1 national consultant


July/August 96, 3 weeks

3 international consultants + 1 national consultant + 1 FAO staff member


June/July 96, 4 weeks

1 national consultant


January 97, 3 weeks

1 national consultant + 1 World Bank staff member


The mission identified a number of factors that affect small-scale irrigation development in general and adoption of improved irrigation technologies by small-scale farmers in particular. Three major factors were:

· cost of irrigation and irrigation equipment;
· capacity of farmers to invest in improved irrigation technologies;
· constraints to local manufacture and servicing of equipment

Cost of on-farm irrigation and irrigation equipment

In general and in comparison with Asian countries, such as India, the cost of on-farm irrigation (capital of irrigation equipment, maintenance, labour and energy costs) is high in East and Southern Africa. It varies from one country to another, and with the crop, cropping intensity, the type of pump and irrigation method. The following table summarizes the findings.

Cost of on-farm irrigation per ha per year in US Dollars (traditional surface irrigation)


Crop and cropping intensity

Type of pump





Maize, 100% Cl





Maize and beans, 1 50% Cl





Maize, 100% Cl




In Zimbabwe, on the other hand, annual irrigation costs per ha were (an assumed cropping intensity of 200%):

· US$ 1 654 for sprinkler irrigation;
· US$ 1 553 for drip irrigation;
· US$ 1 600 for gravity (surface) irrigation;
· US$ 2 752 for collector well system.

Capacity to invest in improved irrigation technologies

In Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia, small farmers account for 80 to 85% of the farming population. Most of them are dry-land subsistence farmers. However, provision of irrigation and improved irrigation technologies and crop husbandry practices has the potential to transform these farmers into economically viable and substantive farmers. The constraints to adoption of improved farming practices are:

· poor resource base (equity);
· crops are produced mostly for consumption (no surplus);
· fragmented and non-uniform farm holdings;
· small area of farm land per family;
· lack of land title;
· poor financing and credit facilities;
· wherever irrigation water is provided, water use efficiency is poor (often less than 30%);
· inadequate transportation and marketing facilities;
· high cost of imported equipment.

However, in Zimbabwe, the situation is relatively better and there is clear evidence of successful smallholder irrigation. The success of the commercial farming sector has impacted on the smallholders. For example, sprinkler irrigation is used in about 10% of the 6 000 ha of smallholder farms. In a number of gravity irrigation schemes, the farmers are able to pay for the maintenance of irrigation schemes. Marketing and credit facilities are relatively better.

Constraints to local manufacture and servicing of equipment

The following constraints generally apply to all four countries, namely, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

· High import duty: Many local equipment manufacturers complain that high import duty on raw material/unfinished products is a major constraint. This import duty amounts to: 45% in Tanzania; 20% (surtax on irrigation equipment) in Malawi; 15% import duty and 25% VAT in Zambia; and in Zimbabwe, 0-60% on raw material and 0-40% on raw material, if specifically for irrigation equipment.

· Inadequate electric power: Access to electricity by farmers is poor and this inaccessibility affects the adoption of electric pumps and improved technologies that may require electricity. For example, rural electrification is only 5% in Tanzania, and 10% in Malawi. In Zambia, electricity supply is limited to towns although there is ample supply and the cost is low. In Zimbabwe, the situation is relatively better.

· Inadequate credit system: Inadequate credit facilities to import raw material and finished products affect the local manufacturing capacity and equipment dealers' ability to meet the full needs of farmers. In addition, interest rates for credit are very high. In Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia, this interest rate varies between 40% and 60%. In Zimbabwe, it is about 32%.

· High cost of skilled labour: Many local manufacturers reported that the cost of skilled labour is so high that they are unable to manufacture equipment locally at affordable prices, particularly when the demand for locally manufactured equipment is not so great.

Locally manufactured versus imported equipment

Currently, simple irrigation equipment such as hand-pumps and, in some cases, pipes are manufactured in most of the East and Southern African countries. The situation is summarized in the following table.

Irrigation equipment manufactured in East and Southern African countries


Local manufacture




Hand pumps for domestic water supply (Tanira) for shallow bore-holes

Deep well pumps, mono-bloc and submersible pumps, and irrigation equipment

Equipment is mostly imported from European countries and from South Africa


Hand pumps including rope and washer pumps An attempt is being made to manufacture treadle pumps

All mechanical and electric pumps are imported Light weight sprinkler pipes are imported

There is interest for local manufacture, particularly through joint venture


Treadle pumps are manufactured PVC pipes are also manufactured

Irrigation pumps are imported from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Europe, India and China

There is keen interest to manufacture equipment locally There is also interest to import from or start joint ventures with Indian companies


Sprinkler and micro-irrigation equipment is manufactured Capacity to manufacture all types of pumps, pipes and equipment is good

Many components of irrigation equipment are imported Most imports are from Europe and USA

Irrigation equipment is still expensive

It was observed that importation of irrigation equipment from Asian countries will make this equipment available to smallholders at an affordable price. Local suppliers are cautious of the quality of equipment from Asia. Quality can be controlled through an equipment testing programme such as the one available in Zimbabwe.


Rainfed agriculture is the dominant form of farming in Ethiopia. Although traditional irrigation was practised in the highlands for centuries, it was only in the early 1950s that modern irrigation technologies were introduced to Ethiopia. The technologies were adopted in large private and government owned schemes, primarily in the Awash River Basin. Most of the early schemes were pump-irrigation projects, but later gravity irrigation schemes were introduced. In all cases, the irrigation method was surface irrigation, predominantly furrow irrigation for cotton and wheat and basin irrigation for commercial fruits such as bananas. Some private farms had installed hydraulic rams on the banks of the Awash river to lift water. In the mid-1970s, windmills and hand pumps were introduced to lift water from boreholes, mainly to supply water for drinking, domestic purposes and for community gardening.

Modern water lifting technologies

The following water lifting technologies have been adopted by farmers with varying degrees of success.

· Hydraulic rams: Hydraulic rams were installed by private farmers in the Upper Awash valley about 20 years ago to irrigate horticultural crops. They are not widely used today.

· Hand pumps: Locally manufactured (the Akaki Pump Factory) hand operated reciprocating pumps were widely introduced in Ethiopia by NGOs for drinking and domestic water supply. Design and local manufacture of animal drawn pumps are also being pursued.

· Windmills: Windmills were introduced in areas where wind regimes are favourable such as in the Rift Valley areas. In Zeway and Ogadan, windmills are still operational, but mainly for potable water supply.

· Mechanical pumps: Large centrifugal pumps were used by the State Farms in the Middle and Lower Awash to irrigate cotton. Recently, diesel powered centrifugal pumps were purchased from India to irrigate pastures in the Middle Awash. Electric motor driven pumps have also been imported from North Korea. Small to medium sized centrifugal pumps are produced locally by the Akaki Pump factory.

On-farm irrigation methods

Surface irrigation methods were the predominant form used. On some large-scale farms, sprinkler irrigation has been used, some examples are the Anger State Farm in the West, the Zeway farm in southern Ethiopia and the Fincha Sugar Estate. Recently, drip irrigation was introduced and practised on a government farm in Zeway and two other small commercial farms.

Opportunities and constraints

There is potential for improvement or introduction of irrigation technology in Ethiopia. In 1987, the consultancy firm Tahal and Shawl conducted a survey of traditional schemes in different parts of the country. The survey revealed that irrigation works in Ethiopia are in a rudimentary state and are invariably unsatisfactory for performing improved irrigation practices.

· The diversion structures built by the farmers are washed out during each flood and have to be reconstructed very frequently.

· Since the irrigation networks are not properly aligned, they are exposed to erosion and siltation, consequently, they do not function properly and require frequent repairs.

· In the traditional scheme, the diversions are not provided with control structures, and thus the farmers do not have any regulating mechanism over the water supply. The efficiency of water distribution in the fields is low because land levelling is not practised.

· The irrigation system losses are very high.

In spite of the less extensive area of irrigation in the country and shortage of skills in irrigation, the willingness to accept new or improved technology by the farmers is quite high. This observation was made during discussions with farmers who are currently using traditional irrigation methods. Many of these farmers are aware of the benefits of modem irrigation technologies, and they readily welcome new technologies or improvements which can bring more benefit to them by improving crop yields and reducing labour requirements.

However, the problems and constraints to adoption of improved technologies should be recognized. The problems are related to factors such as economic status of the farmer, skills in different aspects of irrigation, land use right, and marketing.

· Development of irrigation is an expensive venture for the farmers in view of their low per caput income. The cost of purchasing, installation and operation of equipment is beyond the economic capacity of many individual farmers.

· Diversion structures tend to be large and difficult to construct. Locally developed pumps tend to be expensive, costing over Birr 10 000 each. Farmers must, therefore, organize themselves into groups, to provide the required finance and manual labour for the construction and maintenance.

· Many farmers cannot provide the required finance for irrigation schemes. They require assistance from the government or other organizations such as the NGOs. In the absence of such support, credit facilities must be provided. Although the Agricultural and Industrial Development Bank provides loans to agricultural schemes, water user associations have to attain legal status to benefit.

· For the purpose of optimizing the investment made in irrigation schemes, farmers need inputs such as improved seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and implements. The cost of procurement of these inputs is beyond the economic capacity of the farmers.

· In view of the recent history of forced collectivization, many farmers are not willing to establish permanent works or make financial expenditure on land. Farmers need to be guaranteed legal right to land in order to undertake more permanent works such as irrigation.

· The absence of adequate market outlets for the produce obtained from irrigation schemes is another major constraint to the development of irrigation projects.

Local manufacturing and servicing capacity

Some government departments, such as the Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), some projects under the Ministry of Agriculture and the previous Water Resources Commission (WRC) have been conducting research and development activities to develop or improve, as per their respective mandates, various equipment, implements, and tools for agricultural works. The private sector produces various pipes, and fabricates gates from sheet metal and angle iron.

There is potential for local manufacture and the adoption of the following simple water lifting devices in Ethiopia.

The swing basket

The Persian wheel

The don

Rope and bucket lift

Archimedean screw

Circular two bucket lift

The water wheel

Counterpoise bucket lift

In areas where diesel or electric power is not available, any one of the above devices can be used. However, since these devices are not familiar to farmers, the skill to construct and operate them is lacking.

Modern water lifting devices such as pumps, are being introduced into Ethiopia. Research to develop prototype hand pumps and animal powered pumps has been in progress for several decades. IAR designed, fabricated and tested a hand pump and an animal powered pump. However, the centre did not pursue the production of this equipment for commercial purposes.

Recently, the Engineering Design and Tool Enterprise produced and demonstrated an animal driven pump and is expecting orders for mass production.

Wind operated pumps were introduced to the country by the NGOs in areas where wind is dependable. However, the components were all imported and no attempt was made to manufacture them locally.

Similarly, solar energy driven pumps using solar panels were installed in some localities (for example near the town of Mojo) for water supply purposes only. The capacity to manufacture these pumps locally is too remote to consider.

On the other hand the capacity to manufacture water control gates has been developing locally. Most of the gates installed by the 10 200 ha Amibara Irrigation project in the early 1980s, were fabricated by the Arefaine Metal Works in Addis Ababa using sheet metal and angle iron.

Water flow measuring structures such as Parshall flumes and staff gauges were also manufactured locally using designs produced by engineers. Parshall flumes of varying sizes were used for water management works as well as for irrigation project studies. The staff gauges manufactured locally were installed in the Amibara Irrigation Project.

Concrete pipes of various sizes or diameters are being manufactured in different parts of the country for different purposes. At the Arba Minch State farm concrete pipes were used for water distribution.

The Thermoplastic Factory at Addis Ababa produces various sizes of pipes for different uses. The PVC Manufacturing plant in Addis Ababa also produces pipes of different sizes for water supply and water conveyance.

The Nazareth Plastic Factory produces a range of rigid and flexible tubes and joints for irrigation and drainage works.

The Ethio-Plastic Factories in Addis Ababa also produce flexible hoses of different sizes, which can be used as flexible siphons for abstracting water from field canals into fields.

The Akaki Pump Factory produces electric as well as diesel engine powered centrifugal pumps which are used for various purposes. After sales services are provided by the Akaki pump factory personnel as well as by agents of the foreign suppliers. The Akaki Pump Factory sends technicians to the pump sites at the customers' request to assist in selecting the proper pumps for the particular site, as an after sales service. The technical personnel of the factory install, commission and also train the operators for the client. The pump factory keeps adequate stock of spare parts both for the centrifugal pumps and the Lombardini engines.

Scope for improvement

Rehabilitation and/or modernization of existing irrigation schemes through the provision of improved diversion structures, proper canal and drainage systems as well as water flow control structures such as checks, offtakes and gates, will improve efficiency of irrigation and water productivity. Coupled with improved market facilities, these improvements can contribute to successful irrigation schemes.

Appropriate technologies for a particular environment are those that can be "grafted" on to an existing farming system. Accordingly, the technologies introduced must be affordable to the beneficiaries. Further, they must be simple enough to be operated by the farmers.

An assessment of the irrigation methods, diversion works, control structures and the conveyance system currently being used in Ethiopia indicates that there is substantial room for improvement. To effect this improvement, appropriate technologies should be selected and introduced on the basis of available resources, technical skill and management capabilities of the farmers. Farmers should depend less on other institutions for operation and maintenance of the system. Also, the recurrent costs should be low enough to be paid by farmers.

Unsophisticated, easily adapted technologies from developing countries should be used to improve irrigation system design and construction. Farmers can construct a simple diversion structure, either rockfill or silo type on small streams, under the guidance of the irrigation extension workers.

Where irrigation water is drawn from shallow groundwater, a number of simple, but efficient water lifting devices in use in "relatively advanced" developing countries can be introduced. Open wells are quite common in Ethiopia, and are sources of supply for domestic use and small gardens in villages. A range of affordable water lifting devices can be introduced to lift water from such open wells.

When farmers have the capacity to pool their resources to purchase animal driven, hand operated or centrifugal pumps, an integrated extension support service should be provided for farmers. Extension support should include, agronomy, irrigation technology as well as marketing. Inputs such as fertilizers and improved seeds should also be made available. Credit facilities should be arranged through appropriate banks.

Farmers should be educated and trained in the principles and practical aspects of irrigation. This training should be effected through regular workshops, where experts or extension workers orient the farmers towards the various aspects of irrigation management. The workshops should be augmented by exhibitions, demonstrations and film shows produced in the local languages.

Conclusions of the Ethiopian study

· Traditional and modern irrigation technology can contribute substantially to enhancing the production and productivity of irrigation schemes.

· Smallholder farms in particular are constructed with rudimentary levels of technology and provide the greatest opportunity for improvement. The introduction of improved technology is likely to encourage irrigation development in new areas which were previously not attempted due to lack of know-how or facilities.

· Introduction of irrigation technology can be made successful if the main actors of technology transfer, namely, the technician, the extension staff, and the farmers are all convinced of the merits of the technology and if the technology is carefully selected, developed and tested, and supported by appropriate policy and institutional framework.

· It is recommended that the Arbaminch Water Technology Centre be selected to serve as a national centre for irrigation technology, following the establishment of a formal section to undertake the additional functions. It is also recommended that the programmes of the national centre for irrigation technology be guided by a board representing the various stakeholders.


· The cost of irrigation equipment, imported, manufactured and/or assembled locally was to 2 to 10 times higher than in Asian countries, depending on the equipment. For example, the cost of a locally manufactured treadle pump in Malawi and in Zambia was respectively, 200 and 400% more than in Asia. Imported diesel pumps (2-5 HP) in Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia was 200 to 300% more than the cost in Asia. This is illustrated in the following table.

Cost of irrigation equipment imported from Europe and Asia (US$)







Hand pump













Treadle pump













Rope & washer













Diesel engine (2-5 HP)











(15 HP)


Centrifugal (1-5 HP)












Submersible (1-5 HP) Imported










2500-4400 (3-10 HP)

4000-9000 (10-15 HP)


Sprinkler system (per ha.)














1. Cost of hand/manual pumps from Southeast Asia refers to average cost in Viet Nam/Nepal/Bangladesh/India.

2. Cost of mechanical pumps refers to Indian pumps.

3. In the case of Asia, it is the cost if imported and includes the prevailing import duty, ship clearance charges, etc.

· The factors which adversely affect local manufacture and servicing of equipment were identified as follows:

* high import duty, particularly for raw materials;
* inadequate electric power;
* inadequate credit;
* high interest rate on lending;
* high cost of skilled labour; and
* poor local demand.

· The following major constraints affect the capacity of farmers to invest in improved irrigation technologies:

* poor resource base of farmers;
* fragmented and small size of land holdings;
* unsecured or lack of land titles;
* high interest rate of bank financing;
* poor performance of gravity irrigation systems; and
* poor transportation and marketing facilities.

· Despite the above limitations, there seems to be an emerging interest among local entrepreneurs and the farming community in improved irrigation technologies. An appropriate stimulus could lead to enhanced local manufacture of equipment and adoption of improved irrigation technologies by farmers.

· The following technologies were identified as appropriate for transfer from Asian countries and elsewhere to individual farmers, small farmer groups and community farmer groups (farmers associations):

* treadle pumps and other manual pumps, including animal powered pumps and hydraulic rams;

* low-cost drilling technologies such as sludge/slurry and water compression drills, and hand/auger drilling;

* water harvesting structures such as micro-dams/tanks in association with check dams (percolation tanks) in the watershed;

* sprinkler irrigation including conventional systems and drag- hose systems;

* micro-irrigation systems such as pitcher irrigation, porous clay pipes, micro-sprinklers, bubblers, drips; and

* demonstration of technologies at established centers or on farmers' fields.


Technologies for individual or small groups of farmers

· Treadle Pumps: Treadle pumps are well suited to lift water from shallow water bodies (either shallow groundwater or shallow streams). These are appropriate to many East and Southern African countries. Zambia has the largest potential (southern, western, northern and north-eastern provinces have suitable areas) followed by Malawi (all 8 agricultural development divisions), Tanzania (10 project sites) and Zimbabwe (selected dambo areas, vegetable areas around Harare). In the first year, 500-1 000 pumps can be installed in each country, though the number in Zimbabwe might be less. By the fourth year, 3 000 to 5 000 pumps can be installed annually in each country with the exception of Zimbabwe. To implement this installation, some dedicated and interested NGOs should be encouraged to promote marketing and dissemination of the technology in each country.

· Drilling technologies: Low-cost drilling technologies such as slurry, sludge or water compression or hand auger/drilling methods could be introduced in many East and Southern African countries to promote improved well construction. These technologies would have long-term application for both irrigation and water supply for drinking and domestic purposes.

· Low-cost drip/sprinkler with shallow wells: In many cases, individual farmers pump water from shallow streams or shallow wells and irrigate small plots by surface irrigation (wasting much water) or apply water by hand (involving much labour). In such cases, simple low-pressure sprinklers or drip systems could be introduced. Water could be collected in a raised drum and could be conveyed through PVC lateral pipes to sprinklers or simple drippers. This method will cover twice the area that is normally covered by surface irrigation methods. The cost of such a system would be about US$ 100 per 1000 m2.

Technologies for a group of farmers

· Small tanks and check dams: In many East and Southern African countries, there is good scope for small tank construction. The size of the tank will depend on the terrain, rainfall regime, number of farmers in the group and the land available for irrigation. The upper storage limit of such tanks would be about 1 million m3, with a majority in the range of 100 000 to 500 000 m. Such tanks are successfully used in many parts of Asia, particularly in India and Sri Lanka. Approximate cost is in the region of US $ 800 to 1000 per ha.

Construction of such irrigation tanks should be complemented with the construction of check dams in the catchment area to check erosion and siltation of the tanks. Check dams will also increase the recharge of shallow aquifers. Cost of check dams vary from US$ 500 to 1000 per structure.

· Sprinkler irrigation schemes: The encouraging results from the first few schemes in Malawi have led the Department of Irrigation (DOI) to tender the design and construction of 56 small-scale sprinkler schemes, 12 ha each.

However, the present capacity of the DOI is inadequate to supervise and monitor these schemes and it needs to be strengthened. An on-the-job training programme of relevant staff would be appropriate.

In Zambia, in view of the limited experience in small-scale irrigation, and the lack of experience with sprinklers, it is proposed that approximately four demonstration farms be established in appropriately selected locations, for technical and extension staff of the Ministry of Agriculture and farmers. The estimated cost of a demonstration farm would be US$ 3000 per ha.

· Drag-hose sprinkler system: In view of the water scarcity in many parts of Zimbabwe, especially in agro-ecological regions III, IV and V, where 60% of communal farms are located, the use of drag-hose sprinklers by such communal farmers would be appropriate. The cost of drag-hose sprinkler system is about 30 to 50% of the cost of surface irrigation systems. There would also be a 40% water saving.

· Drip and pitcher irrigation: In the southern and eastern provinces of Zambia, pilot drip and pitcher irrigation could be demonstrated. Currently, surface irrigation is practised in these areas with much wastage of water. In addition, surface irrigation systems cost US$ 5 000 to 7 000/ha. It is suggested that four pilot demonstrations be started. Two of these locations would use treadle pumps to lift water and apply it to crops by pitcher/clay pipe irrigation. In the other two locations, water may be lifted by treadle or small mechanical pumps and applied to crops by drip systems.

In Zimbabwe, it is proposed that two pilot drip irrigation schemes be initiated in two districts to cover an area of about 50 ha per scheme. One of them initiated for tree crops and the other for vegetables. The estimated cost would be around US $ 3000 per ha excluding the construction of the dam.

· Irrigation equipment manufacture: Most irrigation equipment in Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia are imported from Europe (including Israel), USA and South Africa. However, in Zimbabwe most irrigation equipment are locally manufactured, but the cost is relatively high.

In Tanzania, hand pumps are locally manufactured at a relatively high cost. In Malawi and Zambia, PVC pipes are manufactured respectively by the PROMAT and COWLYN companies.

In all countries, joint ventures with selected equipment manufacturing companies from Asia (India and China) could result in greater availability of equipment at an affordable price. A number of local equipment dealers have expressed interest in joint ventures.

· National irrigation demonstration centres: Demonstration of performance of irrigation equipment and technologies is the key to technology transfer and adoption. Demonstrations will enable assessment of performance of locally manufactured and imported equipment under local conditions as well as serve as tools for training technical and extension staff as well as farmers. In all the countries, where the study was undertaken, with the exception of Malawi, the mission has identified existing physical facilities which could be upgraded to national irrigation equipment and technology demonstration centres. In Tanzania, it could be the Agricultural Training Centre at Moshi; in Zambia, the National Irrigation Research Station at Nanga could host the demonstration centre; in Zimbabwe, the Irrigation Technology Centre would provide an excellent site for irrigation demonstration; and in Ethiopia, the Arba Minch Irrigation Technology Centre will be an ideal site to establish the irrigation demonstration unit.

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