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Ascher, W. 1995. Communities and sustainable forestry in developing countries. San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies (ICS) Press.

Bruce, J. 1990. Community forestry: rapid appraisal of tree and land tenure. Community Forestry Note 5. Rome, FAO.

Commons, J.R. 1924. Legal foundations of capitalism. New York, Macmillan.

Dennison, S., Miller, D. & Thomson, J.T. 1992. Decentralization and natural resources management: Mali field report. In Decentralization and local autonomy: conditions for achieving sustainable natural resource management, Volume II: Appendixes, pp. 1-70. Prepared for USAID/AFR/ARTS/FARA. Burlington, VT, Decentralization: Finance and Management Project, Associates in Rural Development, Inc.

Elbow, K. & Rochegude, A. 1990. A layperson's guide to the forest codes of Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Land Tenure Center Paper No. 130. Madison, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Fairhead, J. & Leach, M. 1995. Forests of statistics: refraining West African forest history. Working paper presented at the Conference on Environment and Development in Africa: Challenging the Orthodoxies,' September 1995, Leeds, UK.

Fortmann, L., & Riddell, J. 1985. Trees and tenure: an annotated bibliography for agroforesters and others. Madison, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Nairobi, International Council for Research in Agroforestry.

Freudenberger, K. S. 1994. Tree and land tenure: rapid appraisal tools. Community Forestry Field Manual 4. Rome, FAO.

Freudenberger, K. S. 1995. Tree and land tenure: using rapid appraisal to study natural resource management. Community Forestry Case Study 10. Rome, FAO.

Johda, N.S. 1995. Common property resources and the dynamics of rural poverty in India's dry regions. Unasylva, 46 (180); 23-29.

Michalon, T. 1983. Quel État pour l'Afrique? Paris, L'Harmattan. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Oakerson, RJ. 1992. Analysing the commons: a framework. In D. Bromley et al., eds. Making the commons work: theory, practice and policy, pp. 41-59. San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies (ICS) Press.

Ostrom, E. 1991. Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ostrom, E. 1992. Grafting irrigation institutions for self-governing irrigation systems. San Francisco, Institute for Contemporary Studies (ICS) Press.

Ostrom, V. & Ostrom, E. 1977. Public goods and public choices. In E.S. Savas, ed. Alternatives for delivering public services: towards improved performance, pp. 7-49. Boulder, Westview Press.

Schroeder, L. 1994. An assessment of special single purpose governments in developing countries. Prepared for USAID. Burlington, VT, Decentralization: Finance and Management Project, Associates in Rural Development, Inc.

Thomson, J.T. 1977. Ecological deterioration: local-level rule-making and enforcement problems in Niger. In M. Glantz, ed. Desertification: environmental degradation in and around arid lands, pp. 57-59. Boulder, Westview Press.

Thomson, J.T. 1981. Public choice analysis of institutional constraints on firewood production strategies in the West African Sahel. In C.S. Russell & N. Nicholson, eds. Public choice and rural development, pp. 119-152. Research Paper R-21. Washington, DC, Resources for the Future.

Thomson, J.T. 1992. A framework for analyzing institutional incentives in community forestry. Community Forestry Note 10. Rome, FAO.

Thomson, J.T. 1997. An Institutional Analysis of Local-Level Common Pool Woodstock Governance and Management: Implications for Environmental Policy. In D.W. Brinkerhoff, ed., Policy Analysis Concepts and Methods: An Institutional and Implementation Focus, pp. 87-112. Vol. 5 in Policy Studies and Developing Nations (A Multi-Volume Treatise); series editor S.S. Nagel. Greenwich, CN, JAI Press.

Thomson, J.T. & Coulibaly, C. 1994. Decentralization in the Sahel: regional synthesis. SAH/D (94) 427. Paper prepared for the Regional Conference on Land Tenure and Decentralization in the Sahel, June, Praia, Cape Verde. Paris and Ouagadougou, OECD/Club du Sahel and CILSS.

Wunsch, J. S. & Olowu, D. eds. 1990. The failure of the centralized state: institutions and self-governance in Africa. Boulder, Westview Press.

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