Guidelines for the integration of sustainable agriculture and rural development into agricultural policies. (FAO agricultural policy and economic development series 4)

Table of Contents

J. Brian Hardaker

Rome, 1997

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ISBN 92-5-104104-0

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Table of Contents



The concept of SARD
Policy objectives
Policy framework
Why policy intervention is necessary
Strategic issues
Policy instruments
Policy programming

Policy guidelines for SARD - Main report

1. Introduction

1.1 Historical background
1.2 The role of FAO in policy making
1.3 Scope of this report
1.4 Levels of policy intervention

2. The concept of SARD

2.1 Definitions
2.2 Alternative views
2.3 The position of FAO
2.4 Issues of space and time

2.4.1 Systems and sub-systems
2.4.2 The time dimension of SARD

3. The challenge: Threats to SARD

3.1 Population growth
3.2 The growing demand for food and fibre
3.3 The challenges to reduce poverty
3.4 Resource depletion and degradation

3.4.1 Land, water and the environment
3.4.2 Loss of animal and plant species

3.5 Challenges to sustainable forestry
3.6 Challenges to sustainable fisheries
3.7 The challenge in developing human capital

4. The appropriate policy framework for SARD

4.1 The need for a long-term global perspective
4.2 Harmonizing general and sectoral policies
4.3 Integrating action within the agricultural sector
4.4 Building an appropriate legal and institutional structure
4.5 Policy making that accounts for imperfect knowledge

4.5.1 Risk, risk aversion and downside risk
4.5.2 Precautionary principles and adaptive planning

4.6 The need for a systems approach to policy making

5. Strategic options for SARD

5.1 General
5.2 Growth or no growth
5.3 Intervention, incentives and control options

5.3.1 Types of market failure
5.3.2 Policy failure
5.3.3 Picking a strategy to deal with market failure

5.4 'Top down' versus 'bottom up' approaches

6. Policy options and instruments

6.1 General economic and social policies

6.1.1 Fiscal and monetary policies
6.1.2 Trade and exchange rate polices
6.1.3 Labour and employment policies
6.1.4 Investment and foreign aid
6.1.5 Population policies
6.1.6 Incomes and equity policies

6.2 Policies relating to agricultural and rural development

6.2.1 Rural infrastructure
6.2.2 Building human capital for the rural sector
6.2.3 Agricultural research and technology development
6.2.4 Agricultural prices
6.2.5 Stabilization and risk in agriculture
6.2.6 Direct government involvement
6.2.7 Sustainable rural livelihoods
6.2.8 Food and nutrition

6.3 Policies relating to markets and property rights

6.3.1 Resource property rights
6.3.2 Institutional development

6.4 Policies aimed at establishing democratic and participatory processes

6.4.1 Decentralization
6.4.2 People's participation and empowerment

6.5 Policies focussed specifically on natural resource use and environmental protection

6.5.1 Direct government action
6.5.2 Control instruments
6.5.3 Economic incentives

7. Integrated approaches to SARD

7.1 Improving the efficiency and sustainability of rural resource use
7.2 Improving the efficiency and sustainability of farm production
7.3 Forestry
7.4 Fisheries
7.5 Rural development

8. Programming

8.1 Diagnosis

8.1.1 Evaluating current situations and policies

8.2 Design

8.2.1 Consultative processes
8.2.2 Priority setting

8.3 Setting the scope
8.4 Impact assessment
8.5 Appraisal

8.5.1 Extended cost-benefit analysis
8.5.2 Cost-effectiveness analysis
8.5.3 Multi-criteria analysis

8.6 Decision making
8.7 Implementation
8.8 Monitoring and evaluation

9. Implementing the guidelines

9.1 Improving information
9.2 Education and training needs
9.3 International cooperation
9.4 Future directions for research on SARD

10. References