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The Government of Turkey organized and hosted the Eleventh World Forestry Congress in Antalya from 13 to 22 October 1997. More than 4 000 participants attended the congress which was the largest global forestry meeting ever. The outcome of the congress is summarized in the Antalya Declaration (now available on the World Wide Web).

The following is the outcome of the session on NWFPs: “Papers stressed the importance of NWFPs and their sustainable management. As mentioned in many articles, NWFPs comprise a wide range of forest products such as plants, fruits, nuts, roots, spices, gums, oils, mushrooms, miscellaneous exudates such as resins, latex, essential oils, tannins and others.

The meeting: emphasized that sustainable production of NWFPs is crucial to ensure sustainable forest management; recommended that participatory programmes be developed, involving local people in the evaluation of the NWFP resource base and in planning the management of resources for sustainable production, harvesting and use of key NWFPs, and that these programmes be incorporated into government policies; recommended that more attention be paid to R&D of technologies and their transfer to the main users for the rational production, trade, marketing and use of NWFPs, to the development of new market opportunities, and to improving the tenure rights of local producers and users, and that measures be adopted for sustainable harvesting, especially in fragile ecological zones; stressed that considerable efforts are still needed at the local, national and international levels for policy development proper assessment of NWFP wealth in each country, the development of technology and tools for sustainable harvesting research, and optimal use of such products; highlighted the crucial role played by NWFPs in the rural economies of both developing and developed countries in terms of food security, subsistence income and employment generation, commercialization and use. However, no proper accounting for this large contribution of NWFPs has been made so far at the local and national levels and specific policies for most NWFPs are almost non-existent; recognized that considerable progress has been achieved in the last decade in the development of sound production and use of NWFPs in many countries, which has considerably improved understanding of the multidisciplinary role of NWFPs within and outside the forestry sector; recommended that the rights of local people be properly protected through the establishment of sound legislation, the development of adequate education programmes, and the establishment of adequate incentives for NWFP promotion; and suggested that FAO provide the framework for the formulation of national policies and international cooperation concerning NWFPs with other national and international organizations such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, and assist countries in developing their national capabilities in forestry services for the promotion and development of sustainable NWFP activities.

The following is the list of voluntary papers on NWFPs presented at the World Forestry Congress: 

Some aspects of forest policy and non-timber forest product management in Botswana. Frank W. Taylor and Tabitha J. Mason, Veld Products Research, PO Box 2020, Gaborone, Botswana. 

The role of non-wood forest products in Nigeria. P.M. Papka and O. Omiyale, Forestry Management, Evaluation and Coordination Unit, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Federal Department of Forestry, PMB 226, Abuja, Nigeria. 

Economic feasibility analysis of tapping in Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazil. Vitor Afonso Hoeflich, Ernst Christian Lamster and Eliseu de Souza Baena, EMBRA/CNPF Florestas, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. 

Chilean palm: an economic alternative for small peasant property on dry land. L. Alberto González, c/o Ing. H. Brown, Facultad de Ingenería Forestal, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. 

Sustainable forest management by local communities: the role of non-timber forest products. 
J.K. Hibberd, International Forest Environment, Research and Management, GPR Box 2546, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. 

Sustainable development of non-wood forest products of the Sundarbans Reserved Forest: an integrated approach. Laskar Muqsudur Rahman, Forest Department, Bana Bhaban, Mahakhali, Gulshan Road, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. 

Plantation bamboo for sustainable productivity. P. Shanmughavel, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India. 

Prospects for development of non-wood forest products in Indonesia. Rufi’ie, Directorate General of Forest Utilization, Ministry of Forestry, Republic of Indonesia, Manggala Wanabhakti Building Block I, 6th floor, JI. Gatot Subroto, Jakarta, Indonesia. 

The processing and application of almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb) resin for paints. Elvira C. Fernandez, College of Forestry, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Laguna, the Philippines 4031. 

Non-wood forest products from removal to initial marketing. Alain Pénelon and Mendouga Mebenga, CIRAD-Forêt, BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France. 

Sustainable and commercial extraction of non-timber forest products – a policy- and management-oriented research strategy. Mirjam Ros-Tonen, Wim Dijkman and Erik Lammerts van Bueren, Tropenbos Foundation, PO Box 232, 6700 AE Wageningen, the Netherlands. 

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its cultivation procedures as a non-wood forest product. S. Tansí, S. Nacar and A.A. Çulcu, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department, University of Çukurova, Adana 01331, Turkey. 

Eggs incubation period and hatching success of African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata Swainson) in different incubation media. E.A. Agbelusi and E.O. Adeparusi, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria. 

Effect of some plant-food materials on the growth rate of the African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata). 
E.O. Adeparusi and E.A. Agbelusi, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria. 

The economic values of non-wood forest products in Nigeria. Joseph A. Fuwape and Jonathan C. Onyekwelu, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria. 

Bamboo resource utilization and industrial process in China. Yang Yuming and Wang Kanglin. Southwest Forestry College, Kunmin 650224, China. 

Gas chromatography of residue from fractional distillation of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil. 
Z. Zhendong, S. Zhen, L. Zhiqin and I. Wang Yan, Research Institute of Chemical Processing and Utilization of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Nanjing 210037, China. 

Utilization potential of Acacia senegal in arid and semi-arid regions of India. Hamid A. Khan and L.N. Harsh, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342 003, Rajasthan, India. 

Triacontanol and triterpenes from Tecomella undulata. M. Mohibb E. Azam, Pushpa Singh and A. Ghanim, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342 003, Rajasthan, India. 

Rehabilitation of the sandal tree (Santalum album L.) through people’s participation. R.S. Vinaya Rai and G. Kumaravelu, Forest College and Research Institute, Mettupalayam 641 301, India. 

Social and economic aspects of rattan in Indonesia: a case study in industry and resource in Java. Hariyatno Dwiprabowo, Rahayu Supriyadi and Setiasih Irawanti, Forest Products and Socio-economics Research and Development Centre, PO Box 18, Bogor 16001, Indonesia. 

Conservation and utilization of rainforest medicinal plants in Meru Betiri National Park, Indonesia. Ervizal A.M. Zuhud, Arif Aliadi and Indra Arinal, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB, Darmaga, PO Box 168, Bogor, Indonesia. 

Economic aspects of Aquilaria malaccensis and its conservation in Malaysia. Azizol Abdul Kadir, Ng Lean Teik and Abdul Razak Mohd Ali, Medicinal Plants Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Harvesting techniques in tapping Philippine resins with emphasis on almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb). Arsenio B. Ella, Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, College, Laguna 4031, the Philippines. 

Water-repellent efficiency of organic solvent extractives from pine leaves and bark applied to wood. Costas Passialis and Elias Voulgaridis, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Forestry and Natural Environment, PO Box 227, Thessaloniki, Greece. 

Comparison of composition elements on different substrates of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) growing under plastic sheeting. M. Güler and Y.S. Agaolgu, Faculty of Agriculture, Horticulture Department, University of Mustafa Kemal, 
1034 Hatay, Turkey. 

Production and export of basic secondary forest products of Turkey. E. Gavcar, M.K. Yalinkiliç and A. Aytekin, Orman Fakültesi, Orm. End. Müh., Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey. 

Wood and bark extracts of Turkish coniferous wood species as raw material for chemicals. Harzemsah Hafizoglu, Faculty of Forestry, University of Zonguldak, 74100 Bartin, Turkey. 

Effect of height of cuttings on herb and leaf yield and essential oil content of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Saliha Kirici and Çetin Safak, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department, University of Çukurova, Adana 01329, Turkey. 

A study of the effects of unsuitable conditions on yield performance of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) grown in Beykavagi village, in Konya. M. Güler, Faculty of Agriculture, Horticulture Department, University of Mustafa Kemal, 1034 Hatay, Turkey. 

Importance of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) under the forest ecosystem and its cultivation. S. Tansi and F. Kocabaga, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department, University of Çukurova, Adana 01330, Turkey. 

Some wild medicinal, spice, aromatic and dye plants as non-wood forest products found in the Diyarbakir region. Sezen Tansi, Dogan Sakar and Özlem Gül Tonçer, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department, University of Çukurova, Adana 01332, Turkey. 

Rehabilitation of walnut trees, production of seedlings and forestation studies in Turkey. Necati Uyara, Nazif Gül and Ramazan Topak. 

Utilization of some lignocellulosic wastes as raw material for Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation in northern Karadeniz region. 
S. Yildiz, Z. Demirci, K. Yalinkiliç and U.C. Yildiz, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey. 

The zero emissions research initiative separating non-wood forest products into value-added materials. G. Pauli, J. Gravitis, N. Vedernikovs, J. Zandersons, A. Kokorevics, I. Kruma, O. Bikovens and B. Andersons, United Nations University, Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Tokyo, Japan. 

Exploitation potentials of native medicinal plants in Serbia. Dragica Orbatov and Matilda Dukic, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. 

Potential of essential oils production from forest residues in the state conifer forests of Serbia. Tatjana Stevanovic Janezic, Dragica Vilotic, Biljana Bujanovic and Slobodan Vucicevic, Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade University, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. 

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The following is a short summary of a study on forest valuation carried out by Caroline Sullivan in Guyana. The fieldwork associated with this research was sponsored by the Tropenbos Foundation of the Netherlands.

Valuations of resources in tropical forest ecosystems often fail to take account of the full spectrum of forest products and services, since many of these have been perceived as being insignificant or non-marketed. In an attempt to correct this neglect, an evaluation has been made of forest use by Amerindians in forest villages in Guyana, and all household activities based on non-timber forest products and services have been included. In these village households, NTFPs contribute as a source of food, roofing materials for houses, medicinal treatments and income from the harvesting of palm heart, handicrafts, fishing, hunting and trapping for the wildlife trade. By including these latter items, the valuation attempts to include some measure of forest services by using the revenues from hunting and fishing as a proxy which reflects the quality of the ecosystem services provided by the forest itself. Values of other services, such as carbon sequestration, were not included at this stage.

For the purpose of this valuation, an accounting framework was developed similar to that employed in conventional national accounting but modified to include the value of nature in the form of forest use.

The following table shows the various values of the different types of NTFPs as they are used in Assakata village, comprising 24 households representing a total of 168 people. The value of forest inputs, which is derived from the total account of all village inputs and outputs, comes to $G4 972 990, amounting to 32 percent of the total value of village production, and indicating that the forest plays a very significant (and usually ignored) economic role in subsistence villages such as this one. It is hoped that by highlighting these ignored values, this work will encourage policy-makers to think again about management practices in tropical forested areas.

Village inputs and outputs (in $G)

Labour 10 460 108
Interest on capital 45 630
Capital depreciation 114 075
Farming 4 382 230
Fishing 3 120 555
Hunting and trapping 4 687 466
Handicrafts 552 500
Roofing 23 000
Food and drink from the forest 242 481
Medicinal plants 181 467
Palm-heart harvesting 1 348 970
Fuelwood 1 054 134
Derived value of forest inputs 4 972 990
Note: $G138 = US$1 (June 1996).

To broaden this quantitative income valuation further, a variety of qualitative sociometric data were examined from the same households. Some preliminary analysis of these data sheds some light on how people in the forest villages value the various services and functions of the forest as a whole. Gender and intergenerational differences in such perceptions of forest functions were also addressed.

The development of this more holistic approach to the question of forest valuation is an attempt to provide more comprehensive information about the economic, social and ecological values which could be assigned to tropical forests. It is possible that this will enable policy-makers to develop more sustainable management practices, not only taking account of the views of a broader range of stakeholders, but also incorporating the full breadth of the real meaning of sustainability. (Based on a contribution by: Ms Caroline Sullivan, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK. Fax: (+41 1782) 584144; e-mail: evd07@keele.ac.uk).

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